Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 15

[RADAR IN AVIATION]

ATM / ATC

ATM / ATC

Radar in Aviation
- Radar Systems and Radar in Airports and Outside Airport - Shortcoming of Radars -

Lecturer: Mr. Knut Walther

Ali HashemiSohi AVIMA 2010 13.06.2011


1|Page

[RADAR IN AVIATION]

ATM / ATC

Table of Contents
Common Abbreviations: ............................................................................................................................... 3 1. 2. 2.1. 2.2. 2.3. 2.4. 3. 3.1. 3.2. 4. 5. 6. 6.1. 6.2. 6.3. 6.4. 6.5. 6.5.1. 6.5.2. 7. Introduction, Radar technology in aviation .......................................................................................... 4 Primary and secondary radars .............................................................................................................. 4 Primary Surveillance Radar (PSR)...................................................................................................... 4 Secondary Surveillance Radar (SSR).................................................................................................. 5 Transponder ...................................................................................................................................... 5 Mode S .............................................................................................................................................. 5 Radar display ......................................................................................................................................... 6 Plan Position Indicator (PPI) .............................................................................................................. 6 The Mosaic Radar.............................................................................................................................. 7 Doppler Effect, Doppler radar ............................................................................................................... 7 Crossing a radar antenna ...................................................................................................................... 7 Ground radars, in and outside airports................................................................................................. 8 Airport Surveillance Radar (ASR)....................................................................................................... 8 Precision Approach Radar (PAR) ....................................................................................................... 8 Air Route Surveillance Radar (ARSR) ................................................................................................. 9 Surveillance Radar Equipment (-medium range) (SRE-M) ................................................................ 9 Surface Movement Radar (SMR) ...................................................................................................... 9 Weather Surveillance Radar (WSR)............................................................................................. 10 The Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) .......................................................................... 10

Shortcomings ...................................................................................................................................... 10 Target, Clutter ............................................................................................................................. 11 Multipath .................................................................................................................................... 11 Ghost Targets .............................................................................................................................. 12

7.1.1. 7.1.2. 7.1.3.

Appendix A: Figures .................................................................................................................................... 13 Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................ 15

2|Page

[RADAR IN AVIATION]

ATM / ATC

Common Abbreviations:
ARSR ARTCC ASDE ASR ATCRBS ATCT MTD MTI NEXRAD PAR PPI PSR SMR SSR TRACON TDWR WSR Air Route Surveillance Radar Air Route Traffic Control Center Airport Surface Detection Equipment Airport Surveillance Radar Air Traffic Control Radar Beacon System Airport Traffic Control Towers Moving Target Detection Moving Target Indicator Next-Generation Radar Precision Approach Radar Plan Position Indicator Primary Surveillance Radar Surface Movement Radar Secondary Surveillance Radar Terminal Radar Approach Control Terminal Doppler Weather Radar Weather Surveillance Radar

3|Page

[RADAR IN AVIATION]

ATM / ATC

1. Introduction, Radar technology in aviation


Across the world radar is the main source of information for the surveillance of air traffic in the important parts of a flight information regions (FIR). The radar surveillance and monitoring worldwide depends on the availability of radar systems and their range. Radar systems employed in aviation industry are divided into two main categories:

1) Ground based radars:


Short-Range (Terminal); ASR and SMR (ASDE) Long-Range; ARSR Precision approach; Precision approach radar; PAR Weather radar; Weather Surveillance Radar (WSR) and Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR)

2) Airborne radars: Radar altimeter Weather


Application of radar systems in aircraft include radar altimeter, weather radar, collision avoidance, target tracking and other systems. Aircrafts are equipped with radar altimeter to measure and indicate the height radar. Weather radar systems, which work based on pulseDoppler radar, detect and avoid severe weather. Air traffic controller also control and monitor the departing, en route and landing operations of aircrafts with information provided by ground radar systems. The ground-based radars, mentioned above, are installed in vicinity and outside of airports to 1.detect aircraft and vehicle moving in airports in low visibility situation, 2.control approach and landing of aircrafts, most in busy airports, 3. Provide en route separation and 4. Guide an aircraft through the final stages of landing.

