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French Tutorial Basic Phrases, Vocabulary and Grammar

1. Basic Phrases / les expressions de base Bonjour /bu/ Hello / Good day / Good morning Salut /saly/ Hi / Bye Bonsoir /bswa/ Good evening Bonne nuit /bn ni/ Good night (only said when going to bed) S'il vous plat / S'il te plat /sil vu pl/ Please (formal / informal) Je vous en prie. /vu z pri/ You're welcome. (formal) / Go ahead. A tout l'heure /a tu ta l/ See you in a little while A demain /a dm/ See you tomorrow Excusez-moi ! /ekskyze mwa/ Excuse me! (getting someone's attention) / I'm sorry! (more formal apology) Trs bien / mal / pas mal /t bj/ /mal/ /pa mal/ Very good / bad / not bad Oui / non

Au revoir /()vwa/ Goodbye

Merci (beaucoup) /msi boku/ Thank you (very much) Bienvenu(e) /bjvny/ Welcome (also You're welcome in Quebec) A plus tard /a ply ta/ See you later

De rien. /d j/ You're welcome.

Allons-y! /al zi/ Let's go! A bientt /a bjto/ See you soon Pardon ! /pad/ Excuse me! (pushing through a crowd) / Sorry! (stepped on someone's foot) Je vais bien / ve bj/ I'm fine. a va.

Je suis dsol(e) /dezle/ I'm sorry

Comment allez-vous ? /km tale vu/ How are you? (formal) a va ?

/sa va/ How are you? (informal)

/sa va/ I'm fine. (informal response to a va ?) Tu t'appelles comment ? /ty tapl km/ What's your name? (informal) Monsieur, Madame, Mademoiselle /msj/ /madam/ /madwazl/ Mister, Misses, Miss Tu es d'o ? / Tu viens d'o ? /ty du/ /ty vj du/ Where are you from? (informal) Tu habites o ? /ty abit u/ Where do you live? (informal) Tu as quel ge ? /ty kl / How old are you? (informal)

/wi/ /n/ Yes / no

Comment vous appelezvous ? /km vu zaple vu/ What's your name? (formal)

Je m'appelle... / mapl/ My name is...

Enchant(e) / te/ Nice to meet you.

Mesdames et Messieurs /medam/ /mesj/ Ladies and gentlemen

Vous tes d'o ? / Vous venez d'o ? /vu zt du/ /vu vne du/ Where are you from? (formal) O habitez-vous ? /u abite vu/ Where do you live? (formal) Quel ge avez-vous ? /kl ave vu/ How old are you? (formal) Parlez-vous franais ? / Tu parles anglais ? /pale vu frs/ /ty pal gl/ Do you speak French? (formal) / Do you speak English? (informal) Comprenez-vous? / Tu comprends? /kpne vu/ /ty kp/ Do you understand? (formal

Je suis de... / Je viens de... / si d/ / vj d/ I am from...

J'habite ... /abit a/ I live in...

J'ai ____ ans. /e __ / I am ____ years old.

Je parle allemand. / pal alm/ I speak German.

Je ne parle pas espagnol. / n pal pa spal/ I don't speak Spanish.

Je comprends / kp/ I understand

Je ne comprends pas / n kp pa/ I don't understand

/ informal)

Pouvez-vous m'aider ? / Tu peux m'aider ? /puve vu mede/ /ty p mede/ Can you help me? (formal / informal) Tenez / Tiens /tne/ /tj/ Hey / Here (formal / informal) O est ... / O sont ... ? /u / /u s/ Where is ... / Where are ... ? Comment dit-on ____ en franais ? /km di t __ fs/ How do you say ____ in French? a ne fait rien. /sa n f j/ It doesn't matter. Je suis fatigu(e) / Je suis malade. / si fatie/ / si malad/ I'm tired / I'm sick.

Bien sr. /bj sy/ Of course.

Comment ? /km / What? Pardon?

Je sais / s/ I know

Je ne sais pas /n s pa/ I don't know Il y a ... / Il y avait... /il i a/ /il i av / There is / are... / There was / were...

Voici / Voil /vwasi/ /vwala/ Here is/are... / There it is.

Qu'est-ce que c'est que a ? /ks k s k sa/ What is that? Qu'est-ce qui se passe ? /ks ki s pas/ What's happening? J'ai faim / J'ai soif. /e f/ /e swaf/ I'm hungry / I'm thirsty.

Qu'est-ce qu'il y a ? /ks kil i a/ What's the matter?

Je n'ai aucune ide. / ne okyn ide/ I have no idea. J'ai chaud / J'ai froid. /e o/ /e fw/ I'm hot / I'm cold. Ne vous en faites pas. / Ne t'en fais pas. /n vu ft pa/ /n t f pa/ Don't worry (formal / informal)

Je m'ennuie. / mni/ I'm bored.

a m'est gal. / Je m'en fiche. /sa m teal/ / m fi/ It's the same to me / I don't care. (informal)

Ce n'est pas grave. /s n pa gav/ It's no problem. / It's alright. A vos souhaits ! / A tes souhaits ! /a vo sw/ /a te sw/ Bless you! (formal / informal) C'est vous ! / C'est toi ! /s ta vu/ /s ta tw/ It's your turn! (formal / informal) Tu me manques. /ty m mk/ I miss you. (informal)

J'ai oubli. /e ublije/ I forgot.

Je dois y aller. / dwa i ale/ I must go.

Flicitations ! /felisitasj/ Congratulations!

Bonne chance ! /bn s/ Good luck!

Taisez-vous ! / Tais-toi ! /tze vu/ /t tw/ Shut up! / Be quiet! (formal / informal) Quoi de neuf ? /kw d nf/ What's new?

Je vous aime / Je t'aime / vu zm/ / tm/ I love you (formal & plural / informal) Pas grand-chose. /pa g oz/ Not a whole lot.

Notice that French has informal and formal ways of saying things. This is because there is more than one meaning to "you" in French (as well as in many other languages.) The informal you is used when talking to close friends, relatives, animals or children. The formal you is used when talking to someone you just met, do not know well, or someone for whom you would like to show respect (a professor, for example.) There is also a plural you, used when speaking to more than one person. Also notice that some words take an extra e, shown in parentheses. If the word refers to a woman or is spoken by a woman, then the e is added in spelling; but in most cases, it does not change the pronunciation. To make verbs negative, French adds ne before the verb and pas after it. However, the ne is frequently dropped in spoken French, although it must appear in written French. Don't forget to check out my video series on informal French expressions:

2. Pronunciation / la prononciation French Vowels IPA Phonetic Sample words spelling vie, midi, lit, riz rue, jus, tissu, General spellings i, y u

[i] ee [y] ee

rounded [e] ay [] ay rounded

usine bl, nez, cahier, pied , et, final er and ez

[] eh [] eh rounded

jeu, yeux, queue, eu bleu e, , , ai, lait, aile, balai, ei, ais reine sur, uf, fleur, u, eu beurre chat, ami, papa, a, , salade a, ou o, o e

[a] ah

bas, ne, grce, [] ah longer chteau [u] oo [o] oh [] aw [] uh loup, cou, caillou, outil eau, dos, escargot, htel sol, pomme, cloche, horloge fentre, genou, cheval, cerise

[] is disappearing in modern French, being replaced by [a]. Vowels that do not exist in English are marked in blue.

IPA [w] [] [j]

French semi-vowels Phonetic Sample General spelling words spelling w ew-ee yuh fois, oui, Louis lui, suisse oreille, Mireille oi, ou ui ill, y

French nasal vowels IPA [] Phonetic spelling awn Sample words gant, banc, dent General spelling en, em, an, am, aon, aen

[] [] []

ahn uhn ohn

pain, vin, linge brun, lundi, parfum rond, ongle, front

in, im, yn, ym, ain, aim, ein, eim, un, um, en, eng, oin, oing, oint, ien, yen, en un on, om

[] is being replaced with [] in modern French In words beginning with in-, a nasal is only used if the next letter is a consonant. Otherwise, the in- prefix is pronounce een before a vowel. French Consonants ex + vowel ex + consonant ch (Latin origin) ch (Greek origin) ti + vowel (except ) c + e, i, y; or c + a, o, u g + e, i, y g + a, o, u th j qu, final q h vowel + s + vowel x + vowel final x egz eks sh k see s k zh g t zh k silent z z s examen, exercice exceptionnel, expression architecte, archives orchestre, archologie dmocratie, nation cent, ceinture, maon caillou, car, cube genou, gingembre gomme, ganglion maths, thme, thym jambe, jus, jeune que, quoi, grecque haricot, herbe, hasard rose, falaise, casino six ans, beaux arts six, dix, soixante (these 3 only!)

There are a lot of silent letters in French, and you usually do not pronounce the final consonant, unless that final consonant is C, R, F or L (except verbs that end in -r). Liaison: French slurs most words together in a sentence, so if a word ends in a consonant that is not pronounced and the next word starts with a vowel or silent h, slur the two together as if it were one word. S and x are pronounced as z; d as t; and f as v in these liaisons. Liaison is always made in the following cases:

after a determiner: un ami, des amis before or after a pronoun: vous avez, je les ai after a preceding adjective: bon ami, petits enfants

after one syllable prepositions: en avion, dans un livre after some one-syllable adverbs (trs, plus, bien) after est

It is optional after pas, trop fort, and the forms of tre, but it is never made after et. Silent e: Sometimes the e is dropped in words and phrases, shortening the syllables and slurring more words.

rapid(e)ment, lent(e)ment, sauv(e)tage /apidm / /tm/ /sovta/ sous l(e) bureau, chez l(e) docteur /sul byo/ /el dkto/ il y a d(e)... , pas d(e)... , plus d(e)... /yad/ /pad/ / plyd/ je n(e), de n(e) /n/ /dn/ j(e) te, c(e) que /t/ /sk/ (note the change of the pronunciation of the j as well)

Stress & Intonation: Stress on syllables is not as heavily pronounced as in English and it generally falls on the last syllable of the word. Intonation usually only rises for yes/no questions, and all other times, it goes down at the end of the sentence.

3. Alphabet / l'alphabet

a /a/ b /be/ c /se/ d /de/ e // f


j k l

/i/ /ka/ /l/

s t

/s/ /te/

u /y/ v

m /m/ n o p q r
/n/ /o/ /pe/ /ky/ //

w /dublve/ x y z
/iks/ /igrk/ /zd/

g // h /a/ i

4. Nouns, Articles & Demonstratives / les noms, les articles & les demonstratifs All nouns in French have a gender, either masculine or feminine. For the most part, you must memorize the gender, but there are some endings of words that will help you decide

which gender a noun is. Nouns ending in -age and -ment are usually masculine, as are nouns ending with a consonant. Nouns ending in -ure, -sion, -tion, -ence, -ance, -t, and ette are usually feminine. Articles and adjectives must agree in number and gender with the nouns they modify. And articles have to be expressed even though they aren't always in English; and you may have to repeat the article in some cases. Demonstratives are like strong definite articles. Definite Articles (The) Masculine le lit /l li/ the bed Feminine la pomme /la pm/ the apple Before Vowel l'oiseau /lwazo/ the bird Plural les gants /le / the gloves

Indefinite Articles (A, An, Some) Masculine un lit / li/ a bed Feminine une pomme / yn pm/ an apple Plural des gants /de / some gloves

Demonstrative Adjectives (This, That, These, Those) Masc. ce lit /s li/ this/that bed Masc, Before Vowel cet oiseau /s twazo/ this/that bird Fem. cette pomme /st pm/ this/that apple Plural ces gants /se / these/those gloves

If you need to distinguish between this or that and these or those, you can add -ci to the end of the noun for this and these, and -l to the end of the noun for that and those. For example, ce lit-ci is this bed, while ce lit-l is that bed.

5. Useful Words / les mots utiles It's / That's c'est There is/are voil and but now et mais maintenant /s/ /vwala/ /e/ /m/ /mtn/ There is/are il y a Here is/are always often sometimes voici toujours souvent quelquefois /il i a/ /vwasi/ /tuu/ /suv / /klkfwa/

especially except of course so so not bad book pencil pen paper dog cat money

surtout sauf bien sr comme ci, comme a pas mal le livre le crayon le stylo le papier le chien le chat l'argent (m)

/sytu/ /sof/ /bj sy/ /km si, km sa/ /pa mal/ /l liv/ /l kj/ /l stilo/ /l papje/ /l j/ /l a/ /la /

usually also, too again late almost friend (masc) woman man girl boy job / work

d'habitude aussi encore en retard presque

/dabityd/ /osi/ / k/ / ta/ /psk/ /y nami/ / nami/ /yn fam/ / nm/ /yn fij/ / gas/ /l tavaj/

friend (fem) une amie un ami une femme un homme une fille un garon le travail

Note: The expression il y a is reduced to y a in everyday speech. When il y a is followed by a number, it means ago. Il y a cinq minutes means five minutes ago. Some common slang words for money include: le fric, le pze, le pognon, des sous and for job/work: le boulot.

6. Subject Pronouns / les pronoms sujets Subject Pronouns je tu // I nous /nu/ We

/ty/ You (informal) vous /vu/ You (formal and plural) ils /il/ elles /l/ They (masc.) They (fem.)

il /il/ He elle /l/ She on // One

Note: Il and elle can also mean it when they replace a noun (il replaces masculine nouns, and elle replaces feminine nouns) instead of a person's name. Ils and elles can replace plural nouns as well in the same way. Notice there are two ways to say you. Tu is used when speaking to children, animals, or close friends and relatives. Vous is used when speaking to more than one person, or to someone you don't know or who is older. On can be translated into English as one, the people, we, they, or you.

Tutoyer and vouvoyer are two verbs that have no direct translation into English. Tutoyer means to use tu or be informal with someone, while vouvoyer means to use vous or be formal with someone.

7. To Be & To Have / Etre & avoir Present tense of tre /t/ - to be I am You are He is She is One is je suis tu es il est elle est on est / si/ /ty / /il / /l / / n/ We are You are They are They are nous sommes vous tes ils sont elles sont /nu sm/ /vu zt/ /il s/ /l s/

Past tense of tre - to be I was You were j'tais /et/ We were You were nous tions vous tiez ils taient elles taient /nu zetj/ /vu zetje/ /il zet/ /l zet/

tu tais /tu et/

He was She was One was

il tait elle /il et/ They were /l et/ tait They were on / net/ tait

Note: Je and any verb form that starts with a vowel (or silent h) combine together for ease of pronunciation. Future Tense of tre - to be I will be je serai / se/ You will be He will be She will be tu seras /ty sa/ We will be nous serons /nu s/ /vu se/

You will vous serez be

il sera They /il sa/ elle will be ils seront /il s/ /l sa/ They will elles seront /l s/ sera / sa/ on sera be

One will be Present tense of avoir /avwa/ - to have I have You have He has She has One has j'ai tu as il a elle a on a /e/ /ty / /il / /l / / n/ We have You have They have They have nous avons vous avez ils ont elles ont /nu zav/ /vu zave/ /il z/ /l z/

Past tense of avoir - to have I had You had j'avais /av/ tu avais /ty av/ We had You had nous avions vous aviez /nu zavj/ /vu zavje/

He had She had One had

il avait elle /il av/ avait /l av/ on / nav/ avait

ils avaient They had elles avaient

/il zav/ /l zav/

Future tense of avoir - to have I will have You will have He will have She will have One will have j'aurai /oe/ We will have You will have They will have They will have nous aurons vous aurez /nu zo/ /vu zoe/

tu auras /ty o/ il aura elle aura on aura /il oa/ /l oa/ / noa/

/il ils auront zo/ elles /l auront zo/

In spoken French, the tu forms of verbs that begin with a vowel contract with the pronoun: tu es = t'es /t/, tu as = t'as /t/, etc. In addition, it is very common to use on (plus 3rd person singular conjugation) to mean we instead of nous. Common Expressions with avoir and Etre Avoir and tre are used in many common and idiomatic expressions that should be memorized:

avoir chaud avoir froid avoir peur avoir raison avoir tort avoir faim avoir soif avoir sommeil avoir honte avoir besoin de

/avwa o/

to be hot

tre de retour tre en retard tre en avance

/t d tu/ /t ta/ /t navs/

to be back to be late to be early to be in agreement to be about to to be in the act of

/avwa fwa/ to be cold /avwa p/ to be afraid

/avwa z/ to be right /avwa t/ /avwa f/ to be wrong to be hungry

tre d'accord /t dak/ tre sur le point de tre en train de tre enrhume nous + tre (un jour) /t sy l pw d/ /t t d/

/avwa swaf/ to be thirsty /avwa smj/ to be sleepy /avwa t/ to be ashamed

/t yme/ to have a cold /t u/ to be (a day)

/avwa bzw to need d/ to look like, seem

avoir l'air de /avwa d/

avoir /avwa tsj/ to intend to l'intention de avoir envie /avwa vi to feel like d/ de avoir de la chance /avwa d la s/ to be lucky Je suis en retard! I'm late! Tu tais en avance. You were early. Elle sera d'accord. She will agree. Nous sommes lundi. It is Monday. Vous tiez enrhum. You had a cold. Ils seront en train d'tudier. They will be (in the act of) studying. Elles taient sur le point de partir. They were about to leave. On est de retour. We/you/they/the people are back.

froid. I'm cold. vais raison. You were right. ra sommeil ce soir. He will be tired tonight. a de la chance ! She's lucky! s aurons faim plus tard. We will be hungry later. s aviez tort. You were wrong. nt chaud. They are hot. avaient peur hier. They were afraid yesterday.

8. Question Words / les interrogatifs Who Qui /ki/

What Why When Where How How much / many Which / what

Quoi Pourquoi Quand O Comment Combien Quel(le)

/kwa/ /pukwa/ /k / /u/ /km / /kbj/ /kl/

9. cardinal Numbers / Les nombres cardinaux Zero One Two Three Four Five Six Seven Eight Nine Ten Eleven Twelve Thirteen Fourteen Fifteen Sixteen Seventeen Eighteen Nineteen Twenty Twenty-one Twenty-two Twenty-three Thirty Zro Un Deux Trois Quatre Cinq Six Sept Huit Neuf Dix Onze Douze Treize Quatorze Quinze Seize Dix-sept Dix-huit Dix-neuf Vingt Vingt et un Vingt-deux Vingt-trois Trente /zeo/ / / /d/ /tw/ /kat/ /sk/ /sis/ /st/ /it/ /nf/ /dis/ /z/ /duz/ /tz/ /katz/ /kz/ /sz/ /dist/ /dizit/ /diznf/ /v/ /vt e / /v d/ /v tw/ /tt/

Thirty-one Thirty-two Forty Fifty Sixty Seventy

Trente et un Trente-deux Quarante Cinquante Soixante Soixante-dix

/tt e // /tt d/ /ka t/ /skt/ /swas t/ /swas tdis/ /sptt/ /swas t e z/ /swas t duz/ /katv/ /ktt/ /katv t / /katv dis/

(Belgium & Switzerland) Septante Seventy-one Soixante et onze Seventy-two Eighty Eighty-one Eighty-two Ninety Soixante-douze Quatre-vingts Quatre-vingt-un Quatre-vingt-dix

(Belgium & Switzerland) Octante

Quatre-vingt-deux /katv d/

(Belgium & Switzerland) Nonante /nn t/ Ninety-one Quatre-vingt-onze /katv z/ Ninety-two One Hundred One Hundred One Two Hundred Two Hundred One Thousand Two Thousand Million Billion Quatre-vingt-douze /katv duz/ Cent Cent un Deux cents Deux cent un Mille Deux mille Un million Un milliard /s / /s t / /d s/ /d s t / /mil/ /d mil/ / milj/ / milja/

Note: French switches the use of commas and periods. 1,00 would be 1.00 in English. Belgian and Swiss French use septante, octante and nonante in place of the standard French words for 70, 80, and 90 (though some parts of Switzerland use huitante instead of octante). Also, when the numbers 5, 6, 8, and 10 are used before a word beginning with a consonant, their final consonants are not pronounced. Phone numbers in France are ten digits, beginning with 01, 02, 03, 04, or 05 depending on the geographical region, or 06 for cell phones. They are written two digits at a time, and pronounced thus: 01 36 55 89 28 = zro un, trente-six, cinquante-cinq, quatre-vingt-neuf, vingt-huit. Ordinal Numbers / Les nombres ordinaux first premier / premire

second third fourth fifth sixth seventh eighth ninth tenth eleventh twelfth twentieth thirtieth

deuxime / second troisime quatrime cinquime sixime septime huitime neuvime dixime onzime douzime vingtime trentime

twenty-first vingt et unime

Note: The majority of numbers become ordinals by adding -ime. But if a number ends in an e, you must drop it before adding the -ime. After a q, you must add a u before the -ime. And an f becomes a v before the -ime.

10. Days of the Week / Les jours de la semaine Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday day week today yesterday tomorrow next last lundi mardi mercredi jeudi vendredi samedi dimanche le jour la semaine aujourd'hui hier demain prochain / prochaine dernier / dernire /l di/ /madi/ /mkdi/ /di/ /v ddi/ /samdi/ /dim / /l u/ /la s()mn/ /oudi/ /j/ /dm/ /p/ /pn/ /dnje/ /dnj/

day before yesterday day after tomorrow the following day the day before

avant-hier aprs-demain le lendemain la veille

/av t j/ /apdm/ /l ldm/ /la vj/

Articles are not used before days, except to express something that happens habitually on a certain day, such as le lundi = on Mondays. Days of the week are all masculine in gender and they are not capitalized in writing.

11. Months of the Year / Les mois de l'annEe January February March April May June July August September October November December month year decade century millennium janvier fvrier mars avril mai juin juillet aot septembre octobre novembre dcembre le mois / vje/ /fevije/ /mas/ /avil/ /m/ // /ij/ /u(t)/ /spt b/ /ktb/ /nv b/ /des b/ /l mwa/

l'an / l'anne /l / /lane/ la dcennie /deseni/ le sicle /l sjkl/ le millnaire /milen/

To express in a certain month, such as in May, use en before the month as in "en mai." With dates, the ordinal numbers are not used, except for the first of the month: le premier mai but le deux juin. Also note that months are all masculine and not capitalized in French (same as days of the week).

12. Seasons / Les saisons

Summer l't Fall Winter Spring


in the summer en t en automne en hiver

/ nete/ / notn/ / niv/

l'automne /lotn/ in the fall l'hiver /liv/ in the winter

/l le in the spring printemps pt/

/o au printemps prt/

13. Directions / Les directions on the left gauche /a go/ on the right straight ahead North South East West le nord le sud l'est l'ouest /l n/ /l syd/ /lst/ /lwst/ droite /a dwt/ tout droit /tu dw/ le nord-est /l n(d)st/ /l n(d)wst/ /sydst/ /sydwst/


Northwest le nord-ouest Southeast le sud-est Southwest le sud-ouest

14. Colors & Shapes / Les couleurs & les formes Red rouge /u/ / / /on/ /v/ /vt/ /bl/ square circle triangle rectangle oval cube sphere cylinder cone octagon le carr le cercle le triangle l'ovale le cube la sphre le cylindre le cne l'octogone /kae/ /skl/ /tij gl/ /val/ /kyb/ /sf/ /sild/ /kon/ /ktogn/

Orange orange Yellow jaune Green Blue vert / verte bleu / bleue

le rectangle /kt gl/

Purple violet / violette /vjl/ /vjlt/ White Brown Black Pink blanc / blanche brun / brune marron noir / noire rose /bl / /bl / /b/ /byn/ /ma/ /nwa/ /oz/

Gold Silver Gray

dor / dore argent / argente gris / grise

/de/ /a te/ /gi/ /giz/

box light dark

la bote


clair / claire /kl/ fonc / fonce /fse/

Some adjectives of color do not change to agree with gender or number, such as adjectives that also exist as nouns: orange, marron, rose; and compound adjectives: bleu clair, noir fonc remain masculine even if they describe a feminine noun. Remember to place the color adjective after the noun.

15. Weather / Le temps qu'il fait What's the weather like? It's nice bad cool cold warm, hot cloudy beautiful mild stormy sunny humid muggy windy foggy snowing raining freezing hailing It is ____ degrees. Quel temps fait-il ? Il fait bon Il fait mauvais Il fait frais Il fait froid Il fait chaud Il fait nuageux Il fait beau Il fait doux Il fait orageux Il fait soleil Il fait humide Il fait lourd Il fait du vent Il fait du brouillard Il neige Il pleut Il gle Il grle Il fait ____ degrs. /kl t f til/ /il f b/ /il f mve/ /il f f/ /il f fw/ /il f o/ /il f nya/ /il f bo/ /il f du/ /il f a/ /il f slj/ /il f ymid/ /il f lu/ /il f dy v/ /il f dy buja/ /il n/ /il pl/ /il l/ /il gl/ /il f __ dge/

Il pleut des cordes /il pl de kod/ is a common expression meaning it's pouring. Il caille /il kaj/ or a caille /sa kaj/ is slang for it's freezing. And remember that France uses Celcius degrees.

16. Time / Le temps qui passe What time is it? It is... one o'clock two o'clock noon midnight one o'clock sharp four o'clock sharp twelve thirty six thirty a quarter to seven five twenty ten fifty Quelle heure est-il ? Il est... une heure deux heures midi minuit une heure prcise quatre heures prcises midi (minuit) et demi six heures et demie sept heures moins le quart cinq heures vingt onze heures moins dix /kl til/ /il / /yn / /d z/ /midi/ /mini/ /tw z e ka/ /yn pesiz/ /kat pesiz/ /midi (mini) e dmi/ /si z e dmi/ /st mw l ka/ /sk v/ /z mw dis/ /dy mat/ /d lapmidi/ /dy swa/

a quarter after three trois heures et quart

in the morning/AM du matin in the afternoon/PM de l'aprs-midi in the evening/PM du soir

Official French time is expressed as military time (24 hour clock.) You can only use regular numbers, and not demi, quart, etc. when reporting time with the 24 hour system. For example, if it is 18h30, you must say dix-huit heures trente. The word pile /pil/ is also a more informal way of saying prcise (exactly, sharp).

17. Family & Animals / La famille & les animaux Family Relatives Parents la famille /famij/ des parents les parents /pa / /pa / Niece Nephew Grandchildren la nice le neveu les petitsenfants /njs/ /n()v/ /p()tiz f/

Grandparents Mom

les grandsparents

la petite/g pa/ Granddaughter fille Grandson Godfather Godmother Godson Goddaughter Distant Relatives Single Married Separated Divorced Widower Widow le petit-fils le parrain

/p()tit fij/ /p()tifis/ /pa/

la mre / /m/ maman /mm / Stepmother/Mother-in- la belle/blm/ Law mre le pre / /p/ Dad /papa/ papa Stepfather/Father-inLaw Daughter Son Sister Half/Step Sister Sister-in-Law le beaupre la fille le fils la sur la demisur la bellesur /bop/ /fij/ /fis/ /s/ /dmi s/ /bls/ /bl fij/ /f/ /dmi f/ /bo f/ /bo fis/

la marraine /man/ le filleul la filleule /fijl/ /fijl/

des parents /pa elwae/ loigns clibataire mari(e) spar(e) divorc(e) veuf veuve /selibat/ /maje/ /sepae/ /divse/ /vf/ /vv/

Stepdaughter/Daughter- la bellein-Law fille Brother le frre Half/Step Brother Brother-in-Law Stepson/Son-in-Law le demifrre le beaufrre le beaufils


le chien / la chienne (m) /j/ /jn/ / (f) le chat / la chatte (m) / /a/ /at/ (f) le chiot le chaton le cochon le coq le lapin /jo/ /at/ /k/ /kk/ /lap/

Twins (m) Twins (f) Uncle Aunt Grandmother Grandfather

les /ymo/ jumeaux les jumelles l'oncle la tante /yml/ /kl/ /tt/

Cat Puppy Kitten Pig

la grand/g m/ Rooster mre le grand/g p/ pre Rabbit

Cousin (f) Cousin (m) Wife Husband Woman Man Child (m) / (f) Girl Boy

la cousine /kuzin/ le cousin /kuz/ la femme /fam/ le mari /mai/ la femme /fam/ l'homme /m/ un enfant / f/ / une enfant /fij/ la fille le garon /gas/

Cow Horse Duck Goat Goose Sheep Lamb Donkey Mouse

la vache le cheval le canard la chvre l'oie le mouton l'agneau l'ne la souris

/va/ /()val/ /kana/ /v/ /wa/ /mut/ /ao/ /n/ /sui/

Note: Le gendre / d/ is another word for son-in-law. Slang words for people and pets: The entire family Grandma Grandpa Children Kid Woman Man toute la smala mm / mamie pp / papi des gosses un gamin / une gamine une nana un mec / type / gars /tut la smala/ Sister /meme/ /mami/ /pepe/ /papi/ /gs/ /gam/ /gamin/ /nana/ /mk/ /tip/ /ga/ la frangine /f in/ /f / /fist/ /tata/ /tati/ /tt/ /kabo/ /kleba/ /minu/

Brother le frangin Son Aunt le fiston tata / tatie

Uncle tonton Dog Cat le cabot / clbard le minou

18. To Know People & Places / connaitre & savoir connatre-to know people /knt/ connais /kn/ connais /kn/ connat /kn/ connaissons connaissez connaissent /kns/ /knse/ /kns/ savoir-to know facts /savwa/ sais sais sait /s/ savons /s/ savez /s/ savent /sav/ /save/ /sav/

Connatre is used when you know (are familiar with) people, places, food, movies, books, etc. and savoir is used when you know facts. When savoir is followed by an infinitive it means to know how.

