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CHAPTER 9

Test Yourself, p. 362


1. What is IQ? ANSWER CLUES: Measuring Intelligence: What is IQ? 1. IQ is short for intelligence quotient, a test score used in Western countries as a general measure of intelligence. 2. There is considerable disagreement about what intelligence is and whether it can be accurately measured. a. The standard definition of intelligence is the ability to solve problems well and to understand and learn complex material. b. Researchers also typically stress that a key aspect of intelligence is the ability to adapt to the environment. c. Intelligence is often associated with mental quickness, but this need not be so. d. Virtually all intelligence tests rely on the assumption that intelligent people can solve problems and understand and learn complex material relatively easily; for this reason, tests often give only limited time to complete tasks. 3. The original test was developed for the French government by Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon. a. It was developed between 1904 and 1911. b. Their aim was to identify children in the public schools who needed extra classroom help. c. They started with the idea that intelligence shows itself in a variety of tasks people do. d. This perspective led them to construct a test consisting of many sorts of tasks. e. Binet and Simon first gave the test to a group of normal children of various ages. Then, they compared the performance of other children of the same age with the normal scores. f. Children with a mental age lower than their chronological age were considered relatively slow. 4. Binet and Simons test was adapted for other purposes. a. In 1916, Lewis Terman and colleagues at Stanford University developed the StanfordBinet Revision of the Binet-Simon Test. b. The Stanford-Binet Revision is still used today to test people ages 2 through adult. c. David Wechsler developed another set of intelligence tests: the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC). These are now the most frequently used tests in the United States. 1) Wechsler believed that Binets test relied too much on verbal skills. 2) Wechsler divided his test into two major parts: ? Verbal subtests assess the ability to understand and use language by assessing vocabulary, comprehension, and other aspects of verbal ability. ? Performance subtests consist of nonverbal tasks such as arranging pictures in an order that tells a story and spotting the missing element in a picture. 5. Compared to earlier IQ tests, modern IQ tests have modified tasks and the way they are scored. a. Binet and Simon were satisfied knowing whether a child was below or at par for his age. b. Early in the 20th century, William Stern developed the idea of an intelligence quotient, computed by dividing mental age by chronological age and multiplying by 100. Thus, a score of 100 meant that a childs mental age exactly matched the childs actual age. c. However, mental age does not keep developing forever, whereas chronological age does. Therefore, older test-takers appear to become less intelligent with age. d. Therefore, todays IQ tests are scored by specifying how a test-taker stands relative to the performance of other people of the same age. 1) A score of 100 is set as the average score.

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IQ test scores are based on a large standardized sample, a random selection of people from the appropriate population. ? A population is a group of people who share certain characteristics. ? Scores are almost always spread along a normal curve, in which most scores fall near the middle with gradually fewer scores toward the extremes. ? After the test has been given to a standardized sample, the developers normed the test by setting the mean of the test at 100 and the standard deviation at 15. 3) Norming the test made tests for people of different ages easier to compare and interpret. 4) For an IQ test to be meaningful, it must be: ? reliable, meaning that it produces consistent results. ? valid, meaning that it measures what it is supposed to measure. IQ scores tend to relate to performance in the real world. a. People with higher IQ scores, particularly in the verbal component, earn higher grade point averages in high school and college. b. People with higher IQs tend to land higher-prestige jobs and make more money. c. People with higher IQs are also more likely to enjoy more stable marriages and stay out of jail. IQ scores of college students typically fall between 112 and 120. However, only about one quarter of the variation in levels of job success can be predicted by IQ. Thus, most of the variation in job success reflects motivation, education, culture, and other factors. a. IQ actually underpredicts job success among Asian-Americans. b. The correlations between IQ and achievement decrease for people who have more experience. As they become more experienced, they develop expertise. Even when IQ and achievement are correlated, the relationship may be difficult to interpret because the correlation may occur because another variable is separately affecting them both. Like other standardized tests, IQ tests are partly a measure of how well a person performs in a testtaking situation.

