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Anil Chejara Roll No. 9003022 Group No.

CENTRIFUGAL PUMP
THEORY: Centrifugal pump converts given power to kinetic energy of the liquid by accelerating it. The principle parts of a centrifugal pump are the impeller with its shaft and the casing which surrounds it. A centrifugal pump thus consists of an impeller rotating inside a spiral or volute casing. Liquid is admitted to the impeller in an axial direction, through a central opening in its side called the 'eye'. It then flows radically outward and is discharged around the entire circumference into a casing. As the liquid flows through the rotating impeller energy is imparted to the fluid which results in increase in both the pressure and the kinetic energy. Since a large part of the energy of liquid leaving the impeller its kinetic, it is necessary to reduce the absolute velocity of flow and transform a large portion of this velocity head, into pressure head. The name of the pump 'centrifugal' is derived from the fact that the discharge of the liquid from the rotating impeller is due to the centrifugal head created in it. This high pressure near the impeller outlet forces the liquid out and causes it to rise in the delivery pipe. At the eye of the impeller a partial vaccum is created, and the atmospheric pressure in the pump forces the liquid through pipe to replace the liquid that is being discharged from the impeller

Centrifugal Pumps are constant head machines. The primary purpose of operating pumps in parallel is to allow a wider range of flow than would be possible with a single fixed speed pump for systems with widely flow demand. Usually there are no more than three or four pumps operating in parallel.In series operation, the discharge of one pump feeds the suction

of a second pump. Unlike parallel operation, series pump curve can be drawn holding the flow constant and adding the head. Series operation allows that commercially available equipment can be used in a particular system because sometimes a single pump operation would result in a pump with an extremely high head and thus an equally high horsepower.

AIM: A. To determine the characteristics of centrifugal Pump and to find out: 1. Total head 2. Pump efficiency

B. To plot the following performance characteristics:1. Head vs. Discharge 2. Pump efficiency Vs. Discharge.

APPARATUS: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. A centrifugal pump Sump tank measuring tank Stop watch Pressure gauge

PROCEDURE: Make sure that the apparatus are free from Dust. Now close the drain valve. Open Flow Control Valve given on the discharge line and Control valve given on suction line. Set power output of the motor. Note down the values of pressure displayed at pressure gauge. Note down RPM. Repeat the above steps for different power required.

OBSERVATION AND CALCULATIONS:

Given Data: Area of measuring tank (A) = 0.0531 m2 Density of oil, = 1000 Kg / m3

Height of the measuring tank = 20cm

S.No

RPM of pump

Gauge Pressure (mm Hg)

Power (kW)

Time taken to reach 20 cm (sec) 150.3 109.59 93.2 88.7 81.2

1 2 3 4 5

3450 4630 5150 5540 5940

150 270 350 390 460

0.040 0.065 0.081 0.092 0.111

CALCULATION:

Pressure (Pa) 19995 35991 46655 51987 61318

H(m) 2.04 3.67 4.76 5.30 6.25

Q (m 8 10 -4) 0.707 9.69 1.14 1.20 1.31


3

efficiency 3.5321 5.3658 6.5633 6.7656 7.2249

GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION:

Head vs. Discharge


7.00 6.00 5.00 Head m 4.00 3.00 2.00 1.00 0.00 0 0.00002 0.00004 0.00006 0.00008 0.0001 0.00012 0.00014 Discharge m3/ sec

Efficiency vs Discharge
8 7 6 Efficiecny 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 0.00002 0.00004 0.00006 0.00008 0.0001 0.00012 0.00014 Discharge m3/sec

CONCLUSION: 1. Input power is proportional to efficiency. 2. Discharge is directly proportional to Efficiency.

SOURCE OF ERROR & PRECAUTIONS::


Make sure apparatus is from dust particle before commencing experiment. Always use clean water to avoid any obstruction inside the pump.
Never try to throttle the suction side of the pump to control discharge, as it would seriously affect the performance of the pump. Human error is possible while reading the stop watch. Error in measurement of pressure by pressure gauge and vacuum gauge. Error in water flow due to dust particles. Dont operate Gear pump at low voltage. Always keep apparatus free from dust and Use clean water.