There is another form of savoir commonly used in the expressions que je sache that I know (of) and pas que je sache not that I know (of). Je connais ton frre. I know your brother. Je sais que ton frre s'appelle Jean. I know that your brother is named John. Connaissez-vous Grenoble ? Do you know (Are you familiar with) Grenoble? / Have you ever been to Grenoble? Oui, nous connaissons Grenoble. Yes, we know (are familiar with) Grenoble. / Yes, we've been to Grenoble. Tu sais o Grenoble se trouve. You know where Grenoble is located. Ils savent nager. They know how to swim. Connatre can be translated several ways into English: Tu connais le film, Les Enfants ? Have you seen the film, Les Enfants? Tu connais Lyon ? Have you ever been to Lyon? Tu connais la tartiflette ? Have you ever eaten tartiflette?

19. Formation of Plural Nouns / la formation des noms pluriels To make a noun plural, you usually add an -s (which is not pronounced). But there are some exceptions: If a noun already ends in an -s, add nothing. If a noun ends in -eu or -eau, add an x. If a masculine noun ends in -al or -ail, change it to -aux. Some nouns ending in -ou add an -x instead of s. bus(es) boat(s) horse(s) knee(s)

Sing. le bus le bateau le cheval le genou

Plural les bus les bateaux les chevaux les genoux

Exceptions: festival, carnaval, bal, pneu, bleu, landau, dtail, chandail all add -s. There are only seven nouns ending in -ou that add -x instead of -s: bijou, caillou, chou, genou, pou, joujou, hibou. There are, of course, some irregular exceptions: un il (eye) - des yeux (eyes); le ciel (sky) - les cieux (skies); and un jeune homme (a young man) des jeunes gens (young men). Notice that the only time the pronunciation will change in the plural form is for masculine nouns that change -al or -ail to -aux and for the irregular forms. All other nouns are pronounced the same in the singular and the plural - it is only the article that changes pronunciation (le, la, l' to les).

20. Possessive Adjectives / les adjectifs possessifs Masc. My Your His/Her/Its Our Your Their mon /m/ ton /t/ son /s/ notre /nt/ votre /vt/ leur /l/ Fem. ma /ma/ ta /ta/ sa /sa/ notre /nt/ votre /vt/ leur /l/ Plural mes /m/ tes /t/ ses /s/ nos /no/ vos /vo/ leurs /l/

Possessive pronouns go before the noun. When a feminine noun begins with a vowel, you must use the masculine form of the pronoun for ease of pronunciation. Ma amie is incorrect and must be mon amie, even though amie is feminine. Remember that adjectives agree with the noun in gender and number, not the possessor! Sa mre can mean his mother or her mother even though sa is the feminine form, because it agrees with mre and not the possessor (his or her). C'est ma mre et mon pre. This is my mother and my father. Ce sont vos petits-enfants ? These are your grandchildren? Mes parents sont divorcs. My parents are divorced. Sa grand-mre est veuve. His grandmother is a widow. Notre frre est mari, mais notre sur est clibataire. Our brother is married, but our sister is single. Ton oncle est architecte, n'est-ce pas ? Your uncle is an architect, isn't he? Leurs cousines sont nerlandaises. Their cousins are Dutch.

21. To Do or Make / Faire

Faire - to do, make /f/ Present tense Past tense (imperfect) Future tense

fais /f/ faisons /fz/ faisais /fz/ faisions fais /f/ faites fait /f/ font /ft/ /f/ faisais /fz/ faisiez

/fzj/ ferai /f/ ferons /f/ /fzje/ feras /fa/ ferez fera /fe/ /fa/ feront /f/

faisait /fz/ faisaient /fz/

Another past tense (pass compos) uses the present tense forms of avoir plus the past participle of faire: fait. J'ai fait translates as I did/made whereas je faisais translates as I was doing/making, I used to do/make (continuous action in the past). Faire is used in expressions of weather (il fait beau) and many other idiomatic expressions: faire de (a sport) - to play (a sport) faire le sourd / l'innocent - to act deaf / innocent faire le (subject in school) - to do / study (subject) faire le mnage - to do the housework faire la cuisine - to do the cooking faire la lessive - to do laundry faire la vaisselle - to do the dishes faire une promenade - to take a walk faire un voyage - to take a trip faire les courses - to go (grocery) shopping faire des achats - to go shopping faire de l'exercice - to exercise faire attention - to pay attention faire la queue - to stand in line

22. Work & School / Le Travail & L'Ecole Masculine actor / actress singer architect accountant judge l'acteur le chanteur l'architecte le comptable le juge /akt/ / t/ /aitkt/ /ktabl/ /y/ Feminine l'actrice la chanteuse l'architecte la comptable la juge /aktis/ / tz/ /aitkt/ /ktabl/ /y/

business person baker hair dresser computer programmer secretary electrician mechanic cook salesperson fire fighter plumber librarian police officer reporter

l'homme d'affaires le boulanger le coiffeur

/m daf/ /bul e/ /kwaf/

la femme d'affaires la boulangre la coiffeuse la programmeuse la secrtaire l'lectricienne la mcanicienne la cuisinire la vendeuse la pompier la plombier la bibliothcaire l'agent de police la journaliste l'ouvrire la banquire l'avocate la factrice la charpentire l'ingnieure la mdecin l'infirmire la psychologue la dentiste la vtrinaire la chauffeur de taxi l'crivaine l'institutrice

/fam daf/ /bul / /kwafz/ /pgamz/ /sket/ /elktisjn/ /mekanisjn/ /kizinj/ /v dz/ /ppje/ /plbje/ /biblijtek/ /a d plis/ /unalist/ /uvij/ /b kj/ /avkat/ /faktis/ /ap tj/ /enj/ /mds/ /fimj/ /psiklg/ /d tist/ /vetein/ /of d taksi/ /ekivn/ /stitytis/

le programmeur /pgam/ le secrtaire l'lectricien le mcanicien le cuisinier le vendeur le pompier le plombier /sket/ /elktisj/ /mekanisj/ /kizinje/ /v d/ /ppje/ /plbje/

le bibliothcaire /biblijtek/ l'agent de police /a d plis/ le journaliste /unalist/ /uvije/ /b kje/ /avka/ /fakt/ /ap tje/ /enj/ /mds/ /fimje/ /famasj/ /psiklg/ /d tist/ /vetein/ /of d taksi/ /ekiv/ /stityt/

blue-collar worker l'ouvrier banker lawyer postal worker carpenter engineer doctor nurse pharmacist psychologist dentist veterinarian taxi driver writer teacher (primary le banquier l'avocat le facteur le charpentier l'ingnieur le mdecin l'infirmier le pharmacien le psychologue le dentiste le vtrinaire le chauffeur de taxi l'crivain l'instituteur

la pharmacienne /famasjn/

school) teacher / professor le professeur student intern retired person l'tudiant le stagiaire le retrait /pfes/ /etydj / /staj/ /tete/ la professeur l'tudiante la stagiaire la retraite /pfes/ /etydj t/ /staj/ /tete/

Notice that some professions are always masculine, even if the person is a woman. There are also words that are always feminine (such as la victime) even if the person is a man.

School Subjects / Les Matieres Math Algebra Calculus Geometry les /matematik/ Geography la gographie mathmatiques l'algbre le calcul la gomtrie /alb/ /kalkyl/ /emeti/ /kms/ Physics Biology Chemistry Zoology Botany la physique la biologie la chimie la zoologie la botanique les artsplastiques la musique la danse le dessin la peinture /egafi/ /fizik/ /bjli/ /imi/ /zli/ /btanik/ /a plastik/ /myzik/ /d s/ /des/ /pty/

Business/Trade le commerce Accounting Economics Foreign Languages Linguistics Literature Philosophy Psychology Political Science History

la comptabilit /ktabilite/ les sciences conomiques les langues vivantes la linguistique la littrature la philosophie la psychologie les sciences politiques l'histoire (f)

/sj Art zeknmik/ /l g vivt/ /lgistik/ /liteaty/ /filzfi/ /psikli/ /sj s plitik/ /istwa/ Music Dance Drawing Painting Computer Science

l'informatique /fmatik/

Technology la technologie /tknli/ Physical Education l'ducation physique (f) /edykasj fizik/

Notice that you do not use an indefinite article before professions, unless they are preceded by an adjective.

Qu'est-ce que vous faites dans la vie ? What do you do for a living? Je suis avocate. I am a lawyer. (fem.) Je suis professeur. I am a professor. Je suis tudiant. I am a student (masc.) O est-ce que vous faites vos tudes ? Where do you study? Je vais l'universit de Michigan. I go to the university of Michigan. Je fais mes tudes l'universit de Toronto. I study at the University of Toronto. Qu'est-ce que vous tudiez ? What do you study? Quelles matires tudiez-vous ? What subjects do you study? J'tudie les langues trangres et la linguistique. I study foreign languages and linguistics. Je fais des mathmatiques. I study/do math. Ma spcialisation est la biologie. My major is biology. Slang words/abbreviations for school: dictionary paper / essay college / faculty quiz un dico une disserte la fac une interro tre coll(e) to have detention avoir une colle /diko/ /dist/ /fak/ /t/ /kle/ /kol/ student book to work to understand un potache un bouquin bosser piger /pota/ /buk/ /bse/ /pie/

to skip (a class) scher (un cours) /see/

23. Prepositions & Contractions at / to / in /a/ /d/ /e/ /d / // /pu/ /pa/ /dv / /dj/ /av / /ap/ / no/ during since / for among between around against toward through / across with without inside pendant depuis parmi entre autour de contre vers / envers travers avec sans dedans / l'intrieur /p d/ /dpi/ /pami/ / t/ /otud/ /kt/ /v/ / nv/ /atav/ /avk/ /s / /dd / /altej/

from / of / de about at the house of in for by / through chez dans / en pour par

in front of devant behind before after up derrire avant aprs en haut

down on over / above under / below across from near far from

en bas sur

/ ba/ /sy/

outside outside of because of according to

dehors / l'extrieur hors de / en dehors de cause de

/d/ /alkstej/ /d/ / ndd/ /akozd/

au-dessus de /odsyd/ sous / audessous de en face de prs de loin de /su/ /odsud/ / fasd/ /pd/ /lwd/

selon / d'aprs /sl/ /dap/ / vi/ /malge/ /k ta/

approximately environ in spite of as for malgr quant

You can also use dessus and dessous as adverbs to mean over it / on top of it and beneath it / underneath it, respectively. They are not followed by nouns or pronouns, unlike prepositions. Prepositional Contractions + le = au /o/ at / to / in the + les = aux /o/ at / to / in the (pl.) de + le = du /dy/ of / from / about the de + les = des /de/ of / from / about the (pl.) In: Dans vs. En Dans is used to show the time when an action will begin, while en shows the length of time an action takes. Je pars dans quinze minutes. I'm leaving in 15 minutes. Il peut lire ce livre en une demi-heure. He can read this book in a half hour. With: Avec vs. De vs. A vs. Chez Avec implies doing something or going along with someone; de is used in phrases of manner and in many idiomatic expressions; is used when referring to someone's attributes; and chez is used to mean "as far as (person) is concerned." To describe the way a person carries him/herself, no extra word is used. Je vais en France avec ma sur. I'm going to France with my sister. Elle me remercie d'un sourire. She thanks me with a smile. L'homme aux cheveux roux est trs grand. The man with the red hair is very tall. Chez cet enfant, tout est simple. With this child, everything is simple. Il marche, les mains dans les poches. He walks with his hands in his pockets.

24. Countries and Nationalities / Les pays et les nationalitEs Africa African Albania Albanian Algeria Algerian America American l'Afrique (f) africain/e l'Albanie (f) albanais/e l'Algrie (f) algrien/ne /afik/ Hebrew (lang.) Italian Japanese Korean Latvia hbreu l'Italie (f) italien/ne le Japon japonais/e la Core coren/ne la Lettonie letton/ne la Lituanie lituanien/ne le Luxembourg /eb/ /itali/ /italj/ /n/ /ap/ /apn/ /z/ /ke/ /ke/ /n/ /letni/ /let/ /n/ /litani/ /litanj/ /n/ /lyks bu/ /lyks buwa/ /az/ /masedwan/ /masednj/ /n/ /malt/ /malt/ /z/ /mak/ /mak/ /n/ /peib/ /nel d/ /z/ /'l d/ /z/ /nuvlzel d/ /neozel d/ /z/ /nv/

/afik/ /n/ Italy /albani/ /alei/ /alban/ /z/ Japan /alej/ /n/ Korea

l'Amrique (f) /ameik/ /ameik/ amricain/e /n/

Argentina l'Argentine (f) /a t in/ Latvian Argentine argentin/e /a t/ /in/ Lithuania Asia /azi/ Lithuanian l'Asie (f) Asian Australia asiatique l'Australie (f) /azjatik/ /ostali/ /ostalj/ /n/ /oti/ /otij/ , /n/ /blik/ /bl/ /bsni/ /bsniak/ /bezil/ /bezilj/ /n/ /bylgai/ /bylga/ /k bd/ Luxembourg

Luxembourger luxembourgeois/e Macedonia Macedonian Malta Maltese Morocco Moroccan Netherlands Dutch Dutch (person) New Zealand New Zealander Norway la Macdoine macdonien/ne Malte (f) maltais/e le Maroc marocain/e les Pays-Bas nerlandais/e hollandais/e la NouvelleZlande no-zlandais/e la Norvge

Australian australien/ne Austria Austrian Belgium Belgian Bosnia Bosnian Brazil Brazilian Bulgaria Bulgarian l'Autriche (f) autrichien/ne la Belgique belge la Bosnie bosniaque le Brsil brsilien/ne la Bulgarie bulgare

Cambodia le Cambodge

Cambodian cambodgien/ne Canada Canadian China Chinese Croatia Croatian Czech Republic Czech Denmark Danish Egypt Egyptian England English Estonia Estonian Europe European Finland Finnish France French Germany German Great Britain British Greece Greek Hungary le Canada canadien/ne la Chine chinois/e la Croatie croate

/k bdj/ /n/ /kanada/ /kanadj/ /n/ /in/ /inwa/ /az/ /kasi/ /kat/

Norwegian Poland Polish Portugal Portuguese Quebec Quebecker Romania Romanian Russia Scotland Senegal Senegalese Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Slovene Spain Spanish Sweden Swedish

norvgien/ne la Pologne polonais/e le Portugal portugais/e le Qubc qubcois/e la Roumanie roumain/e la Russie russe l'Ecosse cossais/e le Sngal sngalais/e la Serbie serbe la Slovaquie slovaque la Slovnie slovne l'Espagne (f) espagnol/e la Sude sudois/e la Suisse suisse le Tawan tawanais/e la Tunisie tunisien/ne la Turquie

/nvej/ /n/ /pl/ /pln/ /z/ /ptygal/ /ptyg/ /z/ /kebk/ /kebekwa/ /az/ /umani/ /um/ /n/ /ysi/ /ys/ /eks/ /eks/ /z/ /senegal/ /senegal/ /z/ /sbi/ /sb/ /slvaki/ /slvak/ /slveni/ /slvn/ /spa/ /spal/ /sd/ /sedwa/ /az/ /sis/ /sis/ /tajwan/ /tajwan/ /z/ /tynizi/ /tynizj/ /n/ /tyki/

la Rpublique /epyblik tk/ Tchque /tk/ tchque le Danemark danois/e l'Egypte (f) gyptien/e /danmak/ /eipt/

/danwa/ /az/ Russian /eipsj/ /n/ Scottish

l'Angleterre (f) / glt/ / gl/ /z/ anglais/e l'Estonie estonien/ne l'Europe (f) europen/ne la Finlande finnois/e la France franais/e allemand/e la GrandeBretagne britannique la Grce /stni/ /p/ /fld/ /finwa/ /az/ /f s/ /f s/ /z/ /alm / / d/

/stonj/ /n/ Serbian /pe/ /n/ Slovak

l'Allemagne (f) /alma/

/g dbta/ Switzerland /bitanik/ /gs/ Swiss Taiwan Taiwanese Tunisia

grec / grecque /gk/ /'gi/ la Hongrie

Hungarian hongrois/e Iceland l'Islande

/'gwa/ /az/ Tunisian /isl d/ Turkey

Icelandic India Indian Indonesia

islandais/e l'Inde indien/ne

/isl d/ /z/ Turk /d/ Ukraine /dj/ /n/ Ukrainian United Kingdom

turc / turcque l'Ukraine ukrainien/ne

/tyk/ /ykn/ /yknj/ /n/

l'Indonsie (f) /dnezi/ /dnezj/ /n/ /il d/

la Royaume-Uni /wajomyni/ /etazyni/ /vitnam/ /vjtnamj/ /n/ /galw/ /z/

Indonesian indonsien/ne Ireland Irishman Israel Israeli l'Irlande (f) irlandais/e l'Isral isralien/ne

United States les Etats-Unis Vietnam le Vietnam vietnamien/ne

/il d/ /z/ Vietnamese /isael/ /isaelj/ /n/ Wales Welsh

le Pays-de-Galles /peidgal/ gallois/e

The masculine forms of the nationalities are also used for the language. Adjectives of nationalities and languages are not capitalized in written French. The definite article is not used before a language when it follows the verb parler (to speak): Je parle anglais. Notice that French also uses hollandais when referring to Dutch people and sometimes the Dutch language, but this is not exactly correct (just as it is not correct to use Holland when referring to the Netherlands in English). Also notice that you do not use the definite article with Malte.

25. Negative Sentences To make sentences negative, simply put ne and pas around the verb. In spoken French, however, the ne is frequently omitted, but it cannot be omitted in written French. And when you are replying "yes" to a negative question, you use si and not oui (though in Quebec, it is perfectly fine to just use oui). Je suis du Canada. I am from Canada. Je ne suis pas du Mexique. I am not from Mexico. Je suis franaise. I am French (feminine.) Je ne suis pas suisse. I am not Swiss. (masculine or feminine) Il est australien. He is Australian. Elle n'est pas danoise. She is not Danish. Elles sont des Etats-Unis. They are from the United States. Ils ne sont pas du Portugal. They are not from Portugal. Je parle chinois et japonais. I speak Chinese and Japanese. Je ne parle pas sudois. I don't speak Swedish. Vous n'tes pas du Brsil ? You aren't from Brazil? Si, nous sommes du Brsil. Yes, we are from Brazil.

26. To / In and From places, cities, and countries Places Masc. au du Fem. la de la Vowel l' de l' Plural aux des Cities de de d' Countries au en en du de d'

aux des

aux des

If the name of a country ends in-e, the gender is feminine. If it ends in anything else, it is masculine. All continents are feminine. The country exceptions are le Cambodge, le Mexique, le Zare, le Zimbabwe, and le Mozambique. Some cities have an article as well, such as La Nouvelle-Orlans (New Orleans). Je vais la boulangerie. I'm going to the bakery. Il vient de Londres. He comes from London. On va en France demain. We're going to France tomorrow. Tu viens du Mexique ? You come from Mexico? Prepositions with Regions, Provinces & States To / In From Feminine Islands Masc. w/ Vowel Masc. w/ Consonant en en / dans l' au / dans le de de / d' d' / de l' du

In general, if a region, province or state ends in -e, it is feminine. Californie, Caroline du Nord / Sud, Floride, Gorgie, Louisiane, Pennsylvanie, and Virginie are the feminine American states; while Maine is masculine. For French rgions or dpartements that begin with Haut(e), the h is an aspirate h, and therefore, there is no elision with preceding words, i.e. de Haut-Rhin, la Haute-Normandie, etc. Elles habitent en Californie. They live in California. Il est de Haute-Savoie. He is from Haute-Savoie. Ce fromage vient du Nord. This cheese comes from Nord. Je veux voyager dans le Texas. I want to travel in Texas.

27. To Come & to Go / Venir & Aller Past & Future conjugations of these verbs are not yet recorded.

Venir-to come /vni/ Present viens /vj/ venons viens /vj/ venez Past (Imperfect) /vn/ venais /vn/ venions /vne/ venait /vn/ veniez Future /vnj/ viendrai /vijnd/ viendrons /vijnd/ /vnje/ viendras /vijnda/ viendrez viendra /vijnde/ /vijnda/ viendront /vijnd/

vient /vj/ viennent /vijn/ venait /vn/ venaient /vn/

Aller-to go /ale/ Present vais /v/ allons /al/ vas va /va/ allez /va/ vont /ale/ /v/ Past (Imperfect) j'allais /al/ allais allait /al/ /al/ allions alliez Future /alij/ j'irai /i/ irons /i/ /alije/ iras ira /ia/ /ia/ irez iront /ie/ /i/

allaient /al/

Other verbs that are conjugated like venir: tenir - to hold, devenir - to become, obtenir to get, revenir - to come back. Je viens des Etats-Unis. I come from the United States. Il tient un crayon. He's holding a pencil. Nous allons en Espagne. We're going to Spain. Tu ne vas pas au Brsil cet t. You're not going to Brazil this summer. Aller + an infinitive means "going to do something." Ils vont aller en Angleterre. They are going to go to England. Elle va parler russe. She's going to speak Russian. Je vais devenir professeur. I'm going to become a professor. Aller is also used idiomatically when talking about health. Comment vas-tu ? How are you? Je vais bien. I'm fine. Venir de + an infinitive means "to have just done something." Il vient d'aller en Finlande. He just went to Finland. Vous venez de manger une pomme. You just ate an apple.

28. Conjugating Regular Verbs in the Present Indicative Tense Verbs in French end in -er, -re, or -ir. The verb before it is conjugated is called the infinitive. Removing the last two letters leaves you with the stem (aimer is the infinitive, aim- is the stem.) The present indicative tense indicates an ongoing action, general state, or habitual activity. Besides the simple present tense (I write, I run, I see); there are two other forms of the present tense in English: the progressive (I am writing, I am running, etc.) and the emphatic (I do write, I do run, etc.) However, these three English present tenses are all translated by the present indicative tense in French. To conjugate verbs in the present tense, use the stem and add the following endings. -er -e -ons -re -s -ons -s -ez -ent 1st -ir -is -issons -is -issez -it -issent 2nd -ir* -s -ons -s -ez -t -ent

-es -ez -e -ent

Sample Regular Verbs in the Present tense aimer - to like, love aime /em/ aimons aimes /em/ aimez aime /em/ aiment finir - to finish finis finis finit /fini/ finissons /finis/ /fini/ finissez /finise/ /fini/ finissent /finis/ pars pars part /em/ /eme/ /em/ vendre - to sell vends /v / vendons /v d/ vends /v / vendez /v de/ vend /v/ vendent /v d/ partir - to leave /pa/ partons /pat/ /pa/ partez /pate/ /pa/ partent /pat/

Notice how several conjugations are pronounced the same. This is why you must use the subject pronouns in French. Regular verbs -er aimer chanter /eme/ / te/ to like, love to sing vendre attendre -re /v d/ /at d/ to sell to wait for



to look for

entendre perdre

/ td/ /pd/

to hear to lose

commencer /km se/ to begin donner tudier fermer habiter jouer manger montrer parler penser travailler trouver /dne/ /etydje/ /fme/ /abite/ /we/ /m e/ /mte/ /pale/ /p se/ /tuve/ to give to study to close to live to play to eat to show to speak to think

rpondre () /epd/ to answer descendre /ds d/ to go down 1st -ir btir finir choisir punir remplir obir () russir gurir /bti/ /fini/ to build to finish

/wazi/ to choose /pyni/ to punish / pli/ to fill /bei/ to obey /eysi/ to succeed /gei/ to cure, heal

/tavaje/ to work to find

If a verb is followed by (like rpondre) you have to use the and any contractions after the conjugated verb. Ex: Je rponds au tlphone. I answer the phone. * The 2nd -ir verbs are considered irregular sometimes because there are only a few verbs which follow that pattern. Other verbs like partir are sortir /sti/ (to go out), dormir /dmi/ (to sleep), mentir /m t i/ (to lie), sentir /s ti/ (to smell, feel) and servir /svi/ (to serve.) You can also download a list of the 681 most common verbs in French (available in PDF format.)

29. Pronominal (Reflexive) Verbs These verbs are conjugated like normal verbs, but they require an extra pronoun before the verb. Most indicate a reflexive action but some are idiomatic and can't be translated literally. The pronouns are: me /m/ nous /nu/ te se /t/ /s/ vous /vu/ se /s/

Some Pronominal Verbs

s'amuser se lever se laver

/samyze/ /slve/ /slave/

to have fun to get up to wash (oneself) to hurry to comb to get dressed to get married to rest

se brosser


to brush to put on makeup to break (arm, leg, etc.) to wake up to shave to get bored

se maquiller /smakije/ se casser se rveiller se raser s'ennuyer /skase/ /seveje/ /sze/ /s nije/

se dpcher /sdepee/ se peigner /spee/ s'habiller se marier se reposer /sabije/ /smaje/ /spoze/

se promener /spmne/ to take a walk s'intresser to be interested /steese a/ in /s tene/ /sdet d/ to train/practice to relax

se souvenir /ssuvni d/ to remember s'entraner de to get along s'entendre /s tdbj/ se dtendre well bien se coucher /skue/ to go to bed

When used in the infinitive, such as after another verb, the reflexive pronoun agrees with the subject of the sentence. Je vais me coucher maintenant. I'm going to go to bed. Tu veux t'asseoir ? Do you want to sit down? Sample Irregular Pronominal Verb s'asseoir - to sit down /saswa/ je m'assieds /masj/ nous nous asseyons /nunuzasej/ tu t'assieds /tytasj/ vous vous asseyez /vuvusaseje/ /ilsasej/ il s'assied /ilsasj/ ils s'asseyent

30. Irregularities in Regular Verbs 1. Verbs that end in -ger and -cer: The nous form of manger isn't mangons, but mangeons. The e has to stay so the g can retain the soft sound. The nous form of commencer isn't commencons, but commenons. The c must have the accent (called a cedilla) under it to make the c sound soft.

manger-to eat /m e/ mange /m / mangeons /m / manges /m / mangez mange /m / mangent /m e/ /m /

commencer-to begin /km se/ commence /km s/ commenons /km s/ commences /km s/ commencez /km se/ commence /km s/ commencent /km s/

2. Verbs that add or change to an accent grave: Some verbs add or change to an accent grave () in all the forms except the nous and vous. acheter-to buy /ate/ esprer-to hope /spee/ j'achte /at/ achetons /at/ j'espre /sp/ esprons /spe/ achtes /at/ achetez /ate/ espres /sp/ esprez /spee/ achte /at/ achtent /at/ espre /sp/ esprent /sp/

3. Verbs that are conjugated as -er verbs: Some -ir verbs are conjugated with -er endings. Examples: ouvrir-to open /uvi/, couvrir-to cover /kuvi/, dcouvrir-to discover /dekuvi/ and souffrir-to suffer /sufi/ offrir-to offer /fi/ j'offre /f/ offrons /f/ offres /f/ offrez offre /fe/ /f/ offrent /f/

4. Verbs that end in -yer: Change the y to an i in all forms except the nous and vous. Examples: nettoyer-to clean /netwaje/, payer-to pay /peje/, and essayer-to try /eseje/ envoyer-to send / vwaje/ j'envoie / vwa/ envoyons / vwaj/ envoies / vwa/ envoyez / vwaje/ envoie / vwa/ envoient / vwa/ 5. Verbs that double the consonant: Some verbs, including jeter-to throw /te/, double the consonant in all forms except the nous and vous. appeler-to call /aple/ j'appelle /apl/ appelles /apl/ appelle /apl/ appelons /apl/ appelez /aple/ appellent /apl/

31. Present Perfect Tense or Passe Compose You have learned the present indicative so far, which expresses what happens, is happening, or does happen now; but if you want to say something happened, or has happened, you use the pass compos. The pass compos is used for actions that happened only once, a specified number of times or during a specified period of time, and as a result or consequence of another action. All you need to learn are the past participles of the verbs. Regular Verbs: Formation of the Past Participle -er - -re -u -ir -i Then conjugate avoir and add the past participle: J'ai aim le concert. Tu as habit ici ? I liked the concert. You lived here?

