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@kd;rsufvSnhfynmvdkhyJxifwmaygh
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vkhdaju^imvdkufw,f/ tprf;oyfcHr,fhvlukd zdwfac:
vdkufwmaygh/ prf;oyfcHr,fhvl ay:vmwJhtcg q7m
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junhfvdkufw,f/ tJ'Dvl[m q7mjuD;7JhrsufvkH;t
junhfajumifh awGa0ai;ikdifoGm;w,f/ 'DtcsdefrSm q7m
juD;[m 'Dvlukd oljudKuf7mckid ;f apawmhwmyJ
rif;[ma^rGwpfaumif^zpfoGm;^yD/ rif;[ma^rG
wpfaumifyJ/ rif;[ma^rGwpfaumif^zpfwJhtwGuf a^rG
wpfaumifaeovdk rif;ae7r,f
q7mjuD;. tm%moHygaomtoH0gjuD;atmuf
0,f tprf;oyfcHvlonf wqwfqwfwkef7Dvmonf//
rif;[ma^rG^zpfoGm;^yD/ a[h-a^rG / rif; a^r
ay:rSmvl;vGefh^yD;oGm;avuGm/ a^rGqkdwm a^ray:rSmwGm;
oGm;7w,fuG/ [kwf^yD/ [kwf^yD/ rif;[ma^rGqkdawmh
'DvkdyJoGm;7rSmaygh
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

12

a qm if ; vk v if
q7mjuD;.pum;n$efjum;csuftwkdif; tprf;oyf
cHvlonfukvm;xkdifay:xkdifae7mrS a^ray:okdh0rf;vsm;
xkd;arSmufcsvdkufonf//
yGJjunfhy7dowfxJrSrdef;rwpfa,muf. tvefh
wjum;atmf[pfoHxGufay:vm.//
oGm; / oGm; / [Jh-a^rG/ oGm; / rif;[ma^rG/
a^rGwpfaumif[m wGefhvdrfoGm;7w,fuG/ oGm; /oGm;
tprf;oyfcHvlonf 0rf;vsm;arSmuf ae 7m rS
ukd,fukdwGefhvdkufonf// olhtajumrsm;onfaysmha^ymif;
pGmyif wGefhacGoGm;onfukdyGJjunhfy7dowftm;vkH;^rifju7
.// olu wpfcsufweG hf vdu
k o
f nfEiS fhtwl a@Shohdk tenf;
i,fa@GhIoGm;avonf//
y7dowfonf toufr7SlrdyJ ^yuGufukd thHjo
pGmpku
d jf unhfaejuavonf//
oGm; / oGm;av/ oGm;-oGm; / @GufzsifeH7Hem;
a7mufwJhtxd rif;wGm;oGm;prf;
tprf;oyfcHvlonf a^ray;wGifukd,fukdwGefhI
wGefhI vSKyf7Sm;vdkuf7m wa@Gha@GheSifha7Shokdhwkd;oGm;av
onf//
ol.a^caxmufeSifhvufrsm;rSmrvSKyf7Sm;yJaysmh
a^ymif;aeonf//
a^caxmuftm;ESifhvuftm;ukdr,lyJ
cE<mukd,fuwGefh^cif;/auG;^cif;^zifh
a7Shokdhwa@Gha@Ghwkd;
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a^rGvlom;onf q7mjuD;trdefhtwkdif; rsuf
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vm;
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acgif;ukdqwfueJarmhvdkufonf// vnfyif;qDrSaxmifI
rwfwufvmum
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^zifh olha7ShrSvlukd pl;ueJpdkufjunfhvdkufavonf//
13
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