2. Primary and secondary radars


2.1. Primary Surveillance Radar (PSR)

Primary surveillance radar relies on skin tracking to obtain information about aircraft position. A rotating antenna on the ground emits pulses, which are reflected by the metallic exterior of aircraft and returned to the antenna. This process generates the information needed to determine the polar coordinates, distance (by measuring the times for a round trip of the pulses) and azimuth (from the corresponding angular position of the antenna) of each aircraft relative to the antenna. Note that the altitude of the aircraft must be determined either through pilot reporting or through the secondary surveillance radar. Primary radar sets are mostly fitted with an additional interrogator as secondary radar, to combine the advantages of both systems. The radar system consists of radar antenna, transmitter, receiver, display, control pulse generator and microwave lines (Figure 2-1) (Mensen, 2004). The advantage of PSR is that it operates wins safe information about direction, height and distance of the targets totally independently of the target aircraft - that is, no action from the aircraft is required for it to provide a radar return. (Vabre)

4|Page

[RADAR IN AVIATION]

ATM / ATC

2.2.

Secondary Surveillance Radar (SSR)

The passive radio-location with the primary radar is subject to two major limitations. First, no direct recording of the flight altitude target is possible. Second, no clear association between air objectives and primary symbol can be made on the radar screen. Regarding the high traffic volumes and the associated delays and costs, the identification of aircraft on separate procedures curves or loops is no longer reasonable. The secondary radar solves these problems. The secondary surveillance radar (SSR) is a rotating antenna on the ground, which emits interrogation messages at the frequency of 1030 MHz that trigger automatic responses from a transponder on the aircraft in the form of digitized message on a different frequency (1090 MHz). In the United States, SSR system is often referred to as air traffic control radar beacon system (ATCRBS) (Wells, et al., 2004). Beyond the clear assignment of destination and icon on the radar screen, information like flight altitude, airspeed, and aircraft identification are displayed for pilots (Figure 2-2)(Mensen, 2004). The great advantages of SSR are three: firstly, because the reply signal is transmitted from the aircraft, it is much stronger when received at the ground station, thus giving the possibility of much greater range and reducing the problems of signal attenuation (Vabre). In addition, only response signals to SSR interrogation from the SSR antenna are receive and, thirdly, the additional information such as the altitude can be displayed. However, only use with transponder equipped aircraft this system (Mensen, 2004).

2.3.

Transponder

In principle, the SSR-ground system can only, like primary radar, determine information about the direction and distance of the destinations, which respond to the integration signals. The additional information such as code and altitude are provided by the on-board transponder to the ground stations (Mensen, 2004). A transponder is a receiver-transmitter facility, the function of which is to transmit signals automatically when the proper interrogation is received from radar (Barton, et al., 1997). The transponders are distinguished into modes, depending on the format of their response messages. By implementing the SSR transponder system, each icon can be identified via a four digit code (allocated by ATC for each flight). ; Clutter effects such as false aircraft generated by birds or weather do not obscure them. With an uncluttered screen and each aircraft readily identified, more aircraft can be allowed into airspace (Figure 2-3) (Tooley, et al., 2007). In Mode-A-transponder the pilot selects the four-digit code on the ATC control panel prior to each flight. The SSR system confirms this aircrafts azimuth on the controllers screen with an icon confirming that the aircraft equipped with a transponder. Mode C transponders are automatically report aircraft indication (four-digit code) and altitude at 100-ft increment in 13-bit responses (Tooley, et al., 2007).

2.4.

Mode S

If two or more aircraft are in close proximity and within the ground stations directional antenna beam width, it is possible that their individual replies overlap at the ground stations computer. 5|Page

[RADAR IN AVIATION]

ATM / ATC

This situation called synchronized garbling. The solution is Mode S (select) (Tooley, et al., 2007). The major improvement made by applying Mode S transponders is the two query modes: All Call and Roll Call. Through these modes, transponder only send a reply to the first interrogation signal; the ground station logs this aircrafts address code for future reference (Tooley, et al., 2007). In the all-call queries all destinations are completely retrieved, and all of them (which are covered) are answered. Mode-S transponder answers with its 24 bit comprehensive aircraft address that is assigned only once worldwide and thus provides a unique identification. By answering with this address, it will be retrieved at the next antenna rotation with the "Roll Call". Through this query, the address will transmit, and it only answers the addressed aircraft. By this time optimized queries interference by the transponder replies to queries are also reduced and problems caused by the overlap of responses of various aircraft are eliminated (Mensen, 2004). The second major improvement is increased azimuth accuracy. With PSRs and old SSRs, azimuth of the aircraft is determined by the half split method. The half split method is computed by recording the azimuth of the first and last replies from the aircraft, as the radar beam sweeps past its position. Then the mid-point between the start and stop azimuth is used for aircraft position. With Mode S, the radar can use the information of one reply to determine azimuth. Through Mode-S elementary surveillance, the following data are transmitted: 24-Bit-Address Aircraft identification Status (on the ground or in the air) SSR Mode 3/A SSR Mode C (Altitude on a 25 foot grid) Alternate recommendations from on-board collision systems Other data, which every transponder can potentially transmit