Il a rpondu au tlphone. He answered (or has answered) the telephone. Nous avons fini le projet. We finished (or have finished) the project. Elles ont rempli les tasses. They filled (or have filled) the cups. To make it negative, put the ne and pas around the conjugated form of avoir. Je n'ai pas aim le concert. Il n'a pas rpondu. I didn't like the concert. He didn't answer (or hasn't answered) .

Elles n'ont pas rempli les tasses. They didn't fill (or haven't filled) the glasses.

32. Irregular Past Participles avoir connatre croire devoir dire crire tre to have to know to believe to have to to tell to write to be eu connu cru d dit crit t /y/ /kny/ /ky/ /dy/ /di/ /eki/ /ete/ had known believed had to said written been

faire lire mettre permettre promettre ouvrir offrir pouvoir prendre apprendre comprendre surprendre recevoir rire savoir voir vouloir

to do, make to read to put to permit to promise to open to offer to be able to to take to learn to understand to surprise to receive to laugh to know to see to want

fait lu mis permis promis ouvert offert pu pris appris compris surpris reu ri su vu voulu

/f/ /ly/ /mi/ /pmi/ /pmi/ /uv/ /f/ /py/ /pi/ /api/ /kpi/ /sypi/ /sy/ /i/ /sy/ /vy/ /vuly/

made read put permitted promised opened offered was able to taken learned understood surprised received laughed known seen wanted

33. Etre Verbs Sixteen "house" verbs and all pronominal verbs are conjugated with tre, and they must agree in gender and number with the subject. The house verbs are: aller-to go arriver-to arrive entrer-to enter sortir-to go out partir-to leave tomber-to fall venir-to come devenir-to become mourir-to die monter-to go up

revenir-to come back rester-to stay

rentrer-to return home natre-to be born passer-to go by (pass) descendre-to go down Most have regular past participles, except venir-venu, devenir-devenu, revenir-revenu, mourir-mort, and natre-n. And five of these verbs, monter, descendre, sortir, rentrer, and passer can sometimes be conjugated with avoir if they are used with a direct object. Je suis sortie. I went out. J'ai sorti la poubelle. I took the trash out.

Conjugation of an tre verb Je suis rest(e) Nous sommes rest(e)s Tu es rest(e) Il est rest Elle est reste Vous tes rest(e)(s) Ils sont rests Elles sont restes

You add the e for feminine and s for plural. Sometimes adding an -e causes the pronunciation to change, i.e. the preceding consonant that is silent in the masculine form is pronounced in the feminine form: Il est mort /m/ vs. Elle est morte /mt/ Vous can have any of the endings. To form the negative, place ne...pas around the auxiliary verb: Je ne suis pas rest. Conjugation of a Pronominal Verb Je me suis amus(e) Tu t'es amus(e) Il s'est amus Elle s'est amuse Nous nous sommes amus(e)s Vous vous tes amus(e)(s) Ils se sont amuss Elles se sont amuses

To form the negative, place ne before the reflexive pronoun, and pas after the auxiliary verb. There are only two cases with pronominal verbs where the past participle does not agree: 1. When the pronominal verb is followed by a direct object. Compare: Elles se sont laves, but: elles se sont lav les mains. 2. With verbs where the reflexive pronoun is an indirect object, such as se parler, se demander, se dire, s'crire, se sourire, and se tlphoner. Ils se sont tlphon.

34. Food and Meals / La Nourriture et Les Repas Breakfast Lunch Dinner Cup Slice Bowl Glass le petit djeuner le djeuner le dner la tasse la tranche le bol le verre /pti dene/ /dene/ /dine/ /ts/ /t / /bl/ /v/ Egg Cake Pie Milk Coffee Butter Water l'uf (m) le gteau la tarte le lait le caf le beurre l'eau (f) /f/ /gto/ /tat/ /l/ /kafe/ /b/ /o/

Salt and Pepper Fork Spoon Knife Plate Napkin Ice cream Juice Fruit Cheese Chicken Cereal Oil Vinegar Yogurt

le sel et le poivre

/sl/ /pwav/

Ham Fish Tea Salad Jam Meat Beer Wine Sugar Soup Ketchup Mustard Mayonnaise Pasta

le jambon le poisson le th la salade la confiture

/ b/ /pwas/ /te/ /salad/ /kfity/ /vj d/ /fit/ /bj/ /v/ /syk/ /pta/ /ktp/

la fourchette /fut/ /kij/ la cuillre le couteau l'assiette (f) la serviette la glace le jus le fruit le fromage le poulet des crales l'huile le vinaigre le yaourt /kuto/ /asjt/ /svjt/ /glas/ /y/ /fi/ /fma/ /pul/ /seeal/ /il/ /ving/ /jaut/

la viande French fries les frites (f) la bire le vin le sucre le potage le ketchup la mayonnaise des ptes

la moutarde /mutad/ /majnz/ /pt/

In France, it is common to use djeuner to mean to have breakfast as well as to have lunch. In Quebec, the meals are le djeuner, le dner, and le souper. The plural of un uf is des ufs, but fs is not pronounced: /f/ vs. //. Food is generally divided into two categories: sucr (sweet/sugary) and sal (savoury/salty). Le pain /p/ is the general word for bread; if you want to specify white bread, use le pain de mie /p d mi/ . Because the French eat dinner so late in the evening (8 pm), young children have l'heure de goter (snack time) after school. Le yaourt refers to fruit yogurts and sweet puddings and they are eaten as desserts in France. La glace is also a common dessert, and you can find several parfums /paf / (flavors). The word for scoops (of ice cream) is boules /bul/. Many restaurants now offer take out food options, which is called emporter (to take away). The opposite is sur place.

35. Fruits, Vegetables and Meat fruit apple apricot banana blueberry un fruit une pomme un abricot une banane une myrtille /fi/ /pm/ /abiko/ /banan/ /mitij/ corn cucumber eggplant lettuce mushroom le mas /mais/

un concombre /kkb/ une aubergine /obin/ la laitue un champignon /lty/ / pi/

cherry coconut date fig grape grapefruit lemon lime melon olive orange peach pear pineapple plum prune raisin raspberry

une cerise une noix de coco une datte une figue un raisin



un oignon les pois un piment

// /pwa/ /pim /

/nwadkoko/ peas /dat/ /fig/ /z/ pepper potato pumpkin rice spinach squash tomato turnip zucchini meat bacon beef chicken duck goat ham lamb liver meatballs pork chop rabbit

une pomme de /pmdt/ terre une citrouille /situj/ le riz des pinards une courge une tomate un navet la viande du lard, du bacon le buf le poulet le canard la chvre le jambon l'agneau le foie des boulettes de viande une ctelette de porc le lapin /i/ /epina/ /ku/ /tmat/ /nav/ /vj d/ /la/ /bekn/ /bf/ /pul/ /kana/ /v/ / b/ /ao/ /fwa/ /bultdvj d/ /kotltdp/

un /p plmus/ pamplemousse /sit/ un citron un citron vert un melon une olive une orange une pche une poire un ananas une prune un pruneau un raisin sec /sit v/ /ml/ /liv/ / / /p/ /pwa/ /ananas/ /pyn/ /pyno/ /z sk/

des courgettes /kut/

une framboise /f bwaz/ strawberry une fraise /fz/ watermelon une pastque vegetable artichoke asparagus beet broccoli cabbage carrot un lgume un artichaut des asperges une betterave le brocoli un chou une carotte /pastk/ /legym/ /atio/ /asp/ /btav/ /bkli/ /u/ /kat/ /ufl/ /sli/

/lap/ hamburger le steak hach /stkae/ sausage /sosis/ la saucisse dried sausage turkey veal venison le saucisson la dinde le veau le chevreuil /sosis/ /dd/ /vo/ /vj/

cauliflower un chou-fleur celery un cleri

Lettuce can also be referred to as la salade verte.

36. To Take, Eat or Drink Prendre-to take, eat or drink /p d/ prends prends prend /p / /p / /p / prenons prenez prennent /prn/ /prne/ /pn/ Boire-to drink /bwa/ bois /bwa/ buvons /buv/ bois /bwa/ buvez /buve/ boit /bwa/ boivent /bwav/

Other verbs that are conjugated like prendre: apprendre /ap d/ - to learn, comprendre /kpd/ - to understand and surprendre /syp d/ - to surprise When you want to say "I am having wine," the French translation is "Je prends du vin." You must use de and le, la, l', or les and the proper contractions (called partitives) because in French you must always express some. So "je prends de la bire" literally means "I am having some beer" even though in English we would usually only say I am having beer. Manger is a regular verb meaning "to eat," but manger is used in a general sense, such as Je mange du poulet tous les samedis. I eat chicken every Saturday. Boire is literally the verb to drink and is also used in a general sense only. Je bois du vin tout le temps. I drink wine all the time.

37. Quantities assez de une assiette de beaucoup de une bote de une bouteille de un kilo de enough (of) a plate of a lot of a box of un morceau de un peu de une tasse de une tranche de a piece of une douzaine de a dozen of a packet of a basket of a handful of more a bunch of

a little (bit) of un paquet de a cup of a slice of too much, many a glass of un panier de une poigne de plus de un bouquet

a bottle of trop de a kilo of un verre de

de With quantities and negatives, you never use partitives. The construction is always de or d' + noun. Je voudrais prendre du fromage, mais pas de fruit. I would like to have some cheese, but no fruit. Il prend de la viande. He is eating some meat. Nous prenons du riz et des brocolis. We are having some rice and broccoli. Il y a trop de lait dans la tasse. There is too much milk in the cup. Je voudrais un morceau de tarte. I would like one piece of pie. Est-ce que je peux prendre un verre de vin ? May I have a glass of wine? Je prends du vin. I'm drinking some wine. Je ne prends pas de vin. I am not drinking any wine.

38. Commands Use the vous, tu and nous forms for commands. Vous form Tu form Nous form Polite and Plural Familiar Let's... Same as verb form Same as verb form, but drop -s for -er verbs Same as verb form Restez ! Regarde ! Allons-y ! Stay! Watch! Let's go!

When using pronominal verbs as commands, the pronoun is placed after the verb connected by a hyphen. Tu te dpches becomes Dpche-toi ! And in negative commands, the pronoun precedes the verb, as in Ne nous reposons pas. Irregular Command Forms tre (be) tu sois /swa/ tu avoir (have) aie // tu savoir (know) sache /sa/

nous soyons /swaj/ nous ayons /aj/ nous sachons /sa/ vous soyez /swaje/ vous ayez /aje/ vous sachez /sae/

Ne sois pas mchant avec ta sur ! Don't be mean to your sister! N'ayez pas peur ! Don't be afraid! Sachez que j'apprcie votre aide. Know that I appreciate your help.

39. More Negatives ne...plus ne...jamais ne...rien ne...aucun(e) ne...que ne...personne ne...ni...ni ne...nulle part /n...ply/ /n...am/ /n...j/ /n...ok / /yn/ /n...k/ /n...psn/ /n...ni...ni/ /n...nyl pa/ no longer never nothing not a single one only nobody neither...nor nowhere

The que in ne...que is placed directly before the noun it limits. Rien and personne may be used as subjects: Personne n'est ici. Aucun(e) by definition is singular, so the verb and nouns must also be changed to the singular. With ni...ni, all articles are dropped except definite articles. Je n'ai ni camra ni camscope, but Je n'aime ni les chats ni les chiens. Il n'aime plus travailler. He no longer likes to work. (Or: He doesn't like to work anymore) Nous ne voulons faire des achats que lundi. We want to go shopping only on Monday. Elle ne dteste personne. She hates no one. (Or: She doesn't hate anyone.) Negatives with Pass Compos 1. Ne...pas, ne...plus, ne...jamais, and ne...rien Ne comes before auxiliary verb, and the other part is between auxiliary and past participle. Nous n'avons rien fait. We did nothing. Vous ne vous tes pas ennuys. You were not bored. 2. Ne...personne, ne...aucun, ne...ni...ni, ne...nulle part, and ne... que Ne comes before the auxiliary verb, but the other part is after the past participle. Il n'a cout personne. He listened to no one. Il n'a fait aucune faute. He made not a single mistake. * Use of ne ... pas de: In negative sentences, the partitives and indefinite articles become de before the noun (unless the verb is tre, then nothing changes.) Partitive: Je prends du pain et du beurre. I'm having some bread and butter. Negative: Je ne prends pas de pain ou de beurre. I am not having any bread or butter. Indefinite: J'ai un chien. I have a dog. Negative: Je n'ai pas de chien. I don't have a dog.

Verb is tre: C'est une chatte brune. It's a brown cat. Negative: Ce n'est pas une chatte brune. It's not a brown cat.

40. Holiday Phrases Merry Christmas Happy New Year Happy Thanksgiving Happy Thanksgiving (Canada) Happy Easter Happy Halloween Happy Valentine's Day Happy Birthday Happy Saint Day Happy Holidays Christmas Eve or New Year's Eve dinner New Year's Eve Joyeux Nol Bonne Anne Joyeux Thanksgiving Bonne Action de grces Joyeuses Pques Bonne fte d'Halloween Joyeuse Saint-Valentin Bon Anniversaire Joyeux Anniversaire Bonne Fte Joyeuses Ftes le Rveillon la Saint-Sylvestre

If someone is named after a saint, you can wish them bonne fte on that saint's feast day. In Quebec, bonne fte is used for Happy Birthday.

The French National Anthem: La Marseillaise by Claude-Joseph Rouget de L'Isle Allons enfants de la Patrie, Le jour de gloire est arriv. Contre nous, de la tyrannie, L'tendard sanglant est lev, l'tendard sanglant est lev. Entendez-vous dans les campagnes Mugir ces farouches soldats. Ils viennent jusque dans nos bras gorger vos fils, vos compagnes. Aux armes citoyens! Formez vos bataillons,

Marchons, marchons ! Qu'un sang impur Abreuve nos sillons. Amour sacr de la Patrie, Conduis, soutiens nos bras vengeurs. Libert, libert chrie, Combats avec tes dfenseurs; Sous nos drapeaux, que la victoire Accoure tes mles accents; Que tes ennemis expirants Voient ton triomphe et notre gloire ! Aux armes citoyens ! Formez vos bataillons, Marchons, marchons ! Qu'un sang impur Abreuve nos sillons. Ye sons of France, awake to glory, Hark, hark, what myriads bid you rise: Your children, wives and grandsires hoary, Behold their tears and hear their cries, see their tears and hear their cries! Shall hateful tyrants mischief breeding with hireling hosts, a ruffian band Affright and desolate the land, while peace and liberty lie bleeding? To arms, to arms, ye brave! Th'avenging sword unsheathe! March on! March on! All hearts resolved on victory or death. O sacred love of france, undying, Th'avenging arm uphold and guide Thy defenders, death defying, Fight with Freedom on their side. Soon thy sons shall be victorious When the banner high is raised; And thy dying enemies, amazed, Shall behold thy triumph, great and glorious. To arms, to arms, ye brave! Th'avenging sword unsheathe! March on! March on! All hearts resolved on victory or death.
Translation by Percy Bysshe Shelley (1st verse) and Mary Elizabeth Shaw (2nd verse) (This is not a literal translation.)

The Canadian National Anthem: O Canada O Canada, terre de nos aeux, Ton front est ceint de fleurons glorieux. Car ton bras sait porter l'pe, Il sait porter la croix.

Ton histoire est une pope Des plus brillants exploits. Et ta valeur, de foi trempe, Protgera nos foyers et nos droits. O Canada! Our home and native land! True patriot love in all thy sons command. With glowing hearts we see thee rise, The True North strong and free! From far and wide, O Canada, We stand on guard for thee. God keep our land glorious and free! O Canada, we stand on guard for thee. O Canada, we stand on guard for thee.

The Belgian National Anthem: La Brabannone Noble Belgique, jamais terre chrie, toi nos curs, toi nos bras, Par le sang pur rpandu pour toi, Patrie! Nous le jurons d'un seul cri: tu vivras! Tu vivras toujours grande et belle Et ton invincible unit Aura pour devise immortelle Le Roi, la Loi, la Libert! Le Roi, la Loi, la Libert! La Libert! Noble Belgium, forever beloved land, Thine our hearts, thine our arms, By the pure blood shed for you Fatherland! We swear it in a single shout: thou shalt live! Thou shalt live, ever great and beautiful And thy invincible unity Shall have for everlasting motto: The King, the Law, Liberty! The King, the Law, Liberty! Liberty!

The Swiss National Anthem: Cantique suisse by Charles Chatelanat

Sur nos monts, quand le soleil Annonce un brillant rveil, Et prdit d'un plus beau jour le retour, Les beauts de la patrie Parlent l'me attendrie; Au ciel montent plus joyeux Les accents d'un cur pieux, Les accents mus d'un cur pieux. Lorsqu'un doux rayon du soir Joue encore dans le bois noir, Le cur se sent plus heureux prs de Dieu. Loin des vains bruits de la plaine, L'me en paix est plus sereine, Au ciel montent plus joyeux Les accents d'un cur pieux, Les accents mus d'un cur pieux. Lorsque dans la sombre nuit La foudre clate avec bruit, Notre cur pressent encore le Dieu fort; Dans l'orage et la dtresse Il est notre forteresse; Offrons-lui des coeurs pieux: Dieu nous bnira des cieux, Dieu nous bnira du haut des cieux. Des grands monts vient le secours; Suisse, espre en Dieu toujours! Garde la foi des aeux, Vis comme eux! Sur l'autel de la patrie Mets tes biens, ton cur, ta vie! C'est le trsor prcieux Que Dieu bnira des cieux, Que Dieu bnira du haut des cieux.

41. Imperfect Tense This past tense corresponds to "was, were or used to." This tense is used for repeated, continuous, or ongoing actions; as well as for verbs that describe background and circumstances, such as weather, time, and physical, mental, and emotional states. (Use the pass compos for actions that happened once and are done.) Verbs that express mental and emotional states that are descriptive in nature are generally used in the imperfect more than the pass compos. These verbs are: aimer, avoir, croire, dtester, esprer, tre, penser, and prfrer. To form the stem, use the nous form of the present tense and drop the -ons. Then add these endings: -ais // -ions -ais // -iez /j/ /je/

-ait // -aient // The only exception is tre for which you must use the stem t-, but still the same endings. Verb stems that end in -c must use a cedilla () under the c to make it soft. Verb stems ending in -g keep the e before all forms except nous and vous. tre tais /et/ tions /etj/ tais /et/ tiez /etje/ tait /et/ taient /et/ commencer manger commenais /km s/ commencions /km sj/ mangeais /m / mangions /m j/ /m je/ commenais /km s/ commenciez /km sje/ mangeais /m / mangiez commenait /km s/ commenaient /km s/ mangeait /m / mangeaient /m /

Avoir, Devoir, Pouvoir, Savoir, and Vouloir These verbs change meanings, according to whether they are used in the imperfect or the pass compos. Imperfect avoir devoir j'avais je devais I had I was supposed to j'ai eu j'ai d Pass Compos I got, received I must have, I had to (and did)

je pouvoir pouvais savoir je savais

I was capable I knew

j'ai pu je n'ai pas pu j'ai su j'ai voulu je n'ai pas voulu

I was able to (and did), succeeded I couldn't, failed I found out, discovered I tried, decided, insisted I refused

vouloir je voulais I wanted to

The imperfect tense is also used with these constructions: tre en train de + infinitive = to be in the middle of doing something J'tais en train d'tudier quand vous tes arrivs. I was (in the process of ) studying when you arrived.

tre sur le point de + infinitive = to be just about to do something J'tais sur le point de vous rappeler. aller + infinitive = going to do something J'allais sortir quand le tlphone a sonn. I was going to leave when the phone rang. I was just about to call you back.

venir de + infinitive = to have just done something Je venais de manger, alors je n'avais plus faim. I had just eaten, so I wasn't hungry anymore.

42. Places / Les Endroits school bathroom locker drinking fountain store library office stadium l'cole (f) /ekl/ university bank train station airport telephone apartment hotel village l'universit (f) /ynivsite/ la banque la gare /b k/ /ga/

les toilettes (f) /twalt/ le casier la fontaine le magasin /kzje/ /ftn/ /magaz/

l'aroport (m) /aep/ le tlphone /telefn/

la /biblijtk/ biblio(thque) le bureau le stade /byo/ /stad/

l'appartement /apatm / (m) l'htel (m) le village /otl/ /vila/

cafe cafeteria church museum pool countryside beach theater park restaurant hospital post office home city supermarket delicatessen

le caf la caftria l'glise (f) le muse la piscine la campagne la plage le thtre le parc le restaurant l'hpital (m) la poste la maison la ville le supermarch

/kafe/ /kafeteja/ /sinema/ /egliz/ /myze/ /pisin/ /k pa/ /pla/ /tet/ /pak/ /st / /pital/ /pst/ /mz/ /vil/ /sypmae/

factory garden castle cathedral zoo bakery

l'usine (f) le jardin le chteau la cathdrale le zoo

/yzin/ /ad/ /ato/ /katedal/ /zo/

movie theater le cinma

la boulangerie /bul i/ monument le monument /mnym / pharmacy butcher shop candy store police station town hall square bookstore grocery store pastry shop la pharmacie la boucherie la confiserie /famasi/ /bui/ /kfizi/

la gendarmerie / dam()i/ la mairie la place la librairie l'picerie (f) la ptisserie /mi/ /plas/ /libi/ /episi/ /ptisi/

la charcuterie /akyti/

fish market la poissonnerie /pwasni/

Nowadays, la mdiathque /medjatk/ is replacing bibliothque because most libraries also have DVDs and CDs to lend, not just books. You may also hear la cantine /ktin/ to refer to the cafeteria in a school.

43. Transportation by bike by bus by moped by car by motorcycle en vlo (m) en bus (m) en scooter (m) en voiture (f) en moto (f) / velo/ / bus/ / skut/ / vwaty/ / moto/

by subway on foot by plane by train by boat

en mtro (m) pied (m) en avion (m) en train (m) en bateau (m)

/ meto/ /a pje/ / navj/ / t/ / bato/

Instead of using a specific verb of movement (drive, fly, walk) before a location, French actually uses a more general verb + the location + the manner of movement.

I walk to school. = Je vais l'cole pied. (I go to school on foot.) I'm flying to New York. = Je vais New York en avion. (I go to New York by plane.) Common slang words for car/automobile are une bagnole /bal/ or une caisse /ks/. In Quebec, it's un char /a/.

44. To Want & To Be Able To vouloir /vulwa/ -to want and pouvoir /puvwa/ - to be able to, can Present veux /v/ voulez veut /v/ veulent Imperfect /vule/ voulais /vul/ vouliez /vl/ Future /vulj/ voudrai /vud/ voudrons /vud/ /vulje/ voudras /vuda/ voudrez /vude/ voudra /vuda/ voudront /vud/ pourrons /pu/ pourrez /pue/ pourront /pu/

veux /v/ voulons /vul/ voulais /vul/ voulions

voulait /vul/ voulaient /vul/

peux /p/ pouvons /puv/ pouvais /puv/ pouvions /puvj/ pourrai /pu/ peux /p/ pouvez /puve/ pouvais /puv/ pouviez /puvje/ pourras /pua/ /pua/ peut /p/ peuvent /pv/ pouvait /puv/ pouvaient /puv/ pourra

Voulez-vous? can mean Do you want? or Will you? The past participles are voulu and pu and both are conjugated with avoir. The conditional forms of vouloir are used in the expression "would like" i.e. I'd like = je voudrais, you'd like = tu voudrais, he'd/she'd like = il/elle voudrait, we'd like = nous voudrions, you'd like = vous voudriez, they'd like = ils/elles voudraient.

You do not need to use pouvoir after verbs that involve the senses, such as voir (to see) and entendre (to hear). Je ne vois pas / Je n'entends pas can mean I don't see or I can't see / I don't hear or I can't hear depending on the context.

45. The House and Yard / La maison et le jardin House Apartment Bedroom Hallway Kitchen Storeroom Stairs Floor Living Room Closet Room Ground Floor Dining Room Bathroom la maison /mz/ Yard le jardin l'arbuste (m) /ad/ /abyst/

l'appartement /apatm / Shrub (m) la chambre le couloir la cuisine le dbarras l'escalier (m) l'tage (m) le living / le salon la penderie la pice le rez-dechausse la salle manger la salle de bains / b/ /kulwa/ /kizin/ /debaa/ /skalje/ /eta/ /livi/ /sal/ /p di/ /pjs/ /dose/ Lawn/grass Bush Tree Lawn mower Hose Watering can Rake Hoe Clippers Shovel

le gazon / /gaz/ la pelouse /p()luz/ le buisson /bis/ l'arbre /ab/ (m) la tondeuse /tdzagaz/ gazon le tuyau /tijodaoza/ d'arrosage l'arrosoir /aoza/ (m) le rteau la bche le cisaille la pelle /to/ /b/ /sizj/ /pl/

/salam e/ Sprinkler /saldb/ /tas/ /gnje/ Lock (door) Lock (bolt) Padlock

l'arroseur /aoz/ (m) la serrure /sey/ le verrou /vu/

Terrace, patio la terrasse Attic le grenier Chimney Roof Garage la chemine le toit le garage

le cadenas /kadna/ la /anj/ charnire /kle/ la cl le portecl /ptkle/

/()mine/ Hinges /tw/ /gaa/ Key Keychain

Driveway Sidewalk Porch Basement Cellar

l'alle (f) le trottoir le porche le sous-sol la cave

/ale/ /ttwa/ /p/ /susl/ /kav/

Keyhole Doorknob Tile roofing

le trou de sey/ la serrure la poigne /pwaedpt/ de porte les tuiles (f) /til/ /bado/ /adwaz/

les Clapboard/Shingle bardeaux (m) Slate roofing l'ardoise (f)

You may also see the words la loggia /ldja/ (small room off a large room - sometimes like a pantry) and la veranda /ve da/ (enclosed porch/balcony), as well as les toilettes /twalt/ (a separate room just for the toilet), for parts of a house or apartment.