a qm if ; vk v if
a^rGvlom;xHrS @SL; ueJ ESmrSKwfoHxGuf
ay:vm.//
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vlom;u olha7ShwGifyg;^yif;axmifonfhykHpHrsdK;^zifh acgif;
juD;rwfvm^yD; pkdufjunhfcHvdkuf7onfhtcg tvefhw
jum;atmf7if; a^caxmufrsm;udkxkdifckHay:wifvdkufonf//
a^rGvlom;.OD;acgif;u a^rGwpfaumifyg;^yif;
axmifaeonfhozG,f b,fnm,drf;EGJhum olha7ShrSvl
ukdqufIpl;pkdufjunhfaeonfhtcgwGifum;
tvdkav; / tvm / tvmt7Sif^rwfu,f
awmfryl g
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oGm;avawmhonf//
awmf^yD/ rif;[ma^rGwpfaumifr[kwfawmhbl;/
xcJhawmh
q7mjuD;uvSrf;atmfvdkufonfhtcg
tprf;
oyfcHvlonf a^ray:vl;ae7mrS xxkdifvdkufonf//
olonft0wftpm;rsm;wGifayusHaeaomzkefrsm;
ukdcg7if;rwfwyfx7yfvdkufonf// olonf y7dowfa7Sh
wGifa^rGwpfaumift^zpftokH;awmfcHvdkuf7I 7Suf^cif; /
pdwfysuf^cif;rsm;^zihf rsufeSmrxm;wwfatmif^zpfae.//
^yuGuu
f dk rSiw
f ufrpd mG junhaf ejuaomy7dowf
onf twefjumrSowd0ifvmum vufckyfvuf0g;wD;I
tm;ay;vkdufavownf;//


vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

14

a qm if ; vk v if

g
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vSnfhtwGuf pifay:rSmvSnfhpm;xm;wJhv#dKh0SufcsufawG/
ta7mifawG/qvdkufrD;awG/^irf;awG/judK;awGeJhqifxm;^yD;
om;/ t^yifvlukdzdwfac:vkduf7if tm;vkH;t7SufwuGJ
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t^yifvlukdzdwfac:avhr7Sdygbl;/ tcka^ymcJhwJh^yuGufrsdK;
u q7mjuD;[m olh7JhpdwfndSKhynmukd^ycsifvdkh yGJjunfh
y7dowfxJuzdwfac:^yD;^yvdkufwmyJ
vlwpfa,mufukdac:^yD; t7SufcGJovdk^zpf
raebl;vm;Asm
y7dowfxJukdzdwfac:vkdufvdkh olukd,fwkdif
tprf;oyfcHzkdhoabmwl^yD;^yDyJ/ q7mjuD;ynmukdoufao
7atmifulnD7ma7mufovdk y7dowftwGufvnf; ^y
uGufqef;wpfckjunhf7atmif ulnD7ma7mufygw,f
'g^zifh ukdbvSarmf7Jhq7mu b,folhukd
rqkd a^rGpdwf0ifatmifpdwfndSKhEkdifw,faygh
a^rG^yuGufukd ukd,fuerlemtaeeJha^ym^yxm
yg/ q7mjuD;[m pdwfndSKhynmukdokH;^yD; ykHpHtrsdK;rsdK;
pdwfndSKhEkdifygw,f/ EkdifiH^cm;om;awGvmjunhfwJhyGJrsdK;rSm
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

15

a qm if ; vk v if
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u^rL;juGwJhtuwD;vkH;ukdwD;ay;vdkufwJhtcg EkdifiH^cm;ol
[mtdd,tuukd wu,fhukvm;rav;uovdk tcsdK;
ususuawmhwmyJ/ q7mjuD;uEkdifiH^cm;olukdrSa7G;^yD;okH;
wmw^cm;ajumifhr[kwfzl;/ tdd,wkdif;7if;olukdtokH;^yK
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rqef;bl;vdkhxifjurSmpdk;vdkhyJ/ tdd,eJhp@kdufobm0csif;
^cm;wJh ^yifopfwkdh/ *smrefwkdh/ tDwvDwkdhu EkdifiH^cm;y7d
owfukdrS
q7mjuD;u
tJ'D^yuGufukda7G;^yD;^ywmyg
armif^zdK;
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xifbl;/ pdwftm;i,fwJhvlawG/ uav;awGeJhrdef;rawG
avmufyJ ndSKhvdkh7r,fxifw,f
ukdbvSarmfu tod7cufaom t^yKH;^zifh ^yKH;
vdkuf^yefonf//
armif^zdK;
ukdbvSarmfu trdefhoHygyg^zifhac:vkdufonf//
Asm
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d rS f;junhf
7if;xl;vdkufonf//
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ukdbvSarmf. wrsdK;a^ymif; oGm; aom t oH
ajumifh a0^zdK;aomfajumifIjunhfaerdonf//
rif;,kH7r,farmif^zdK;/ b,folhukdrqkdpdwfndSKh
vdkh7w,fqkdwm rif;,kH7r,f
16
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