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2. Is intelligence a single characteristic, or a complex set of characteristics? ANSWER CLUES: One Ability or Many? 1. Some psychologists have used a psychometric approach, meaning that they have designed tests to measure psychological characteristics and devised ways to use correlations and other statistical techniques to analyze the results from such tests. 2. Some researchers have asserted that there is a single form of intelligence that cuts across different subtests. a. Charles Spearman noted that there are positive correlations among scores on different subtests and said that this indicates the existence of a single underlying intellectual capacity, which he labeled g for general factor .

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But, Spearman also noted a wide variation in the sizes of the correlations, which he took to reflect the influence of s, or specific factors. c. Some tasks rely more on g than others (and vice versa). d. However, Spearman believed that how smart someone is overall reflects g. Thurstone developed a battery of 56 tests and then analyzed the correlations of scores using factor analysis, which is a statistical method that uncovers the particular attributes that make scores more or less similar. a. When Thurstone analyzed his results, he found that how well one does arithmetic has little to do with how well one notices whether a scene has changed. b. He found evidence that intelligence consists of 7 separate primary mental abilities, fundamental abilities that are components of intelligence and that are not outgrowths of other abilities. Two examples are verbal comprehension and spatial visualization. Other researchers have found different numbers of abilities. a. Carroll infers over 70 separate abilities. b. Guilford reported finding over 100 distinct abilities. Cattell and Horn developed one especially influential alternative. a. They said that instead of one general capacity (g), people possess two types of intelligence: 1) Crystallized intelligence relies on knowing facts and having the ability to use and combine them. 2) Fluid intelligence is the free-form ability to figure out novel solutions to problems, such as how to write without a pen or pencil. b. Age affects the two types of intelligence differently, which is evidence that they are in fact different. 1) Crystallized intelligence does not suffer much, if at all, with age. 2) Fluid intelligence tends to decrease. c. Fact that age affects the two types of intelligence differently is evidence that they are in fact different. Today, psychologists generally think that: a. There are specialized mental abilities (s). b. There is something like g. However, there is disagreement over what g is or how important it is. The higher people score on IQ tests overall, the more often there are sharp disparities in the scores on different subtests. In contrast, people who score low on IQ tests tend to perform consistently poorly across tasks. Howard Gardner developed an influential view of intelligence: the theory of multiple intelligences. a. This theory holds that there are eight, and possibly nine, different forms of intelligence: 1) Linguistic intelligence: the ability to use language well. 2) Spatial intelligence: the ability to reason well about spatial relations. 3) Musical intelligence: The ability to compose and understand music. 4) Logical-mathematical intelligence: the ability to manipulate abstract symbols. 5) Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence: the ability to plan and understand sequences of movements. 6) Intrapersonal intelligence: the ability to understand oneself. 7) Interpersonal intelligence: the ability to understand other people and social interactions. 8) Naturalist intelligence: the ability to observe carefully. 9) Existential intelligence: the ability to address the big questions about existence. b. These classifications are not isolated special abilities that allow a person to become skilled at a narrow range of particular tasks; instead, they are separate types of intelligence, which involve a collection of abilities working together. c. Gardners theory is based on: 1) observations of people who suffered brain damage. Often, these people have lost some abilities, but retained others. 2) observations of areas in which prodigies can excel.

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differences in the age at which different abilities develop. d. Most professions require combinations of different types of intelligence. e. People can be characterized by a profile of intelligences, with some types being relatively strong and others, weak. f. Critics disagree with Gardners theory because: 1) it is difficult to test rigorously, because some of the types are difficult to measure reliably. (However, people can rate themselves on the different types.) 2) they question whether the word intelligence should be used so liberally; they say that some of Gardners abilities have more to do with talents and skills than intelligence. Robert Sternberg also developed a theory of multiple intelligences. a. His theory proposes 3 types of intelligence: 1) Analytic intelligence: the ability to learn to write clearly, do math, and understand literature. 2) Practical intelligence: knowing how to do practical tasks (e.g., fixing a car); it sometimes relies on implicit memories (the unconscious biases and tendencies that guide our actions. 3) Creative intelligence: the ability to formulate novel solutions to problems. b. IQ tests measure analytic intelligence. c. Measures of practical intelligence are better predictors of job performance than are IQ tests. d. Analytic and practical intelligence are distinct. e. Creative intelligence is dis tinct from IQ, but people do need a certain level of IQ to find creative solutions to problems or create novel products. f. People differ in their strengths and weaknesses. g. If taught in a way that is compatible with their strongest type of intelligence, people learn better. Part of what Sternberg calls practical intelligence appears to be emotional intelligence, but emotional intelligence extends beyond practical intelligence. a. Emotional intelligence comprises 5 key abilities: 1) Knowing ones own emotions. 2) Managing ones own feelings. 3) Self-motivation. 4) Recognizing others emotions. 5) Handling relationships. b. Women tend to score higher than men on some aspects of emotional intelligence, especially those related to social skills. c. Nevertheless, men may believe that they are more emotionally intelligent than women.