46. Furniture and Appliances / Les meubles et l'Electromenager Furniture Shelf Desk Chair Dresser Curtain les meubles l'tagre (f) le bureau la chaise la commode le rideau /mbl/ /eta/ /byo/ /z/ /kmd/ /ido/ /tgl/ /vl/ Appliances l'lectromnager /elktomenae/ /tmsta/ /klimatiz/ /v t ilat/ /fotjabaskyl/ /tabu/ /kus/ /mkt/ /batelktik/ /miks/ /uvbwat/ /gijp/ /kaftj/

Thermostat le thermostat Air le climatiseur Conditioner Fan Rocking chair Stool Cushion Carpet Mixer / Beater Blender Can opener Toaster Coffee maker le ventilateur le fauteuil bascule le tabouret le coussin la moquette le batteur lectrique le mixeur l'ouvre-botes (m) le grille-pain la caftire

Curtain rod la tringle Shutters les volets (m) Blinds Window Bed Door Closet

les stores (m) /st/ la fentre le lit / le plumard la porte le placard /fnt/ /li/ /plyma/ /pt/ /plaka/

Rug Lamp Nightstand

le tapis la lampe la table de nuit

/tapi/ /l p/ /tabldni/ /epd/

Coffee press le moulin caf /mul na kafe/ Kettle Sheet Blanket Mattress Bunkbeds Lightswitch la bouilloire le drap la couverture le matelas les lits superposs (m) l'interrupteur (m) /bujwa/ /da/ /kuvty/ /matla/ /lisyppoze/ /teypt/ /abau/ /bin/ /kanalizasj/ /ptsvjt/ /b di/ /avl/

Answering le rpondeur machine Stereo Television VCR Remote Control Computer Radio Fridge Refrigerator Freezer (Coffee) Table Sink Bathtub Stove Oven Dishwasher Microwave Shower Pillow Mirror Ceiling

la chane hi fi /n i fi/ la tl(vision) /televizj/ le /maetskp/ magntoscope la /telekm d/ tlcommande l'ordinateur (m) la radio le frigo /dinat/ /adjo/ /figo/

Lampshade l'abat-jour (m) Faucet le robinet

Drain/Piping la canalisation Towel bar le porteserviettes la buanderie la javel

Laundry le /efieat/ room rfrigrateur Bleach le conglateur /kelat/ la table (basse) l'vier (m) la baignoire la cuisinire le four le lavevaisselle le four micro-ondes la douche l'oreiller le miroir le plafond /tabl bas/ /evje/ /bwa/ /kizinj/ /fu/ /lavvsl/ Laundry basket Clothespin Washing Machine Clothes Dryer Iron Ironing board

le panier linge /panje a l/ la pince linge la machine laver / le lavelinge le sche-linge /ps a l/ /mainalave/ /lavl/ /sl/

le fer repasser /fapase/ la planche repasser le cintre /pl apase/ /st/

/fuamikod/ Hanger /du/ /je/ /miwa/ /plaf/ Vacuum Broom Dustpan Mop

l'aspirateur (m) /aspiat/ /bal/ le balai la pelle la serpillire /pl/ /spij/

Floor Armchair Clock Bedspread Vase Bathroom sink Futon couch

le plancher le fauteuil la pendule le couvre-lit le vase le lavabo le clic-clac

/pl e/ /fotj/ /p dyl/ /kuvli/ /vz/ /lavabo/ /klik klak/


les ordures (f)

/dy/ /sakpubl/ /publ/ /taptamu/ /sewa/

Garbage bag le sac poubelle Garbage can la poubelle Flyswatter Clothes Dryer Hair Dryer Couch/Sofa DVD Player la tapette mouche le schoir

le sche-cheveux /seav/ le canap / le sofa le lecteur de DVD /kanape/ /sfa/ /lktddevede/

Monte le son. / Baisse le son. Turn up the volume. / Turn down the volume. Allume la lumire. / Eteinds la tl. Turn on the light. / Turn off the television.

47. Comparatives & Superlatives Comparatives aussi (adj or adv) que as (adj or adv) as

moins (adj or adv) que less (adj or adv) than plus (adj or adv) que plus de (noun) que autant de (noun) que moins de (noun) que more (adj or adv) than more (noun) than as many (noun) as less (noun) than

Sample Sentences She is taller than Colette. I am smarter than you. Peter runs less quickly than me. I have more books than she. We have as many cars as he. Elle est plus grande que Colette. Je suis plus intelligente que toi. Pierre court moins rapidement que moi. J'ai plus de livres qu'elle. Nous avons autant de voitures que lui.

The kitchen is as big as the living room. La cuisine est aussi grande que le salon.

Verbs can also be compared with plus/aussi/moins (+ que): Il travaille moins qu'elle. He works less than she. Ils dorment plus. They sleep more. Superlatives Simply add le, la or les before the comparative if you are using an adjective. With adverbs, always use le. After a superlative, de is used to mean in. If the adjective follows the noun, the superlative follows the noun also, surrounding the adjective. Sample Sentences C'est la plus grande ville du monde. Elle est la plus belle femme de cette salle. Ce quartier est le moins cher de Paris. C'est la punition la plus redoutable du monde. Elle travaille le plus courageusement de tous.

It's the biggest city in the world.

She is the most beautiful woman in this room. This neighborhood is the least expensive in Paris. It's the most dreaded punishment in the world. She works the most courageously of everyone.

In French, sometimes you don't use any articles, as compared to English: Plus a change, plus c'est la mme chose. The more things change, the more they stay the same.

48. Irregular Forms Adjective bon mauvais petit bad Comparative pire Superlative worst least

good meilleur/e better le/la meilleur/e best worse le/la pire less le/la moindre small moindre

Adverb bien well

Comparative mieux

Superlative best

better le mieux

beaucoup much plus mal peu badly pis little moins

more le plus worse le pis less le moins

most worst least

Only use the irregular forms of mauvais in the abstract sense. If the idea is concrete, you may use plus/moins mauvais and le/la mauvais.

49. Clothing / Les vetements pajamas jewelry necklace jeans pants sweater turtleneck raincoat blouse bra slip coat tennis shoes swimsuit shorts bracelet charm t-shirt hat ring chain earrings pin sock shoe le pyjama le bijou le collier le jean le pantalon le pull le col roul l'impermable (m) le chemisier le soutien-gorge le jupon le manteau des tennis (m) le maillot de bain le short le bracelet le porte-bonheur le tee-shirt le chapeau la bague la chanette les boucles d'oreilles (f) l'pingle (f) la chaussette la chaussure boxer shorts briefs panties tuxedo bowtie vest/cardigan flip flops sleeve pocket le caleon le slip la culotte le smoking le nud papillon le gilet les tongs la manche la poche

decorative scarf la foulard man's suit le costume woman's suit slippers jacket underwear gloves mittens belt cap skirt dress sandal boots blazer/coat scarf le tailleur des pantoufles (f) le blouson les sous-vtements les gants (m) les moufles (f) la ceinture la casquette la jupe la robe la sandale des bottes (f) la veste l'charpe (f)

man's shirt

la chemise

tie slipper shoes high heels long shorts size (shoes)

la cravate des chaussons des escarpins le bermuda la pointure

hooded jacket l'anorak sneakers des baskets track suit le jogging size (clothes) la taille

Les bas (stockings) and les collants (tights) are popular in France. Chaussures talons hauts are high-heeled shoes, while chaussures talons plats are flat shoes. Chaussures de ville are dress shoes. A slang word for clothes is les fringues.

50. To Wear Mettre /mt/ - to put, to put on, wear Present mets /m/ mettez Imperfect /mte/ mettais /mt/ mettiez Future /mtje/ mettras /mta/ mettrez /mte/ mets /m/ mettons /mt/ mettais /mt/ mettions /mtj/ mettrai /mt/ mettrons /mt/ met /m/ mettent /mt/ mettait /mt/ mettaient /mt/ mettra /mta/ mettront /mt/

Other verbs that are conjugated like mettre: promettre - to promise and permettre - to permit. The past participle of mettre is mis and it is conjugated with avoir. Porter is actually the verb to wear, but the French use mettre also. Il / Elle te va bien. Il / Elle vous va bien. Ils / Elles te vont bien. Ils / Elles vous vont bien. It looks good on you. (informal) It looks good on you. (formal) They look good on you. (informal) They look good on you. (formal)

51. Future Tenses: Simple and Anterior The futur simple expresses an action that will take place [will + infinitive]. The futur antrieur expresses an action that will have taken place before another future action [will

have + past participle]. The future tense is used just like it is in English, however, in French, the future is always used after quand or lorsque (when), ds que or aussitt que (as soon as) and tant que (as long as.) To form the future tense, use the infinitive and add these endings that resemble those of avoir. However, you drop the -e from -re verbs. -ai // -ons / -as /a/ -ez -a parler /e/ /a/ -ont // choisir perdre

parlerai parlerons choisirai choisirons perdrai perdrons parleras parlerez choisiras choisirez perdras perdrez parlera parleront choisira choisiront perdra perdront

And of course, there are exceptions. Here are the irregular stems for the future tense (these will also be used in the conditional tense): Irregular Stems aller avoir courir devoir iraurcourrdevrpleuvoir pleuvrpouvoir pourrrecevoir recevrsavoir saurtiendrvaudrviendrverrvoudr-

envoyer enverr- tenir tre faire falloir mourir serferfaudrvaloir venir voir

mourr- vouloir tre

aller irons irez iront iras

serai seras sera

serons j'irai serez seront ira

Other exceptions: For appeler and jeter, double the consonant. For nettoyer and payer, change the y to i. For acheter, add an accent grave. For prfrer, the accents all remain the same. jeter jetterai jetterons jetteras jetterez jettera jetteront payer paierai paierons paieras paierez paiera paieront acheter achterai achterons achteras achterez achtera achteront prfrer prfrerai prfrerons prfreras prfrerez prfrera prfreront

To form the futur antrieur (will have + past participle), use the future of either avoir or tre (whichever the main verb takes) and the past participle of the main verb. Quand ils reviendront, ils auront chang. When they come back, they will have changed. Ds qu'ils seront revenus, ils voudront repartir. As soon as they have returned, they will want to leave again.

52. Preceding & Plural Adjectives Masculine Singular Plural beau (bel) bon cher fou (fol) gentil grand gros jeune joli long mauvais beaux bons chers foux gentils grands gros jeunes jolis longs mauvais meilleurs Feminine Singular Plural belle bonne chre folle gentille grande grosse jeune jolie longue belles bonnes chres folles gentilles grandes grosses jeunes jolies longues

Adjective beautiful good dear crazy nice big large young pretty long bad

mauvaise mauvaises meilleure meilleures

better, best meilleur

soft new little old

mou (mol) petit vieux (vieil)

moux petits vieux

molle petite vieille

molles petites vieilles

nouveau (nouvel) nouveaux nouvelle nouvelles

The masculine singular and plural are pronounced the same, as are the feminine singular and plural. These are the most common adjectives that go before the noun. An acronym to remember which ones go before the noun is BRAGS: Beauty, Resemblance (mme and autre), Age/Order (premier and dernier), Goodness, and Size. All other adjectives, except numbers, go after the noun. The five words in parentheses (bel, fol, mol, nouvel, and vieil) are used before masculine singular words beginning with a vowel or a silent h. A few adjectives can be used before or after the noun, and the meaning changes accordingly. When used before the noun, they take a figurative meaning; and when used after, they take a literal meaning. Before plural adjectives preceding plural nouns, you use de instead of des to mean some. Ex: Some old monuments. De vieux monuments.

53. Adjectives: Formation of Feminine

Almost all adjectives must agree in number and gender with the noun they modify. Most adjectives are given in the masculine form, so to change to the feminine forms, follow these rules: Masculine Feminine Add -e If it already ends in -e, add nothing -x changes to -se brun fatigu jeune gnreux Exceptions: faux roux doux -il, -el, and -eil change to -ille, -elle, and -eille -et changes to -te naturel inquiet brune fatigue jeune gnreuse fausse rousse douce naturelle inquite Adjective brown tired young generous false red (hair) sweet, soft natural worried

Exceptions: muet coquet -en and -on change to -enne and -onne -er changes to -re -f changes to -ve -c changes to -che Italien cher actif blanc Exceptions: public grec -g changes to -gue -eur changes to -euse if adjective is derived from verb -eur changes to -rice if adjective is not same as verb -eur changes to -eure with adjectives of comparison long menteur crateur infrieur pais And a few completely irregular ones: favori frais

muette coquette Italienne chre active blanche publique grecque longue menteuse cratrice infrieure paisse favorite frache

silent stylish Italian dear, expensive active white public Greek long liar creator inferior thick favorite fresh, cool

54. Forming Plurals: Adjectives

To form the feminine plural, just add an -s, unless it already ends in an s, then add nothing. To form the masculine plural, just add an -s, except in these cases: -al becomes -aux (exceptions: banal - banals; final - finals); and if it ends in an x or s already, add nothing. Masculine Singular national national general gnral Feminine Singular national nationale general gnrale Masculine Plural nationaux gnraux Feminine Plural nationales gnrales

And of course there are more exceptions... some adjectives are invariable and do not have feminine or plural forms. Compound adjectives, such as bleu clair (light blue) and vert fonc (dark green), adjectives that are also nouns, such as or (gold), argent (silver), marron (chestnut), and the words chic (stylish), bon march or meilleur march (inexpensive) never change.

55. More Adjectives short (length) loud, noisy elegant tight, narrow several pointed bright cute perfect ready sad clever lazy court/e bruyant/e lgant/e troit/e different diffrent/e situated situ/e big curious gros/se boring crazy interesting ennuyeux/euse fou/folle intressant/e sensible sportif/sportive ttu/e timide travailleur/euse optimiste

curieux/euse sensitive

plusieurs/plusieures nervous nerveux/euse athletic pointu/e vif/vive mignon/ne parfait/e prt/e triste malin/maligne paresseux/euse only seul/e stubborn shy hardworking optimistic amusing amusant/e touching mouvant/e funny heavy careful dirty tired angry drle, marrant/e lourd/e prudent/e sale fatigu/e fch/e

pessimistic pessimiste tolerant ambitious pleasant tolrant/e pretentious prtentieux/euse ambitieux/se agrable

generous gnreux/euse famous clbre decorated dcor/e

annoyed irrit/e old g/e

enthusiastic enthousiaste honest honnte

Remember the first word is the masculine and the second is the feminine. The addition of an e for the feminine form allows the last consonant to be voiced. These adjectives go after the noun.

Normally, the verb rendre means to give something that you owe to someone, such as On rend ses devoirs au professeur. It can also be used in the sense of to represent. But rendre + adjective means to make someone or something + adjective. Tu me rends si heureuse ! You make me so happy! Le fait qu'il ne possde pas de voiture le rend triste. The fact that he doesn't have a car makes him sad. Some common slang adjectives that are used constantly in everyday speech: minable mediocre ugly, con / conne stupid, dumb moche unpleasant idiotic dbile sensass sensational disgusting, dgueu(lasse) super marvellous bad nice, extraordinary sympa extra pleasant very inane gnial tarte interesting ridiculous, perfect impec tocard deplorable chouette great, good

The intensifiers vachement and drlement are also used often, meaning very or really.

Il est vachement sympa. = He is really nice. Elle est drlement triste. = She is very sad.

56. Problem Verbs Some verbs in French present problems because they have several translations in English. Other verbs can have several translations in French, but fewer meanings in English. visiter - to visit places rendre visite - to visit people apporter - to bring things to some place emporter - to take things from some place amener - to bring someone to some place emmener - to take someone from some place

apprendre quelque chose - to learn something apprendre quelque chose quelqu'un - to teach someone something rencontrer - to meet faire la connaissance de - to meet someone for the first time retrouver - to meet (for an appointment) partir - to leave (from or for a place) quitter - to leave (a person or place) sortir - to go out s'en aller - to go away laisser - to leave something behind retourner - to go back (to where speaker is not) revenir - to come back (to where speaker currently is) rentrer - to come or go home rendre - to return or give something back faire - to make fabriquer - to produce obliger - to make someone do something rendre - to make someone + adjective After some verbs, the word ne is required, but this does not imply negation: craindre, redoter, empcher Je crains qu'il ne fasse trop froid. I'm afraid that it's too cold. And a few verbs only require ne and not pas in the negative, but this is elevated or literary language: cesser, oser, pouvoir, savoir Je ne peux vivre sans toi. I cannot live without you.

57. C'est / Il est + Adjective + A / de + Infinitive C'est + adjective + + infinitive is used when the idea has already been mentioned; while il est + adjective + de + infinitive is used when the idea has not yet been mentioned. Also, the c'est construction is used when you do not use a direct object after the infinitive of the transitive verb, and the il est construction is used when you do. Est-ce qu'on peut apprendre le chinois en un an ? Can you learn Chinese in one year? Non, c'est impossible apprendre en un an ! No, it's impossible to learn in one year! (The idea, Chinese, has already been mentioned, and there is no direct object.) OR: Non, il est impossible d'apprendre le chinois en un an ! (This sentence contains the direct object after the infinitive.)

Il est facile d'apprendre l'italien. It is easy to learn Italian. (The idea has not already been mentioned, and the direct object is used.) Adjectives that express a certain emotion require de before the infinitive: content, dsol, furieux, heureux, triste Je suis contente de vous voir. I am happy to see you. Other adjectives require before the infinitive: agrable, pnible, terrible, amusant, intressant, ennuyeux, lger, lourd, lent, rapide, premier, dernier, prt, seul Il est prt partir. He is ready to leave. A longer list of adjectives that require or de before an infinitive can be found at 91. on French V. In addition, when quelque chose is followed by an adjective, de is inserted between the two. quelque chose d'intressant = something interesting

58. Sports & Instruments Soccer Hockey Football Basketball Baseball le football le hockey le football amricain le basket le base-ball Softball Golf Bicycling Surfing Dirt/Motor biking French horn violin guitar drum tuba flute trombone clarinet cello harp le softball le golf le vlo le surf le bicross le cor d'harmonie le violon la guitare le tambour le tuba la flte le trombone la clarinette le violoncelle la harpe

Horse-back riding l'quitation; du cheval Tennis le tennis Skiing Volleyball Wrestling Jogging Ice-skating Swimming Track and Field Bowling le ski le volley la lutte / le catch le jogging le patin glace la natation l'athltisme le bowling

La lutte is regular wrestling (the real Greco-Roman sport), while le catch is professional/fake wrestling.

Faire de + a sport means to play. Jouer + a sport also means to play, as does jouer de + an instrument. Tu fais du foot. You play soccer. J'aime jouer au tennis. I like to play tennis. Je peux jouer de la guitare. I can play the guitar. Nous jouons de la clarinette. We play the clarinet. Il veut jouer du tuba. He wants to play the tuba.

59. Nature air archipelago bank bay barn beach branch bridge bud bush cape cave city climate cloud coast comet constellation country l'air (m) l'archipel (m) la rive la baie la grange la plage la branche le pont le bouton le buisson le cap la caverne la ville le climat le nuage la cte la comte frost grass gulf hail hay high tide hill ice island isthmus jungle lake leaf light lightning lily low tide la gele l'herbe (f) le golfe la grle le foin la mare haute la colline la glace I'le (f) l'isthme la jungle le lac la feuille la lumire l'clair (m) le lis la mare basse le pr la lune la montagne la chane de montagnes rose sand sea shadow sky snow soil south spring (water) star stem storm strait stream street sun sunflower thaw thunder tornado tree la rose le sable la mer l'ombre (f) le ciel la neige la terre le sud la source l'toile (f) la tige l'orage (f) / la tempte le dtroit le ruisseau la rue le soleil le tournesol la fonte le tonnerre la tornade l'arbre (m)

la meadow constellation le pays moon

country(side) la campagne mountain mountain current le courant range

daffodil daisy darkness desert dew dust earth east farm field flower foam fog foliage forest

la jonquille la marguerite

mouth (river) mud

l'embouchure (f) trunk la vase la nature le nord la pninsule la plaine la plante la plante l'tang (m) le pot de fleurs la pluie l'arc-en-ciel (m) le fleuve le rocher la racine tulip valley view water

le tronc la tulipe la valle la vue l'eau (f)

l'obscurit (f) nature north le dsert la rose la poussire la terre l'est (m) la ferme le champ la fleur l'cume (f) le feuillage la fort peninsula plain planet plant pond pot (for plants) rain rainbow rock root

fresh water l'eau douce salt water l'eau sale watering can waterfall wave weather west wind world l'arrosoir (m) la cascade la vague / l'onde (f) le temps l'ouest (m) le vent le monde

le brouillard river

60. To Live vivre - to live, be alive (vee-vruh) Present vis vivons vis vivez vit vivent Imperfect vivais vivions vivais viviez vivait vivaient Future vivrai vivrons vivras vivrez vivra vivront

The past participle of vivre is vcu and it is conjugated with avoir. Habiter is another verb that means to live, but it means to live in a place. Vivre is used to mean the state of being alive. A subjunctive form of vivre, vive, is often used in exclamations. Vive la France ! Long live France!

61. Personal Pronouns Subject je tu il elle I Direct Object Indirect Object Disjunctives me me you him her us you them them me te lui lui nous vous leur leur to me to you to him to her to us to you moi toi lui elle me you him her

you te he she le la nous

nous we

nous us vous you them them

vous you vous ils they les

to them eux to them elles

elles they les

You have already learned the subject pronouns. They go before the conjugated verb forms. The Direct and Indirect Object pronouns go before the verb even though in English they go after it. They also go after the ne in a negative sentence and right before the verb. The disjunctive always go after prepositions, or can be used alone for emphasis. Sample Sentences: J'achte des pantalons. Je les achte. Je vous donne la bote. Je vous la donne. Aprs toi. Nous allons avec elle. Il ne la quitte pas. Il la quitte. Elle ne l'aime pas. I buy some pants. I buy them. I give the box to you. I give it to you. After you. (familiar) We go with her. He doesn't leave her. He leaves her. She doesn't love him.

Je t'aime. or Je vous aime. I love you.

When you have more than one pronoun; me, te, nous, or vous come first, then le, la, or les, then lui or leur. Me, te, le, and la contract to m', t', and l' when they precede a vowel, the same way je does. In commands, the pronouns go after the verb, connected with a hyphen. And the pronoun order changes a little too: Le, la, or les come first; then moi, toi, (Me and te become moi and toi in commands) nous, or vous; then lui, or leur.

If you have pronouns, they go before the complete verb in regular sentences; but after the ne and before the form of avoir in negative sentences. Nous lui avons parl. Je t'ai demand du pain. Il ne l'a pas aim. Tu n'y as pas habit. Je ne vous ai pas parl. Nous ne l'avons pas fini. We spoke to him/her. I asked you for some bread. He didn't like it/her/him. You didn't live there. I didn't speak (or haven't spoken) to you. We didn't finish (or haven't finished) it.

Vous en avez cout trois. You've listened to three of them.

In the pass compos with avoir, direct object pronouns only must agree in gender and number with the past participle. Je les ai aims. Il l'a regarde. I liked them. He watched her.

Elles nous ont cout(e)s. They listened to us. Add an e if the pronoun is feminine, and an s if it is plural. The l' could mean him or her, so you might not need to put the extra e on the past participle. The same for nous and vous. They must have an s because they are plural, but it is unclear as to whether they are masculine or feminine.

62. Parts of the Body / Les parties du corps Standard French head hair face forehead cheek ear eye/s beard mustache mouth la tte les cheveux la figure / le visage / la face le front la joue l'oreille l'il / les yeux la barbe la moustache la bouche la gueule / la bote les esgourdes les mirettes la barbouse Slang la caboche / le crne les tifs

lip nose tongue tooth neck eyebrows eyelashes chin throat skin blood bone shoulder chest waist belly button back heart lungs brain liver kidney bladder rib arm elbow wrist fist hand fingers stomach / belly butt body hip

la lvre le nez la langue la dent le cou les sourcils les cils le menton la gorge la peau le sang l'os l'paule la poitrine la taille le nombril le dos le cur les poumons le cerveau le foie le rein la vessie la cte le bras le coude le poignet le poing la main les doigts l'estomac / le ventre les fesses le corps la hanche le buffet / le bide les miches les crocs le blair / le pif

leg knee foot toes ankle thigh shin calf thumb nails tattoo piercing blond brunette red-head light brown

la jambe le genou le pied les orteils la cheville la cuisse le tibia le mollet le pouce les ongles le tatouage le piercing blond/e brun/e roux/rousse chtain le penard / les arpions

To say something hurts or that you have an ache, you can use avoir mal (body part): J'ai mal la tte. I have a headache. J'ai mal l'estomac. I have a stomach ache. Elle a mal au bras. Her arm hurts. Tu as mal au genou? Your knee hurts? Il a mal aux orteils. His toes hurt. However, if someone is causing you pain, use faire mal (to hurt) plus the indirect pronoun. Tu me fais mal. You're hurting me. Ne lui faites pas mal. Don't hurt him / her. When describing hair color or eye color, you use blonds, chtain, bruns, roux for hair; and bleus, verts, marron, noirs for eyes. Notice that chtain and marron do not agree in gender or number. Elle a les cheveux roux. Elle est rousse. She has red hair. She is a red-head. Il a les yeux marron. He has brown eyes.

Combien msures-tu ? / Combien fais-tu ? How tall are you? Combien pses-tu ? How much do you weigh? Je fais 1m60. I am 1 m 60 cm. Je pse 50 kilos. I weigh 50 kilos.

63. Asking Questions 1) Invert the subject and verb form and add a hyphen. Instead of Vous parlez anglais? use Parlez-vous anglais? But if you invert il, elle, or on, you must put a t between the verb form (if it ends in a vowel) and the subject for ease of pronunciation. Parle-il anglais? is incorrect and must become Parle-t-il anglais? And je is usually only inverted with pouvoir or devoir. However, if je is inverted with pouvoir, you don't use peux, but puis. Puis-je ? (pweezh) is Can I? 2) Add n'est-ce pas ? (ness pah) to the end of the sentence. It is equivalent to isn't it, don't you, aren't we, won't you, etc. 3) If the question requires a yes or no answer, put Est-ce que (ess kuh) at the beginning. It contracts to Est-ce qu' before a word beginning with a vowel, such as elle, il or on. You can also use interrogative words (quand, comment, o, etc.) at the beginning of the sentence and then add est-ce que. 4) With interrogative words, you can also use inversion: Quand tes parents partent-ils en vacances ? Or you can use an interrogative with est-ce que and normal word order: Pourquoi est-ce que vous tes ici ? 5) Quel / Quelle / Quels / Quelles (which, what) agrees with the noun it modifies. It precedes the noun or the verb tre, it may follow a preposition, and it can be used with inversion or with est-ce que. Quelle est la date ? A quelle heure partez-vous ? Quels bagages est-ce que vous prenez ? Notice that the forms of quel can also be used in exclamatory sentences. Quel beau jour ! / Quelle belle journe ! What a beautiful day! 6) With negative questions, negative expressions remain in their usual place (i.e. around the verb, or verb and subject if inverted). Tu ne travailles pas ? Est-ce que te ne travailles pas ? Ne travailles-tu pas ? Pourquoi n'as-tu pas travaill ? Asking Questions with the Pass Compos Only the auxiliary verb (avoir or tre) and the subject pronoun are inverted. The past participle follows. A-t-il t surpris ? Was he surprised? T'es-tu amus ? Did you have fun?

64. Interrogative Pronouns

To ask about people: Long Form Subject Direct Object Qui est-ce qui Qui est-ce qui est venu? Qui est-ce que Qui est-ce que tu as vu? Preposition + qui est-ce que A qui est-ce que tu as parl? Short Form Qui Qui est venu? Qui Qui as-tu vu? Translation Who came? Whom did you see?

Object of Preposition

Preposition + qui Whom did you speak A qui as-tu parl? to?

To ask about things: Long Form Subject Direct Object Qu'est-ce qui Qu'est-ce qui est arriv? Qu'est-ce que Qu'est-ce que tu as fait? Preposition + quoi estce que De quoi est-ce que tu as parl? Short Form No short form Que Qu'as-tu fait? Preposition + quoi De quoi as-tu parl? Translation What happened? What did you do?

Object of Preposition

What did you talk about?