a qm if ; vk v if
ukdbvSarmfta^ymajumifh a0^zdK;aomfjuufoD;
zsef;ueJxoGm;onf//
armif^zdK;/ rif; ighukd 'Dtwkdif;pkdufjunhfaeyg
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junhfvdkufprf;
a0^zdK;aomfpdwfu ukdbvSarmf olhukdpdwfndSKh
awmhr,fqkdwm odvdkufonf//
olu tjunhfukd ukdbvSarmfrsufESmqDrScGm7ef
judK;pm;onf//
pdkufjunfh/ pdkufjunhf/rif;ighukdpdkufjunhfae

tndSKhrcHbl;/ tndSKhrcHbl;/ igpdwftndSKhrcHbl;//

olutm;ukdwif;um ukdbvSarmfqDrStjunfhukdcGmonf//
a0^zdK;aomfrSm
pdwftndSKhcHae7rSef;odyg7uf/
oluvnf; tndSKhrcH7atmif tm;wif;xm;yg7ufuyif
ukdbvSarmftrdfefhukd rvGefqefEkdifatmif7Sdae.//
olonf rsufvkH;ukdrSdwfypfvdkuf7efjudK;pm;junfh
onf// rsufvkH;ESpfckrSmrSdwfr7yJ rsufcGHrsm;ckdifae.//
armif^zdK;/ rif;[m tcktcsdefup^yD; iSufu
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aumif/ rif;[m iSufuav;wpfaumif

tkd;-r[kwfbl;/ igpdwfndSKhrcHbl;/ ig iSufr[kwf


bl;/ owd/owd/ xdef;prf;/ wdef;prf;// olhpdwfxJuawmh

owdr^ywfatmifxdef;xm;aerd.// okdhaomf
iSufuav;/ iSufuav;/ a[h-iSufuav;/
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yHawG^zefhvdkufav/ rif;tawmifyHawG^zefhvdkuf/ ^zefh
vdkuf
a0^zdK;aomfonfvufeSpfzufukd ukd,frScGmIab;
wkdufa^rSmufvdkufrd.//
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

17

a qm if ; vk v if
[ifhtif; / igpdwfndSKhrcHbl; / ola^ymovdk
rvkyfzl;/ rvkyfzl; //
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tm;,l / tm;,l / tm;,l^yD;ysHawmhavuGm
a0^zdK;aomf xkdif7mrSxvdkufonf//
vufESpfzufukd tawmifyHcwfo nfh o zG
,f a^rSmufcsD/cscsDvkyfaerd.//
iSufuav;a7/ ysHawmhavuG,f/ pm;yGJckHay:
ukdysHwufvdkufprf;
a0^zdK;aomfonf pma7;pm;yGJckHay:okdhckefwuf
vkduf7m thHjop7maumif;pGmyif ayghyg;pGma7muf7SdoGm;
av.//
iSufuav;/ pm;yGJay:rSm rif;twGuftpm7Sd
ovm;/ junhfygOD;uG,f
olonf ukef;uGuGjuD;ESifh pm;yGJukdrsufESmtyfI
pm;yGJay:rSypPnf;rsm;ukdvdkufjunfh.//
^cifaq;acGAl;ukdtawGhwGif oluyg;pyfESifhayguf
csvdkufonf// iSufESKwfoD;^zifhaygufovdk aygufcsvdkuf
^cif;^zpf7m iSufuJhokdhcsGefxufaomESKwfoD;r7Sdonfhol
onf yg;pyfeSifhrxdrdcifESmacgif;^zifhxdrdum eSmacgif;
^zifhxdrdum ESmacgif;emoGm;onf//
emusifrKS ajumifh a0^zKd;aomfowd0ifvm.// ig

pdwfndSKhrcHbl;//

iSufuav;/ tJ'g^cifaq;acGjuD;uG/rif;tpm
r[kwfbl;
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junhfaerd^yefonf//
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ukdtawGhwGif wpfcgxyfI ESKwfoD;ESifhaygufcsvdkuf^yef
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