3. Radar display
3.1. Plan Position Indicator (PPI)

In air traffic control targets are most often displayed on a cathode ray tube known as a plan position indicator (PPI), radar scope or just scope. The PPI is circular television-type tube, about 36 inches in diameter, and covered with two types of luminous phosphor. One types emits a low-persistence-high-intensity blue flash; and the other emits a high-persistence-low-intensity orange light. This type of phosphor enables the controllers to visualize where the aircraft has been, because the flashes still glow faintly on the PPI. The PPIs persistence permits the controller to determine the objects relative direction of flight and its velocity for more radar turning, before it completely disappeared. Faster aircraft will move farther between each illumination. The center of the PPI, known as the main bang, corresponds to the physical location of the radar antenna. As the radar operates, a faint line, known as the sweep, emanates from the main bang to the edge of the radar screen. As the antenna slowly rotates, the sweep is synchronized with the radar antenna and rotates in the same direction and the same speed. The radar pulse reflected from target cause a small dot-known as echo, target or blip- to appear along the sweep at the objects range and azimuth. The target exact location can be determined 6|Page

[RADAR IN AVIATION]

ATM / ATC

by noting its distance from the main bang and its azimuth from the center of the PPI (Figure 3-1) (Nolan, 2004). The PPI displays the reflections from ground clutter whenever their amplified signal strength is above the present threshold level. One method to suppress the ground clutter is the use of electronic filtering signal known as the moving target indicator (MTI). The MTI circuitry in the receiver compares the phase of each returning echo to determine whether the reflecting object has any radial velocity. It concludes then that objects without radial velocity must not be an aircraft and it is not displayed on the PPI and therefore, eliminates most of the ground clutter from the radar screen (Figure 3-2 & 3-3) (Nolan, 2004).However, fast moving rain and storm systems break through the MIT-filter and appear on the display as targets. Through Moving Target Detection (MTD) method each incoming echoes adds in a so-called MTD-filter phaserelated. This allows, in addition to the separation of fixed targets and moving targets, the differentiation of aerial targets and moving disturbances such as weather areas (Mensen, 2004).

3.2.

The Mosaic Radar

The process of selecting, processing, and displaying radar-derived data is known as creating a radar mosaic (Nolan, 2004). A mosaic display is a complex display of a radar detection system that combines data from several non-synchronized radar sets, each of which detects targets within an adjacent area. The mosaic display is based on the use of the principle of sweep conversion, which enables the operator to select any zone within the coverage of a large number of radar sets for monitoring on his own display. Mosaic displays are used in air traffic control systems of large airports with intensive traffic (Barton, et al., 1997). In addition, in mosaic display mode, the airspace is divided into equally sized square or rectangular sort boxes and each sort box represent a geographic area. In mosaic mode, different sensors may track aircraft being separated by a controller (Thompson, et al., 2003).

4. Doppler Effect, Doppler radar


If the aircraft were not moving at all, no detectable change would be in the frequency of the transmitted radar signal. But when the aircraft is moving in any direction, either longitudinally or laterally, the radar frequency will change as it reflects off the earths surface. This phenomenon is called Doppler Effect, and the change in frequency is known as frequency shift. The signal processor on board of the aircraft measures the frequency shift and uses this information to calculate the aircrafts ground speed. For these purposes two to four sharply bundled microwave beams are sent from the aircraft to the ground, where it is reflected back and received from the aircraft (Mensen, 2004). The difference frequency between the transmitted and received frequency due to the Doppler Effect is a measure of the speed over the ground (Mensen, 2004). The Doppler radar system measures only the aircrafts relative motion over the earths surface. (Nolan, 2004)

