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Different Ways to Perform Hajj

Hajj can be performed in three different ways:


%amattu' - Qiran - Ifraad.

1-Tamattu` means performing `Umrah during the Hajj season,
and on the Day of Tarwiyah the pilgrim gets into the state of
Ihram for Hajj. Anyone intending to perform a Tamattu' Hajj
should make intention for `Umrah when approaching the Miqat.
The intention here should be for `Umrah. The pilgrim should say,

"Labbayk-Allahumma labbayka bi'Umrah!" or "Labbayka
'Umratan!"
"O Allah! I answer Your call to perform `Umrah."

The pilgrim can add some other du'aa such as: " O Allah! I intend
to perform `Umrah, so make it easy for me, and accept it from
me." It is also allowed for the pilgrim though intending initially to
complete Hajj or 'Umrah to put a condition whereby if for some
unexpected sickness or circumstances the journey could not be
completed, he, or she, can end the state of Ihraam without
having to sacrifice an animal or fast. Therefore, the pilgrim can
address Allah saying,

"Inna mahilli minal-Ardi haythu habastani"
" I will end up my state of Ihraam wherever I cannot proceed."

After this, the pilgrim proceeds with Talbiyah as shown
previously. Once the pilgrim reaches Makkah, he heads for al-
Masjid al-Haraam and circumambulates the Ka`bah seven times
in a state of wudu beginning by kissing the black stone or if it's
impossible by raising the hands as far as the ears saying,
"Bismillah Allahu Akbar!" After Tawaaf, the pilgrim prays two
Rak'aas at Maqaamu Ibraahim - without disturbing those who
circumambulate- drinks Zamzam water then goes to walk
between as-Safaa and al-Marwah seven times, then gets the hair
cut or shaved. With this the state of Ihraam and 'Umrah are
ended. On the day of Tarwiyah, that is the 8th of Dhul-Hijjah, the
pilgrim enters another time in the state of Ihraam saying,

" Labbayk-Allahumma labbayka bi-Hajj!" or "Labbayka Hajjan"
"O Allah! I answer Your call to perform Hajj."

The pilgrim can add, " O Allah! I intend to perform Hajj, so make
it easy for me, and accept it from me. I intend to perform Hajj
and I am entering in the state of Ihram only for Your sake, O
Allah !" Then the Talbiyah is repeated throughout the rituals of
Hajj in Mina, Arafah, and Muzdalifah. On the 10th of dhul-Hijjah,
a sacrifice should be offered to Allah as mentioned in Qur'an after
stoning at al-Jamaraat. After the sacrifice is done, the pilgrim can
shave or cut the hair. Once the Tawaaf of Ifaadah is done, the
pilgrim should do Sa'y between as-Safa and al-Marwah for Hajj.
However, if a person starts with the Tawaaf of al-Ifaadah, then
Sa'y, then shaves and then stones at al-Jamaraat it is also
accepted.
Tamattu' Hajj is the most recommended for people and it was
more encouraged to it by the Prophet (S). This is indeed the best
way to perform Hajj. Once Hajj is completed, a Hady should be
offered on the 10th. Allah (swt) says,

"If any one wishes to continue the Umra on to the Hajj, he must
make an offering such as he can afford, but if he cannot afford it,
he should fast three days during the Hajj and seven days on his
return, making ten days in all. This is for those whose household
is not in (the precincts of) the Sacred Mosque, and fear Allah, and
know that Allah, is strict in punishment."(2:196)

2-Qiran means to combine Hajj and 'Umrah. This means that the
pilgrim should declare the intention to perform both Hajj and
`Umrah together,

"Labbayk-Allahumma labbayka bi-Hajjin wa-'Umrah!" or
"Labbayka Hajjan wa 'Umratan!"
"O Allah! I answer Your call to perform Hajj and 'Umrah!"

In this kind of Hajj, it is not allowed for the pilgrim to end the
state of Ihraam after Sa'ay. The pilgrim will not have to perform
after the Ifadah Tawaaf on the 10th of dhil Hijjah the Sa'y
because it is already performed for both Hajj and `Umrah.
The pilgrim is supposed to bring his sacrificial animal with him as
the Prophet (S) did. This must be done because the rituals of Hajj
and `Umrah were joined together.

3-Ifraad means that the pilgrim declares his intention for Hajj
only.

" Labbayk-Allahumma labbayka bi-Hajj!" or " Labbayka Hajjan"
"O Allah! I answer Your call to perform Hajj."
The pilgrim maintains his Ihraam up to the Day of Sacrifice. No
animal sacrifice offering is required from him.

#ituals of Hajj %amattu'

Ihraam for 'Umrah From the Miqaat -> %awaaf -> Sa'y ->
Hair Cutting

Umrah is complete here and Ihraam is ended

-> On the 8th of dhul-Hijjah Make the intention for Hajj
then go to Mina after entering in the state of Ihraam

-> #emain in Mina and pray from Dhuhr to Fajr of the 9th
then proceed to 'Arafaat and pray Dhuhr & 'Asr combined
and shortened with the Imam and then stop in 'Arafaat
making du'aa and dhikr then leave to Muzdalifah after
sunset

-> Pray Maghrib and 'Isha in Muzdalifah and remain there
overnight. After praying Fajr and before sunrise go to al-
Mash'ar al- Haraam and make du'aa then go to Jamarat al-
'Aqabah and throw seven pebbles then offer a had'y then
shave or cut the hair. %hereafter go to Makkah to make
%awaaf