Use of Inversion when Subject is Noun: a. With qui and quoi, inversion pattern is regular. Qui Marie a-t-elle vu? Whom did Marie see? De quoi Marc a-t-il besoin? What does Marc need? b. With que, the noun subject must be inverted directly. Que veut Jean? What does Jean want? Que font les autres? What are the others doing? c. However, if the sentence contains more than a subject and verb, or if the verb is in a compound tense (such as the pass compos), the short form is not used. Qu'est-ce que Luc veut faire aujourd'hui? What does Luc want to do today? Qu'est-ce que les autres ont fait? What did the others do? Verb Agreement: a. Interrogative pronouns are usually masculine singular. Les voitures font du bruit. Qu'est-ce qui fait du bruit? Cars make noise. What makes

noise? Les enfants sont arrivs. Qui est arriv? The children arrived. Who arrived? b. Exception: when qui is followed by a conjugated form of tre, the verbs agrees with the noun that follows. Qui taient Les Trois Mousquetaires? Who were the three Musketeers? Qu'est-ce que (or qui) vs. Quel: a. Qu'est-ce que c'est que is used to ask for a definition, and quel asks for specific information. Qu'est-ce que c'est que le camembert? What is "camembert"? Quel est le problme? What is the problem? b. When followed by a conjugated form of tre, quel is used if tre is followed by a noun and qu'est-ce qui is used if tre is followed by anything other than a noun. Quelle est la date? What is the date? Qu'est-ce qui est bon? What is good? Written vs. Spoken French with Questions In spoken French, inversion and the use of est-ce que are usually dropped, but they must be used in written French. Additionally, some forms are contracted or the word order may differ. It's also very common to use qui c'est qui in place of qui or qui est-ce qui. Written forms Parlez-vous franais ? Est-ce que vous parlez franais ? Comment l'avez-vous appris ? Comment est-ce que vous l'avez appris ? Quand es-tu arriv ? Quand est-ce que tu es arriv ? De quoi parlent-ils ? De quoi est-ce qu'ils parlent ? Pourquoi me regardes-tu ? Pourquoi est-ce que tu me regardes ? Qui t'a dit a ? Qui est-ce qui t'a dit a ? Spoken forms Vous parlez franais ? Translation Do you speak French? How did you learn it? When did you arrive? What are they talking about? Why are you looking at me? Who told you that?

Vous l'avez appris comment ? Quand t'es arriv ? T 'es arriv quand ? De quoi ils parlent ? Ils parlent de quoi ? Pourquoi tu me regardes ? Qui c'est qui t'a dit a?

65. Forms of Lequel

Lequel is a pronoun that replaces the adjective quel and the noun it modifies. It expresses Which one? as a question, but which in a statement (usually preceded by a preposition). Adjective Singular Masculine Quel livre lis-tu? Feminine Quelle page listu? Plural Quels livres lis-tu? Quelles pages listu? Singular Lequel lis-tu? Laquelle listu? Pronoun Plural Lesquels lis-tu? Lesquelles listu?

Lequel contracts with and de in the plural and masculine singular forms: Singular Masculine + lequel = auquel de + lequel = duquel + laquelle = laquelle Plural + lesquels = auxquels de + lesquels = desquels + lesquelles = auxquelles


de + laquelle = de laquelle de + lesquelles = desquelles

Voil le portrait sans retouche de l'homme auquel j'appartiens. - That's the unaltered portrait of the man to which I belong. [Edith Piaf - La Vie en Rose] Et des amours desquelles nous parlons. - And the loves about which we talk. [by JeanDenis Bredin] You can also use another preposition + form of lequel to translate preposition + which: on which, to which, in which, etc. La table sur laquelle j'ai mis la bouteille est l-bas. - The table on which I put the bottle is over there. Le btiment dans lequel j'habite est trs vieux. - The building in which I live is very old.

66. Relative Pronouns Relative pronouns join sentences together. These words signal a relative clause which explains the noun, called the antecedent. If the relative pronoun is the subject of the clause (a verb immediately follows), use qui. If the relative pronoun is the direct object of the clause (subject + verb follows), use que. If the verb of the dependent clause requires the preposition de, use dont to replace it. Also use dont to mean whose. Qui, que, and dont can all mean that or who, depending on the sentence. If the antecedent is a

place or time, use o to mean where or when. When there is no specific antecedent, ce is added as an artificial one before que, qui or dont; but it can refer to only things, not people. Ce qui, ce que and ce dont generally mean what. Je mange des choses qui sont bonnes. I eat things that are good. qui is subject que is object no antecedent whose avoir besoin is followed by de restaurant is a place

Je mange des choses que j'aime. I eat things that I like. C'est ce que je disais. La femme dont le mari est mort... Voici ce dont j'ai besoin. That's what I said. The woman whose husband is dead... Here is what I need.

C'est un restaurant o on sert du It's a restaurant where they poisson. serve fish.

Dont can also be translated as including or of which. Sept morts, dont 6 civils, dans l'attentat. Seven dead, including six civilians, in the attack. After verbs of declaration or opinion (dire, affirmer, prtendre, jurer, dclarer, reconnatre, avouer, penser, croire), you do not need to use a relative pronoun or to repeat the subject. As long as the subject is the same in both clauses, you can replace que + subject + conjugated verb with the infinitive. Je pense que je peux le faire. = Je pense pouvoir le faire. I think that I can do it. Elle dit qu'elle le connais. = Elle dit le connatre. She says that she knows him. Vous avouez que vous avez menti. = Vous avouez avoir menti. You admit that you lied.

67. Demonstrative Pronouns Demonstrative pronouns translate to the one(s), or that/those when replacing a noun. There are four forms, but they are not often used alone. De, qui, que, dont and -ci or -l usually follow them. Masc. Fem. Singular celui Plural ceux celle celles

Donnez-moi mon billet et celui de Guillaume. Give me my ticket and William's. (or: the one of William)

Il porte ses propres livres et ceux de sa sur. He is carrying his own books and his sister's. (or: those of his sister) Quelles fleurs aimes-tu, celles-ci ou celles-l? Which flowers do you like, these (ones) or those (ones)? Ceux qui travaillent dur russissent. Those who work hard succeed. C'est celui dont je parle. That's the one I'm talking about. The indefinite demonstrative pronouns ceci (this), cela (that) and a (this/that) refer to indefinite things or ideas. J'aime a. I like that. Prenez ceci. Take this.

68. To Read, To Say / Tell, & To Laugh lire-to read dire-to say/tell rire-to laugh lis lisons lis lisez lit lisent dis dis dit disons dites disent ris ris rit rions riez rient

The past participles are: lu, dit and ri, and all three are conjugated with avoir.

69. Disjunctive Pronouns 1. As mentioned above, disjunctives are mostly used after prepositions and can only replace people, not things. However, if the preposition is , there are two possible rules: + person = indirect pronoun + person + = disjunctive pronoun, in these cases: se fier s'habituer penser rver to trust to get used to to think about to dream about

s'intresser to be interested in

2. They can also be used alone, to emphasize a subject, with tre (to belong to) or in compound subjects. Moi, j'ai faim. Me, I am hungry. Ses amis et lui, ils aiment manger. His friends and he, they like to eat. Ce livre est moi ! That book is mine! 3. They can be added to -mme to mean -self. elle-mme = herself 4. They are also used with ne...que. Ce n'est que lui. It's only him.

70. Y & En

Y and en are both pronouns that go before the verb. Y (ee) means it or there. En (awn) means some or some (of them), or of it. They replace prepositional phrases. In French, the phrases will begin with (or any contraction of it), en, sur, sous, chez, devant, derrire, dans, etc. for y; and de (or any contraction of it) or a number for en. They cannot replace people unless the person is introduced with an indefinite article, partitive, number or quantity. Sometimes y and en have no direct translation in English. Remember that they go before the verb, except in a command, in which they follow the verb and are connected with a hyphen. The -er verbs also add the -s they lost when forming the you (familiar) command.

Sample Sentences Do you want some apples? Voulez-vous des pommes? Do you want some? I have three sisters. I have three (of them). It is in the drawer It is there. I am going to Detroit. I am going there. I am going to go there. En voulez-vous? J'ai trois surs. J'en ai trois. Il est dans le tiroir. Il y est. Je vais Dtroit. J'y vais. Je vais y aller.

I am going to go to Atlanta. Je vais aller Atlanta.

Answer the telephone! Answer it! (formal) Stay there! (familiar)

Rpondez au tlphone ! Rpondez-y ! Restes-y !

Don't stay there! (familiar) N'y reste pas.

Y and en can also replace a phrase or clause, especially with verbs that require or de after them: I think a lot about these stories. I think about them a lot. He obeyed the rules. He obeyed them. We don't need this book. We don't need it. She's using the computer. She's using it. Je rflchis beaucoup ces histoires. J'y rflchis beaucoup. Il a obi aux rgles. Il y a obi. On n'a pas besoin de ce livre. On n'en a pas besoin. Elle se sert de l'ordinateur. Elle s'en sert.

Notice y and en don't go after the verb in negative commands. Treat them like pronouns. Ne or Je plus y or en all contract to N'y, J'y, N'en, and J'en. When you have a conjugated verb plus an infinitive (vais and aller), the y or en go in between the two verbs.

71. To See, To Believe, & To Write Verbs take a direct object if they do not need a preposition to connect it to the noun. Verbs that take indirect objects use prepositions after the verb. Voir-to see (vwahr) and croire-to believe (krwahr) take a direct and crire-to write (ay-kreer) takes an indirect. voir-to see vois

croire-to believe crois


crire-to write cris (aykree)

voyons (vwahyohn)

croyons (krwahyohn)

crivons (ay-kreevohn)

vois voit

voyez (vwahyay)

crois croit

croyez (krwahyay)

cris crit

crivez (ay-kreevay)

voient (vwah)

croient (krwah)

crivent (ay-kreev)

The past participles are: vu, cru, and crit. You can sometimes tell if a verb takes a direct or indirect object by using the verbs in English. We say "I see her" or "She believes him" or "He writes to them." In French, it would be "Je la vois" (direct), "Elle le croit" (direct) and "Il leur crit." (indirect) But don't always count on English to help you out. Tlphoner () and obir () both take indirect objects in French but you can't tell that in English. In this case, you can tell by the that follows the infinitive. Writing Vocabulary writing punctuation period comma l'criture (f) la ponctuation le point question mark exclamation point quotation marks parentheses "at" sign l'arobase le point d'interrogation (@) (f) le point l'astrisque asterisk d'exclamation (m) les guillemets brackets le crochet (m) la parenthse slash la barre l'apostrophe apostrophe uppercase majuscule (f) hyphen le trait d'union lowercase minuscule

la virgule les deux colon points (m) le pointsemi-colon virgule

When typing in French, you must leave an extra space before a punctuation mark that has two components, such as a colon, semi-colon, question mark, exclamation point, etc.

72. Animals ant antelope antenna bat beak bear bee bird blackbird bull la fourmi l'antilope l'antenne la chauvesouris le bec l'ours (m) l'abeille (f) l'oiseau (m) le merle le taureau giraffe goat goose gorilla grasshopper hamster hare hen herring hoof la girafe la chvre l'oie (f) le gorille la sauterelle le hamster le livre la poule la hareng le sabot pig pigeon pike pony puppy rabbit raccoon rat rooster le cochon le pigeon le brochet le poney le chiot le lapin le raton laveur le rat le coq

salmon le saumon

butterfly calf cat caterpillar cheetah chicken

le papillon le veau le chat la chenille le gupard le poulet

horn horse

la corne le cheval


l'caille (f)

hummingbird le colibri iguana l'iguane insect jellyfish kitten ladybug lamb lark lion lizard lobster (spiny) louse mackerel mole monkey mosquito moth mouse mule mussel nest nightingale octopus ostrich owl ox oyster parrot partridge penguin assis l'insecte (m) la mduse le chaton la coccinelle l'agneau (m) l'alouette (f) le lion le lzard la langouste le pou le maquereau la taupe le singe le moustique le papillon de nuit la souris le mulet la moule le nid le rossignol la pieuvre l'autruche le hibou le buf l'hutre (f) le perroquet la perdrix le pingouin to bark

scorpion le scorpion sea gull la mouette seal shark sheep shrimp slug snail snake spider squid le phoque le requin le mouton la crevette la limace l'escargot (m) le serpent l'araigne (f) le calamar

chimpanzee le chimpanz claw la griffe cockroach cod cocoon cow crab crayfish crocodile crow deer dog donkey dragonfly duck eagle eel elephant feather fin fish flea fly fox frog gill sit la cafard la morue le cocon la vache le crabe l'crevisse (f) le crocodile le corbeau le cerf le chien l'ne (m) la libellule le canard l'aigle (m) l'anguille (f) l'lphant (m) la plume la nageoire le poisson la puce la mouche le renard la grenouille la branchie

sparrow le moineau

squirrel l'cureuil (m) starfish l'toile de mer swallow swan l'hirondelle (f) le cygne

tadpole le ttard tail tiger toad trout tuna turkey turtle wasp weasel whale wing wolf worm zebra aboyer la queue le tigre le crapaud la truite le thon le dindon la tortue la gupe la belette la baleine l'aile (f) le loup le ver le zbre

lie down shake dog/cat food leash collar


to growl


donne la patte to pant haleter les croquettes to whine/whimper gmir to drool la laisse baver le collier to meow to scratch to pounce on miauler griffer se jeter sur

to take/let dog out sortir le chien to climb on grimper sur

73. Plaire & Manquer plaire-to please, enjoy manquer-to miss, be lacking plais plais plat plaisons plaisez plaisent manque manques manque manquons manquez manquent

The past participle of plaire is plu. To say that someone likes something, you have to switch the subject and object around, so that literally it translates to "something or someone pleases." As a reflexive verb, se plaire means to enjoy being somewhere. Faire plaisir can also be used to mean "to delight or to like." Cette chienne plat Dominique. Dominique likes this dog. (Literally: This dog is pleasing to Dominique.) a t'a plu? Did you like it? Ils se plaisent Londres. They enjoy being in London. Cela me fait plaisir de vous revoir. I am happy to see you again. Manquer has several meanings: to miss, to lack, or to regret the absence (miss). The last meaning uses inverted word order just like plaire. Manquer means "to fail to do." Elle a manqu le train. She missed the train. Vous manquez de courage. You lack courage. Tu me manques. I miss you. (Literally: You are missing to me) Ils ont manqu aux devoirs. They failed to do the homework.

74. Pluperfect (Past Perfect) This compound tense is used for flashbacks or anything that had happened before the time of the narration. It's formed with the imperfect tense of avoir or tre and the past participle of the main verb. This tense is comparable to the pass compos.

Imperfect of avoir or tre avais avions avais aviez avait avaient tais tions tais tiez tait taient + past participle

Je n'avais pas fini mon travail quand il est arriv. I had not finished my work when he arrived. Vous aviez faim parce que vous n'aviez pas du tout mang. You were hungry because you hadn't eaten at all. Nous avions manqu le rendez-vous parce que le bus tait en retard. We had missed the meeting because the bus was late.

75. Indefinite Pronouns Indefinite pronouns refer to no one or nothing in particular, such as someone or something. someone/body quelqu'un something some somewhere several some...others another quelque chose (de + adjective) quelques-uns / quelques-unes quelque part plusieurs certains...d'autres un(e) autre each not one, none anything anyone anywhere any time nowhere chacun(e) aucun(e) n'importe quoi n'importe qui n'importe o n'importe quand nulle part

Do not confuse chacun with chaque (each, every). Chacun is a pronoun and replaces a noun, while chaque is an adjective that describes a noun.

76. Subjunctive Mood If a sentence expresses a subjective statement of opinion, the subjunctive mood is used rather than the indicative. The subjunctive is used in dependent clauses introduced by the word que. The main clause must express personal opinions or feelings and have a

different subject from the dependent clause. If the two subjects are the same, the infinitive is used. Je doute que Marc soit l. I doubt that Marc is here. (shows judgment and opinion) Je veux venir. NOT: Je veux que je vienne. (use infinitive, same subject) To form the subjunctive, use the ils/elles form of the present indicative tense. This is also the form for the ils/elles form of the subjunctive. For je, tu, il/elle, drop the -ent and add e, -es, and -e. Nous and vous use the imperfect forms.

-e -ions -es -iez -e -ent

Conjugations in the Subjunctive avoir aie aies ait ayons ayez aient vouloir veuilles vouliez sois sois soit tre soyons soyez soient pouvoir fasse fasse faire fassions aille fassent savoir aille fasses fassiez aller allions aillent ailles alliez


veuille voulions puisse puissions sache sachions puisses puissiez saches sachiez veuille veuillent puisse puissent sache sachent pleuve

These verbs and conjunctions are followed by the subjunctive: Verbal Expressions il faut que il vaut mieux que il est important que il se peut que

Verbs douter suggrer vouloir proposer

Conjunctions avant que pour / afin que jusqu' ce que moins que

avoir peur regretter craindre tre content(e)/triste/dsol(e)/surpris(e), etc. penser/croire/trouver

(negative and interrogative forms only)

il est possible que il est temps que c'est dommage que

bien que / quoique sans que en attendant que

Je veux que tu viennes avec moi. I want you to come with me. Il est content que nous soyons l. He's happy that we are here. Est-ce que vous pensez qu'elle puisse le faire ? Do you think that she can do it? Il faut que je fasse la vaisselle. I have to do the dishes. Elle sera l jusqu' ce que vous partiez. She will be there until you leave. However, douter, jusqu' ce que, moins que, and bien que / quoique use the subjunctive whether there is a change in subject or not. And when using avant before an infinitive, the construction is avant de + infinitive. Note, also, that the subjunctive is not used with esprer or il est probable, although the subjunctive may be used with these words in other Romance languages. The word ne is used after certain conjunctions (most notably avant que and moins que) that take the subjunctive, but this does not make the phrase negative: Finissez le travail avant que la classe ne se termine. Finish the work before class ends.

77. Falloir & Valoir Falloir (to be necessary) and valoir (to be worth) are two very common impersonal verbs used in several phrases and situations. Their conjugations are: imperfect present perfect present future il fallait il a fallu il faut il faudra il valait il a valu il vaut il vaudra il vaudrait

conditional il faudrait

Falloir can be translated as must, have to, be required to, etc. It can be followed directly by an infinitive, or a subject and the subjunctive mood. Il faut rester la maison aujourd'hui. You must stay at home today. Il faut pas le faire ! You must not do it! Il faut qu'il parte 8h. He must leave at 8. In addition to worth, valoir mieux is used in translating "it's better." a ne vaut pas la peine. It's not worth it. Il vaut mieux en rire quen pleurer. It's better to laugh about it than cry.

78. Adverbs bien mieux mal peu dj bientt ici l dedans dehors souvent well better badly little quelquefois sometimes always toujours vite donc quickly therefore

already encore yet soon quelque part somewhere here there maintenant now tt early late maybe (n)ever nowhere

inside tard outside peut-tre often jamais

d'habitude usually nulle part

To form an adverb, simply take the feminine form of an adjective and add -ment to the end. If the masculine form ends in -e, you just add the -ment to that. Adjectives ending in -ent or -ant take the endings -emment and -amment. Masculine Feminine Adverb naturel naturelle naturellement heureux lent facile probable heureuse lente facile probable heureusement lentement facilement probablement

intelligent intelligente intelligemment brillant brillante brillamment




Some adverbs such as actuellement (currently, now) and ventuellement (possibly, perhaps) can be deceiving. A Few Irregular Adverbs vrai vraiment gentil bref prcis gentiment brivement prcisment profond profondment

Adverbs are placed right after the verb in a simple tense. Adverbs of opinion and time usually go at the beginning or end of the sentence. When peut-tre and sans doute begin a sentence or clause, they are usually followed by que. With the pass compos, most adverbs are placed between the auxiliary verb and past participle. In negative sentences, pas precedes the adverb, except with peut-tre, sans doute, srement, and probablement. Adverbs of time and place generally follow the past participle.

79. Tools & Hobbies tools toolbox hammer screwdriver nail screw wrench bolt nut pliers saw blade handle anvil clamp / vise les outils chisel le ciseau

la bote outils measuring tape le mtre chainsaw le marteau la trononneuse file le tournevis la lime le clou la vis la cl le boulon l'crou (m) les pinces (f) la scie la lame le manche l'enclume (f) l'tau (m) do-it-yourself handicrafts embroidery needlework needle thread painting gardening knitting photography le bricolage l'artisanat la broderie le point de croix la couture l'aiguille (f) le fil peindre le jardinage le tricot la photographie

adjustable wrench la cl molette cross-stitch

jewelry making faire des bijoux

shovel pick axe drill drill bit

la pelle la pioche la perceuse la mche

woodworking pottery drawing cooking

la menuiserie la poterie le dessin la cuisine

Other expressions related to hobbies/leisure time: bavarder - to chat bronzer - to tan faire la grasse matine - to sleep in late faire la sieste - to take a nap faire une pause - to take a break faire une promenade - to take a walk faire un tour - to go out for a while prendre un bain de soleil - to sunbathe prendre un verre - to go out for a drink se dtendre - to relax se reposer - to rest

80. False Cognates Les faux-amis or false cognates are a common pitfall among language students. The following are some common words that you may be deceived by: Abus is used to mean excess or overindulgence, and usually not abuse. Disposer means to arrange or to have available, not to dispose of. Une injure is an insult, not an injury. Actuel and actuellement mean current and currently. Avertissement is a warning, not an advertisement. Une recette is a recipe, not a receipt. Fournitures refers to supplies, not furniture. Original means new or innovative. Humeur means mood, not humor. Formel is used to mean strict, not formal.

Djeuner du matin Jacques Prvert Il a mis le caf Dans la tasse Il a mis le lait

Breakfast Jacques Prvert He put the coffee In the cup He put the milk

Dans la tasse de caf Il a mis le sucre Dans le caf au lait Avec la petite cuiller Il a tourn Il a bu le caf au lait Et il a repos la tasse Sans me parler Il a allum Une cigarette Il a fait des ronds Avec la fume Il a mis les cendres Dans le cendrier Sans me parler Sans me regarder Il s'est lev Il a mis Son chapeau sur sa tte Il a mis Son manteau de pluie Parce qu'il pleuvait Et il est parti Sous la pluie Sans une parole Et moi j'ai pris Ma tte dans ma main Et j'ai pleur.

In the cup of coffee He put the sugar In the caf au lait With the coffee spoon He stirred He drank the caf au lait And he set down the cup Without a word to me He lit A cigarette He made smoke-rings With the smoke He put the ashes In the ashtray Without a word to me Without a look at me He got up He put His hat upon his head He put his raincoat on Because it was raining And he left In the rain Without a word And I, I took My head in my hand And I cried.

Translated by Lawrence Ferlinghetti, from Paroles by Prvert

Le Corbeau et le Renard Jean de la Fontaine Matre corbeau, sur un arbre perch, Tenait en son bec un fromage, Matre renard, par l'odeur allch, Lui tint peu prs ce langage: <<Eh bonjour, Monsieur du Corbeau. Que vous tes joli ! que vous me semblez beau ! Sans mentir, si votre ramage Se rapporte votre plumage, Vous tes le phnix des htes de ces bois.>> A ces mots, le corbeau ne se sent pas de joie; Et pour montrer sa belle voix, Il ouvre un large bec, laisse tomber sa proie. Le renard s'en saisit, et dit: <<Mon bon monsieur, Apprenez que tout flatteur Vit aux dpens de celui qui l'coute. Cette leon vaut bien un fromage sans doute.>> Le corbeau, honteux et confus, Jura, mais un peu tard, qu'on ne l'y prendrait plus.

The Crow and the Fox Jean de la Fontaine Master Crow perched on a tree, Was holding a cheese in his beak. Master Fox attracted by the smell Said something like this: "Well, Hello Mister Crow! How beautiful you are! how nice you seem to me! Really, if your voice Is like your plumage, You are the phoenix of all the inhabitants of these woods." At these words, the Crow is overjoyed. And in order to show off his beautiful voice, He opens his beak wide, lets his prey fall The Fox grabs it, and says: "My good man, Learn that every flatterer Lives at the expense of the one who listens to him. This lesson, without doubt, is well worth a cheese." The Crow, ashamed and embarrassed, Swore, but a little late, that he would not be taken again.

81. Colloquial Expressions Il faut + infinitive (it is necessary, one must) Il faut tourner gauche. It is necessary to turn left. Il faut faire les devoirs. One must do homework. Il lui faut aller l'cole. He must go to school. Il faut + noun (need) Il faut du fromage. You need some cheese. Il faut un jeton. You need a token. Il me faut un stylo. I need a pen. Il reste (there remains) Il reste une chambre. There is one room left. Il n'en reste plus. There are no more left. Il me reste trois jours. I have three days left. Notice that il faut and il reste can both take an object pronoun to indicate a person. Il vaut mieux + infinitive (it is better) Il vaut mieux prendre le bus. It is better to take the bus. Il vaut mieux apprendre les langues que la politique. It's better to learn languages than politics. Il s'agit de (it's a question of, it's a matter of, it's about) De quoi s'agit-il ? What's is about? Il ne s'agit pas de a ! That's not the point! Il s'agit de ton avenir. It's a matter of your future. Avoir beau (although, despite the fact, however much) J'ai beau tudier cette langue, je ne la parle pas. Although I study this language, I don't speak it. Il a beau faire froid, nous sortirons. Although is it cold, we will go out. Avoir l'air + adjective (to seem/look) a a l'air dlicieux. That looks delicious. Vous avez l'air fatigu. You seem tired. a n'a pas l'air d'aller. Things don't look so good. a vous dit ? / a vous dirait de... ? (Would you like to? / How would you feel about...? / Does that interest you? / Does that ring a bell?) a vous dirait de regarder un film ce soir ? Are you interested in watching a movie tonight? / Would you like to watch a movie tonight? Non, a me dit rien. No, that doesn't interest me. / No, I don't want to. a te dit quelque chose ? Does that ring a bell? / Does that remind you of anything?

Non, a me dit rien. No, that doesn't ring a bell. / That doesn't remind me of anything. a ne me dit pas grande chose. That does nothing for me. a parle de quoi / qui ? (What / Who is it about?) a parle de quoi, le livre que tu cris ? What's the book about that you're writing? a y est ! ( There! That's it ! It's done!) a a t (How did it go? / It went well.) Ton examen, a a t ? How did your exam go? Oui, a a t. It went well. On dirait... [a ressemble ] (It seems / it looks like / it tastes like / it smells like / it feels like / it sounds like) On dirait un chat. It looks like a cat. pas terrible (terrible actually means terrific in this phrase) C'est pas terrible, ce film. This movie is not very good. pas mal de (a lot of, lots of, tons of - synonym of beaucoup) J'ai pas mal de trucs faire aujourd'hui. I have lots of things to do today.

82. Conjunctions & Connecting Words auparavant before d'abord ensuite / puis plus tard aprs alors ainsi donc first then later after so thus therefore de mme en/de plus d'ailleurs plutt surtout quand mme au fait en fait similarly moreover / furthermore besides rather especially anyway by the way actually par exemple for example

pour / afin de in order to par contre / en on the contrary revanche on the other d'autre part hand at least au moins malgr / en in spite of dpit de except sauf however / cependant / yet pourtant even if consequently as though

finalement / finally enfin quand / when lorsque aussitt / ds as soon as

c'est--dire that is to say mme si en d'autres par in other words termes consquent c'est pour that's why comme si

que tant que depuis bien que alors / tandis que

as long as since although while / whereas

a que parce que car puisque / comme cause de

because nanmoins for / because soit... soit since because of en conclusion en bref

nevertheless either... or in conclusion in brief / in short

The word soit has several meanings. It is also the third person singular form of tre in the present subjunctive. Je veux qu'il soit l. I want him to be here. It can also be used to mean i.e. or that is when introducing a clause. Le contenu du CD est bilingue, soit franais et anglais. The contents of the CD are bilingual, i.e. French and English.

83. Forms of Tout As an adjective, tout precedes and agrees with the noun. masc. sing. tout le train fem. sing. masc. pl. fem. pl. the whole train

toute la journe the whole day tous les enfants all the kids

toutes les mres all the moms

As a pronoun, tout can be used alone; it then means everything and is invariable. Tout va bien. Everything's fine. Je ne peux pas tout faire. I can't do everything. It can also reinforce the subject. (The s of tous is pronounced when tous is a pronoun.) Ils sont tous l. They are all here. Tout can also be used with direct object pronouns. The forms of tout follow the verb in a simple tense and go between the auxiliary and past participle in a compound tense. Je les ai toutes. I have them all. Je ne les ai pas tous eu. I didn't have them all.