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3. Can exercising the mind raise IQ? ANSWER CLUES: Boosting IQ 1. Varying the environment can boost general intelligence as measured by IQ. 2. In the Western world, IQ scores have generally risen about 3 points every 10 years; this is called the Flynn effect. a. The way tests are scored is periodically adjusted to keep the mean at 100. b. The largest gains in scores over time are on tests that are the most free of cultural influence, such as the Ravens Progressive Matrices, which requires the test-taker to discover how a series of patterns progressively changes and then to pick the next pattern in the series. c. There is evidence that the Flynn effect is accelerating; between 1972 and 1982, IQ increased by an average of 8 points. d. The Flynn effect has boosted scores among people who have learning difficulties and have affected people of different races and genders similarly.

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As IQs have risen over time, g has accounted for less of the variability in intelligence scores. 1) Some specific abilities have gained more than others. 2) The abilities that have gained vary for different people. f. Neisser and colleagues offer 3 possible explanations for the Flynn effect. 1) Daily life is more challenging than life in previous years; the very act of coping with lifes complexities may have increased IQ. 2) Nutrition is better, as shown by corresponding increases in height. 3) Perhaps intelligence itself has not risen, but just the kind of reasoning ability useful in taking tests. Technology may have led people to become more comfortable with abstract thinking. Many education and social programs have been developed to raise intelligence. a. The most famous is probably Project Head Start, which was started in the 1960s to provide additional intellectual stimulation for disadvantaged children and to prepare them to succeed in school. b. Unfortunately, most programs show only short-term gains in IQ. c. The gains evaporate with time. d. However, a few studies have shown that IQs can be raised if children are given hours of daily supplemental schooling, beginning at a young age and continuing for years. 1) For example, the Abecedarian Project was started at the University of North Carolina in 1972. 2) It provided intensive intellectual enrichment for children at risk of failing in school (as well as pediatric care, nutritional supplements, and help from social workers). 3) Children were placed in a specially designed daycare setting between 6 and 8 hours a day, 5 days a week. 4) After 5 years, they entered a public kindergarten. 5) By age 15, children who had been in the program still had higher IQ scores by about 5 points. 6) Although 5 points is not a large improvement, the enhanced skills and abilities may help participants succeed at school and work. The key to whether enrichment programs succeed in raising intelligence may be in whether the programs help participants: a. reorganize how they think. b. learn new strategies for making decisions, organizing problems, and remembering information. c. learn how to plan and monitor progress as they try to solve problems. d. figure out when to stop and change strategies. e. learn to detect situations that require particular patterns of thinking. Many of the ways that people develop cognitively depend on cognitive apprenticeship, or having a mentor who can show one how to think.

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Test Yourself, p. 375


1. What aspects of brain function underlie intelligence? ANSWER CLUES: The Machinery of Intelligence 1. Many studies have shown that the larger a persons brain, the greater his or her intelligence as measured by IQ tests. a. Larger brains do tend to contain more neurons. b. However, it isnt clear when larger brain size causes greater intelligence or whether acting intelligently causes larger brain size. c. The key variable may not be overall brain size, but the size of crucial brain areas. 1) The part of the brain that controls the left hand is larger in professional musicians who play string instruments than in other people.