-> Make %awaaf al-Ifaadah then make Sa'y and your Hajj
is complete. Go back to Mina and sleep three nights or at
least two. Before you leave Makkah make the Farewell
%awaaf.
Three Kinds Of Hajj
Three Kinds Of Hajj
Firstly:
Defining one's intention (Niyyat) exclusively for 'Hajj' Pilgrimage on starting
the journey and wearing 'hram' with this very intention. 'Hajj' and 'Umra'
are not added together. The Hajj of this kind is called 'frad' and its'
observer is named as 'Mufrid'.
Secondly:
Adding 'Hajj' and 'Umra' together and defining one's intention for both of
them from the very beginning. 'hram' is also to be worn jointly for both. t is
called 'Qiran' and one who performs this kind is termed as 'Qarin'.
Thirdly:
Adding Umra and Hajj together in a way that from Miqat the hram is first
worn only for Umra. Hajj is not intended with this hram. On reaching
Mecca the obligations of : Umra are discharged and the pilgrim has his hair
cut or shaven, thus ending his hram of Umra. On the 8th of the month of
Zilhijja the hram for Hajj is worn a fresh from 'Masjid-ul-Haram' This kind of
Hajj is named as 'Tamattu' and its performer is called as 'Mutamatte'.
A 'Hajj' pilgrim is at liberty to chose anyone of these three kinds but Qiran is
pre-eminent among them. All the three kinds differ with one another in
respect of one's defining intention and wearing 'hram' therefor. They are
also at variance with one another in some practices of performing them.
Their distinctions should therefore be carefully instilled in mind.
The Difference Between The Abovementioned Three Kinds Of Hajj:
The first point where these three kinds are at variance with one another lies
in determining one's intention therefor. n the first kind of Hajj that is to say
in 'frad' at the time of wearing 'hram' one has to intend to perform Hajj
only. n the Hajj of the 2nd nature, the intention is to be determined for 'Hajj'
and Umra both. n the third that is in 'Tamattu' at the time of wearing first
'hram', the intention is to be particularized to Umra only.
The other prominent difference liesin 'hram' wearing the duration of which
in the first two kinds lasts upto the fulfillment of all the practices of 'Hajj',
while in the third it ends on reaching Mecca when one has one's hair cut or
shaven after being free from the essentials of Umra i.e. Tawaf of Ka'ba and
Sa'i between Safa and Marwah. He will be able to stay in Mecca without
the restriction of 'hram' upto the 8th 'Zilhijja' on which date he will again
wear 'hram' on Masjid-ul-Haram (or from his residence in Mecca etc.) for
the purpose of 'Hajj'. the third kind of 'Hajj' is, of course, comparatively
more convenient but 'Qiran' is pre-eminent provided one successfully sticks
to the long-lasting restrictions of 'hram'. Otherwise, it is better perform
'Tamattu'. Anyhow, the practices and dictates for Hajj, Umra and hram are
similar to one another in all the three kinds. the only difference lies in the
fact that for a 'Qiran' and 'Mutamatte', an offering of sacrifice in Mina on the
10th Zilhijja is wajib (essential) while for a 'Mufrid' it is only 'Mustahab'
(desirable).
The intention detailed above for all the three kinds of 'Hajj' stands
determined only by way of making up one's mind and by uttering the words
thereof in one's own language. However it is better to pronounce it in
Arabic language. For instance, in 'frad' the intention is to be pronounced as
follows :
"O Allah : intend 'Hajj' Render it easy for me and accord it Thy approval. "
The intention for 'Qiran' should be pronounced as under :
"O Allah ! intend Hajj and Umra both. Render them easy for me and
accord them Thy approval."
n case of 'Tamattu' the intention at the time of wearing first 'hram' is to be
pronounced with these words :
" O Allah : intend Umra. Render it easy for me and accord it Thy
approval."
The intention has been depicted herein both the languages, Arabic and
English. f one feels and difficulty in cramming up the words of the Arabic
text, the pronouncement of its subject matter in one's own language is
permissible irrespective of its being in any of the languages, English, Urdu,
Persian, Panjabi, Bangla, or Pushto.



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%ypes of Hajj

The way in which the pilgrimage to Mecca can be performed and the
regulations governing its rites vary according to where the pilgrim lives or
whether intends to make `Umrah along with Hajj or whether one wants to
offer an animal sacrifice or not. These variations have been traditionally
grouped into three categories and referred to as the three types of Hajj: Hajj
Ifrad, Hajj Qiran and Hajj Tamattu`. Any one of these three methods, if
performed according to their regulations without doing any actions which
invalidate them, fulfill the compulsory Islamic requirement of Hajj once in a
lifetime. The three permissible kinds of Hajj with the rules and regulations
governing each of them are as follows:
IF#AD
QI#AN
%AMA%U'
O
O


A pilgrim is
required to enter

This is Hajj
combined with

`Umrah is combined
with Hajj under this


Isolated Hajj: The
pilgrim performing
it is called Mufrid.
This type is allowed
only for those living
within the
boundaries (Miqat)
from which Ihram is
put on.
Accompanied Hajj:
The pilgrim
performing it is
called Qarin. It can
only be done by
those living outside
the Miqat.
This concession
is only for those
whose homes are
not near the
sacred Mosque.

Noble Quran
2:196]


Enjoyable Hajj: The
pilgrim performing
it is called
Mutamatti`. It can
only to be done by
those living outside
the Miqat
the state of Ihram
with the intention
of doing Hajj only.
`Umrah without
coming out of
Ihram, The Qarin
should enter the
state of Ihram with
the intention of
performing `Umrah
and Hajj together.
The Qarin is not
allowed to come out
of the Ihram no
matter how long
the period between
his `Umrah and Hajj
may be.
type; however, a
new Ihram is made
for the Hajj After
coming out of the
Ihram of `Umrah,
the Mutamatti` is
allowed to do
everything that was
permitted before
going into the state
of Ihram.
O


If a Mufrid performs
`Umrah during the
months of Hajj
(Shawwal, Dhul-
Qa'dah & Dhul-
Hijjah) prior to the
beginning of the
Hajj rites proper
(8th of Dhul-
Hijjah), he is no
longer considered a
Mufrid. He must
now shift to one of
the other two types
of Hajj combine
`Umrah along with
them and their
regulations must
instead be followed.

For Hajj Qiran, the
`Umrah has to be
done within the
months of Hajj
(Shawwal, Dhul-
Qa'dah & the first
ten days of Dhul-
Hijjah) and
completed before
beginning the rites
of Hajj.

The `Umrah has to
be within the
months of Hajj and
must be completed
before beginning
the rites of Hajj.
After completing
`Umrah, the pilgrim
making Hajj
Tamattu` must
come out of his or
her state of Ihram.


When he reaches
Mecca, he performs

When he reaches
Mecca, he performs

The Tawaf made for
`Umrah takes the
Tawaf for his arrival
and Sa'i for Hajj
known as Tawaf al
Qudum (the arrival
circuit). It is
permissible for him
to postpone his Sa'i
for Hajj until after
his Tawaf for Hajj.
Tawaf for his arrival
and Sa'i for Hajj.
place of the arrival
Tawaf (Tawaf al-
Qudum). This is
then followed by 2
Rak'as Salah near
to Ibrahim's station
(In case of heavy
traffic he may do
the Salah anywhere
in the general area
to avoid causing
problems with
those making their
Tawaf).
O


No shaving or
clipping hair, as he
doesnt disengage
from Ihram.
Instead, he remains
in Ihram till after he
stones Jamrah Al-
Aqabah on the Eid
day.

The Qarin should
clip his hair after
`Umrah instead of
shaving it.

The Mutamatti`
should clip his hair
instead of shaving
it to come out of his
state of Ihram after
completing the
`Umrah part of his
pilgrimage.
O


May offer an animal
sacrifice if he wants
to, but he is under
no obligation to do
so.

Must offer an
animal sacrifice
which he brought
along with him from
the boundaries
known as the Miqat.

Must offer an
animal sacrifice, but
if he is unable to do
so, he is required to
fast for ten days
according to Allahs
statement:
ut if someone
can not afford a
sacrifice, he can
fast three days
during Hajj and
seven row days
after returning
home. That is ten
days in all.

Noble Quran
2:196]




Duties of Ihram

If the pilgrim fails to do one of the duties he has to slaughter an
animal. If he cannot afford to slaughter an animal, he has to fast
The duties of Ihram are:
To make intention of Ihram from the Miqat (Prescribed place
from where Ihram starts). Ibn `Abbas said:

The Messenger of Allah had designated Dhul-al-Hulaifah for the
people of Madinah, Al-Juhfah for the people of Syria, Qarn Al-
Manazil for the People of Najd and Yalamlam for the people of
Yemen as starting points of Ihram. He further said: These places
are for the inhabitants of these region and for those who pass by
intending to perform Hajj and `Umrah. The starting point to
perform Hajj and Umrah for the inhabitants of Makkah is Makkah
itself by entering into the state of Ihram and reciting Talbiyah.

Abstaining from wearing sewn clothes, keeping the head
uncovered and not wearing shoes.