Idiomatic Expressions with Tout en tout cas tout le monde tout de suite de toute faon tout fait in any case everyone right away anyway completely

toutes sortes de all kinds of pas du tout malgr tout tout l'heure not at all in spite of it all in a little while

84. Babies & Children baby fetus diaper le bb le ftus la couche carousel toys ball le mange les jouets (m) le ballon les billes (f) la poupe

safety pin l'pingle nourrice (f) marbles rattle pacifier bottle carriage stroller le hochet la ttine le biberon le landau la poussette doll

stuffed animals les peluches (f) teddybear blocks top puppet kite balloon rollerblades rollerskates wagon le nounours les cubes (m) la toupie la marionnette le cerf-volant le ballon les rollers (m) le patin roulettes le petit chariot le labyrinthe

high chair la chaise haute bib crib cradle kids slide seesaw le bavoir le lit de bb le berceau les gosses (m) le toboggan

la balanoire bascule maze


la balanoire


la marelle

A doudou refers to anything that babies like to hold to feel safe, such as a security blanket or a favorite stuffed animal.

85. Primary & Secondary School school teacher (m) teacher (f) elem. teacher (m) elem. teacher (f) secondary teacher chalkboard chalk desk student university student book backpack schoolbag locker globe diploma school supplies pencil case l'cole (f) l'enseignant l'enseignante l'instituteur l'institutrice le professeur le tableau la craie le pupitre l'lve l'tudiant(e) le livre le sac dos le cartable le casier le globe terrestre le diplme les fournitures scolaires la trousse pencil mechanical pencil pen eraser ink ink jar pencil sharpener glue scissors ruler highlighter crayons marker piece of paper spiral notebook folder notebook binder notepad le crayon le porte-mine le stylo la gomme l'encre (f) l'encrier (f) le taille-crayons la colle les ciseaux (m) la rgle le surligneur les crayons de couleur (m) le marqueur la feuille le carnet de notes spirale la chemise le cahier le classeur le bloc-notes

Students of all ages use a trousse in France. They're not just for elementary students!

86. Passive Voice As in English, the passive voice in French is composed of a tense of the verb to be and a past participle. However, only a direct object in French can become the subject of the passive form. The active form, le chat mange la souris is made passive thus: La souris est mange par le chat. The cat eats the mouse becomes the mouse is eaten by the cat. The subject in the active sentence (le chat) becomes the object of the passive. The direct object of the active sentence (la souris) becomes the subject of the passive sentence preceded by "par." The verb of the active sentence is changed into a past participle (mange becomes mange, notice the agreement!) preceded by a form of tre. Elle est porte par Jean. She is carried by John. Elles ont t inspires par Van Gogh. They were inspired by Van Gogh. Il avait t tu par les soldats franais. He had been killed by French soldiers. Notice how pronominal verbs change from active to passive: Active: Je me suis rveille. I woke up. Passive: J'ai t rveille par quelque chose. I was awakened by something. Passive is Not Possible If a verb takes an indirect object, it cannot be transformed into the passive voice in French. In this case, on is used in the active construction, as long as the agent is not specified and the action is performed by a human being (i.e. no natural forces, such as weather). On a donn un cadeau ma mre. My mother was given a present. [Someone gave a present to my mother.] On lui a dit de retrouver le conservateur au muse. He was told to meet the curator at the museum. [Someone told him to meet the curator at the museum.] Alternatives to the Passive In addition to using on as the subject of an active construction to replace the passive, you can also use the pronominal constructions: se voir [to see oneself], s'entendre [to hear oneself], se faire [to get oneself] and se laisser [to let oneself] + infinitive. These verbs can be used when the agent is specified, unlike the active construction with on. Je me suis vu promettre une augmentation. I have been promised a raise. Elle s'est entendu dire qu'il allait mourir. She was told that he was going to die. Jean s'est fait arrter. John got arrested. Ils se sont laiss tomber malade. They let themselves get sick.

You can also use a pronominal verb to translate the passive, as long as the agent is not specified. However, this does not work for all verbs. a s'crit comment? How is that written? a ne se dit plus. That is not said anymore. Use tre + infinitive to translate must + English passive: Ce monument est voir ! This monument must be seen! Ce rapport est refaire. This report must be redone.

87. Depuis, il y a, & pendant in past contexts 1. To express an action that has been going on, depuis (or il y a ... que) is used with the present tense. Je l'ai depuis deux ans. a fait deux ans que je l'ai. Il y a deux ans que je l'ai. I've had it for two years. I have been driving for a long time.

Depuis quand avez-vous votre ordinateur ? Depuis combien de temps avez-vous votre ordinateur ? How long have you had your computer ? Je conduis depuis longtemps.

2. But to express an action that had been going on for some time when something else happened, depuis is used with the imperfect. We had been driving for two hours Nous conduisions depuis deux heures, quand j'ai propos de prendre le volant. when I volunteered to drive. 3. To express an action that you have not done for some time, use depuis with the pass compos. Je n'ai pas conduit depuis mon mariage. I haven't driven since I've been married. 4. To express an action that was done for a period of time, pendant is used, usually with the pass compos. But for an action that was completed some time ago, use il y a, also with the pass compos. J'ai lou une voiture pendant deux semaines. I rented a car for two weeks.

J'ai appris conduire il y a deux ans.

I learned to drive two years ago.

88. Post Office & Bank post office letter postcard stamp phone booth mailbox mail slot address la poste la lettre la carte postale le timbre bank teller bill check la banque le caissier / la caissire le billet le chque le chquier le guichet automatique la cl la serrure le classeur

la cabine tlphonique checkbook ATM la bote lettres la fente l'adresse key lock filing cabinet

return address l'expditeur label l'tiquette packing tape le ruban adhsif package postmark rubber band ink pad string le paquet le cachet de la poste l'lastique le tampon encre la ficelle

safety deposit box le coffre notepad le bloc-notes credit card security camera security guard safe la carte de crdit la camra de surveillance le gardien le coffre-fort

drive-thru window le drive-in

89. To Receive Recevoir-to receive reois reois reoit recevons recevez reoivent

The past participle of recevoir is reu.

90. Verbs + a or de + infinitives or nouns Some verbs require or de before an infinitive:

Verb + + infinitive to help aider s'amuser to have fun apprendre to learn arriver chercher to manage to look for

commencer to begin consister continuer donner to consist to continue to give

Verb + de + infinitive accepter de to accept conseiller de to stop arrter de convenir de avoir envie to feel like craindre de de avoir honte to be dsesprer de ashamed de avoir peur to be afraid dissuader de de avoir raison entreprendre to be right de de to be avoir tort de envisager de wrong to choose s'tonner de choisir de dcider de to decide se garder de

to advise to agree upon to fear to despair to dissuade to undertake to contemplate to astonish to keep oneself to neglect to persuade to beg to recommend to reproach

encourager to encourage enseigner s'exercer to teach to practice/learn

s'habituer to get used to hsiter insister inviter renoncer russir songer to hesitate to insist to invite to give up to succeed to consider

s'appliquer to apply to to become s'attacher attached se dcider to decide s'employer to use to incite inciter s'obstiner parvenir to insist to succeed

dfendre de to forbid ngliger de demander to ask persuader de de se dpcher to hurry up prier de de recommander to say dire de de empcher de to prevent reprocher de essayer de to try tre heureux to be happy de tre oblig to be required de to avoid viter de to s'excuser de apologize to finish finir de interdire de to forbid menacer de to threaten to forget oublier de permettre de to permit promettre to promise de to refuse refuser de

persister pousser provoquer se risquer veiller viser

to persist in to push to provoke to risk to look after to aim

regretter de remercier de rver de risquer de venir de cesser de

to regret to thank to dream to risk to have just to stop

Venir de + infinitive means "to have just" + past participle in English. Je viens de manger. I just ate. Some verbs require or de before nouns: Verb + + noun to suit to attend to ask (someone) to tell (someone) to suit to play (sport/game) to harm to obey to think of to please to give up to answer to resist to resemble to consider to survive to phone Verb + de + noun to notice to approach to need to change to depend on to doubt to inherit to play (instrument) to enjoy to lack to distrust to think/have an opinion about to thank for to laugh at to use to remember to live on

aller assister demander dire convenir jouer nuire obir penser plaire renoncer rpondre resister ressembler songer survivre tlphoner

s'apercevoir de s'approcher de avoir besoin de changer de dpendre de douter de hriter de jouer de jouir de manquer de se mfier de penser de remercier de rire de se servir de se souvenir de vivre de

And some verbs require no prepositions in French, while others use different prepositions from English: No prepositions in French Different prepositions from English

approuver attendre chercher

to approve entrer dans of to wait for consister en to look for se fcher contre

to enter to consist of to get angry with

demander to ask for to listen to couter esprer payer rappeler regarder sentir viser to hope for to pay for to remind of to look at to smell of/like to aim at

Tu me rappelle mon pre. You remind me of my father. a sent la pluie. It smells like rain.

91. Adjectives + a or de + infinitives Adjective + + infinitive accessible accessible agrable amusant antrieur attach conforme contraire dernier ennuyeux tranger expos favorable infrieur intressant pleasant fun previous/earlier attached standard contrary last boring foreign exposed favorable inferior/lower interesting Adjective + de + infinitive accused accus de assur de capable de certain de charg de connu de conscient de content de dnud de dsireux de dsol de diffrent de digne de exempt de assure/insured capable certain charged/loaded known conscious content/satisfied naked/bare desirous sorry different fit/worthy exempt

lger lent lourd oppos pnible premier prt rapide semblable seul suprieur terrible utile

light slow heavy opposite difficult first ready fast similar only superior/higher terrible useful

furieux de heureux de honteux de impatient de plein de priv de proche de rempli de soucieux de sr de triste de vide de

furious happy ashamed impatient full private close/near full worried sure sad empty

92. To Follow Suivre-to follow suis suis suit suivons suivez suivent

The past participle of suivre is suivi. Suivre can also be used with school subjects to mean "to take a course."

Suivez le guide ! Follow the guide! Suivez les instructions. Follow the instructions. Je suis un cours de maths. I'm taking a math class.

93. Faire Causative Faire + an infinitive is called the faire causative. It translates to "have something done by someone or cause something to be done by someone," or "to cause someone to do something."

Je rpare la voiture. I'm fixing the car. Je fais rparer la voiture. I'm having the car fixed. Il peint son appartement. He's painting his apartment. Il fait peindre son appartement. He's having his apartment painted. Le bb mange. The baby is eating. Elle fait manger le bb. She's feeding the baby. When replacing the object with a pronoun, the pronoun precedes faire. And in past tenses, the past participle remains invariable. Je la fais rparer. I'm having it fixed. Il leur a fait apprendre les verbes. He had them learn the verbs. Il les leur a fait apprendre. He had them learn them. Se faire + infinitive is usually translated as "to get" + (oneself) + verb. Tu vas te faire tuer. You're going to get yourself killed. Il va se faire casser la gueule. He's going to break his neck. Se faire soigner sans se faire arrter. Get treated/looked after without getting arrested. vitez de vous faire piquer. Avoid getting stung.

94. Direct & Indirect Discourse Direct discourse relates exactly what someone has said or written, using quotation marks and the original wording. Indirect discourse relates indirectly, without quotation marks, what someone has said or written. It works the same way in French as it does in English. Direct Discourse Main verb is present Il me dit: <<Je pars en vacances et ma famille a lou une villa.>> Il m'a dit: <<Je pars en vacances et ma famille a lou une villa.>> Indirect Discourse Il me dit qu'il part en vacances et que sa famille a lou une villa. Il m'a dit qu'il partait en vacances et que sa famille avait lou une villa.

Main verb in past

Note that if the main verb is in the present tense, no tense changes occur when using indirect discourse. However, if the main verb is in a past tense, the following tense changes occur: Present Imperfect Pass Compos Pluperfect

The Imperfect and Pluperfect do not change. Remember to use que to introduce each dependent clause, and adjust personal pronouns and possessive adjectives. In questions, the following (rather uncomplicated) changes occur: 1. Yes/no questions = si + declarative sentence Je t'ai demand si tu avais faim. 2. O, quand, comment, etc. = interrogative word + declarative sentence Il m'a demand quelle heure j'allais revenir. 3. Interrogative pronouns are a little trickier: qui est-ce qui qui est-ce que qu'est-ce qui qu'est-ce que Il m'a demand qui tait rest. Elle m'a demand qui j'avais vu.


ce qui Ils m'ont demand ce qui s'tait pass. ce que Elles m'ont demand ce que j'avais dit.

95. Computers & Internet computer disk document CD-ROM monitor keyboard mouse printer memo fax machine photocopier typewriter software file cabinet memory card flashdrive l'ordinateur la disquette le document le cdrom l'cran le clavier la souris l'imprimante la note de service le tlcopieur la photocopieuse la machine crire le logiciel le dossier le placard la carte mmoire la cl USB scanner laptop internet internet user online link bookmark e-mail password search engine chat room bulletin board homepage website web browswer cable DSL le scanner le portable l'internet l'internaute en-ligne le lien le signet le courriel / le mail le mot de passe le moteur de recherche la salle de tchatche le forum la page d'accueil le site le navigateur le cble l'ADSL

external HD attachment to attach

le disque dur externe la pice jointe joindre

to sign on / off to scroll up / down to download

se connecter / dconnecter drouler le texte tlcharger

French uses portable to refer to a laptop computer and a cell phone.

96. Ne Expletif Sometimes ne must be inserted in a phrase even when it is not expressing the negative. (However, do not confuse the use of ne expltif with the verbs that can exist in the negative with only using ne and not pas in formal, written language: cesser, daigner, oser, pouvoir, savoir). It is used 1) after certain conunctions: avant que, moins que; 2) after expressions and verbs of fear: de crainte que, de peur que, craindre que, avoir peur que, redouter que, trembler que, empcher que, viter que; 3) before a verb that follows a comparison of inequality: plus, moins, autre; and 4) after adverbs of doubt and negation used in the negative to express a positive idea. Je sors ce soir moins qu'il ne pleuve. I'll go out this evening unless it rains. Il craint que tu ne sois fatigu aprs le voyage. He's afraid that you'll be tired after the trip. Nous sommes plus forts qu'elle ne pense. We are stronger than she thinks. Je ne doute pas que vous ne fassiez des progrs. I don't doubt that you are making progress.

97. Conditional Tenses: Present & Past The present conditional tense corresponds to "would." It is used after the imperfect in a conditional sentence. Most conditionals sentences begin with si (if). However, do not confuse the conditional would with the would that expresses a repeated action in the past. If would means used to, then the imperfect tense is used. Another use of the conditional is in news reports to indicate that the information is not confirmed. Si j'tais (imperfect) dans une autre famille, est-ce que je serais (conditional) plus heureuse ? If I were in another family, would I be happier? Quand nous tions (imperfect) en vacances, nous dormions (imperfect) jusqu' midi. When we were on vacation, we would (used to) sleep until noon. Un otage tranger serait mort en route pour l'hpital. A foreign hostage (probably) died on the way to the hospital.

To form the conditional, use the infinitive and add the imperfect endings (but remember to drop the -e on -re verbs). You use the same irregular stems and exceptions for the conditional that are used for the future tense. -ais -ions -ais -iez -ait -aient

The past conditional is formed by using the conditional of avoir or tre and a past participle. It corresponds to "would have" and is used in hypothetical sentences. Il n'aurait jamais dit a ! He would have never said that! If... sentences: When si (if) is used in sentences of condition, the verb tenses change. These pretty much correspond to English usage. 1. Si + present tense + present, imperative, or future Si je suis fatigue, je me repose. If I'm tired, I rest. Repose-toi si tu es fatigu. Rest if you're tired. Si je suis fatigu demain, je me reposerai. If I am tired tomorrow, I will rest. 2. Si + imperfect + present conditional Si j'tais riche, je pourrais acheter un chteau. If I were rich, I would buy a castle. Il deviendrait roi s'il avait plus de courage. He would become king if he had more courage. 3. Si + pluperfect + past conditional Si j'avais su, j'aurais compris. If I had known, I would have understood. It is possible to have past conditional with the imperfect, and it is also possible to have present conditional with pluperfect. However, you can never have the future or conditional tenses directly following si. They must be in the other clause. Translating Would, Could, Should In general, you use the conditional tense of a verb to express would + infinitive, such as je dirais - I would say. Again, make sure to use the imperfect of the verb if you're referring to repeated actions in the past (i.e. used to). You can also use the conditional of pouvoir to mean could, as long as the meaning is something that is yet to happen. Il pourrait m'aider. He could help me. Otherwise, you use the imperfect or pass compos to mean could if you're referring to the past of can (i.e. was/were not able to). Elle ne pouvait pas s'arrter de rire. She couldn't stop laughing. Should is usually translated by

using the conditional of devoir. Tu ne devrais pas dire a. You shouldn't say that. For would have, could have and should have, you use the past conditional of the verb, past conditional of pouvoir + infinitive, and past conditional of devoir + infinitive, respectively. Just remember that would and would have are not followed by infinitives in French.

would could should would have could have should have

conditional of verb conditional of pouvoir + infinitive conditional of devoir + infinitive past conditional of verb past conditional of pouvoir + infinitive past conditional of devoir + infinitive

il dirait il pourrait dire il devrait dire il aurait dit il aurait pu dire il aurait d dire

he would say he could say he should say he would have said he could have said he should have said

"You shouldn't have" or "that wasn't necessary" when someone gives you a gift is il ne fallait pas.

98. Parts of a Car & At the Gas Station horn hood brake steering wheel windshield wipers dashboard accelerator headlights windshield motor trunk body (of car) le klaxon le capot le frein le volant les essuie-glaces le tableau de bord l'acclrateur les phares le pare-brise le moteur le coffre la carrosserie directional signal le clignotant license plate brake light (on car) car window door gas tank wheel tire bumper fender door handle la plaque d'immatriculation le stop la voiture la vitre la portire le rservoir la roue le pneu le pare-chocs l'aile la poigne de portire

driver's license gasoline traffic lights oil hubcap air hose

le permis de conduire l'essence les feux l'huile l'enjoliveur la pompe air

air conditioning heater battery gas cap gas pump

la climatisation le chauffage la batterie le bouchon de rservoir d'essence la pompe essence

The most common types of cars in France are Peugeot, Clio, Renault, and Fiat, and the majority are manual drive. Automatic cars in Europe are generally reserved for handicapped people. The driving age in France is 18, and young drivers who have just gotten their licenses have a red A sticker on their car.

99. To Drive Conduire-to drive conduis conduisons conduis conduisez conduit conduisent

The past participle of conduire is conduit. Other verbs conjugated like conduire are: traduire - to translate, produire - to produce, and construire - to construct.

100. Travelling & At the Airport suitcase clothes passport diary traveler's checks la valise les vtements le passeport le journal les chques de voyage

dictionary flight baggage Euro bill coin change cent arrival departure Where is/are...

le dictionnaire le vol les bagages l'euro le billet la pice la monnaie le centime l'arrive le dpart O est / O sont...

currency exchange le bureau de change passport check le contrle des passeports customs entrance lost and found information exit taxi stand restroom la douane l'entre les objets trouvs les renseignements la sortie les taxis les toilettes

When asking Where is/are..., O est is the singular form and O sont is the plural form, even if it's singular in English. Where is the entrance? would be O est l'entre ? and Where is the lost and found? would be O sont les objets trouvs ? Directional Words right there here over there juste l ici l-bas zhoost lah ee-see lah bah across from between next to en face de entre ct de prs de loin de awn fawz duh awn-truh ah koh-tay duh preh duh lwahn duh

to the right of droite de to the left of

ah dwaht duh near

gauche de ah gohsh duh far (from) too dwah duh-vawn dare-ee-air

straight ahead tout droit in front of behind devant derrire

at the end of au fond de oh fohn duh at the top of en haut de awn oh duh

101. Camping camping shelter tent spike le camping l'abri (m) la tente la sardine axe stump canteen la hache la souche le bidon

hammock le hamac backpack le sac dos path bench rock stone pebble canoe oar le chemin / le sentier le banc le rocher la pierre le caillou le cano la pagaie

sleeping bag le sac de couchage flashlight lantern torch compass map binoculars campfire la lampe torche la lanterne le flambeau la boussole la carte les jumelles (f) le feu de camp

102. Special Uses of Devoir Devoir is one of the trickiest verbs to translate and use in French. The following is a list of the different meanings of devoir used in various tenses. Present Tense must, have to probably Je dois tudier. Il doit tre malade. Il a d partir. I must (have to) study. He's probably sick. He had to leave.

had to (and Pass Compos did), must have was supposed to, used to have to will have to should


Elle devait chanter ce soir.

She was supposed to sing tonight. You will have to pay money.

Future Conditional

Tu devras payer l'argent.

Vous devriez manger les You should eat fruits. fruits.

Past Conditional

should have

Ils auraient d jouer.

They should have played.

In the present tense, you can also express I am supposed to with Je suis cens + infinitive. To express you don't have to instead of you must not, use vous ntes pas oblig de instead of vous ne devez pas or il ne faut pas.

103. Cosmetics & Toiletries la brosse dents le dentifrice le fil dentaire la brosse le peigne le shampooing le fer friser la crme raser le rasoir la mousse hair spray hair dryer nail polish mascara lipstick powder soap makeup perfume cologne la laque le sche-cheveux le vernis ongles le mascara le rouge lvres la poudre le savon le maquillage le parfum l'eau de Cologne blush foundation eye liner eye shadow bubble bath shower gel deodorant lotion pads tampons le blush le fond de teint l'eye liner l'ombre paupires le bain moussant le gel douche le dodorant la lotion / la crme les serviettes hyginiques les tampons



ntal floss

ir brush



rling iron

aving cream



104. Medicine & Hospital AIDS le sida food poisoning l'intoxication alimentaire (f) hospital l'hpital (m) infection medecine medication nurse pills pneumonia poison sling stethoscope l'infection (f) la mdecine le mdicament l'infirmier (m) les cachets (m) la pneumonie le poison l'charpe (f) le stthoscope intensive care la ranimation

ambulance l'ambulance (f) anesthetic l'ansthsie (f) antidote bandage band-aid cancer cane capsule cast l'antidote le bandage le pansement le cancer la canne la capsule le pltre

chicken pox la varicelle cold le rhume

crutches cure diabetes diagnosis disease doctor

les bquilles (f) le remde le diabte le diagnostic la maladie le mdecin

stretcher surgeon surgery syringe tablet tumor

la civire le chirurgien la chirurgie la seringue le comprim la tumeur le fauteuil roulant la radio

first aid kit la trousse de secours wheelchair flu X-ray la grippe

105. Present Participle Present participles can be used as adjectives, as verbs, or like a qui clause. When an adjective, it agrees with the noun it modifies. When it functions as a verb, it is invariable. Preceded by en, (equivalent to while, by, upon or in), it corresponds to the English -ing gerund form. Used without en, the present participle can act like a qui clause. To form this participle, drops the -ons ending of the nous form in the present tense and add -ant. (There are only three irregular present participles: ayant, tant, sachant - having, being, knowing.) Je me suis cass le poignet en tombant. I broke my wrist by falling. C'est en forgeant que l'on devient forgeron. Practice makes perfect. Ce restaurant ne propose pas d'eau ptillante. This restaurant doesn't serve sparkling water.

106. Abbreviations In everyday speech, it is common to shorten some words: advertisement afternoon apartment car cinema college demonstration la publicit l'aprs-midi l'appartement l'automobile le cinma la facult la pub l'aprm l'apparte l'auto le cin la fac

la manifestation le manif

dictionary extraordinary friendly have a good meal intellectual laboratory microphone owner photography raincoat slide soccer television terrific usually

le dictionnaire extraordinaire sympathique bon apptit intellectuel le laboratoire le microphone le propritaire

le dico l'apro extra sympa bon app intello le labo le micro le proprio

drink before dinner l'apritif

la photographie la photo l'impermable l'imper la diapositive le football la tlvision sensationnel d'habitude la diapo le foot la tl sensas d'hab

107. Past Infinitive The past infinitive is used to express something that has already happened. Verbs such as s'excuser, regretter, and remercier are often used in this tense. It is formed with the infinitive of the auxiliary verb (avoir or tre) and the past participle of the main verb. And the past participle can have agreement as well, with either the subject or the object, depending on the sentence. Whenever aprs is followed by a verb, it is always a past infinitive. And note that negative expressions precede an infinitive. Je vous remercie d'tre venus. Excusez-moi d'tre arriv(e) en retard. Aprs avoir fini mes tudes, je veux devenir professeur. Elle regrette de ne pas avoir pos de questions. I thank you for coming (or having come.) Excuse me for arriving (or having arrived) late. After finishing (or having finished) my studies, I want to become a teacher. She regrets not asking (or having asked) any questions.

108. In the Ocean

barnacle bubble wet suit

la bernacle la bulle

crab fish hook

le crabe le hameon le masque le plongeur sous-marin le sable

la combinaison de plonge mask fishing line la ligne de pche scuba diver jellyfish flipper clam wave anchor la mduse la palme la palourde la vague l'ancre sand

treasure chest le trsor snorkel le tuba shipwreck seaweed starfish sea horse sea urchin helm l'pave les algues l'toile de mer l'hippocampe l'oursin la barre

oxygen tank le ballon d'oxygne seashell le coquillage coral le corail

109. To Die Mourir-to die meurs mourons meurs mourez meurt meurent The past participle is mort / morte and it is conjugated with tre. You will most likely use this verb in the past tense, but it is used in some present tense sayings.

Je meurs de faim ! I'm dying of hunger / I'm starving!

110. In Space alien asteroid astronaut beaker comet constellation l'extra-terrestre (m) l'astrode (m) l'astronaute (m) le gobelet la comte la constellation nebula planet rings robot rocket satellite la nbuleuse la plante les anneaux le robot / l'automate la fuse interplantaire le satellite

control panel crater Earth galaxy laboratory

le tableau de bord le cratre la terre la galaxie le laboratoire

solar panel

le panneau solaire

solar system le systme solaire space shuttle la navette spatiale space station la station spatiale space suit le scaphandre de cosmonaute la soucoupe volante l'toile (f) le soleil l'prouvette (f)

landing capsule la capsule d'atterrissage spaceship lunar rover star la jeep lunaire meteor shower la pluie de mtores moon la lune sun test tube

111. Possessive Pronouns Possessive pronouns replace nouns used with possessive adjectives. They agree in gender and number with noun they replace as well. Singular Masc. mine yours le tien Fem. Masc. Plural Fem. les tiennes

le mien la mienne les miens les miennes la tienne les tiens

his/hers/its le sien la sienne les siens les siennes ours le ntre la ntre les ntres les ntres yours le vtre la vtre les vtres les vtres theirs le leur la leur les leurs les leurs

C'est ma pomme. Voil la tienne. That's my apple. Here's yours. Il a son sac. Elle a le sien. He has his bag. She has hers. C'est le mien, pas le tien ! That's mine, not yours! Ils aiment leur voiture. Nous aimons la ntre. They like their car. We like ours.