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Einsteins brain had an unusually large number of glial cells (that support neurons), especially in the left parietal lobe, which is involved in mathematical thinking and spatial visualization. In addition, Einsteins parietal lobes were about 15% wider than normal. Such an increase may have helped this part of his brain function more efficiently than normal. d. The relation between brain size and intelligence is not so simp le. 1) Females have the same average intelligence as males, but smaller brains. 2) Neanderthals had larger brains than modern man, but there is no evidence that they were smarter. 3) The correlation between brain size and intelligence is small and does not apply to particular individuals. 4) Correlation does not imply causation. Some third variable might separately affect brain size and intelligence. People with high IQs tend to process information faster than do other people. a. IQ does correlate with the time taken to respond to a stimulus such as a light in a laboratory experiment (e.g., the higher the IQ, the faster the response). b. People with higher IQs require less exposure time to a stimulus to judge it (e.g., which of two lines is longer). c. From this, many researchers conclude that IQ reflects, at least in part, the speed of mental processes. d. There may be a relation between the size of the brain areas used in a task and how quickly it can be performed. The more neurons working on a task, the more quickly the task can be performed. e. However, Sternberg has found that people who score high on IQ tests are faster only at certain steps in processing information. 1) People with higher IQs tend to spend more time digesting a problem and figuring out what kind of reasoning is needed. Then, they can produce responses more quickly. 2) Thus, people with high IQs are not necessarily faster at each step, they just process information more effectively. Some researchers have reported that the correlation between IQ and speed is best for tasks that are neither too easy nor too difficult. a. The correlation is highest when the task exercises working memory as much as possible without exceeding its capacity. This reflects how efficiently working memory operates. b. IQ may index how well the central executive of working memory can manage information when the going gets tough, but not so tough as to be impossible. Brain studies have supported the relationship between working memory and intelligence. a. Studies have shown that parts of the lateral frontal lobes used in working memory are activated in tasks that require high g. b. Items on the Ravens Progressive Matrices test that require visual-spatial reasoning activated parts of the frontal lobes used in holding information about objects and spatial relations in working memory. c. Items on the Ravens Progressive Matrices test that require analytical reasoning activated part of the frontal lobes used in verbal working memory. The frontal lobes are also important in directing the course of reasoning; frontal lobe damage can disrupt fluid intelligence.

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2. How do environment and genetics contribute to intelligence? ANSWER CLUES: Smart Genes, Smart Environment It took years for researchers to locate genes involved with intelligence. Studies have now shown that multiple genes contribute to intelligence. 1. One method of studying the role of genetics in intelligence is through adoption studies. a. In these studies, IQ scores of adopted children are compared to scores of their adoptive and biological relatives. In some of these studies, tests are given to twins who were separated soon after birth and adopted into different families. Because these twins were

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reared in different homes, any similarities between them are thought to reflect their common genetics. b. These studies provide clear evidence that genes affect IQ, as these findings indicate: 1) The correlations of IQs of adult identical twins who were raised apart are higher than correlations between fraternal twins or non-twin siblings raised together. 2) Adopted childrens IQs correlate higher with the biological mothers IQ than adopted mothers IQ. 3) By the time children grow up, there is virtually no correlation between adopted children and the biological children in a family. Other studies have compared IQs of people with different numbers of genes in common. Results indicate that the more genes in common, the higher the correlations. The usual estimate is that the heritability of IQ is around .50, which means that about half of the variation in IQ can be attributed to inherited characteristics. (Heritability refers to the proportion of observed variability in a characteristic that is caused by inherited factors. The variability refers to variability within a population; thus, it does not apply to individuals.) Researchers have begun combining twin studies with brain scanning techniques to discover whether the sizes of specific brain areas are under genetic control and are related to intelligence. a. The number of cell bodies in Wernickes and Brocas areas, as well as the frontal lobes, is more similar in identical than fraternal twins, indicating high heritability. b. In addition, the IQ scores of these twins were highly correlated with the amount of gray matter in the frontal lobes. c. However, such a relationship does not indicate causation. Perhaps there is another variable that accounts for both neural growth and intelligence. (E.g., 3-year-olds who seek out stimulation score higher on IQ tests at age 11.) These temperamental differences may be genetically determined or could depend on the environment. However, IQs of non-twin siblings are less correlated than those of fraternal twins (.45 versus .60) even though they have the same percentage of genes in common. a. This indicates that the environment also impacts IQs. b. Evidence for this also comes from studies on the effects of formal schooling. For example, when poor black children moved from the rural South to Philadelphia in the 1940s, their IQs increased by a bit more than half a point for each year spent in their new schools. c. There are some factors that make it difficult to determine whether heritability scores solely reflect genetic influences or are also influenced by environmental factors. 1) Twins share much of the same environment in the womb before birth. About two-thirds of identical twins even share the same placenta and amniotic sac in the uterus, which increases the similarity of the prenatal environment compared with that of fraternal twins, who are almost always in separate sacs. Twins in the same sac share blood, which contains chemicals that affect brain development. 2) It is not clear how different the environments of twins raised in different homes really are. Households in which twins are place often are more similar than not. 3) Aspects of the genes can help shape the environment itself. ? The microenvironment is the environment created by a persons presence, which depends partly on appearance and behavior. ? People select aspects of the environment that appeal to them. 4) Studies indicate that 25 33% of the variability in g can be explained by shared environment. This leaves approximately 25% of the variability in g unaccounted for. Thus, even if the environment appears to be identical, its influence depends on each childs predispositions, inclinations, and perceptions. As people age, they are increasingly able to select their environments, allowing genetic influences to become increasingly evident. The concept of a reaction range (also called a range of reaction) offers a framework for understanding the significance of heritability. a. A reaction range is the range of possible reactions to environmental events established by the genes, but the environment sets a persons position within that range.