Repetition of Talbiyah The Talbiyah is as follows:
Labbayk, Allahumma Labbayik -- Labbayk La Shareek Laka
Labbayk-- Innal-hamda Wanimata laka wal-mulk -- La shareeka
lak.

Here I come to you O Allah. Here I am to worship you. Here I am
to respond to you. There is no partner with you. Here I come to
you, verily Praise, Bounty, and Dominion belong to you. There is
no partner with you.


The Talbiyah is to be uttered when the pilgrim commences Ihram
at the Miqat. It is recommended to utter Talbiyah while
embarking, disembarking, at the time of Adhan or at the end of
Salah.

Sunan (#ecommendations) of Ihram

These are the deeds which if a pilgrim fails to perform, no Fidya
(ransom or expiation) will be enjoined on him but he will miss
great rewards.

Bathing for Ihram. Bathing is also recommended for women in
menses and in post delivery state. The Messenger of Allah (peace
be upon him) ordered one of Abu Bakr's wives, who intended to
perform Hajj to wash herself after she had delivered.

Clipping nails, trimming the mustache, plucking the armpit hair
and shaving the pubic hair for the Messenger of Allah (peace be
upon him) had done so.

To wear white rida and izar (Upper and Lower Ihram garb)
because this was the practice of the Messenger (peace be upon
him).

To start Ihram after praying an obligatory or supererogatory
Salah.

To repeat and renew Talbiyah at the time of embarking,
disembarking or Salah.

To supplicate and pray for the Prophet (peace be upon him)
after Talbiyah, because the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon
him) used to, after reciting Talbiyah, ask Allah for Jannah
(Paradise) and used to seek refuge of Allah from the Hellfire.

Prohibitions of Ihram

These are the acts prohibited while one is in the state of Ihram. If
one commits any one of them, he has to offer Fidya. They are:

Covering the head.

Shaving or shortening any hair of the body.

Clipping the nails whether of the hands or the feet.

Using perfume.

Wearing sewn clothes.

Killing game (animals hunted as food) of the land. Allah the Most
High said:


ou who believe! Kill not game while in Ihram.
Noble Quran 5:95]


Kissing and touching with sexual desire. Allah the Most High
said:


et there be no obscenity, nor wickedness, nor wrangling
in the Hajj.

Noble Quran 2:197]


To marry or propose for marriage. The Messenger of Allah
(peace be upon him) said:
A man in the state of Ihram shall not be married or allowed to
propose.

Sexual intercourse, because Allah the Most High said:


et there be no obscenity, nor wickedness, nor wrangling
in the Hajj.

Noble Quran 2:197]


Concerning the first five prohibitions he who commits anyone of
them, has to offer a Fidya and it means to fast for three days or
to feed six indigents by giving each one of them a handful (about
1.25 kg) of wheat or to slaughter a goat. Allah the Most High
says:


nd if anyone of you is ill, or has an ailment in his scalp,
(necessitating shaving), (he should) in compensation,
either fast or feed (the poor), or offer sacrifice.

Noble Quran 2:196]


As for the killing of land game, it has to be compensated in
equivalent. Allah says:


If anyone of you kills intentionally, the compensation is an
offering brought to the Ka`bah, of an animal equivalent to
the one he killed. s adjudged by two just men among you
or for expiation he should feed poor persons or its
equivalent in fasting.
Noble Quran 5:95]


For kissing during Ihram, the pilgrim has to slaughter a sheep or
goat in compensation. Sexual intercourse invalidates Hajj but the
pilgrim is advised to complete Hajj and to offer a Badanah
(Camel) and perform Hajj the following year. If a Badanah is not
available, he has to fast for ten days and perform Hajj next year.
It was reported in Muwatta' Imam Malik that `Umar Ibn Al-
Khattab, Ali Ibn Abi Talib and Abu Hurairah were asked about a
man who had sexual intercourse with his wife while he was
performing Hajj? They said: "He has to complete his Hajj as well
as having to perform Hajj the next year and offer a sacrifice in
compensation. As for marriage, proposing for marriage and other
sins such as backbiting and slandering, the atonement is
repentance and asking Allah's forgiveness.
Common Mistakes in Hajj
By Muhammad Alshareef

In Aqidah (the Muslim's Belief)

Many Pilgrims when they travel to Medina they pray to the
graves. They make Du'a to the prophet of Allah (peace be upon
him). This could not only ruin their Hajj, it could nullify their
Islam.

Do not rub graves for Barakah (blessings).

Do not make Du'a to anyone except Allah.

When going to Medina, your initial intention should be to visit
Masjid An-Nabawi, the Prophet's Masjid.

In Ihram

Do not pass the Miqat without being in the state of Ihram. If you
are landing in Jeddah and going to Mecca to perform `Umrah
directly, you must be in a state of Ihram before you land, as the
plane shall enter the Miqat. Jeddah is inside the Miqat.

If you are landing in Jeddah, you need your Ihram towels with
you on the airplane in your carry-on bag.

Women may wear anything Islamically permissible for Ihram.

Do not take pictures of yourself in Ihram. You came to worship
Allah and taking pictures for showing others later may contradict
your sincerity of doing this for the sake of Allah.

Women in their menses must be in a state of Ihram when they
pass the Miqat. They should shower and do Talbiyah like
everyone else.

Do not uncover your right shoulder until you reach the Ka'bah
and begin Tawaf. This is the time that the Messenger uncovered
his shoulder and it is an act of Hajj, so we must follow when the
Prophet did it.

You may change your Ihram towels if they get dirty

You do not enter into Ihram by just wearing the towels. You
must make the intention to begin.

Do not shave your beard, whether before, during or after Ihram.

You should wear sandals, but if you do not have sandals, you do
not have to walk barefoot. Wear what you have until you find a
place to get sandals.

When beginning your Ihram for Hajj, do it from where you are:
in your hotel, on the street, etc. You do not have to go to the
Ka'bah to start your Ihram for Hajj.

Do pay attention to what you are saying when you are making
the Talbiyah: Labbayk Allahumma Labbayk

When you hear that you are not allowed to wear stitches in
Ihram, know that what is meant is that you cannot wear pieces of
cloth that are sewn together to wrap your body, such as a T-Shirt
or underwear.

Both men and women may shower with unscented soap. Yes, for
women and men, you may comb your hair, as the Prophet's wives
used to do when they were in Ihram.

In %awaf:

You do not have to say your intention out loud to begin Tawaf.
Saying intentions out loud is something the Prophet (peace be
upon him) never did except after Ihram when he said, (Labbayk
Allahumma `Umrah wa Hajj).

You do not have to touch the black stone for your Tawaf to be
accepted. If it is crowded you may face your hand toward the
stone and say Allahu Akbar.

Do not kiss the Yemeni corner. You may only touch it.

Do not worship the black stone. You are glorifying Allah by
coming to this house and worshiping Him, following the Sunnah
of the prophet of Allah (peace be upon him).

Do not follow those Du'a books that make up Du'a for each time
you go around the Ka'bah. Read Quran and make Du'a from your
heart and glorify Allah.

Make Du'a by yourself, do not do it in a shouting group around
the Ka'bah.

Do not wipe the walls of the Ka'bah during Tawaf. The prophet
of Allah did not touch anything other than the black stone and the
Yemeni corner.

