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Genetics Problems Campbell - Chapter 14 Page 279

1. A man with hemophilia (a recessive , sex-linked condition has a daughter oI normal

phenotype. She marries a man who is normal Ior the trait. What is the probability that a
daughter oI this mating will be a hemophiliac? A son? II the couple has Iour sons, what is the
probability that all Iour will be born with hemophilia?

2. Pseudohypertropic muscular dystrophy is a disorder that causes gradual
deterioration oI the muscles. It is seen only in boys born to apparently normal
parents and usually results in death in the early teens. (a) Is pseudohypertrophic
muscular dystrophy caused by a dominant or recessive allele? (b) Is its inheritance
sex-linked or autosomal? (c) How do you know? Explain why this disorder is
always seen in boys and never girls.

3. Red-green color blindness is caused by a sex-linked recessive allele. A color-
blind man marries a woman with normal vision whose Iather was color-blind. (a)
What is the probability that they will have a color-blind daughter? (b)What is the
probability that their Iirst son will be color-blind? (Note: the two questions are
worded a bit diIIerently.)

4. A wild-type Iruit Ily (heterozygous Ior gray body color and normal wings was
mated with a black Ily with vestigial wings. The oIIspring had the Iollowing
phenotypic distribution: wild type, 778; black-vestigial, 785; black-normal, 158;
gray-vestigial, 162. What is the recombination Irequency between these genes Ior
body color and wing type.

5. In another cross, a wild-type Iruit Ily (heterozygous Ior gray body color and red
eyes) was mated with a black Iruit Ily with purple eyes. The oIIspring were as
Iollows: wild-type, 721; black-purple, 751; gray-purple, 49; black-red, 45. (a)
What is the recombination Irequency between these genes Ior body color and eye
color? (b) Following up on this problem and problem 4, what Iruit Ilies (genotypes
and phenotypes) would you mate to determine the sequence oI the body color,
wing shape, and eye color genes on the chromosomes?

6. A space probe discovers a planet inhabited by creatures who reproduce with the
same hereditary patterns as those in humans. Three phenotypic characters are
height (T tall, t dwarI), hearing appendages (A antennae, a no antennae),
and nose morphology (S upturned snout, s downturned snout). Since the
creatures were not "intelligent" Earth scientists were able to do some controlled
breeding experiments, using various heterozygotes in testcrosses. For a tall
heterozygote with antennae, the oIIspring were tall-antennae, 46; dwarI-antennae
7; dwarI-no antennae 42; tall-no antennae 5. For a heterozygote with antennae and
an upturned snout, the oIIspring were antennae-upturned snout 47; antennae-
downturned snout, 2; no antennae-downturned snout, 48: no antennae-upturned
snout 3. Calculate the recombination Irequencies Ior both experiments.

7. Using the inIormation Irom problem 6, a Iurther testcross was done using a
heterozygote Ior height and nose morphology. The oIIspring were tall-upturned
nose, 40; dwarI-upturned nose, 9; dwarI-downturned nose, 42; tall-downturned
nose, 9. Calculate the recombination Irequency Irom these data; then use your
answer Irom problem 6 to determine the correct sequence oI the three linked genes.

8. Imagine that a geneticist has identiIied two disorders that appear to be caused by
the same chromosomal deIect and are aIIected by genomic imprinting: blindness
and numbness oI the limbs. A blind woman (whose mother suIIered Irom
numbness) has Iour children, two oI whom, a son and daughter, have inherited the
chromosomal deIect. II this deIect works like Prader-Willi and Angelman
syndromes, what disorders do this son and daughter display? What disorders would
be seen in their sons and daughters?

9. What pattern oI inheritance would lead a geneticist to suspect that an inherited
disorder oI cell metabolism is due to a deIective mitochondrial gene?

10. An aneuploid person is obviously Iemale, but her cells have two Barr bodies.
what is the probable complement oI sex chromosomes in this individual?

11. Determine the sequence oI genes along a chromosome based on the Iollowing
recombination Irequencies: A-B, 8 map units; A-C, 28 map units; A-D, 25 map
units; B-C , 20 map units; B-D, 33 map units.

12. About 5 oI individuals with Downs syndrome are the result oI chromosomal
translocation. In most oI these cases, one copy oI chromosome 21 becomes
attached to chromosome 14. How does this translocation lead to children with
Down syndrome?

