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1. What are the drawbacks of social security schemes in India? Our social security measures are fragmented in character. All social security provisions need to be integrated into one Act. The burden of various social security benefits, at present, is borne predominantly by the employer. Very little contribution is made by the workers or the government. This is against the social security principle. The social security benefits at present cover the industrial workers only. Workers in the unorganized sectors do not get these benefits. There is no effective implementation and enforcement of the Acts pertaining to social security schemes.

2. What are the ways of building high employee morale? Unity of interests: Integration of workers goals with organizations objectives will create employees confidence and build up high morale. Leadership confidence: Managers who are sincere, sympathetic and democratic in their attitude towards employees can easily establish confidence in their leadership. Sound wage structure: Complete wage plan incorporates guaranteed base wage incentive for productivity and other fringe benefits. Favorable work environment: Good working conditions creats job satisfaction. A satisfied labour force is an invaluable asset of an enterprise. Higher-order need satisfaction: Workers should be given ample opportunities to satisfy their social and egoistic needs. Other measures: Employee counseling, good promotion policy, grievance redressal procedure, proper selection techniques, induction training,

collective bargaining are some of the other measures to enhance employee morale.

3. What are the limitations of participative management? The limitations of participative management are: Technology and organization are so complex that specialized work roles are required for participation. There is no evidence that participation is good for everybody. Sometimes participative situation can be used to manipulate employees by the management or trade union or undercover cliques. The presence of feudalistic concept of master and servant prevalent especially in Indian set-up leads to loss of interest on the part of the workers. Trade unions indulge in politics and have little time to think about participative management. The unwillingness of the employer to share his power with the workers representatives and the

perfunctory attitude of government towards participation.

4. What are the necessary conditions for making quality circles effective? Top management support. Education and training of managers and workers. Timely implementation of ideas generated by quality circles. Sharing gains in productivity with workers. Facilities for meetings and discussions. Regular monitoring of working of quality circles.

5. What is benchmarking? It is the process of comparing work and service methods against the best practices for the purpose of identifying changes that will result in higher quality output. It involves finding the best practice,

measuring the gap between those and ones own and bridging it.