Do not hurt anyone to kiss the black stone.

Do not face your hand to the Yemeni corner and say Allahu
Akbar. This is only for the black stone.

Do not push or hurt anyone during Tawaf.

The Ka'bah should be to your left. Do not do Tawaf with your
back to the Ka'bah.

Do not stand at the black stone line for a long time. Move on.

Do not lengthen your 2 Rak'ah of Tawaf.

There is nothing in the sunnah about: Du'a Maqam Ibrahim.
After you pray the 2 Rak'ah of Tawaf move on.

In Sa'i (going between Safa and Marwah)

Although preferable, you do not have to have Wudu during Sa'i.

You do not have to climb to the top of Safa or Marwah.

You can take breaks in Sa'i to drink water or rest.

You can take a break after Tawaf, before Sa'i.

You do not have to jog the whole way, from Safa to Marwah.
Only within the green lights, the valley of Safa and Marwah.

Women do not have to run between the green lights.

There is no specific Du'a to say between Safa and Marwah.

Do not miss the Du'a that the prophet of Allah said when he
stood on Safa. Then raise your hands and pray as he did (peace
be upon him).

Do not say your intention out loud before making Sa'i.

When Shaving or %rimming:

Shave your complete head, do not leave parts unshaved.

If you shall trim, take from all sides of your head.

Do not take off your Ihram until you have shaved or trimmed.
You are still in Ihram until you do so.

Do not shave your beard.

In Mina, Arafah, and Muzdalifah:

Many people do not confirm if where they are located is inside or
outside the borders of the holy sites. Confirm.

Do not reserve a place that is more than your need. Many
people are looking for places to sit down and sleep.

Only in Arafah and Muzdalifah do you shorten and combine
prayers. In Mina only shorten your prayers, but pray them at the
correct time.

Do not waste your Hajj time in vain chatting.

Spending the 8th day in Mina is the Sunnah of the prophet of
Allah. Many people skip this and go to Arafah.

Do not push anyone when you are in a crowd.

You do not have to go to the Mt. of Mercy in Arafah. Many
people hurt themselves and others to be there even though it is
not a Wajib thing to do.

Mt. Rahmah is not a holy mountain. Do not wipe its sand and
rocks for Barakah (blessings).

You do not have to pray Dhuhr and Asr on Arafah day in the
Masjid of Arafah (Masjid Namira). You may pray in your tent with
your group.

Do not leave Arafah before Maghrib time.

Women should avoid getting into a crushing crowd, like in Masjid
Namira.

Do not face Mt. Rahmah on Arafah day when you make Du'a.
You should face the Qiblah.

You should not treat your time in Arafah like any other day. You
should realize the significance and pray to Allah in humility.

At Maghrib time in Arafah, do not pray Maghrib and Isha until
you reach Muzdalifah, even if you reach there at 11:00 at night.
However, if you see half the night approaching, pray where you
are on the road.

Make sure you are in Muzdalifah before you stop and rest. Many
people think they are in Muzdalifah but they are not. Look for the
border signs. If you have not seen one, chances are you are still
not in Muzdalifah even if you see others sleeping on the road.

After praying Maghrib and Isha in Muzdalifah, go to sleep
immediately, this is what the prophet of Allah did.

Through all of this, continue doing your Talbiyah.

In stoning the Jamarat:

The Jamarat are not Devils, and Shaytan is not tied up for the
stoning of himself. Hajjis that hold this misconception end up
cursing, swearing, throwing sandals, etc. It is a commandment
from Allah to glorify Allah by saying (Allahu Akbar) with each
pebble.

You do not have to wash your stones.

Do not throw sandals or wood or big rocks. This is all against the
Sunnah.

Do not hurt/shove when at the Jamarat.

Say Allahu Akbar with each pebble. Do not say Bismillah.

Throw the pebbles separately.

Make Du'a after the first and second Jamarat.

Do not throw the Jamarat before it is time.

Throw the Jamarat from small to medium to large. Not the other
way.

If someone is throwing on your behalf, you must be unable to
throw yourself.

If someone is throwing on your behalf, you do not have to
collect the stones yourself and hand the stones to that thrower.

Throw seven pebbles, not more or less.

In %awaf Al-Wada' (Farewell %awaf):

You cannot do your final Jamarat after Tawaf Al-Wada, as some
people attempt.

Do not walk in massive groups during Tawaf. This hurts many
people.

You MUST spend the night in Mina on the 10th night and 11th
night. The two days of Hajj, the days of Mina, are the 11th and
12th, not the 10th and 11th.

After Tawaf Al-Wada' you must leave Mecca, or else another
Tawaf should be made.

After Tawaf Al-Wada' you may have lunch or wait at a bus, etc.,
as long as you are on your way out of Mecca.

In Medina:

Visiting Medina has nothing to do with your Hajj. It is something
different and separate.

Do not wipe or kiss any walls for Barakah (blessings). It is only
rock and marble.

Do not raise your voice near the Prophet's grave.

Do not do Tawaf around the Prophet's grave.

You do not need Ihram to enter Medina.

Do not make Du'a to the Prophet. Du'a is to be made to Allah
and Allah alone.

If you want to pray for the Prophet to intercede for you on the
day of Judgment (Shifa'ah), pray to Allah for that. "O Allah, allow
Your Prophet to intercede for me.."

Do not raise your voice in Du'a near the grave. Face Qiblah and
leave the grave area when you want to make Du'a.

Miscellaneous:

Do not add the term Hajji to your name after returning home.

Hadith such as: "whoever visits my grave, I shall intercede for
them." Hadith to this effect are lies against the prophet of Allah
(peace be upon him).

A final note:

The Muslims in these mistakes are three:

One group is sincerely ignorant of these things and they have
little clue that what they are doing is Haram or incorrect. For
these people - insha'Allah - there is nothing upon them.

A second group is ignorant, but they have the ability to learn
and find out. All that stops them from doing so is their laxness in
studying and asking. For these people, it is feared that they may
be sinful for their laziness in learning.

A third group is aware of these mistakes. They perform it
however to either follow their culture or to misguide people. This
person is sinful and they shall assume the sin of those that they
misguide.


Our ord, do not take us to account if we forget or make a
mistake.
Noble Quran 2:286]

A Woman's Guide %o Hajj
By Muhammad Alshareef

Introduction

All praise is due to Allah. We praise Him, seek His help, and ask
His forgiveness. We seek refuge in Allah from the evil of our
souls, and the adverse consequences of our deeds. Whoever Allah
guides, there is none that can misguide him. And whoever He
misguides, then none can guide him aright.

I bear witness that there is no deity that is worthy of worship
except for Allah; He is alone, having no partners. And I bear
witness and testify that Muhammad (peace be upon him) is His
perfect worshipper and messenger.

The goal of this term paper was to give the Muslim woman a
chance to see those Fiqh rulings that are specific to her in Hajj -
since many a time her rulings are lost in the general discussion of
how to perform Hajj. In the end one should have a general idea
of those things that a woman differs in Hajj from men. They
should be able to recognize differences in ritual worship between
the women and men. And they - insha'Allah - should get a clear
understanding of issues that are commonly differed upon.