5. Crossing a radar antenna


The transmitter emits short-duration, high energy pulses. These pulses last approximately 1 microsecond and for the next 999 microseconds, the transmitter is switched out of the circuit and the receiver is placed into the circuit to listen for any echoes. If the radar pulse is reflected by an object, a small portion of emitted radio energy will return to the antenna. Once the radar 7|Page

[RADAR IN AVIATION]

ATM / ATC

system has received and processed the reflected signal, the objects relative position can be displayed on the PPI screen. This procedure is repeated about 1,000 times per second. A duplexer electronically isolated the receiver during the pulse transmission (because a high energy pulse would probably destroy it) and also isolated the transmitter whenever the receiver was activated to listen for echoes. (Nolan, 2004)

6. Ground radars, in and outside airports


6.1. Airport Surveillance Radar (ASR)

Airport surveillance radar is medium-range surveillance radar located on the airport, used to monitor of arriving and departing aircraft in the vicinity of an airport. Most major civilian and military airports use ASR systems (Nolan, 2004). The range of these units is between 100 km and 120 km, the aircraft can be detected up to a height of 11 km. The typical ASR has a scan period of 4 to 5 sec, operates at S-band, and provides two-coordinate data (range and azimuth). ASR antennas scan through 360 degrees to present an air traffic controller with the location of all aircraft within 60 nautical miles of the airport. The location of an ASR antenna should be as close to the ATCT control room as practical. Typical distances between the ASR antenna and the ATCT range between 12,000 and 20,000 feet. Antennas should be located at least 1,500 feet from any building or object that might cause signal reflections and at least one-half mile from other electronic equipment (Figure 6-1) (Wells, et al., 2004). Important performance characteristics of an ASR, other than detection range, are resolution, data rate, ability to reject land and weather clutter, ability to process and output data on tens of targets within the scanned volume, and high reliability (Barton, et al., 1997). The first generation of ASR, ASR-4s, -5s and -6s with vacuum tube technology were replaced by the ASR-7/-8 between 1996 and 2000. The new system has a separate weather channel allowing the controller to assess the severity of storms, while retaining the ability to detect small aircraft with other transponders. The ASR-9 also incorporates an improvement called Moving Target Detection (MTD) to overcome the problems of ground clutter and spurious target. The new generation radars are ASR-11 and ASR-12, which are non developmental digital terminal radar systems with an integrated mono pulse secondary surveillance radar system. Both provide digital surveillance radar data and 6-level weather.

6.2.

Precision Approach Radar (PAR)

The PAR system was used at an airport to guide an aircraft through the final stages of landing, providing horizontal and vertical guidance. The radar operator directs the pilot to change heading or adjust the descent rate to keep the aircraft on a path that allows it to touch down at the correct spot on the runway. This system, which consisted of a mobile facility that included radio transmitters, controller displays, and two radar antennas, was positioned near the approach end of the runaway in use. PAR was probably the best choice for military precision approaches. But, because of its unique requirements, the federal government chose to implement the ILS across the continental United States (Figure 6-2) (Nolan, 2004). Together with the ASR, precision approach radar is the basis for a ground-controlled precision approach. While the ASR is used to approach control of aircraft to the destination, the actual

8|Page

[RADAR IN AVIATION]

ATM / ATC

final landing approaches are controlled using PAR. For three-dimensional recording of the flight path, a vertically and horizontally scanning radar antenna is, however, required (Mensen, 2004).

6.3.

Air Route Surveillance Radar (ARSR)

This long-range radar differs from ASR in that it transmits at a high power level and at a lower pulse repetition frequency, permitting an effective range in excess of 250 nautical miles. ARSR is used to control aircraft on airways beyond the coverage of ASR. The ARSR radar antennas are larger than the ASR antennas and revolve more slowly to give time for the distant radar echoes to return. A typical ARSR has a scan period of 10 to 12s, operates at L-band. It provides, like ASR, data about range and azimuth and has performance characteristics of long detection range, ability to reject both lands and weathers clutter, ability to process and output data on many tens of targets, and reliability (Figure 6-3) (Barton, et al., 1997). The ATCR-22 is typical of ARSRs developed during the 1970s (Barton, et al., 1997). The FAA now uses ARSA-1 and ARSR-3 systems and has acquired ARSR-4 systems (Nolan, 2004).

6.4.