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The greater the reaction range, the more evident the effects of the environment. The narrower the reaction range, the more the genes will determine a characteristic.

3. How can we interpret group differences in IQ? ANSWER CLUES: Group Differences in Intelligence Contemporary studies comparing IQ scores find that some groups score lower than others on IQ tests. 1. The genetic contribution to intelligence within a given group does not say anything about possible genetic differences between groups. 2. Further, heritability provides information only about the effect of one environment on a group; it doesnt provide information about the possible effects of other environments. 3. There are race differences in IQ scores. a. The order in which groups test (from high to low) is: Asian Americans, white Americans, Hispanics, African Americans. b. In 1994, Herrnstein and Murray published The Bell Curve, in which they argued that differences in IQ influence many aspects of life, and these differences are largely genetic. This sparked lots of debate. c. There are three theories for the differences among races. 1) Some have argued that there is test bias in intelligence tests, which reflect the fact that tests were designed for a white, middle -class culture and are thus biased against African Americans. However, this probably isnt correct because the race difference between whites and African Americans in IQ is present even on the performance parts of the exam. However, some groups may be more or less comfortable with taking IQ tests. 2) Others have argued that this race difference in IQ is caused by environmental differences. Support for this idea comes from studies showing that people who are best off in U.S. society tend to score higher on IQ tests and so do their children. African American typically make less money than do whites and this factor could cause environmental differences that lead them to score lower than whites. (But of course such a correlation cannot prove causation.) The gap between African American and white IQ scores is shrinking in recent years. There may be several changing environmental factors that contribute to this: ? The economic situation for African Americans is also changing. ? The education level of African American parents has risen faster than that of other groups; this appears to affect childrens achievement. ? Smaller families tend to have high IQ scores and the sizes of African American families have been shrinking. 3) Some have argued that the microenvironment plays a key role in race differences. African Americans have darker skin; this cue may elicit negative treatment from the white majority. A study showing similar IQs between German children fathered by white or African American servicemen right after World War II supports this theory. 4. There may be small sex differences in IQ; however, these effects are not always found. a. Instead, researchers have found that males score higher on certain tasks than females, and vice versa. 1) Males tend to be better at tasks requiring spatial reasoning. 2) Females tend to be better at tasks requiring verbal reasoning. b. There are several possible explanations for these differences. 1) Some theorists have explained sex differences in spatial ability by the role differences of our primitive ancestors. In this view, men were out hunting (which required the ability to navigate) and women stayed home picking berries, weaving baskets and tending children. There are problems with this theory, though: ? There isnt much known about humans male and female ancestors. ? Even in this scenario, it isnt clear than women engaged in fewer spatial tasks. 2) Some of the sex differences arise from the effects of sex hormones.