After having been given the opportunity - alhamdullilah - to
attend Hajj for a few years, the subject that came to mind to
write about for this course of Fiqh Al-Kitab was Sunnah was that
of women in Hajj. Because of the lack of experience people, not
specifically from North America, have with the rites of Hajj, I
wanted to give the Muslim woman a chance to look specifically at
those things which she needs to focus on and understand.

With the intention of writing a term paper that would elucidate
the Fiqh rulings specific to women in Hajj, I went about
organizing the topics under three chapters, the first dealing with
Ihram, and the second with ritual differences between the men
and women.

In conclusion, all praise is due to Allah. All goodness is from Him
and no matter how much we praise Allah it would not equal the
blessings that He bestowed upon us.

I thank the American Open University, with their diligent work in
helping to carry the message of Islam to homes all across the
United States and abroad, for giving me the chance to study this
topic and benefit from it's contents.

And with special mention, I must thank my instructor Dr. Houcine
Chouat who responded favorably to the idea of this essay being
written in English, instead of the standard Arabic. May Allah
reward him, and the entire administration at the American Open
University, with the best of reward and may they find safety on a
Day when no wealth or children will avail, only those that came
with a sound heart.

And our final prayer is that to Allah belongs all praise.

Chapter One: Ihram

Should a woman shower upon entering the Miqat

It is equally part of the Sunnah for a woman to shower before
Ihram just as it is for a man. In fact, in the case of women who at
the time may be experiencing Hayd or Nifas, there is specific
proof that she should take this shower.

Imam Muslim relates in his Sahih that from Ayshah - May Allah
be pleased with her - that she said, "Asma' bint `Umays had
Nifas after giving birth to Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr. This
happened at Ash-Shajarah (a place near the Miqat outside of
Madinah). So Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) directed
that she should bathe and begin the Tahlil."

In this regard of showering before Ihram, the menstruating
woman is in the same ruling as one who finds herself in Nifas.
The Prophet of Allah (peace be upon him) said, "If the
Menstruating woman and the one in Nifas enter the time they
should bathe and enter into Ihram and complete all the rituals
(like others) except Tawaf of the (Ka'bah)."

Showering

Abu Dawud and others narrated that Ibn Abbas asked Abu Ayyub
Al-Ansari, "While he was in a state of Ihram, how did the Prophet
of Allah (peace be upon him) wash his head?" Abu Ayyub (who
was bathing at the time) replied by asking someone to pour water
on his head. He then rubbed his head with his hand, going back
and forth. He then said, "In such a way I saw the Prophet (peace
be upon him) wash."

This narration is used by the scholars as proof that it is
permissible for a male or female in Ihram to take a bath and pour
water over their head and to pass their hand through their hair.

If the bath is needed because of sexual impurity (Janabah), then
the scholars agree that it is permissible. Even if the bath is
desired to just cool off or for other non-essential reasons, the
majority of scholars say that it is permissible without any
reservations.

Imam Ash-Shafi'i said - after narrating this incident about Abu
Ayyub Al-Ansari, "This is the opinion that we hold. A Muhrim may
take a bath whether it is due to sexual impurity or for other
reasons. One may wash their head and soak their body with
water."

However, some scholars have recommended that a woman
should not shower unless it is necessary. This is because she is in
Ihram and busy with the actions of Hajj. In fact, to bathe during
Ihram is simply an issue of permissibility, but there is no one that
says that it is recommended (Mustahabb). To some scholars, it is
more recommended to remain dusty and disheveled.

Imam An-Nawawi said, "It is more desirable that the pilgrim
remain dusty and disheveled. The proof of this is the statement of
Allah [Then let them end their untidiness...] (22/29) and the
statement of the Prophet of Allah (peace be upon him): [Verily
Allah boasts the people of Arafah to the inhabitants of the
heavens, saying, `Look at my slaves - they have come to me
disheveled and dusty.']"

Combing one's hair during Ihram

It is Makruh for a woman (or man) in Ihram to aggressively comb
their hair - causing excessive amounts of hair to fall out - or to
brush un-necessarily. This is because doing so may lead to hair
being cut - which is one of the forbidden acts when someone is in
Ihram.

As for brushing lightly or scratching one's head, this is
permissible. There is a famous saying in the books of Fiqh where
they suggest that someone should scratch with the insides of
their hands - i.e. softly.

Imam An-Nawawi said, "As for a Muhrim (someone in the state of
Ihram), I do not know of any opinion that says he is not
permitted to scratch his head. Rather, it is something
permissible."

There is a phenomenon amongst some women which works as
such: They tie up their head very tightly and do not un-tie it until
their Hajj is over. When they are in need of making Wudu',
instead of wiping their hair they do wipe over their Hijab instead.

Sheikh Salah As-Sawi, one of the directors at the American Open
University, commented that doing this is an example of someone
placing a hardship upon themselves, a hardship that the Shari'ah
does not require. He said that when a person combs their hair
lightly or scratches, the person is not held responsible for the
dead hairs that naturally come out.

%he color of clothes a woman in Ihram may wear

It is permissible for the woman to wear any women's clothes she
pleases which are not attractive or resemble the clothes of men,
or are tight-fitting showing the dimensions of her limbs, or
transparent - not concealing what is underneath, or too short -
not covering her legs or hands, but instead should be abundant,
thick and wide.

Ibn al-Mundhir said, as quoted in al-Mughni:

"There is consensus among the scholars that the woman in Ihram
can wear shirts, vests, baggy trousers, Khimars, and leather
socks."

She does not have to wear a particular color (such as green) and
can instead wear any colors she desires from among those
specific to women (such as dark red, green or black). It is also
permissible for her to change these colors if she wishes.

Wearing Jewelry in Ihram

It is permissible for women to wear jewelry while she is in a state
of Ihram. It was narrated in Al-Bukhari, that Umm Al-Mu'minin
Ayshah used to not consider anything wrong with a Muhrimah
wearing jewelry.
In Al-Mughni by Ibn Qudamah, he says, "I heard from Ahmad,
who heard from Nafi' that the women (from the household) of Ibn
`Umar used to wear jewelry while they were in a state of Ihram.
Ibn `Umar (seeing this) would not forbid them."

Thus, it is apparent from the Madhhab of Imam Ahmad that it is
permissible for a woman in Ihram to wear jewelry.

This permissibility of wearing jewelry is also the opinion of the
Hanafiyyah and Malikiyyah. They quote as their proof - in addition
to the above - the fact that wearing jewelry is an act of
adornment and a woman in Hajj is not forbidden from adorning
herself.

Covering the face

A woman in Hajj should not cover her face or wear gloves, just as
a male should not cover his head. There is no difference of
opinion on this issue, based on the clear statement of the Prophet
of Allah (peace be upon him), "The Muhrimah (a female in Ihram)
should not cover her face, nor should she wear gloves."

Having said that, it is permissible for her to cover her face if she
fears the gaze of non-Mahram men upon her.

It was narrated that Umm Al-Mu'minin Ayshah said, "The riders
would pass by us while we were with the Prophet of Allah (peace
be upon him) in a state of Ihram. When one of them would ride
next to us, we would take our Jilbab and cover (coming down
with the cloth from our heads) our face. When the rider would
pass, we would uncover once again."

Scholars have used this Hadith to show that if a woman is in need
of covering her face then it is permissible for her to do so.

However, the Shafi'iyyah set a condition to this covering saying
that the Niqab should not touch the women's face. This was also
the opinion of Al-Qadi from the Hanabilah.