13. Assume genes A and B are linked and are 50 map units apart. An individual
heterozygous at both loci is crossed with an individual who is homozygous
recessive at both loci. (a) What percentage oI the oIIspring will show phenotypes
resulting Irom crossovers? (b) II you did not know genes A and B were linked,
how would you interpret the results oI this cross?

14. In Drosophila, the gene Ior white eyes and the gene that produces "hairy"
wings have both been mapped to the same chromosome and have a crossover
Irequency oI 1.5. A geneticist doing some crosses involving these two mutant
characteristics noticed that in a particular stock oI Ilies, these two genes assorted
independently; that is they behaved as though they were on diIIerent
chromosomes. What explanation can you oIIer Ior this observation?

Molecular Cenetics: Problem

A moo wltb bemopblllo (o tecesslve sexllokeJ cooJltloo bos o Jooqbtet of ootmol pbeootype 5be
mottles o moo wbo ls ootmol fot tbe ttolt wbot ls tbe ptoboblllty tbot o Jooqbtet of tbls motloq wlll
be o bemopbllloc? A soo? lf tbe coople bos foot soos wbot ls tbe ptoboblllty tbot oll foot wlll be boto
wltb bemopblllo?
A man wlLh hemophllla ls x
? where h hemophllla gene and P Lhe normal
Any daughter with normal phenotype whose Iather has hemophilia will be a
Her genotype must be:
and x

Je can use a unneLL square Lo show Lhe probablllLy of a daughLer or son havlng
f x ff

A lf Lhe daughLer marrles a normal male Lhe probablllLy of a daughLer havlng
hemophllla ls
B. About of male children would have hemophilia (Boxes 2 and 4 above)
C. The probability that all 4 sons have inherited hemophilia would be: 1/2 x 1/2 x
1/2 x 1/2 or 1/16.

Molecular Cenetics: Problem

9seoJobypetttoplc moscolot Jysttopby ls o JlsotJet tbot cooses qtoJool Jetetlototloo of tbe moscles
lt ls seeo ooly lo boys boto to oppoteotly ootmol poteots ooJ osoolly tesolts lo Jeotb lo tbe eotly
teeos (o) ls pseoJobypetttopblc moscolot Jysttopby cooseJ by o Jomlooot ot tecesslve ollele? (b) ls
lts lobetltooce sexllokeJ ot ootosomol? (c) now Jo yoo koow? xplolo wby tbls JlsotJet ls olwoys
seeo lo boys ooJ oevet qltls
(a) seudohyperLroplc muscular dysLrophy ls a recesslve allele because lf lL were
domlnanL Lhen Lhe heLerozygous female would dle before she was sexually
maLure and Lhus could noL pass on Lhe LralL
(b) Pseudohypertropic muscular dystrophy is a sex-linked trait because it only
occurs in males.
(c) It is never seen in girls because Ior a girl to be homozygous recessive (and
express the trait) XmXm, her Iather would have to be hemizygous recessive XmY)
and her mother would have to be heterozygous or homozygous recessive (X
). It is impossible Ior a hemizygous recessive male or a homozygous
recessive Iemale to have children because they will die beIore being old enough to
have children.

1he unneLL square above shows LhaL ln a cross beLween Lwo apparenLly normal
parenLs buL Lhe moLher ls a carrler Lhree chlldren wlll be normal buL one always
a boy wlll lnherlL Lhe dlsease

ProbIem 8.1
How many fragments would be generated by a restriction endonuclease in a plasmid that has two recognition sequences?
Because plasmids are circular molecules, two fragments would be generated. However, if the DNA were linear and contained
two recognition sequences, three fragments would be generated.

ProbIem 8.2
Suppose the restriction endonuclease Hind cuts a 6.0 kb linear piece of DNAinto two fragments; an 800 bp fragment and a
5200 bp fragment. Nar cuts the DNA also into two fragments; fragments 1200 and 4800 bp long. Relative to the Hind cut site,
there are two possible ways in which Nar could have cut the DNA. How can you determine the correct cleavage site for Nar
with respect to Hind?

To determine this, one must subject the DNA to a double digest in which both the enzymes are allowed to cut the DNA at the
same time.When the double digest is allowed to take place, if the three fragments that appear upon electrophoresis of the
restricted DNAare 400, 800, and 4800 bp, then the only possible way in which the data can be interpreted is with the 1200 bp
Nar fragment containing the Hind recognition site 800 bp from the end of the linear piece of DNA. f the 4800 bp Nar
fragment contained the cut site, you would visualize fragments of sizes 800, 1200, and 4000 bp after electrophoresing the
doubly digested DNA.