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Women who received male hormones as part of the procedure to have a sex-change operation experienced increases in spatial abilities and decreases in verbal abilities. ? Womens spatial abilities shift during their monthly cycles, as the balance of hormones changes. ? Levels of male hormones over the course of the day and over the seasons affect mens spatial abilities. 3) There are differences in the structure and function of the brains of men and women. For example, the cerebral hemispheres are not as sharply specialized in women as men. 4) Part of the sex differences may come from how boys and girls are treated in society. Traditionally, girls have not been encouraged to participate in as many spatial activities. ? In support of this, studies have showed that spatial abilities could be improved by having children play certain video games; boys and girls improved the same amount. ? However, sex differences in spatial abilities can be measured even in early childhood and so are unlikely to be totally the result of learning. Although differences in group means dont say anything about differences between differences among particular individuals.

Test Yourself, p. 385


1. What is mental retardation? What causes it? ANSWER CLUES: Mental Retardation: People with Special Needs 1. People with an IQ score of 70 or lower are generally considered to be mentally retarded. In addition, the American Association for Mental Retardation specifies two additional criteria: a. significant limitations in two or more everyday abilities, such as communication, selfcare, and self-direction. b. the presence of the condition since childhood. 2. At least 4 millionand possible 7 millionAmericans are mentally retarded. One out of every 10 families in the United States is directly affected by mental retardation. Mild mental retardation is on the decline. 3. Retardation does not imply an inability to learn. a. Mildly retarded people can learn to function well as adults. b. Behavioral techniques involving shaping and reinforcement can allow even severely retarded people to master many tasks. 4. Many otherwise retarded children display islands of excellence, areas in which they perform well. a. Savants may have dramatic disparities in their abilities. b. This also occurs in Williams syndrome. People with Williams syndrome are in general retarded, but have large vocabularies and often detailed knowledge about facts (although they may not understand these facts). 5. Mental retardation results when the brain fails to develop properly, which can happen in the womb or during childhood. Both genetic and environmental causes can lead to retardation, but the causes of one-third of the cases of mental retardation are unknown. a. The most common type of mental retardation (occurring in 1 of 1,000 births) is Down syndrome . These children have an average IQ of 55, but the degree of retardation varies widely and may disrupt everyday activities less severely than other forms of retardation. 1) The most common form of Down syndrome is caused by the creation of an extra chromosome during conception, which prevents neurons from developing properly so that action potentials do not operate normally. 2) It is more likely to occur in older mothers, whose eggs have been dormant for years. b. The second most common cause of mental retardation is fragile X syndrome.

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In this syndrome, a small bit of DNA on the X chromosome repeats itself many times, making the chromosome prone to breaking up when observed in the laboratory. 2) Twice as many males as females suffer from this disorder because males have only one X chromosome and females have two. It is rare that both of a females X chromosomes carry the disorder. 3) The repetition of the bit of DNA is compounded over generations and the more repeats, the more severe the symptoms. Thus, with each generation, the syndrome becomes worse. Mental retardation also typically accompanies autism, a condition of intense selfinvolvement to the exclusion of external reality. Only 25% of people with autism have IQs higher than 70. 1) Depending on the severity of the disease, people with autism may be socially bizarre or disoriented, engage in repetitive body movements, have severe attentional difficulties, or be self-destructive. 2) Estimates range from 3 out of 10,000 live births to 1 out of 500. 3) It is highly heritable. 4) More boys than girls are affected by autism. Environmental factors contribute to mental retardation. 1) If the fetus is exposed to certain stimu li, mental retardation may result. For example, part of fetal alcohol syndrome is mental retardation. Retardation may also result from exposure to malnutrition, rubella, diabetes, HIV infection, high doses of X rays, a number of infections, antibiotics, and aspirin. 2) Mental retardation can also arise if the birth is unusually difficult and the infants brain is injured. 3) Premature birth, low birth weight, some childhood diseases, and ingesting certain foreign substances can also cause mental retardation.