In actuality, this condition does not have overall agreement from
the scholars. Ibn Qudamah said in regards to this condition, "I
have not found this condition to be from (Imam) Ahmad, nor is it
from the Hadith. In fact, reality contradicts this condition. For
verily, the cloth that covers over a women's face, rarely does it
remain un-touching to her skin. Had this been a condition (that it
should not touch her face) the Prophet (peace be upon him) -
would have explained it."

Refuting the claims of those who claimed that the condition of the
women's Niqab in Hajj is that it not touch her face, Imam Ash-
Shawkani used similar arguments as that of Imam Ibn Qudamah.

And Allah knows best.

%ouching one's spouse intimately or non-intimately

If a male in Ihram touches his wife with desire, or kisses her,
then he would be obliged to pay the Fidyah (penalty) - and the
same would go for women. This is the opinion of the Hanabilah.

More so, the male is between two situations after touching his
wife: either he releases some fluid or not. If he does not release
anything, then the penalty for him is that he must slaughter a
sheep. If he does release something, then he must slaughter a
camel.

As for the women in this situation, then perhaps her situation is
that of the males. Ibn Qudamah said, "The women is just like the
male in this respect."

The Hanafiyyah and Shafi'iyyah said: It is Wajib for someone who
kisses or touches his or her spouse with desire that they pay the
Fidyah - which is the slaughtering of a sheep. If they cannot find
or afford the sheep, then they should alternatively either feed the
poor or fast.

From what the Hanafiyyah and Shafi'iyyah are saying, it seems
that the same applies to women if they kiss or touch their
husband with desire.
</body>





7

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HajjHajj - Inner Dimensions
Prophet's Farewell Pilgrimage
Dr. Akram Diya Al Umari and Muhammad Zeeno

Hajj is one of the five pillars of Islam and was made obligatory in
the tenth, ninth or sixth year, according to different reports [Ibn
Kathir, al Bidayah wa al Nihayah, 5/109]. In the tenth year the
Prophet (peace be upon him) announced that he intended to
perform hajj; this was the only time that he performed hajj after
the Hijrah to Medina. The Muslims came from all over the Arabian
Peninsula to perform hajj with him. He left Medina five days
before the end of Dhul-Qa'dah [Ibn Hajar, Fath al Bari, 8/104;
Ibn Ishaq, with a Hasan Isnad (Sirat ibn Hisham, 4/272). Ibn
Kathir, al Bidayah wa al Nihayah, 5/111. This is the same as Ibn
Ishaq's report. He said, "Its Isnad is Jayyid."]. When he halted in
Arafat, the following ayah was revealed to him:


This day have I perfected your religion for you, completed
My favor upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your
religion.
Noble Quran 5:3] Sahih al Bukhari, Fath al Bari, 8/108]


The Muslims learned the rituals of the hajj from the Prophet
(peace be upon him) when he said: "Take your rituals from me."
His hajj was full of laws pertaining to the Shari'ah, especially
matters pertaining to the hajj, and general advice and laws which
were mentioned in the Sermon of Arafat. For this reason, the
scholars showed great interest in the farewell pilgrimage and
derived many laws from it, dealing with the rituals of hajj and
other matters, of which the books of fiqh and Hadith explanation
are full. Some of the scholars wrote books dealing specifically
with the farewell pilgrimage.

A large gathering of Muslims participated in the event. They
listened to the farewell sermon Khutbat al-Wada' which he gave
at Arafat in the middle of the Ayyam al-Tashriq (three days
following the tenth of Dhul-Hijjah).

"Verily your blood and your property are as sacred and inviolable
as the sacredness of this day of yours, in this month of yours, in
this land of yours. Behold! Everything pertaining to the days of
ignorance is under my feet completely abolished. Abolished are
also the blood revenges of the days of ignorance. The first claim
of ours on blood revenge which I abolish is that of the son of
Rabi`ah ibn al Harith. And the usury Riba of the pre-Islamic
period is abolished, and the first of our usury I abolish is that of
`Abbas ibn `Abd al Muttalib, for it is all abolished. Fear God
concerning women! Verily you have taken them on the security of
God, and intercourse with them has been made lawful unto you
by words of God. You too have rights over them, and they should
not allow anyone to sit on your bed whom you do not like. But if
they do that, you can chastise them but not severely. Their rights
upon you are that you should provide them with food and clothing
in a fitting manner. I have left among you the Book of God, and if
you hold fast to it you would never go astray. And you would be
asked about me (on the day of resurrection), (now tell me) what
would you say? They (the audience) said: "We bear witness that
you have conveyed (the message), discharged (the ministry of
Prophethood) and given wise (sincere) counsel." He (the
narrator) said: "He (the Prophet) then raised his forefinger
toward the sky and pointed it at the people (and said): "O God,
bear witness, O God, bear witness." [The report is from Sahih
Muslim, 4/38-43, from the Hadith of Jabir ibn `Abd Allah. Al
Sheikh Muhammad Nasir al Din al Albani made some brief
additions to it, from other books of Hadith which narrated the
Hadith of Jabir with some Sahih additions (Hijjat al-Nabi, pp. 71-
73). See the report of Jabir in Hadith in Hijjat al-Nabi, 38-41. See
part of the khutbah in Sahih al Bukhari, Fath al Bari, 8/108). Ibn
Ishaq mentioned the long text of the farewell khutbah without
Isnad. Imam Ahmad mentioned the long text of the khutbah of
the farewell pilgrimage, which was given in the middle of the
Ayyam al Tashriq. Its Isnad includes `Ali ibn Zayd ibn Jad`aan,
who al Hafiz ibn Hajar, in al Taqrib, said was weak. Al Banna said,
"Al Bazzar narrated a similar report with the same meaning from
Ibn `Umar with a different Isnad." The Imams of Hadith narrated
parts of it in their books, in different chapters, through Sahih
isnads; and Allah knows best. (Al Fath al Rabbani, 279-281)]

He delivered another sermon at Mina, when he said, "Do not
return to Kufr, killing one another, after I am gone." [Sahih al
Bukhari, Fath al Bari, 8/107; Muslim, Sahih, 1/82]

[End of excerpt from Dr `Umari's work]

From Benefits of this Great Sermon:

[Adapted from Masa'il Muhimma `an il-`'Umrah wa'l-Hajj by
Muhammad Jamil Zeeno]

Prohibition of shedding innocent blood, and taking of wealth
without right, which stresses Islam's protection of souls.

Nullification of validity of actions of Jahiliyyah

Prohibition of taking Riba (usury and interest), which is an
increase on the principal, whether small or large. Allah the Most
High says:


ut if you repent, you may have your capital.
Noble Quran 2:279]


Admonition to fulfill and give women their rights, and to deal
with them in goodness. Many authentic Hadiths have been
narrated in this regard, which elucidate their rights and warn
against taking them unjustly.

Advice to strongly cling to the Book of Allah, in which lies the
honor of Muslims and their victory. Likewise, the order to stick to
the Sunnah, which explains the Quran, for verily the reason for
Muslims' weakness today is their leaving of judging by the Book
of Allah and the Sunnah of His Messenger. There will be no
victory for Muslims except by returning to these two Sources.