Surveillance Radar Equipment (-medium range) (SRE-M)

The monitoring of air traffic route is made possible with the help of the mid-range surveillance radar systems in the lower and upper airspace (special in Germany by deutsche Flugsicherung). Since these systems are designed for long range, the antenna speed and range resolution is inevitably low. Destinations with a reflective surface of 1 m are recorded at a distance of 280 km. and with a reflection cross section of 8 m the range is even 460 km (Mensen, 2004). The height, in which an aircraft can be located is about 20 km, with the same destinations are covered in small amount. The system operates in the frequency range of 1.25 to 1.35 GHz, i.e. at L-band. The pulse transmitter power is 2.5 to 5 MW. The antenna rotation speed can generally from 2 rpm to 7.5 rpm infinitely be varied (in all province in Germany are set to have uniform rotation speed of 5 rpm) (Figure 6-4) (Mensen, 2004). Despite the low speed and with considering high flight speed of modern transport aircraft, In order to increase the refreshing rate of radar data, two reflectors with about 9 m height and 14 m wide are arranged together (Janus-Arrangement) (Figure 6-5) (Mensen, 2004).

6.5.

Surface Movement Radar (SMR)

Surface Movement Radar is the most widely used surveillance system for airport surveillance at the present. SMR refers to primary radar that provide surveillance cover for the maneuvering area, which is defined as that used for the take-off, landing and taxiing of aircraft, excluding aprons. This type of radar usually operates in X-band with a narrow pulse (20 to 50 ns) and rapid scan rate (60 rpm or greater), with display ranges from one to 5 km. The resolution is intended to be adequate to provide recognition of different classes of aircraft, as well as resolving one aircraft from another as they stand in taxiways at the end of an active runway. The radar must also detect and display automobiles and trucks operating on or near taxiways (Figure 6-6) (Barton, et al., 1997). ASDE-3 is high-resolution ground-mapping radar that provides surveillance of taxiing aircraft and service vehicles at the highest activity airports. The most recent system currently being deployed in the US by the FAA is the Airport Surface Movement Detection Equipment Model X (ASDE-X) system. In this system, unlike previous systems, the surface movement radar is just one of several sensors that are used in addition to transponder multilateration and GPS-based 9|Page

[RADAR IN AVIATION]

ATM / ATC

position reports, referred to as Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast or ADS-B; however, the SMR is a key subsystem (Figure 6-7). (Perl, Oct. 2006). Ground clutter is typically not a major factor on the movement area. The grazing angle is small and the illuminated surface is smooth so most of the energy is reflected away from the radar and very little is reflected back. However, Rain clutter is the most significant factor that limits detectability on the movement area. It is obvious that the main role of the SMR is to provide good detection in limited visibility conditions, and rain is one of those conditions (Sep. 2008). This is minimized by using a circularly polarized antenna.

6.5.1. Weather Surveillance Radar (WSR)


The first generation of weather surveillance radar was WSR-57. It operated at S-Band wavelength, chosen to minimize the effect of signal attenuation by rainfall (2002). Its successor, WSR-74, inherits many of its basic features. There are two types of the WSR-74 series, which are almost identical except for operating frequency. The WSR-74C (used for local warnings) operates in the C band, and the WSR-74S (used in the national network) operates in the S band (like the WSR-57). These conventional radars measure and display only the reflectivity associated with weather phenomena (Doviak, et al., 1999). The development of the WSR-88 (NEXRAD) (Figure 6-8) was in response to demand for better weather information and resulted from advances in Doppler signal processing and display techniques (2002). NEXRAD (next generation radar) is a national network of Doppler weather radar to detect, process, distribute, and display hazardous weather, providing more accurate weather data for aviation safety and fuel efficiency. This radar has a 250-mile range, and the networks cover the majority of the domestic en route space. WSR-88D (Weather Surveillance Radar, 1988, Doppler) detection system provides information about wind speed and direction in the area of precipitation, convective activity, tornadoes, hail, and turbulence (Wells, et al., 2003). This new weather radar system was developed to place the old WSR-74 and WSR-57 systems.

6.5.2. The Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR)


The Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) is a high quality, dedicated meteorological surveillance radar deployed near many of the larger airports. TDWR system will be able to detect severe weather, wind shear, and localized microburst1, gust fronts and precipitation in the immediate terminal area at key location around high activity airports. The radar provides alerts of hazardous weather conditions in the terminal area and advanced notice of changing wind conditions to permit timely change of active runways (Figure 6-9) (Wells, et al., 2003). The range resolution of the TDWR is finer than what is available in the WSR-88D(Figure 6-10&6-11).