112. Simple Past Tense The simple past tense is used in works of literature in place of the pass compos and is very rarely spoken. You most likely will never need to form this tense, but you should be able to recognize it for reading purposes. Add the following endings to the stem: -er -ai -mes -ir / -re -is -mes

-as -tes -a -rent

-is -tes -it -irent

Irregular verbs that follow a pattern: Some verbs use their past participle as a stem, and then add endings for the simple past. In this case, the six endings are -s, -s, -t, -^mes, -^tes, -rent. avoir croire eus emes crus crmes lus eus etes crus crtes lus eut eurent crut crurent lut prendre sortir lire lmes ltes lurent vouloir dire dormir devoir recevoir vivre dis dmes dormis dormmes dus dmes reus remes vcus vcmes dis dtes dormis dormtes dus dtes reus retes vcus vctes dit dirent dormit dormirent dut durent reut reurent vcut vcurent mettre connatre savoir pouvoir pmes ptes purent

pris prmes sortis sortmes voulus voulmes mis mmes connus connmes sus smes pus pris prtes sortis sorttes voulus voultes mis mtes connus conntes sus stes pus prit prirent sortit sortirent voulut voulurent mit mirent connut connurent sut surent put

Other verbs do not use their past participles as stems (but they still take the same endings), so you should memorize these forms. tre fmes ftes furent mourir faire fmes ftes firent natre crire crivis crivmes vins crivis crivtes vins crivit crivirent vint ouvrir venir vnmes vntes vinrent craindre voir vis vmes vis vit vtes virent battre conduire conduisis conduismes conduisis conduistes conduisit conduisirent

fus fus fut

fis fis fit

mourus mourmes naquis naqumes ouvris ouvrmes craignis craignmes battis battmes mourus mourtes naquis naqutes ouvris ouvrtes craignis craigntes battis batttes mourut moururent naquit naquirent ouvrit ouvrirent craignit craignirent battit battirent

113. Make-Believe & Fantasy archer armor arrow ax bow l'archer (m) l'armure la flche la hache l'arc (m) fairy fantasy fork genie ghost la fe la fantasie la fourche le gnie le fantme moat monster mummy pillory pirate les douves (f) le monstre la momie le pilori le pirate

cackle castle cauldron caveman cemetery coffin crown demon devil dragon

ricaner le chteau le chaudron l'homme des cavernes (m) le cimetire le cercueil la couronne le dmon le diable le dragon

giant grave haunted house headstone hobgoblin humpback jester king knight lamp lance magic wand mermaid minstrel moan

le gant la tombe la maison hante la pierre tombale le lutin le bossu le fou le roi le chevalier la lampe la lance la baguette magique la sirne le mnestrel gmir

prince princess queen scarecrow shield spear squire sword throne tower

le prince la princesse la reine l'pouvantail (m) le bouclier la lance l'cuyer (m) l'pe (f) le trne la tour

drawbridge le pont-levis dungeon dwarf elf le donjon le nain le lutin

troubadour le troubadour unicorn witch wizard zombie la licorne la sorcire le sorcier le mort vivant

executioner le bourreau

114. Religion altar angel baptism bell Bible bishop bliss Buddhism candle cathedral choir Christian Christianity church convent l'autel (m) l'ange (m) le baptme la cloche la Bible l'vque (m) la batitude le bouddhisme le cierge la cathdrale la chorale le chrtien le chrtient l'glise le couvent Judaism mass minaret monastery mosque munk Muslim nun organ pillar Pope prayer priest prophet Protestant le judasme la messe le minaret le monastre la mosque le moine le musulman la religieuse / bonne sur l'orgue (m) le pilier le pape la prire le prtre le prophte le protestant

cross dome faith fast God gold ring Gospel heaven hell Islam Jew

la croix la coupole la foi le jene le Dieu l'aurole (f) l'Evangile (m) le ciel / le paradis l'enfer (m) l'islam (m) le juif / la juive

religion reverend rosary saint sermon sin suffering temple torture vow worship/service

la religion le cur le chapelet le saint le sermon le pch la souffrance le temple le supplice le vu le culte

115. Music & Art accordion bagpipe band bass clef conductor drum drumstick flute French horn guitar guitar strings harp horns keyboard music music stand orchestra piano l'accordon (m) la cornemuse la bande la clef de fa le chef d'orchestre le tambour la baguette la flte le cor d'harmonie la guitare les cordes (f) la harpe (f) les cors (m) le synthtiseur la musique xylophone le xylophone acteur l'acteur actress applaud art audience boo bust canvas director easel film film bob frame light mask l'actrice les applaudissements (m) l'art (m) le public la hue (f) le buste la toile le metteur en scne le chevalet le film la bobine le cadre le projecteur le masque le modle le muse la peinture

conductor's stick le bton

le pupitre musique model museum l'orchestre (m) le piano paint

piano keys saxophone sheet music tambourine treble clef trombone trumpet tuba tuning fork cello violin violin bow

les touches (f) le saxophone la partition le tambourin la clef de sol le trombone la trompette le tuba le diapason le violoncelle le violon l'archet (m)

paintbrush le pinceau painter painting pallette pedastel le peintre le tableau la palette le pidestal

projector le projecteur screen l'cran (m) sculptor stage star statue tickets viola - l'alto (m) le sculpteur la scne la vedette, la star la statue les billets (m)

116. Acquerir - to acquire & resoudre - to resolve acqurir - to acquire acquiers acqurons acquiers acqurez acquiert acquirent rsoudre - to resolve rsous rsolvons rsous rsolvez rsout rsolvent

The past participles are acquis and rsolu, and both verbs are conjugated with avoir.

117. Imperfect & Past Subjunctive The subjunctive in past tenses is not used very often in French in everyday speech, but grammatically, it should be used if the verb in the main clause is in the past tense. The imperfect subjunctive is formed from the simple past, while the the past and pluperfect subjunctive forms are composed of two elements: the present subjunctive of avoir or tre + past participle for the past subjunctive and the imperfect subjunctive of the avoir or tre + past participle for the pluperfect subjunctive. Use the il/elle form of the simple past to form the imperfect subjunctive endings. Sometimes, the only difference between the il/elle forms of the simple past and the imperfect subjunctive is the circumflex for the imperfect subjunctive.

avoir il eut eusse eusses et

tre couper finir lire Use the simple past to form the stems il fut fusse fusses ft il coupa coupasse coupasses coupt il finit finisse finisses fint il lut lusse lusses lt Imperfect Subjunctive

tenir il tint tinsse tinsses tnt

eussions fussions coupassions finissions lussions tinssions eussiez fussiez coupassiez finissiez lussiez tinssiez eussent fussent coupassent finissent lussent tinssent

118. Translating Phrasal Verbs: English to French Most English phrasal verbs translate as one verb without any prepositions or adverbs in French. Make sure to pay attention to the correct meaning of the phrasal verb in English, however, before deciding on the correct French translation. add up back up beat up additionner soutenir / sauvegarder tabasser make up make up for mess around mess up miss out miss out on mix up inventer / se rconcilier compenser / rattraper faire l'imbcile / s'amuser / toucher mettre en dsordre / gcher / bcler omettre / sauter laisser passer / louper confondre / embrouiller / mlanger se vanter / parler tort et travers avancer emmnager se mettre en route dmnager

bend down se baisser bend over se pencher blow out blow up break down break in break up souffler gonfler / sauter / faire sauter

tomber en panne / enfoncer mouth off entrer par effraction rompre / se terminer move forward move in move off move out

breathe in inspirer breathe expirer out brighten s'claircir / se dgager

move over se pousser

up bring back rapporter / ramener bring up lever / soulever bump into rentrer dans / renconter par hasard muddle up mlanger / embrouiller note down noter own up avouer se sparer de se faire passer pour transmettre s'vanouir / distribuer rembourser payer dtacher rappeler s'en prendre / harceler ramasser / chercher / apprendre / draguer s'entasser / s'empiler / s'accumuler brancher montrer / faire remarquer passer

burst into clater / fondre (en larmes) part with call back rappeler pass for call off call on annuler rendre visite pass on pass out pay back pay for peel off phone back pick on pick up pile up plug in point out pop in

call round passer calm down se calmer care about se soucier de care for carry on catch up s'occuper de / aimer continuer rattraper

chase after courir aprs chase away check in chasser se prsenter l'enregistrement / la rception

check out rgler sa note / regarder check over vrifier / examiner cheer up remonter le moral / retrouver le moral

pull ahead prendre la tte pull down dmolir / baisser pull in pull out pull over pull through pull together pull up pump up s'arrter arracher / retirer se ranger / se garer sur la ct s'en sortir faire un effort remonter / s'arrter gonfler

chop down abattre clean up nettoyer clear off clear out clear up climb down dgager / filer vider ranger / s'claircir descendre

climb over passer par-dessus

climb up


push in put away put back put down put off put on put out put together put up put up with reach out read out

resquiller ranger remettre poser remettre plus tard / dissuader / dgoter / dranger / teindre mettre / allumer / prendre / monter / faire marcher teindre / tendre / sortir / dranger monter riger / monter / mettre / augmenter / hberger supporter tendre la main lire haute voix

cloud over se couvrir / s'assombrir come venir / reprendre around connaissance come back revenir come descendre / baisser down come in come off come out entrer se dtacher sortir / partir

come over venir come to come up come up to come up with reprendre connaissance monter / soulever / tre soulev arriver / s'approcher de proposer / suggrer

read up on parcourir / lire en entier rely on ring back ring up roll up rub out rule out run away run out run over save up scare away compter sur rappeler appeler / tlphoner rouler / retrousser effacer exclure s'enfuir s'puiser renverser / craser mettre de l'argent de ct faire fuir / effrayer

cool down refroidir / refrachir cross off rayer cross out barrer cross over traverser cry out pousser un cri cut off cut out deal with dig up do away with do up couper dcouper s'occuper de / traiter de dterrer se dbarasser / supprimer fermer / attacher / boutonner / retaper

do without se passer de dress up se dguiser / s'habiller

search for chercher see off dire au revoir

drop by drop off end up

passer dposer / laisser finir / se retrouver

see to

s'occuper de

send back renvoyer send for appeler / faire venir send off set off set out set up settle down show off show up shut up sit down slave away sleep in expulser partir / se mettre en route / faire partir / faire exploser / dclencher partir / se mettre en route crer / installer / monter se calmer / s'installer frimer arriver se taire s'asseoir trimer faire la grasse matine

face up to faire face fall apart fall down fall off fall out fall over s'effondrer tomber tomber tomber / se brouiller tomber / trbucher sur

fight back se dfendre figure out comprendre / calculer fill in fill out fill up find out finish off flick off flick on flip through fly away get away get back get down get in get off get on get out get up give in remplir / boucher remplir remplir se renseigner / dcouvrir terminer / finir teindre allumer feuilleter s'envoler s'chapper / partir / s'en aller descendre entrer / monter dans descendre (de) monter dans / s'entendre sortir / descendre se lever cder

sleep over passer la nuit chez quelqu'un slip off filer / s'clipser slow down ralentir sort out ranger / rgler / s'occuper de

speak out parler en faveur / dfendre speed up spin around aller plus vite tourner / se retourner se sparer

rentrer / rcuperer / reculer split up

spread out se disperser stand for vouloir dire / tolrer stand out stand up stand up for start off/out ressortir se lever dfendre partir

stay away ne pas s'approcher

give out give up go away go back go down go in go off go on go out go under go up

distribuer abandonner / arrter partir retourner / rentrer descendre / baisser entrer exploser / sonner / partir / tourner continuer / se passer sortir / s'teindre couler monter / augmenter

stay in stay out stay up step forward stick out

rester chez soi ne pas rentrer ne pas se coucher avancer dpasser / tirer

stretch out tendre / allonger / s'allonger sum up swell up rsumer enfler / gonfler

switch off teindre / arrter switch on allumer / mettre en marche take after tenir de take apart dmonter take aside prendre part take away enlever / emporter / emmener take back rapporter take down dmonter / enlever / noter take off dcoller / enlever take on take out take over take up talk through embaucher / prendre sortir / retirer remplacer / prendre la relve se mettre / prendre expliquer / prvenir

go without se passer de grow up grandir hand in hand out rendre distribuer

hand over remettre / cder hang on attendre hang out hang up head for frquenter / traner accrocher / suspendre / raccrocher se diriger vers

hear from avoir des nouvelles de hear of heat up help out hold on hold out hold up hurry up join in jump in entendre parler de faire rchauffer / (faire) chauffer venir en aide attendre / s'accrocher tendre lever / retarder / attaquer se dpcher participer () sauter dedans / plonger

tear down dmolir tear out tear up tell off think about think of throw away arracher dchirer gronder penser / penser de / rflchir penser de jeter

throw out jeter / mettre la porte

keep out keep up knock down

ne pas entrer dans suivre / continuer renverser

throw up tidy up tie up tip off tip over toss away/out track down

vomir ranger ficeler / attacher prvenir / avertir renverser / se renverser jeter retrouver

knock out assommer / liminer knock renverser over know about laugh at lean over tre au courant de / s'y connatre en se moquer de se pencher

leave aside laisser de ct leave out let down let in let off lie down lift off line up lock in lock out log in/on oublier laisser tomber

try on/out essayer turn se retourner / faire demi-tour / around tourner (dans l'autre sens) turn back faire demi-tour turn down rejeter / baisser changer en / transformer en / se transformer en teindre allumer retourner / se retourner mettre plus fort / venir / arriver attendre rveiller / se rveiller partir rchauffer / faire rchauffer / se rchauffer / s'chauffer faire la vaisselle (UK) / se laver (US)

faire entrer / laisser entrer turn into ne pas punir / faire partir, tirer s'allonger / se coucher dcoller faire la queue enfermer enfermer dehors se connecter turn off turn on turn over turn up wait for wake up walk out warm up wash up

look after s'occuper de look at regarder

look down baisser les yeux look down regarder de haut on look for chercher

watch out faire attention wear out weigh down well up wind up user / s'user / puiser alourdir avoir les larmes aux yeux se retrouver / se terminer /

look attendre avec impatience forward to look out faire attention

remonter look out for chercher / s'occuper de wipe up work out wrap up essuyer trouver / rsoudre / calculer / comprendre / se passer / faire de l'exercice emballer / envelopper / rcapituler / se couvrir

se retourner / regarder / look round visiter look up lever les yeux / chercher

look up to admirer make out dchiffrer / comprendre / prtendre

write back rpondre write down noter

119. Other Translation Difficulties: English to French be getting / going + adjective do nothing but devenir + adjective ne faire que let somebody know faire savoir

let's just hope that pourvu que forgive somebody for excuser quelqu'un de + let's [verb] / how Et si on...? [verb]-ing about we [verb]? infinitive get oneself + past participle how come...? however / no matter (much) se faire + infinitive comment se fait-il que...? avoir beau may / might may... no matter no sooner... see to it that so far il se peut / pourrait que puisse... peu importe n'avoir pas si tt veiller ce que jusqu' prsent

Je ne peux pas I can't help [verb]-ing m'empcher de + infinitive I hate/loathe/can't J'ai horreur de + stand [verb]-ing infinitive I miss + [verb]-ing I was going to / I had planned to I wish (regret) I wish + imperfect I wish + past perfect a me manque de ne pas J'avais prvu de Je regrette de ne pas si seulement + imperfect J'aurais aim que +

The way + subject La faon dont + + verb subject + verb There is no + [verb]-ing There/it happens to to sit, stand, lie Il n'y a pas de moyen de Il se trouve que tre assis, debout,

subjunctive I'd rather that In order (not) to It's about time it's no use / you needn't It's typical of him/her It's usual for


J'aimerais mieux que + What / How about Que dirais tu de + + [verb]-ing? subjunctive infinitive ? dans le but de (ne pas) What if? + infinitive whatever il serait grand temps il est inutile que a lui ressemble il est d'usage que whatever whenever wherever Whether you like it or not whoever et si? quel que soit quoi que chaque fois o que + subjunctive Que a te plaise ou non. quiconque

just because... doesn't le simple fait que... ne mean veut pas dire keep on [verb]-ing let (permission) ne cesser pas de + infinitive Que + subjunctive

You just have to + Tu n'as qu' + infinitive infinitive

120. Quebecois French Differences in vocabulary: Quebec l'arrt un breuvage une broue des bbelles un bcyque des bidoux / du foin un bleuet ma blonde une buanderie une calotte France le stop une boisson une bire des jouets une bicyclette de l'argent une myrtille ma petite amie Quebec asteure avoir les yeux dans la graisse de binnes bienvenu brailler a adonne bein a pas d'allure a pas de tes affaires France cette heure avoir l'air fatigu de rien piquer une crise a tombe bien a n'a aucun sens a ne te regarde pas donner une racle c'est cher c'est pas terrible conduire un vhicule

achaler / gosser quelqu'un embter quelqu'un

une blanchisserie clisser une vole une casquette c'est dispendieux c'est pas fort chauffer

une canneberge une airelle une automobile un char

une chicane le djeuner un dpanneur le dner un frigidaire la gang une gunille la job une joke une lampe de poche une laveuse

une dispute

dbarquer (d'un char)

descendre (d'une voiture) monter (dans une voiture) en avoir marre avoir mauvaise mine bouder faire ses courses il pleut causer / bavarder se promener dans les magasins inscrire / noter espce de crtin ! caresser pas du tout attraper / tripoter / avoir du succs faire une promenade pied maintenant ficher le camp commander / appeler zut ! c'est d'accord tu es gentil il y a foule

le petit djeuner embarquer (dans un char) un petit magasin tre tann le djeuner faire dur faire la baboune faire son picerie il mouille jaser magasiner marquer maudit niaiseux ! minoucher pantoute pogner prendre une marche prsentement sacrer son camp se cler (une pizza / un taxi) tabernacle / tabarnak ! tiguidou tu es fin y a du monde la messe un rfrigrateur la bande d'amis un chiffon le boulot une blague une lampetorche une machine laver

la fin de semaine le week-end

un melon d'eau un pastque un minou le nettoyeur une patente une piastre/piasse un pitou une scheuse le souper la tabagie une vadrouille un chat le pressing une chose un dollar un chien une machine scher le dner le tabac une serpillire

Differences in pronunciation: 1. An affrication of the consonants "t" and "d" before the vowels "u" and "i." For example, "tu es parti" is pronounced "tsu es partsi."

2. There is a reduction of the pronoun "il" to"y": Y'est malade, Y'a pas le temps; as well as a reduction of "elle" to "a" ("elle a" becomes "aa"): Aa pas le temps, aa mal au dos. 3. "Chu" is a contraction for "je suis": Chu fatigu, chu en retard. 4. A "t" sound still exists in the expressions: "il fait frette" (froid), "mon litte" (lit), "viens icitte" (ici). And the old pronunciation for the "oi" sound (as o) is still used sometimes: moi, toi, and verb forms such as bois, boit, vois, voit, reoit, etc. are pronounced mo, to, bo, etc. 5. "Tu" is often added after questions: Il en veut-tu ? Tu m'coutes-tu ? Je l'ai-tu ? 6. Many people end their statements with: T'sais ? (a reduction of: tu sais) 7. The verb pogner is a very popular word with several translations: to catch, to get, to grab, to be successful, to come, to get caught, to take, to be stuck, etc. Quoss qui't'pogne, toi? What's going on with you? Arrte de pogner les nerfs. Stop getting worked up. Some examples of Anglicisms used in Quebec: Bummer, spinner, slaquer, kiquer, faker, domper, frencher, puncher, backer, rusher, spotter, tripper, checker, avoir un good time, tre cheap, tre opne, faire son show, etc.

Confusions The following are sentences that initially confused me because I was translating them literally into English. C'est pas du franais. It's not grammatically correct, formal French. [not the French language in general] La Norvge n'est pas en Europe. Norway is not in the European Union. [not Europe as a continent] J'ai laiss un petit mot pour toi. I left a little note for you. [not word] Tu djeunes pas ? You aren't eating breakfast? [not lunch] Normalement, elle arrive 15h. If everything goes as planned, she will arrive at 3 PM. [not normally or usually] Tes parents s'ennuient de toi ? Do your parents miss you? [not get bored with] Tu veux te baigner aujourd'hui ? Do you want to go swimming today? [not take a bath] J'ai mal aux reins. My lower back hurts. [not kidneys] On a dj donn manger au chat. We've already fed the cat. [not give to eat] Elle l'a connu en Italie. She met him in Italy. [not known]

Filling out forms contact information last name first name address birthdate place of birth Signed [city] ... date birth certificate les coordonnes passport nom prnom adresse date de naissance lieu de naissance Fait ... le l'acte de visa residency card receipt application enrollment form to apply (for a job) to apply/enroll (in le passeport le visa la carte de sjour le rcpiss le formulaire / la candidature la demande d'inscription postuler s'inscrire



Remember the date format in France is day/month/year instead of month/day/year and that you generally capitalize your last name, but not your first name: Jean-Paul BOUCHER.

Asking for clarification or help Excusez-moi de vous dranger, monsieur/madame, mais j'ai un problme. Sorry for bothering you, mister/miss, but I have a problem. Est-ce que je peux vous poser une question ? Can I ask you a question? Qu'est-ce que vous avez dit ? What did you say? Pourriez-vous rpter, s'il vous plat ? Can you repeat that, please? Je n'ai pas entendu ce que vous avez dit. I didn't hear what you said. Comment est-ce qu'on crit a ? / a s'crit comment ? How is that written? Comment est-ce qu'on prononce a ? / a se prononce comment ? How is that pronounced? Qu'est-ce que a veut dire? / a veut dire quoi ? What does that mean?

Food & Eating cold cuts raw vegetables salad (with bacon) onion soup melted cheese (w/ potatoes & cold cuts) cheese, ham & potato casserole melted cheese (with bread) grilled ham and cheese grilled ham & cheese with egg la charcuterie les crudits (f) une salade (avec des lardons) la soupe l'oignon la raclette la tartiflette la fondue le croque-monsieur le croque-madame beefstew with carrots beefstew in red wine chicken in red wine Steak & French fries potatoes au gratin du buf-carottes du buf bourguignon du coq au vin un steak-frites le gratin dauphinois la quiche lorraine

ham & cheese quiche dumplings (flavored w/ meat les quenelles or fish) vegetarian vgtarien/ne vegan vgtalien/ne

Qu'est-ce que je vous offre ? / Qu'est-ce que je vous sers ? What can I get you? Quelque chose boire ? Something to drink? J'ai la dalle ! J'ai les crocs ! Je meurs de faim ! I'm starving! J'ai trop mang. / J'ai trop bouff. I ate too much.

On the phone / Au tlphone All, est-ce que je pourrais parler ... ? Hello, may I speak to...? C'est de la part de qui ? Who is calling? Qui est l'appareil ? Who is on the phone? Un instant, s'il vous plat. One moment, please. Ne quittez pas. Please hold. Je vous la passe. I'm putting you through to her. Il ne rpond pas. He is not answering. Il n'est pas l. He is not here. Est-ce que vous voulez laisser un message ? Do you want to leave a message? Pouvez-vous rappeler plus tard ? Can you call back later? La ligne est occupe. The line is busy. Vous vous tes tromp(e)(s) de numro. You have the wrong number. Je me suis tromp(e) de numro. I got the wrong number. Cell Phone Vocabulary pay as you go plan credit/minutes to recharge your account contract plan extra charges payment plan land line voicemail account summary empty / no credit sans engagement le crdit recharger votre compte le forfait hors forfait le plan tarifaire la ligne fixe la messagerie vocale le suivi conso puis text message SMS photo MMS message call waiting caller ID unlimited calls PIN code SIM card locked to download ringtone le double appel la prsentation du numro les appels illimits le code PIN / secret la carte SIM bloqu tlcharger la sonnerie

Le suivi conso is short for le suivi de consommation.

Going shopping / Faire les magasins department store outlet store second-hand shop discount store (such as Aldi) flea market department to go windowshopping to go grocery shopping mini market supermarket (food) super store (everything) shopping center la grande surface le magasin d'usine la boutique d'articles d'occasion le magasin hard discount le march aux puces le rayon faire du lche-vitrine faire les courses la suprette le supermarch l'hypermarch (m) le centre commercial fitting room club/loyalty card heels flip-flops tank/halter top underwire bra thong spotted flowery frilly glittery striped la cabine d'essayage la carte de fidelit des talons des tongs le dbardeur le balconnet le string pois fleurs frous-frous paillettes rayures

Est-ce que je peux vous aider ? / Je peux vous renseigner ? / Vous dsirez ? Can I help you? Non, je regarde seulement. No, I'm just looking. Je vais rflchir. I'll think about it. Quelle est votre taille ? Vous faites du combien ? What is your size? What size do you wear? Quelle est votre pointure ? Vous chaussez du combien ? What is your shoe size? What size shoe do you wear? a va, la taille ? Cest la bonne taille ? Is the size right? Cest trop grand. / C'est trop serr. Its too big / too small. a cote combien ? How much does this cost? C'est en solde ? Is it on sale? Quelle escroquerie ! / Quelle arnaque ! What a rip-off! Avez-vous une carte de fidlit ? Do you have a club card? Vous rglez comment ? / Vous payez comment ? How are you paying? En espces/par carte bleue. Cash/with a bank card. A good way to increase your vocabulary is to look at ads for stores that are available online, such as Carrefour, Gant, Monoprix, etc.

Going to the doctor / Chez le docteur allergy illness cold fever flu migraine bump itching poisoning sting / bite scratch scar scab blister sprain ear infection l'allergie (f) la maladie le rhume la fivre la grippe la migraine la bosse les dmangeaisons (f) l'intoxication (f) la piqre l'gratignure (f) la cicatrice la crote l'ampoule (f) la foulure l'otite (f) swollen dizziness drops pills tablet ointment bandage prescription medicine vitamins lozenge sleeping pills to skin to sprain to crush to break enfl/e le vertige les gouttes (f) les pilules (f) le cachet la pommade le sparadrap l'ordonnance (f) les mdicaments (m) les vitamines (f) la pastille les somnifres (m) s'corcher se fouler s'craser se casser

Je voudrais prendre rendez-vous, s'il vous plat. I'd like to make an appointment, please. O est-ce que vous avez mal ? Where does it hurt? Est-ce que vous tes allergique quelque chose ? Are you allergic to anything? Je me suis corch la main en tombant. I skinned my hand by falling. Je me suis fait mal. I hurt myself. The French health care system (called la Scurit Sociale) generally reimburses 70% of your health costs (including dentist and eye doctor visits). If you want to be reimbursed for the other 30%, you have to join a mutuelle and pay a monthly fee. Everyone covered by la Scu receives a Carte Vitale to use at the doctor's consultation and when filling prescriptions at any pharmacie. If you are a recent immigrant to France and have not yet received your Carte Vitale, you will receive feuille de soins forms to fill out in order to be reimbursed. The emergency medical service in France is called SAMU (Service d'aide mdicale d'urgence) and the phone number is 15. You can dial 17 to reach the police, and 18 to reach the pompiers (firefighters). The general emergency number used throughout the European Union is 112. In Belgium, you can also dial 100 for emergency services; in Switzerland, it's 144, and in Canada, it's 911.

Going to the dentist or eye doctor / Chez le dentiste ou l'ophtalmologiste cavity wisdom tooth baby tooth gums jaw crown filling cleaning root canal to pull out, remove (tooth) la carie la dent de sagesse la dent de lait la gencive la mchoire la couronne le plombage le dtartrage glasses frames glasses case contact lenses cleaning solution contact case near-sighted far-sighted les lunettes la monture l'tui de lunettes (m) les lentilles la solution de nettoyage l'tui de lentilles (m) myope hypermtrope net flou

le canal dentaire clear arracher blurry

Getting your eyes checked and then choosing your frames are two different processes in France. You go to an ophtalmologiste to get your eyes checked and you will receive a prescription for your glasses/contacts. Then you must go to an opticien in order to choose your frames and turn in your prescriptions. They are not in the same office like in the US.

At the hair salon / Chez le coiffeur bangs highlights hair cut blowdry curly wavy frizzy straight dyed lightened layered la frange les mches / le balayage la coupe de cheveux le brushing boucls onduls friss / crpus raides teints dcolors dgrad braid ponytail barette head band hair clips hairband hairpin buzz cut completely shaved head bald part la natte / les tresses la queue-de-cheval la barrette le serre-tte les pinces cheveux l'lastique (m) l'pingle cheveux (f) la coupe en brosse la boule zro chauve la raie

There is a slight difference between se couper les cheveux (to cut one's hair - by oneself) and se faire couper les cheveux (to get one's hair cut - by someone else). The same is true of se teindre les cheveux (to dye one's hair - by oneself) and se faire teindre les cheveux (to get one's hair dyed - by someone else).

Opening a bank account / Ouvrir un compte bancaire savings account checking account deposit direct deposit cash credit card loan debt wages estimate automatic payment to deposit to withdraw to earn to spend le compte d'pargne bank / debit card la carte bancaire / la carte bleue le distributeur / le guichet (automatique) le chque le carnet de chques le bilan le montant

le compte-chques ATM le dpt le dpt direct les espces / du liquide la carte de crdit l'emprunt (m) / le prt la dette le salaire le devis le prlvement dposer / remettre retirer gagner dpenser check checkbook balance sum, amount

bank statement le relev de compte salary raise payment le traitement l'augmentation de salaire (f) le versement

transfer/deposit le virement to write a check to cash a check to pay cash to save money faire un chque encaisser / toucher un chque payer en espces faire des conomies

Je voudrais ouvrir un compte. I would like to open an account. Bordereau de remise de chques. Checks deposited slip.