Testimony of the Companions that the Messenger of Allah
(peace be upon him) conveyed the message, discharged his trust
and counseled the Ummah.

Order to take rituals of Hajj and other rituals from the Prophet's
sayings, actions and tacit agreements.

Subtle indication that the Prophet's farewell would soon come.

Warning against fighting and killing among Muslims, which is
disbelief in action, which does not take one out of the fold of
Islam, as in his (peace be upon him) saying: "Cursing a Muslim is
Fusuq, and fighting him is kufr." [Agreed upon]

Contemplations for the One Performing Hajj
By Dr. Saleh As-Saleh
Excerpted from the book Hajj & Tawhid

This is a journey that was taken by Prophets and Messengers
before you. Those who take the path of the Prophets magnify the
Tawhid of Allah and His House. There are those, however, who
come to perform Hajj and their hearts are attached to other than
Allah. They invoke the dead and the righteous, whether present
or absent. This is the opposite of Tawhid, it is shirk no matter
what they call it because it is setting up rivals besides Allah. So,
free your intention from any kind of devotion to other than Allah.
Repent and come with a sincere heart submitting to Allah
remembering what Ibrahim and his son Isma'il said when they
were raising the foundations of Allah's House, the Ka'bah:


Oh our Rabb! ccept from us and make us submit to ou in
Islam and show us our Manasik [all the rites of Hajj] and
accept our repentance.
Noble Quran 2:128]


You are set to depart and you may or may not return to your
home. Make this journey to Allah's House as Allah wants it. Think
of the next journey that is surely coming, the one that leads to
the meeting of Allah, Most High. This raises questions like: What
did I prepare for that Day? Am I following Allah's Commands? Am
I a follower of the Sunnah of Muhammad (peace be upon him)?
Do I really know Allah? Am I a believer that Allah is above the
seven heavens over His 'Arsh as He has stated in His Book and as
His Messengers have asserted? Am I a believer that believes Allah
has a true Face that suits His Majesty as He has affirmed in the
Quran and as has been affirmed by His Prophet Muhammad
(peace be upon him)? Am I believer in all of Allah's Names,
Attributes and Actions which He has affirmed in His Book and by
His Messengers? Or do I just take and accept by my doubt,
rejecting, or distorting (through figurative interpretation of His
Attributes) the meanings of Allah's Attributes and Actions? And
invoke not any other ilah [god] along with Allah, La ilaha ila huwa
[none has the right to be worshipped but He], Everything will
perish save His Face. His is the Decision, and to Him [all] shall be
returned. [Al-Qasas 88]

Know, may Allah's Mercy be upon you, that when you reach the
Miqat there is another Miqat that is still to come. It is the Miqat
(appointed meeting) on the Day of Resurrection:


$ay [O Muhammad]: [es] verily, those of old, and those
of later times. ll will surely be gathered together for an
appointed Meeting of a known Day.
Noble Quran 56:49-50]


When you start saying the Talbiyah remember the Command of
Allah to Prophet Ibrahim:


nd proclaim to mankind the Hajj. They will come to you
on foot and on every lean camel, they will come from deep
and distant [wide] mountain highways [to perform Hajj].

Noble Quran 22:27]


The Talbiyah you make is in response to Prophet Ibrahim's
proclamation to visit Allah's house of worship. Allah is Most Great.

Upon entering Mecca remember that you are in the Secure
Sanctuary:


Have We not established for them a secure sanctuary
[Mecca], to which are brought fruits of all kinds, a
provision from Ourselves, but most of them know not.
Noble Quran 28:57]


Let one commit himself to repentance, having a good opinion of
Allah, hoping that Allah will grant him security from His
Punishment.

You will enter one of the gates of al-Masjid al-Haram. Then there
you are before the magnificent House of Allah, Most High, the
Ka'bah. Now you see what you hoped to see for a long time.
Thank Allah for making this possible and hope that He, the Mighty
and Majestic, will grant you the greatest reward of seeing His
Majestic Face on the Day of Resurrection. This thankfulness is not
just in saying "alhamdulillah," but also by obeying Allah while on
Hajj and for the rest of your life.

You start your Tawaf (circling the Ka'bah) knowing that it is a
great time for magnifying Allah the Exalted. Remember Him by
His Names, Attributes, and Actions. Also while in Tawaf try to
reflect upon the time when Prophet was prevented from doing the
same thing you are doing today. Then think about what he did in
clearing out the site from the symbols signifying worship to other
than Allah! All idols were demolished. Busy yourself with Du'a.
Ask Allah, the Most Great, to make you hold to the correct belief
and Path of the salaf and make you die on it. Ask Allah to save
you from all forms of shirk and Bid'ah.

While in Sa'i (walking between As-Safa and Al-Marwah),
contemplate on Hajar, the mother of Isma'il, when she asked her
husband Ibrahim (peace be upon him), "Did Allah order you to do
this (leaving her and her baby Isma'il in Mecca)? He said: "Yes."
Her great response was: "Then He (Allah) will not neglect us!"
Think about this great dependence upon Allah when you are in
the Sa'i walking the same path which Hajar took in search for
water and for the means of life around the mounts of Safa and
Marwah. Think about her endurance, perseverance and trust in
Allah. The Sa'i exemplifies the strong belief that we are in need
for the One Who Sustains and Provides, Allah, the Exalted. Think
about Ibrahim's invocation on his way homeward to Palestine:


O our Rabb! I have made some of my offspring to dwell in
a valley with no cultivation, by our $acred House [the
Ka'bah at Mecca]; in order, O our Rabb, that they may offer
prayers perfectly, so fill some hearts among men with love
towards them, and [O llah] provide them with fruits so
that they may give thanks.
Noble Quran 14:37]


Men and fruits came to Mecca from many places. Ibrahim (peace
be upon him) returned to visit and later to share with his son
Isma'il the noble task of raising the foundations of the Ka'bah.

The standing on 'Arafat is the Hajj. The crowds should remind
you of the Day of Resurrection. Humble yourself to Allah,
manifest your 'Ubudiyyah to Him Alone through Du'a, sincere
intention and strong determination to free yourself from the sins
of the past and to build up a commitment to rush for doing what
is good. Think of becoming a better person when you return. Rid
yourself of false pride and showing off because it may ruin what
you may gain on this day.

You gathered the pebbles and you are about to embark on
stoning the Jamarat. This is an act of obedience and
remembrance of Allah, Most Magnificent. The Prophet (peace be
upon him) said: When you cast the small pebbles (i.e. at the
Jamarat), it will be a light for you on the Day of Resurrection.
[Reported by At-Bazzar in his Zawa'id (p.113) on the authority of
Ibn Abbas. This Hadith is reported by Sheikh Al-Albani (may Allah
have mercy upon him) in Silsilat al-Ahadith as-Sahihah. V. 6
Hadith 2515.]