7. Shortcomings
The two most common aviation hazards to aircraft are weather and birds. The most dangerous forms of weather are heavy precipitation (in which airframe icing frequently occurs) and wind shear related phenomena (like thunderstorm). Aircraft collision with birds can also result in serious damages or crashes. Traditional radar detection systems consider all non-aircraft
1

A microburst is a very localized column of sinking air, producing damaging divergent and straight-line winds at the surface that are similar to, but distinguishable from, tornadoes, which generally have convergent damage.

10 | P a g e

[RADAR IN AVIATION]

ATM / ATC

targets as undesirable clutter, which must be suppressed to enhance the visibility of aircraft within the clutter area. As previously mentioned, MTI and MTD systems are currently used to suppressed the clutter exist on the PPI screen.

7.1.1. Target, Clutter


Radar clutter is defined as unwanted echoes, typically from the ground, sea, rain or other precipitation, chaff, birds, insects, or aurora. However, there is no single definition because one users target is anothers clutter: to the radar meteorologist, precipitation is the target and aircraft are clutter (Barton, et al., 1997). Radar systems used for air traffic control are unable to distinguish between different types of reflecting objects, since only a few of these objects are truly static; the change in position leads to both the observed scintillation in net reflectivity and the measure relative velocity. The nature of these changes provides a clue of the type if the target or clutter observed. Although some of these reflections are useful to the controller, most serve only to clutter up the display and must be filtered out by the receiver (Figure 7-1) (Nolan, 2004). The basic types of clutter can be summarized as follows: Surface Clutter Ground or sea returns are typical surface clutter. Returns from geographical land masses are generally stationary; however, the effect of wind on trees etc means that the target can introduce a Doppler Shift to the radar return. This Doppler shift is an important method of removing unwanted signals in the signal processing part of a radar system. Clutter returned from the sea generally also has movement associated with the waves. Volume Clutter Weather or chaff are typical volume clutter. In the air, the most significant problem is weather clutter. This can be produced from rain or snow and can have a significant Doppler content. Point Clutter Birds, windmills and individual tall buildings are typical point clutter and are not extended in nature. Moving point clutter is sometimes described as angels. Birds and insects produce clutter, which can be very difficult to remove because the characteristics are very much like aircraft.

7.1.2. Multipath
Clutter may also originate from multipath echoes from valid targets due to ground reflection, atmospheric ducting or ionospheric reflection/refraction. This clutter type is especially bothersome, since it appears to move and behave like other normal targets of interest, thereby creating a ghost. Multipath error occurs in radar tracking and measurement as a result of reflection of the target signal from the surface underlying the direct path. The most serious error appears in the elevation coordinate, where the specularly reflected2 image of the target, possibly replaced or surrounded by diffuse reflections3, produces a broad signal distribution extending from the horizon (near zero elevation) to angles below the horizon in excess of the actual target elevation angle (Barton, et al., 1997).
2

Specular reflection is the coherent reflection of a radio wave from a smooth surface, either of the earth or of a target object 3 occurs when a radio wave is incident on an irregular surface

11 | P a g e

[RADAR IN AVIATION]

ATM / ATC

The signal transmitted by the ground antenna travels directly through space to every aircraft that may be in the antenna beam. However, the signal can also travel to aircraft by reflecting off the ground, the sides of hills or man-made objects, both below and above the horizon. Similarly, if an aircraft replies, then its reply may travel by more than one path back to the ground antenna. The various multipath configurations can be divided into three classes: those where signals reflect off the ground but arrive in the same vertical plane as the direct path signal (in line), those which reflect from objects having a short horizontal angular separation from the direct path signal (small angle) and those where there is a large horizontal angular separation between the direct and the reflective path (large angle). Each of these three classes of multipath phenomena can be divided into two subclasses: those for which the time difference between the two path lengths is small so that there is substantial overlap between the same pulses of the reply arriving by the direct path and by way of the reflecting object (short path difference), and those for which there is a large time difference so that there is little or no overlap between the corresponding pulses arriving by the two paths (long path difference). Each type of reflection phenomenon produces different effects. These reflection classes are summarized in Table 1 (Stevens, 1981).