18

a qm if ; vk v if
onf// uGrf;,mxkwfrSmtawmfjuD;onfrdkh olhyg;pyfxJyg
vm.//
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ukdbvSarmfu oabmuspGm7,fvdkufonf//
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ajumif;odae7ufuyif/ tm;wif;xm;yg7ufuyif ukd
bvSarmftrdefhtwkdif;vdkufvkyfaerdygyaum//
iSufuav;7,f atmufukd^yefqif;cJhygawmh/
'Dukvm;xkdifrSm vmem;ygawmhuGm
olu pm;yGJckHay:rS vufESpfzufukdqefhwef;7if;
ukvm;xdkifay;ckefcsvdkufonf//
[m; [m; [m; [m; [m; [m; [m;
[m; [m; [m; [m;
ukdbvSarmfu oabmuspGmtawmrowf 7,f
armaeawmhonf//
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0gxkwfIokwfvdkufonf// yg;pyfrSmukduf7ufwef;vef;juD;
^zpfaeaom uGrf;,mxkwfukd pm;yGJay:ypfwifvdkufonf/
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[m; [m; [m; [m;
ukdbvSarmfu 7,faeqJ//

[m;usGefawmfpdwfwif;xm;wJhjum;xJuAsm/
cifAsm;awmfawmfqkd;wJhvlyJ ukdbvSarmf
ukdbvSarmfu oabmuspGmquf7,faeonf//
aqm7D; / aqm7D;armif^zdK;7m/ ukd,fusDp,f
wmyg/ ukd,fusDpm;wmvGefoGm;ovm;[if
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

19

a qm if ; vk v if
a0^zdK;aomfESKwfcrf;juD;pl7if; ililjuD;xkdifae.//
ukdbvSarmfukd bmrS^yefra^ymawmh//
aqm7D;ygnDav;7m/ rif;wkdht@G,f ynmwwf
qkdwJhaumifav;awGu vufawGh^yrS,kHwwfvdkh udk,fu
rif;,kHatmifvufawGh^yvdkufwmyg/ aqm7D;aemf-ighnD
ukdbvSarmfu olhyckH;ukdykwf7if; vSKdufvSdKufvSJ
vSJawmif;yefae7Smonf//
cifAsm;,kHapcsifvdkhrSKwfvm;/ ,kHvdkufyg^yDAsm/
,kHvdkufyg^yD
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w7ufrdkh usGefawmf7SufoGm;vdkhyg/ pdwfrqkd;ygbl;Asm

vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

20

a qm if ; vk v if

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armif^zdK;
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u yGJvrf;obif0goemrygawmh cifAsm;emrnfjuD;
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ukdbvSarmfu
ouf^yif;wpfcsufudkrSKwfxkwf
vdkufonf//

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umvu renf;ygbl;/ tawmfukdtm;xkwfcJh7wmyg
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Asm
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0if0ifvmwmukda^ymwmyg
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vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

21

a qm if ; vk v if
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7wemodkufwpfckudk7SmaewmyJ
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usGefawmf em;rvnfbl;
ukdbvSarmfu awGa0oGm;onf//tajumif;t7m
wpfckukdtvnfrS^zwfa^ymI wpfzufom;oabmrayguf
Ekdifwmukdvnf;odvdkufonf//
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ukda^ym^yyghr,f/ ae7ma'oawmhcsefxm;vdkufr,f/ rif;
ESKwfvkHygapaemf
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vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

22

a qm if ; vk v if

[m
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28

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29

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30

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31
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33

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34

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35

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36

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37
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38

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39
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40

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41

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42

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43

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armfonf tvGefyifthHjowjuD;^zpfoGm;7ygawmhonf//
xkdt7monf i,f@G,faomrdef;rysdKwpfOD;. 0d
nmOfvdyf^ym^zpfaeaomajumifhyif// vdyf^ymv$ifhusifhpOf
ukd i,f@G,faomrdef;uav;wpfOD;u wwfa^rmufae
aomajumifh thHtm;oifhoGm;rdonf//
rdef;rysdKonf acwfrDoyf7yfaom0wfpkHukd 0wf
qifxm;.// tusrSm pykdh7Syfvuf^ywf^zpfI olr.vuf
armif;om;^zL^zLav;rSm 0if;tday:vGif aeayonf//
aemufuGJpuyfxrDukd 0wfqifxm;^yD; olroGif^yifrSm
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aeayonf// onfvdkoGif^yif / onfvdktouft@G,feJh
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