When performing the sacrifice remember the saying of Allah:


It is neither their meat not their blood that reaches llah,
but it is your devotion that reaches Him.
Noble Quran 22-23]


When you have completed you Hajj, do not think that the
remembrance of Allah has ended. Listen to what Allah says:


$o when you have accomplished your Manasik (i.e. the
rites of Hajj) remember llah as you remember your
forefathers or with far more remembrance.
Noble Quran 2:200]


Special Note: If you go to Medina then the objective of your visit
should be according to the Sunnah and not Bid'ah. Your intention
is to set on a journey to visit the Prophet's mosque and not his
grave. When you reach the mosque and your pray upon entering
then you may go to the grave and say, "As-salamu 'alayka
ayyuhan-nabiyy." The position of the scholars regarding visiting
the gravesites by women can be summarized as follows:
disliked but not unlawful

Allowable, if done infrequently. If a woman is known as
being unable to behave herself within the limits of Shari'ah
at the gravesite, then she should be prevented from
visiting the graves

forbidden


A grave sin

Many scholars state that women visiting the Prophet's mosque
may pronounce the salaam upon the Prophet (peace be upon
him) away from the gravesite since it is confirmed by many
Ahadith that the salaam is related to the Prophet (peace be upon
him) wherever the person may be. The Prophet (peace be upon
him) is in a state of barzakh (as state of existence that begins
with death and lasts until the Day of Resurrection,) the nature of
which is only known to Allah, Most High.
Ash-Sharh-ul-Mumti' V5. pp. 475 -478]


The same salaam is also mentioned when you pass by Abu Bakr
and 'Umar without innovations like:
Visiting the grave of the Prophet (peace be upon him)
before praying in the mosque.

Making Du'a facing the grave

Seeking nearness to Allah by means of the Prophet (peace
be upon him). %his is a prohibited form of %awassul.
(method of communicating or getting close to Allah)

Seeking intercession from the Prophet (peace be upon
him).

Placing the hands upon the grills around the room
containing the Prophet's grave to seek blessings, etc."'
(#efer to Sh. Al-Albani's book Manasik al-Hajj wal 'Umrah
for more details.

Remember the Prophet's (peace be upon him) sayings:

"Do not make my grave an Eid (place of celebration)"
Abu Dawud, Ahmed]


"May Allah's curse be on the Jews and the Christian for taking the
graves of their Prophets as places of worship"
Al-Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Dawud, At-%irmidhi, An-Nasa'i,
Ibn Majah]


"Those before you took the graves of their Prophets as places of
worship. Do not take graves as places of worship for verily I
forbid you to do so."
Muslim]


The journey is not meant to gain any material reward. It is a
selfless sacrifice solely for Allah, Most Majestic. It demands true
love and fear of Him. It should be performed with full
consciousness of one's heart, with full humility and submission to
Allah. It should not be thought of as a tourist-type excursion or
be performed as mere physical rites. It develops sincerity, piety,
humility, self-control, sacrifice, and true knowledge of the
meaning of submission and obedience to Allah, Most High. It
helps the pilgrim to be a better person who is devoted to Allah in
every aspect of his life.

The muhrim is forbidden from certain things because of having
entered the state of Ihram. They are:

1- Shaving the hair of the head, because Allah says: (And do


not shave your heads until the Hadi sacrificial animal]
reaches the place of sacrifice.) (Al-Baqarah 2:196) The
scholars have added to the prohibition of shaving the head, that
of shaving any hair on the body, as well as trimming or cutting
ones nails.

2- Using perfume after entering ihram, whether on ones clothing
or body, or in one's food or when washing the deceased (muhrim)
or in any way whatsoever. The evidence for this being forbidden
in ihram is the hadith of the Prophet (peace and blessings be
upon him), who said concerning a man whose camel trampled
him to death, Wash him with water and lotus leaves and
shroud him in his two garments, but do not cover his head
or perfume him with hanoot." Hanoot is a mixture of perfumes
that is usually applied to the deceased.

3- Sexual intercourse, because Allah says: (So whosoever
intends to perform Hajj therein (by assuming Ihram), then
he should not have sexual relations (with his wife), nor
commit sin, nor dispute unjustly during the Hajj.)(Al-
Baqarah 2:197)

4- Touching ones wife with desire, because this comes under the
general meaning of the phrase, he should not have sexual
relations (with his wife)," and because it is not permissible for
the muhrim to get married or to propose marriage - so it is more
likely that it is also not permissible for him to touch his wife with
desire.

5- Killing game (hunting), because Allah says: (O you who
believe! Kill not game while you are in a state of Ihram
for Hajj or `Umrah (pilgrimage)].) (Al-Maidah 5:95)

Cutting down trees is not haram for the muhrim, except for those
trees within the amyal, i.e., the boundaries of the sanctuary.
Cutting these trees is forbidden whether one is in ihram or not.
Hence, it is permissible to cut down trees in `Arafah even if one
is in ihram, because the prohibition on cutting down trees is
connected to the Haram (sanctuary), not ihram.

6- A prohibition which applies exclusively to men is wearing
shirts, hooded robes, trousers, turbans and leather slippers,
because the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) was
asked about what the muhrim should wear. He answered, He
should not wear a shirt, hooded robe (burnous), trousers,
a turban or leather slippers." But he (peace and blessings be
upon him) made an exception for one who cannot find an izar
(lower garment or waist wrapper). Such a person may wear
trousers, and one who cannot find sandals may wear leather
slippers.

Scholars describe these five things as wearing sewn garments, so
the common folk imagine that wearing sewn garments means
wearing clothes that have stitching in them, but that is not the
case. What the scholars meant by that is wearing clothes that are
tailored to fit the body or part of it, such as shirts and trousers.
Hence, if a person wears a rida (upper garment) or izar (lower
garment) with patches on it, that is permissible, but if he wears a
woven shirt with no stitching, that is haram.

7- One of the prohibitions of ihram that applies only to women is
niqab, which refers to a veil that covers the face and leaves the
eyes uncovered, because the Prophet (peace and blessings be
upon him) forbade that. A similar prohibition applies to the
burqa`. When a woman enters ihram, she should not wear a
niqab or burqa`.

With regard to the one who does any of these forbidden things
out of forgetfulness or ignorance or because he is forced to do so,
he does not have to offer any expiation, because Allah says:
(And there is no sin on you concerning that in which you
made a mistake except in regard to what your hearts
deliberately intend.) (Al-Ahzab 33:5)

Concerning killing game or hunting, which is one of the things
that is forbidden while in ihram, Allah says: (O you who
believe! Kill not game while you are in a state of Ihram
for Hajj or `Umrah (pilgrimage)], and whosoever of you
kills it intentionally, the penalty is an offering, brought to
the Ka`bah, of an eatable animal (i.e. sheep, goat, cow)
equivalent to the one he killed.) (Al-Maidah 5:95)

These texts indicate that if one does any of the prohibited actions
out of forgetfulness or ignorance he does not have to offer any
expiation.
The same applies if he is forced to do it, because Allah says:
(Whoever disbelieved in Allah after his belief, except him
who is forced thereto and whose heart is at rest with
Faith; but such as open their breasts to disbelief, on them
is wrath from Allah, and theirs will be a great torment.)
(An-Nahl 16:106)

Since this is what is said about being forced into disbelief, it is
even more likely that no expiation would be required concerning
less serious matters.
However, if the person who forgot remembers afterwards, he has
to stop doing the forbidden thing, and if one who was ignorant of
it comes to know, he has to stop doing the forbidden thing, and if
the pressure is lifted from the one from who is being forced, he
has to stop doing the forbidden thing. For example, if a muhrim
covers his head because he forgot, then he remembers, then he
has to remove the cover, and if he washes his hand with perfume
then he remembers, he has to wash it off, and so on.