Angular separation between direct and reflected paths in line short path difference
1. Vertical lobing 2. fades

small angle
1. beam shape distortion 2. bearing errors 3. split plots

large angle
1. ghost targets

long path difference

1. code corruption

1. code corruption 2. bearing errors

1. ghost targets

7.1.3. Ghost Targets


If a large physical structure is placed in a radar's vicinity, a so-called 'ghost target' can appear behind a true target, due to multipath, when the radar antenna is aimed at the target (Theil, et al., 2007). A ghost is an unwanted signal appearing on the screen of a radar indicator, caused by echoes which experience multiple reflections before reaching the receiver. In passive detection, the intersection points of lines of position which do not represent actual targets but are only crossover points of multiple plotted lines of position from two or more detection stations (Barton, et al., 1997).

12 | P a g e

[RADAR IN AVIATION]

ATM / ATC

Appendix A: Figures

Figure (2-1): PSR combined with SSR

Figure (2-2): Secondary Surveillance Radar

Figure (2-3): Transponder process

Figure (2-4): Plan Position Indicator

Figure (3-1): PPI without MTI

Figure (3-2): PPI with use of MTI

Figure (6-1): Airport Surveillance Radar

Figure (6-2): Precision Approach Radar

Figure (6-3): Air Route Surveillance Radar

13 | P a g e

[RADAR IN AVIATION]

ATM / ATC

Figure (6-4): Surveillance Radar Equipment

Figure (6-5): Janus Arrangement

Figure (6-6): Surface Movement Radar

Figure (6-7): ASDE Display, Hamburg

Figure (6-8): NEXRAD (WSR-88D)

Figure (6-9): TDWR

Figure (6-10): TDWR Display

Figure (6-11): NEXRAD Display

Figure (7-1): Clutters on the display

14 | P a g e

[RADAR IN AVIATION]

ATM / ATC

Bibliography
Barton David K. and Leonov Sergey A. Radar Technology Encyclopedia [Document]. - Boston.London : Artech House, 1997. Doviak , R. J., Mazur Vladislav and Zrni Duan S. Aviation weather surveillance systems [Book]. - UK : Institution of Electrical Engine, IEE, 1999. Mensen Heinrich Moderne Flugsicherung; Oranisation, Verfahren, Technik [Book]. - Germany : Springer, 2004. - Vol. III. Nolan Michael S. Fundamentals of Air Traffic Control [Book]. - [s.l.] : Thomson, 2004. - IV. Perl Eli Review of Airport Surface Movement Radar Technology [Journal]. - [s.l.] : IEEE A&E SYSTEMS MAGAZINE, Oct. 2006. Runaway Safety: An Update [Report]. - Washington : U.S. Government Prinring Office, Sep. 2008. SHRADER WILLIAM W. Radar Technology Applied to Air Traffic [Journal]. - [s.l.] : IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMMUNICATIONS, MAY 1973. - NO. 5 : Vols. VOL. COM-21. Stevens M.C. Multipath and interference effects in secondary surveillance radar systems [Journal]. [s.l.] : IEEE, 1981. - Vol. 128. Theil Arne and van Ewijk Lucas J. Radar Performance Degradation due to the Presence of Wind Turbines [Journal]. - The Hague : IEEE, 2007. Thompson Steven D. and Bussolari Steven R. seminarContent: ATM Seminar [Online] // ATM Seminar. 2003. - April 12, 2011. - http://www.atmseminar.org/seminarContent/seminar5/papers/p_018_SS.pdf. Tooley Mike and Wyatt David Aircraft communications and navigation systems - Principle, maintenance and operation [Book]. - New York : Elsevier, 2007. Vabre Phil Air Traffic Services Surveillance http://www.airwaysmuseum.com/Surveillance.htm. Systems, [Online] // airwaysmuseum. -

Weather radar technology beyond NEXRAD [Report]. - Washington D.C. : National Research Council (U.S.). Committee on Weather Radar Technology Beyond NEXRAD, 2002. Wells Alexander T. and Rodrigues Clarence C. Commercial Aviation Safety [Book]. - [s.l.] : Mc Graw-Hill, 2003. - Vol. IV. Wells Alexander T. and Young Seth B. Airport Planning and Management [Book]. - New York : McGrawHill, 2004. - Vol. Fifth Edition.

15 | P a g e