2. What does it mean to be gifted? ANSWER CLUES: The Gifted 1. Sometimes the term gifted refers to people with IQs of at least 135, but more commonly, it denotes the 150-180 range. 2. Most research on the gifted has focused on people with very high IQs (greater than 150). 3. It is not known how genes and the environment contribute to giftedness. However, gifted boys tend to have lower testosterone levels than nongifted boys whereas gifted girls may have higher amounts than nongifted girls. This indicates that there may be biological factors that predispose some people to become gifted. 4. Children can be gifted in some domains while not being gifted in others. Prodigies, who are children with immense talent in a particular area; these children may nevertheless be normal in other areas. 5. According to some researchers, gifted children do the same kinds of processing as average children but do it more effectively; however, the intellectual feats of some young children suggest that cognition of gifted children may be qualitatively different from that of the rest of us. Gifted children may be: a. exceptionally able to intuit solutions to problems. b. driven by an extraordinary passion to master tasks. 6. There may be prices of these gifts. a. Gifted children may be socially awkward. b. They may be treated as geeks and nerds. c. They may tend to be solitary and introverted. d. They have twice the rate of emotional and social problems as nongifted children. 7. Many distinguished adults showed no signs of giftness as children; most gifted children grow up to be rather ordinary adults. 8. Many eminent adults had the help of able mentors at critical phases of their lives.

3. What is creativity? What makes some people more creative than others? Is there any way to enhance creativity? ANSWER CLUES: Creative Smarts 1. Probably highest form of thinking is creativity, the ability to produce something original of high quality or to devise effective new ways of solving a problem. 2. Creativity necessarily involves the abilities to: a. recognize and develop a novel approach. b. consider a problem from multiple angles and to change points of view repeatedly. c. develop a simple idea in different ways. 3. Many theorists have suggested that creativity relies on a two-stage process: a. generation of a variety of possible solutions to a problem. b. interpreting and selecting among them. 4. This two-stage process is a key aspect of an approach called creative cognition, in which the processes of normal cognition function to produce novel solutions to problems. a. One task used to study creative cognition involves giving participants shapes and asking them to mentally combine them to create a recognizable form or object. b. To be creative in the first phase of creative cognition involves producing lots of candidate creations. 1) The right cerebral hemisphere appears to be particularly important in reaching for remote association among concepts. 2) Participants were more creative if they combined shapes without a goal in mind at the outset and instead interpreted the combinations later. c. The second stage involves recognizing what such combination of the forms could represent. 1) Participants were more creative if they were asked to produce objects in a certain category. 2) Asking for objects in particular categories forced participants to consider novel interpretations. d. Optimal creativity probably involves a mixture of conscious and unconscious processes. 5. Creative people seem to have special abilities that affect both stages of the creative process, such as: a. being able to both generate more possible solutions and select among them effectively. b. being able to keep options opens. c. not making snap decisions about the likely outcome of an effort. d. being good at seeing a problem from a new vantage point. e. being flexible. f. being able to reorganize information. g. thinking in terms of analogies. h. having high intelligence. i. having wide interests. j. not liking traditional dogmas. k. having high self esteem. l. liking to work hard. m. being highly motivated and persistent, driven to create. 6. Creativity often involves an interplay between two types of thinking: a. Convergent thinking, in which the person stays focused on one particular approach to a problem and works through a series of steps to arrive at a solution. b. Divergent thinking, in which the person explores a variety of approaches to a solution before settling on one. 7. Differences in creativity are not strongly related to genetic differences, if at all. 8. There are several environmental factors related to creativity. a. Shared aspects of the home strongly affect creativity. b. The amount of stress people experience is unrelated to creativity. c. Social recognition is unrelated to creativity. d. Moderate amounts of formal education seem ideal for the development of creativity.

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The relationship between creativity and mental stability is unclear. a. Many highly creative people suffer from manic-depressive (bipolar) disorder, perhaps because there is a loosening of thought during the manic phase. b. However, other theorists claim that mental instability and creativity are independent. Many techniques have been developed in an effort to enhance creativity. Such techniques have revealed that creativity flourishes only when the social circumstances are right. The individual provides the variation but the social world selects, preserves, and propagates only some of those innovations. Sternberg claims that everyone can make decisions that will lead them to become creative. These 10 decisions require one to: a. Redefine problems. b. Analyze ones own ideas. c. Sell your ideas. d. Knowledge is a double-edged sword. e. Surmount obstacles. f. Take sensible risks. g. Be willing to grow. h. Believe in oneself. i. Tolerate ambiguity. j. Find what one loves to do and do it. Certain techniques for enhancing creativity rely on interactions among people. a. The most well-known example is brainstorming. b. Some research indicates that this may be a bad idea. People produce fewer ideas in groups than when they work alone, possibly because they are more inhibited. c. However, a group can help or hinder creativity, depending on whether it has highly creative members and how the group is managed.