Post Office / La Poste accus de rception avis de rception acknowledgement of receipt notice of receipt imprims lettre recommande printed matter registered letter

adresse de l'expditeur adresse de rexpdition colis destinataire expditeur envoi en nombre

return address forwarding address parcel / package addressee sender bulk mail

mandat cash par avion port pay retour l'envoyeur tarifs postaux trier

money order air mail postage paid return to sender postage rate to sort

Currently, the price of timbres (stamps) is 56 Euro cents to send mail within France, 70 cents within the EU & Switzerland, and 85 cents to the rest of the world (for a letter or postcard under 20 grams).

Renting an apartment / Louer un appartement housing apartment rent rent receipt le logement l'appartement le loyer la quittance de loyer lease bill (telephone, etc.) insurance conditions / evaluation of apt. taxes furnished building landlord renting renter le bail la facture l'assurance (f) l'tat des lieux (m) les impts (m) meubl immeuble le propritaire location locataire (m) / locatrice (f)

utilities / fees les charges / les frais expenses les dpenses (rental) les charges (locatives) charges les honoraires / frais agency fees d'agence private le particulier landlord security la caution / le dpt de deposit garantie guarantor le garant exig needed short-term location courte rental

renting with colocation roommates roommate / flatmate / colocataire (m) / housemate colocatrice (f)

Apartments are generally listed as F1/T1, F2/T2, F3/T3, etc. regarding the number of rooms. This number does not include the kitchen or bathroom, but it does include the living room. If a kitchen is quipe, it will probably have a refrigerator and burners, but

may or may not have an oven. If a kitchen is non-quipe, there will be no appliances at all. Some apartments do not have ovens, but they might have plaques lectriques / plaquettes (burners, similar to a stove). A cuisinire is also electric burners without an oven. J'habite en colocation. I live with roommates. Je cherche un colocataire pour un appartement avec 2 chambres. I'm looking for a roommate for a 2 bedroom apartment. Le bail sera sign ds votre arrive la rsidence. The lease will be signed as soon as you arrive at the dorms. Les charges sont comprises dans le prix (eau, lctricit, chauffage). Utilities are included in the price (water, electricity, heat).

Cooking & Kitchen Utensils to chop / grind to grate to peel to pit to mix to stir to beat to whip to sift to pour to cook to roast to fry to steam to boil to simmer to melt to stew to broil / hacher rper peler / plucher dnoyauter mlanger remuer battre cooking pot lid saucepan frying pan skillet casserole dish baking sheet la marmite

le couvercle la casserole la pole la sauteuse la cocotte / daubire la plaque gteaux la grille de cooling rack fouetter refroidissement cake tin tamiser le moule gteaux pie tin verser la tourtire le bol mixer / le mixing bowl cuire saladier strainer / colander la passoire rtir peeling knife frire l'conome (m) cuire l'touffe / faire cuire slotted spoon / l'cumoire (f) skimmer la vapeur ladle bouillir la louche spatula mijoter la spatule (cheese) grater fondre la rpe ( fromage) whisk cuire en ragot le fouet rolling pin griller le rouleau ptisserie

grill to moisten to soften to sprinkle to drain

mouiller faire revenir saupoudrer goutter

can opener aluminum foil plastic wrap wax paper

l'ouvre-bote (m) le papier d'aluminium le film transparent le papier cuisson

For verbs that involve cooking methods, you add faire before them when they are transitive verbs (when they take a direct object). So to cook something is faire cuire, to fry something is faire frire, to boil something is faire bouillir, etc. If you bake American foods in France, you will most likely need to look for certain ingredients that are not used very often in French cooking: condensed milk - lait concentr sucr; evaporated milk lait concentr non-sucr; baking soda - bicarbonate alimentaire; baking powder levure chimique and yeast - levure du boulanger. It is also very common to use le sopalin instead of essui-tout for paper towel.

Christmas Vocabulary Merry Christmas! angel bell bow bulb candle candy cane chimney Christmas card Christmas carols Christmas Eve Christmas Eve dinner Christmas market Christmas tree decorations egg nog elf fake tree garland holly lights mistletoe nativity scene North Pole present Joyeux Nol ! lange (m) la cloche / la clochette le nud la boule la bougie / la chandelle la canne en bonbon la chemine la carte de Nol les chansons de Nol la veille de Nol le rveillon de Nol le march de Nol le sapin de Nol les dcorations le lait de poule le lutin le sapin artificiel la guirlande le houx la guirlande lectrique / lumineuse le gui la crche le ple nord le cadeau

present name tags reindeer ribbon Santa Claus Santas hat Santas sack Santas workshop sleigh sleigh bell snow snowflake snowman star stocking toy wrapping paper wreath Yule log

les tiquettes le renne le bolduc / le ruban le Pre Nol le bonnet de Nol la hotte du Pre Nol latelier du Pre Nol le traineau le grelot la neige le flocon de neige le bonhomme de neige ltoile (f) la chaussette de Nol le jouet le papier demballage la couronne la bche de Nol

Transportation connection track platform restaurant car intersection sedan (4 door) coupe (2 door) station wagon convertible semi-truck la correspondance le quai la voie le wagon-restaurant le carrefour la berline le coup le break le cabriolet le camion subway map book of ten tickets monthly pass subway/bus line bus ticket van minivan pick-up truck SUV / large truck trailer le plan de mtro le carnet la carte orange la ligne le ticket la camionnette le monospace le pick-up le 4x4 (quatre-quatre) le remorque

Merci d'oblitrer votre ticket. Thank you for validating your ticket. O est l'arrt de bus le plus proche ? Where is the closest bus stop? Pour aller au centre-ville ? How do I get downtown? Vous vous installez ici, madame ? Do you want to sit here, ma'am? Vous descendez ? Are you getting off here? Je descends ici. I'm getting off here.

School & Education school district urban district department / division region / area town pre-school elementary education elementary student secondary education middle school middle school student high school l'acadmie (f) l'arrondissement (m) le dpartement la rgion la commune l'cole maternelle l'cole primaire colier/re secondaire le collge collgien/ne le lyce middle school principal principal

high school principal proviseur exam after middle school exam after high school mathematics economics & sociology living/foreign language physics chemistry biology life/earth science engineering history/geography philosophy literature research project/seminar P.E. / Gym report card brevet baccalaurat mathmatiques sciences conomique et sociale (SES) langue vivante (LV) physique chimie biologie sciences de la vie et de la terre (SVT) sciences de l'ingnieur (SI) histoire-gographie philosophie littrature travaux personnels encadrs (TPE) ducation physique et sportive (EPS) le bulletin scolaire

high school lycen/ne student higher education suprieur university tudiant/e student l'universit / la university facult prestigious les grandes coles universities library le CDI

La rentre scolaire a lieu dbut septembre. The return to school takes place at the beginning of September. Les vacances d't s'appellent les grandes vacances. The summer vacation is called the big vacation. Il a eu de mauvais rsultats et il a d redoubler. He got bad marks and he had to stay in the same grade. Cette anne, il passe dans la classe suprieure. This year, he's passing into the next

grade. Si je rate / Si j'choue mon bac, je suis oblig de redoubler ma terminale. If I fail my final exam, I have to do my last year of school over again. Ils ont sech les cours aujourd'hui. They skipped classes today. Tu as eu combien ? What (grade) did you get? J'ai eu 13, pas mal. I got a 13, not bad. Note: In French schools, the grades/marks range from 1 to 20 (though 10 is considered passing, so it cannot be easily changed into percentages); and the grades/years descend instead of increasing: sixime is the first year of collge, while troisime is the last year. Ecole maternelle is ages 2-6, cole lmentaire is ages 6-11 (CP, CE1, CE2, CM1, CM2), collge is ages 11-15 (6e, 5e, 4e, 3e), and lyce is ages 15-18 (2nde, 1re, T). LG = Lyce Gnral LT= Lyce Technique LPO= Lyce Polyvalent LGT= Lyce Gnral et Technique CLG= Collge EE= Ecole Elmentaire IA= Inspecteur Acadmique IEN= Inspecteur dEducation Nationale IUFM = Instituts Universitaires de Formation des Matres CP = Cours prparatoire CE1 = Cours lmentaire 1re anne CE2 = Cours lmentaire 2e anne CM1 = Cours moyen 1re anne CM2 = Cours moyen 2e anne T = Terminale Premier degr = maternelle & lmentaire Bac = baccalaurat L = Littraire ES = conomique et sociale S = scientifique STT = sciences et technologies tertiaires STI = sciences et technologies industrielles STL = sciences et technologies de laboratoire SMS = sciences mdico-sociales CAP = certificat d'aptitudes professionnelles BEP = brevet d'tudes professionnelles BTS = brevet de technicien suprieur CPGE = classes prparatoires aux Grandes Ecoles CDI = centre de documentation et d'information CPE = conseillers principaux d'ducation COP = conseiller d'orientation psychologue Second degr = collge & lyce

News news les informations / le journal poverty la pauvret

news shows le magazine d'actualits current events l'actualit (f) weather la mto report protest la protestation demonstration la manifestation earthquake le tremblement de terre hurricane l'ouragan (m) flood l'inondation (f) le tsunami / le raz-detsunami mare drought la scheresse burglary le cambriolage assault l'agression (f) crime le dlit robbery le vol military les militaires (m) army l'arme (f) navy la marine air force les forces ariennes invasion l'invasion (f) battle la bataille retreat la retraite treaty le trait truce la trve

homeless murder genocide riot curfew harassment epidemic plague cloning drug addiction drug trafficking trial testimony evidence ceasefire gun rifle troops soldier hostage casualty winners losers

les sans-abri le crime / le meurtre le gnocide l'meute (m) le couvre-feu le harclement (m) l'pidmie (f) la peste le clonage la toxicomanie le trafic de drogue le procs le tmoignage la preuve le cessez-le-feu le revolver le fusil les troupes (f) le soldat l'otage (m) les pertes (f) les vainqueurs (m) les vaincus (m)

Politics prime minister president vice president dictator nationality community society government election le premier ministre le prsident le vice-prsident le dictateur la nationalit la communaut la socit le gouvernement l'lection (f) citizen senator representative mayor law bill policy proposal grant le citoyen le snateur le dput le maire la loi le projet de loi la politique la proposition la subvention

referendum vote environment democracy anarchy capitalism socialism communism

le rfrendum le vote l'environnement (m) la dmocratie l'anarchie (f) le capitalisme le socialisme le communisme

legislation negotiation regulation democrat liberal conservative socialist communist

la lgislation la ngociation la rglementation dmocrate libral/e conservateur/trice socialiste communiste

The current major political parties in France include: Parti Socialiste (PS) and Parti Communiste Franais (PCF) - left-wing, Union pour la Dmocratie Franaise (UDF) centrist, Union pour un Mouvement Populaire (UMP) - right-wing, and Front National (FN) - far right-wing.

Television the news les infos to be on (TV) to act (in) to channel surf to turn on the TV to turn off the TV push the button turn up the volume turn down the volume to plug in to unplug what's it about? to be continued passer jouer zapper allumer la tl teindre la tl appuyer sur le bouton monter le son baisser le son brancher dbrancher a parle de quoi ? suivre

series/program la srie soap opera le feuilleton tv movie documentary channel subtitles commercials actor/actress director comedian le tlfilm le documentaire la chane les sous-titrages les publicits (pub) le/la comdien/ne le ralisateur l'humoriste

remote control la tlcommande

Programs do not start at the hour or half hour in France, and the majority of "prime time" shows begin at 8:50 pm (20h50) with more than one episode each week. The nightly new is always on at 8 pm (20h). Commercials are rarely shown during the programs, but more likely between the shows. There are a few French channels that you can watch without subscribing to a cable provider: TF1, France 2, France 3, France 5, Arte, M6, and depending on where you live, there are local channels as well as foreign channels of bordering countries. Canal+ is available at some times, but you must subscribe and pay extra if you want to watch it at

all times. There are of course several other channels: France 4, France , W9, TMC, NRJ, Paris Premire, Tva, RTL9, AB 1, NT1, etc. Most American television shows are eventually broadcast in France, though several months later than in the US and dubbed in French. (You will find that almost every foreign program is dubbed rather than subtitled). Not all programs or channels support subtitling/closed captioning, but if your TV is equipped with tltexte, you should be able to read the subtitles in French as well. And a series does not have to be a hit in the US to be broadcast in France; several shows that were cancelled after one year in the US are still shown here. A lot of programs have the same names in French (Bones, Heroes, Desperate Housewives, etc.) while others have French words added (Lost, les disparus). Here are a few programs that are different in French: Baywatch - Alerte Malibu; Seventh Heaven - 7 la Maison; CSI - Les Experts; Without a Trace - FBI: Ports Disparus; The Young & the Restless - Les Feux de l'Amour; One Tree Hill - Les Frres Scott; Crossing Jordan - Preuve l'appui. And because I watch several shows that involve solving crime, here is some specialized vocabulary that you probably won't ever use, but you'll need to recognize if you watch crime dramas: assault blackmail blackmailer criminal record defendant evidence federal case gun handcuffs homicide investigation kidnapping laundering lead loaded (gun) murder paperwork l'agression (f) le chantage le matre-chanteur le casier judiciaire l'accus (m) la pice conviction dlit fdral le flingue les menottes (f) l'homicide (f) l'enqute (f) l'enlvement (m) le blanchiment la piste / l'indice charg le meurtre la paperasse prosecutor rape sketch stabbed strangled surveillance suspect to arrest to con/cheat to harass to press charges to report missing to run away to shoot warrant weapon witness le procureur le viol le portrait-robot poignard trangl la filature le suspect arrter escroquer harceler porter plainte porter disparu s'enfuir tirer le mandat l'arme (m) le tmoin

Soccer ball captain captain armband cleats coach coin toss corner kick defense fans final forward foul/penalty game goal goal post goalie goalie box group (in tournaments) header jersey kickoff midfield net off-sides out of bounds (behind the goals) out of bounds (on the sides) le ballon le capitaine pass penalty kick une passe un penalty un joueur le tableau final les quarts de finale carton rouge l'arbitre le remplaant les demi-finales les protgetibias la culotte un tir un tacle les chausettes les classements le titulaire une quipe un match nul passer marquer tirer faire une touche le tournoi la ola Quel est le score? carton jaune

un brassard de capitaine player playoffs les crampons l'entraneur / le selectionneur un tirage pile ou face un corner un dfenseur les supporters la finale un attaquant une faute un match un but les cages un gardien de but la surface de rparation la poule / le groupe une tte un maillot un coup d'envoi / un engagement un milieu de terrain le filet hors-jeu une sortie de but en touche quarter-finals red card referee replacement semi-finals shinguards shorts shot slide tackle socks standings starter player team tie game to pass to score to shoot to throw in the ball tournament wave What's the score? yellow card

Zodiac Signs signs of the Zodiac horoscope astrology Aries Taurus Gemini Cancer Leo Virgo Libra Scorpio Sagittarius Capricorn Aquarius Pisces les signes du zodiaque l'horoscope (m) l'astrologie (f) Blier Taureau Gmeaux Cancer Lion Vierge Balance Scorpion Sagittaire Capricorne Verseau Poissons

Marriage & Civil Unions couple date relationship civil union engagement wedding wedding announcement honeymoon le couple le rendez-vous la relation le PACS (Pacte Civile de Solidarit) les fianailles (f) le mariage le faire-part de mariage la lune de miel to enter a PACS contract to get engaged to get married to break up / leave to get divorced to cheat on to meet to separate se pacser se fiancer se marier rompre / quitter divorcer tromper se rencontrer se sparer

Ils sont tombs amoureux l'un de l'autre. They fell in love with each other. Ils vivent en concubinage / en union libre. They live with each other (without being married). C'est mon copain / ma copine. This is my boyfriend / girlfriend.

J'ai une grande amiti pour lui. I have a great friendship with him. Il a de l'affection pour elle. He has affection for her. Mais elle n'prouve aucun sentiment pour lui. But she has no feelings for him. On se disputait sans cesse. We fought all the time. Tu m'en veux ? Are you mad at me? Je t'aime bien. / Je t'aime. I like you. / I love you Si on allait au cinma ce soir ? How about if we go to the movies tonight? Tu es libre, samedi soir ? Are you free Saturday night? Je n'ai rien de prvu pour ce week-end. I have no plans for this weekend. When pulling petals off of a daisy, the French have 5 sayings instead of just He/she loves me; He/she loves me not: 1. Il/Elle m'aime. He/She loves me. 2. Un peu. A little. 3. Beaucoup. A lot. 4. A la folie. Like crazy. 5. Pas du tout. Not at all.

English used in French There are many, many English words used in French, but some of them have a different meaning than in English. Sometimes the French pronunciation is radically different from the English pronunciation, so you may only be able to understand the word in writing but not in speech. Almost all English nouns borrowed into French are masculine, unless otherwise noted below. I've marked which words are used as adjectives in French, even though the original English word may be a noun. agenda baby-foot barman basket baskets bermudes black (adj. / noun) body bowling break brushing caddie planner / calendar foosball bartender basketball sneakers bermuda shorts refers to skin color onesie / body suit bowling alley station wagon blowdry (shopping) cart mail meeting nickel parking people planning play-back e-mail rally clean / perfect parking lot celebrities schedule lip-synching

pom-pom girl cheerleader dry cleaner's pressing radio (f) recordman relax X-ray record holder lounge chair

camping camping-car catch clean (adj.) clip cornflakes dancing dressing drive entourage fashion (adj.) fast-food flipper foot footing



makeover rollerblades tape self service boy shorts boxers / briefs / underwear tuxedo hectic, busy thong underwear sweatshirt tennis player flip-flops the best trench coat hit song tune up guy volleyball channel surfing cool / laid-back

motorhome / camper rollers pro wrestling scotch sober music video cereal dance hall walk-in closet drive-thru group of friends trendy self (adj.) shorty slip smoking speed (adj.) string sweat tennisman

fast food restaurant tongs pinball le top soccer jogging trench tube tuning type volley zapping zen (adj.)

hard discount (adj.) discount jogging suit jogging lifting light (adj.) look lov (adj.) facelift diet style cuddly / snuggly

Acronyms Those marked in color are pronounced as a word, rather than each letter individually. ANAEM ANPE* ASSEDIC* BCBG BD BN BNP Agence Nationale de l'Accueil des Etrangers et des Migrations Agence nationale pour l'emploi Association pour l'emploi dans l'industrie et le commerce bon chic bon genre bande dessine Bibliothque nationale Banque nationale de Paris PC PDG PJ PS PTT QG Parti communiste prsident-directeur gnral pices joints Parti socialiste Postes, tlgraphes et tlphones quartier gnral

RATP Rgie autonome des transports

parisiens BP CAF CDD CDI CDS DALF DEA DELF DOMTOM EDF ENA FLQ FNAC GDF HLM INSEE MGEN MJC MLF MRAP OMI ONU OTAN OVNI bote postale Caisse d'allocations familiales Contrat dure dtermine Contrat dure indtermine Carte de sjour diplme approfondi de langue franaise diplme d'tudes approfondies diplme d'tudes en langue franaise Dpartements d'outre-mer et Territoires d'outre-mer Electricit de France Ecole Nationale d'Administration Front de la libration du Qubec Fdration nationale des achats de cadres Gaz de France Habitation loyer modr RDC rez-de-chausse RER Rseau express rgional RF RMI RV SDF SIDA SMIC SNCF SPA SVP TER Rpublique franaise Revenu minimum d'insertion rendez-vous Sans domicile fixe syndrome immunodficitaire acquis Salaire minimum interprofessional de croissance Socit nationale de chemin de fer Socit protectrice des animaux s'il vous plat Transport express rgional

TGB Trs grande bibliothque TGV Train grande vitesse TTC toutes taxes comprises

Institut National de la Statistique et TVA taxe la valeur ajoute des Etudes Economiques Mutuelle Gnrale de l'Education Nationale Maison des Jeunes et de la Culture UE UDF Union europenne Union pour la dmocratie franaise

Mouvement pour la libration de la Union pour un Mouvement UMP femme Populaire Mouvement contre le racisme et pour l'amiti entre les peuples Office des Migrations Internationales Organisation des Nations Unies VF VO version franaise version originale

VOST version originale sous-titre vlo tout terrain l'cole Polytechnique

Organisation du trait de l'Atlantique VTT du Nord Objet volant non identifi X



* ANPE and ASSEDIC no longer exist. They were merged together in 2009 to form Ple Emploi.

Regions & Departments of France Rgions de France mtropolitaine Alsace Aquitaine Auvergne Basse-Normandie Bretagne Bourgogne Centre Champagne-Ardenne Corse Franche-Comt Haute-Normandie Ille-de-France Languedoc-Roussillon Limousin Lorraine Midi-Pyrnes Nord-Pas-de-Calais Pays-de-la-Loire Picardie Poitou-Charentes Provence-Alpes-Cte d'Azur Rhne-Alpes Rgions/Dpartements d'outre-mer Guadeloupe Martinique Guyane Alsace Aquitaine Auvergne Lower-Normandy Brittany Burgundy Center Champagne-Ardenne Corsica Franche-Comte Upper-Normandy Paris-Isle-of-France Languedoc-Roussillon Limousin Lorraine Midi-Pyrenees North-Calais Pays-de-la-Loire Picardy Poitou-Charentes Provence-Alpes-Azur Rhone-Alps Overseas Regions/Departments Guadeloupe Martinique French Guiana English Translations

La Runion


Each rgion is divided into dpartements, except for the overseas regions (they exist as rgions as well as dpartements.) Each dpartement is assigned a two-digit number that begins the zip code (the numbers somewhat correspond to alphabetical order). For example, the dpartement of Ain is 01 and the dpartement of Vosges is 88. DOM-TOM means dpartements d'outre-mer and trritoires d'outre-mer. French territories (also called collectivities) include Polynsie franaise, Mayotte, SaintPierre-et-Miquelon, Wallis-et-Futuna, Saint-Martin and Saint-Barthlemy. Nouvelle Caldonie has a special status (sui generis) and will vote for independence from France in the next ten years.

The 96 departments of mainland France, grouped according to their region, are: 67 Bas-Rhin 68 Haut-Rhin 24 Dordogne 33 Gironde 40 Landes 47 Lot-et-Garonne 64 PyrnesAtlantiques 03 Allier 15 Cantal 43 Haute-Loire 63 Puy-de-Dme 14 Calvados 50 Manche 61 Orne 21 Cte-d'Or 58 Nivre 71 Sane-et-Loire 89 Yonne Alsace 11 Aude 30 Gard Languedoc34 Hrault Roussillon 48 Lozre 66 Pyrnes-Orientales 19 Corrze 23 Creuse 87 Haute-Vienne 54 Meurthe-et-Moselle 55 Meuse Lorraine 57 Moselle 88 Vosges 09 Arige 12 Aveyron 31 Haute-Garonne 32 Gers 46 Lot 65 Hautes-Pyrnes 81 Tarn 82 Tarn-et-Garonne Limousin






22 Ctes-d'Armor 29 Finistre 35 Ille-et-Vilaine 56 Morbihan 18 Cher 28 Eure-et-Loir 36 Indre 37 Indre-et-Loire 41 Loir-et-Cher 45 Loiret 08 Ardennes 10 Aube 51 Marne 52 Haute-Marne 2A Corse-du-Sud 2B Haute-Corse


59 Nord 62 Pas-de-Calais 44 Loire-Atlantique 49 Maine-et-Loire 53 Mayenne 72 Sarthe 85 Vende 02 Aisne 60 Oise 80 Somme


Pays de la Loire





16 Charente 17 Charente-Maritime Poitou-Charentes 79 Deux-Svres 86 Vienne 04 Alpes-de-HauteProvence 05 Hautes-Alpes 06 Alpes-Maritimes 13 Bouches-du-Rhne 83 Var 84 Vaucluse

25 Doubs 39 Jura 70 Haute-Sane 90 Territoire de Belfort 27 Eure 76 Seine-Maritime


Provence-AlpesCte d'Azur


75 Paris 77 Seine-et-Marne 78 Yvelines 91 Essonne le-de-France 92 Hauts-de-Seine 93 Seine-Saint-Denis 94 Val-de-Marne 95 Val-d'Oise

01 Ain 07 Ardche 26 Drme 38 Isre 42 Loire 69 Rhne 73 Savoie 74 Haute-Savoie


Major Cities & Geographical Features of France The 50 most populous cities in France (including the DOM-TOMs) are: City Paris Marseille Lyon Toulouse Nice Nantes Strasbourg Montpellier Bordeaux Lille Rennes Reims Le Havre Saint-tienne Toulon Grenoble Angers Dijon Brest Nmes Le Mans Aix-en-Provence Clermont-Ferrand Saint-Denis Tours Limoges Villeurbanne Amiens Metz * Besanon Perpignan Department Paris Rhne Haute-Garonne Alpes-Maritimes Loire-Atlantique Bas-Rhin Hrault Gironde Nord Ille-et-Vilaine Marne Seine-Maritime Loire Var Isre Maine-et-Loire Cte-d'Or Finistre Gard Sarthe Puy-de-Dme La Runion Indre-et-Loire Haute-Vienne Rhne Somme Moselle Doubs Region le-de-France Rhne-Alpes Midi-Pyrnes Provence-Alpes-Cte dAzur Pays de la Loire Alsace Languedoc-Roussillon Aquitaine Nord-Pas-de-Calais Bretagne Champagne-Ardenne Haute-Normandie Rhne-Alpes Provence-Alpes-Cte dAzur Rhne-Alpes Pays de la Loire Bourgogne Bretagne Languedoc-Roussillon Pays de la Loire Auvergne La Runion Centre Limousin Rhne-Alpes Picardie Lorraine Franche-Comt

Bouches-du-Rhne Provence-Alpes-Cte d'Azur

Bouches-du-Rhne Provence-Alpes-Cte dAzur

Pyrnes-Orientales Languedoc-Roussillon

Orlans Mulhouse Caen

Loiret Haut-Rhin Calvados

Centre Alsace Basse-Normandie le-de-France Haute-Normandie le-de-France le-de-France La Runion Nord-Pas-de-Calais le-de-France Provence-Alpes-Cte dAzur Nord-Pas-de-Calais Martinique le-de-France Poitou-Charentes le-de-France le-de-France le-de-France

Boulogne-Billancourt Hauts-de-Seine Seine-Maritime Rouen Nancy Argenteuil Montreuil Saint-Paul Roubaix Saint-Denis Avignon Tourcoing Fort-de-France Crteil Poitiers Nanterre Versailles Courbevoie Val-d'Oise Seine-Saint-Denis La Runion Nord Seine-Saint-Denis Vaucluse Nord Martinique Val-de-Marne Vienne Hauts-de-Seine Yvelines Hauts-de-Seine

Meurthe-et-Moselle Lorraine

People who live in Metz pronounce the city more like mess, whereas most other French people pronounce it metz.

Geographical Features of France: la Loire la Garonne le Rhne la Seine les Alpes (f) le Mont-Blanc le Jura les Pyrnes (f) le Massif Central Loire river Garonne river Rhne river Seine river the Alps Mont Blanc (highest mountain in W. Europe) the Jura the Pyrenees the Massif Central

les Vosges (f) la mer Mditerrane l'ocan Atlantique (m) la Mer du Nord la Manche le Golfe de Gascogne

the Vosges Mediterranean Sea Atlantic Ocean North Sea English Channel Bay of Biscay

Writing Letters Your name and address should be placed in the top left corner. The receiver's address is placed below yours, on the right. The city you are in and the date is placed below the addresses, and on the left. (Remember to use French date formats: le 7 octobre 2008). Your name Your address Zip Code & City Receiver's Name Receiver's Address Zip Code & City City, le # mois 2009 Madame ou Monsieur, Common formal endings:

Dans lattente de votre rponse, je vous prie dagrer, Monsieur, lexpression de mes sentiments respectueux. Veuillez agrer, Madame, Monsieur, lexpression de mes salutations distingues.

Je vous prie de croire, Monsieur, l'assurance de mes sentiments distingus.

Notice that you should not use sentiments with Madame because it's considered rude. In less formal situations, such as in certain e-mails, you can just use cordialement.

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