44

a qm if ; vk v if
yd,daooyfpGm vdyf^ymv$ifhEkdifonfrSm qef;us,fvSyg
uvm;//
rdef;uav;u olrtxufaumif;uifrS ukdbvS
armfukdowdrxm;rdao;ay//
ukdbvSarmfonf rdef;uav;ESifhreD;ra0;ae7m
xd edrfhqif;vdkuf^yD; rdef;uav;ukdtoH^yKvdkufonf//
a[;
ukdbvSarmftoHu wdwfqdwfaeaomaumif;
uifwGif yJhwifxyfI[def;xGufoGm;.//
rdef;uav;u ol7Sd7mukdarmfIjunhfvdkufonf//
rdef;uav;. vSyacsmarmaomrsufESmav;ukd
^rifvkduf7onfhtcg ukdbvSarmf7ifrSm vSyfueJckefoGm;
avonf//
olonf rde;f uav;ESihf wef;wltaetxm;txd
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rif; b,fov
l [
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tk
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rif; b,fuvJuG,f/ rif;emrnfb,fvdkac:
ovJ[if
[ifhtif;
rdef;uav;u acgif;ukdcg,rf;vdkuf7m qHyifrsm;
u avxJwGif zGm;ueJvGifhoGm;avonf//
rdef;uav;onf
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@kwfw7ufatmufqDokdhqkdufqif;um w[kefxkd;vGifhysHhI
a^y;avawmhonf//
tkd uav;r / aeOD;avuG,f
ukdbvSarmfu ESKwfrSa7@Gwf7if; atmufokdh
qif;I rdef;uav;aemufokdhtrDSysHIvdkufcJhavonf//
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

45

a qm if ; vk v if
aeygOD;uGhJrdef;uav;7Jh/ rif;eJhukd,frdwfquf
yg7ap
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bl;
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qdwfacsmufaoGhvSygw,fuG,f/ ckvdk wpfa,mufeJhwpf
a,mufqkHwkef;av; rdwfaqGzGJh7wmyg/ vufcHyguG,f
rdef;uav;u a^rmufpl;pl;t7yfqDokdhw[kefxdk;
ysHoef;aeonf// ukdbvSarmfonf rdef;uav;ab;rStrD
vdkufum pum;rsm;wwGwfwGwfa^ymaerd.//
ukd,fhemrnfuukdbvSarmfwJh/ rif;emrnfodyg
7aprdef;uav;
tkd;-rodcsifygeJh/ usGefrwpfa,mufxJyJaeae
usyg/ usGefrtem;uoGm;yg7Sif
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ukdvSnfhjunhfvdkufonf//
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vkyfaeovJ/ 7Sifodcsifovm;
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cspfol/ rif;rSmcspfol7Sdw,f
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

46

a qm if ; vk v if
[kwfw,f/ usGefrcspfolukd usGefr7Smaewm
rif;cspfolu b,folvJ
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oGm;ygawmh7Sif / usGefrb0ukdrodcsifygeJh /
rpyfpyk geJh
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wkefvSKyfoGm;avonf// ywf0ef;usif7SKcif;rsm;onfvnf;
0g;ueJ^zpfoGm;.//
ol ^yefcsdefoifhay^yD//
tcsdefwpfem7DtukdufxGef;ndSxm;cJhonfh t
csuf^yza,mif;wkdifrD;rSm ^idrf;oGm;^yDrkdh olhukdowday;
vdkuf^cif;yJ^zpfygonf// ol rlvcE<m7Sd7m ^yef7ayawmh
rnf// tcsdefaph^yD//
q7m q7m tcsdefaph^yD/^yefcJhygawmh
olhwynfhav;.owday;oHu em;xJokdh0ifvm
onf//
ukdbvSarmfonf rdef;uav;ESifhtwlvdkufI ysH
oef;ae7mrS 7yfvdkufonf// rdef;uav;u olhukdausmf
vGefI ta0;okdhvsif^refpGma7mufoGm;avonf//
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olu rdef;uav;jum;atmif vSrf;atmfvdkuf
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wnfysHoef;um tpufta^ymufuav;t^zpfrS vsif^ref
pGmaysmufuG,foGm;avonf//
ukdbvSarmfu ouf^yif;csvdkufonf// ^yefcsdef
oifhcgeD;rS qkHqnf;wwfyavrdef;uav;7,f//
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

47

a qm if ; vk v if
olonf rlvcE<m7Sd7mokdh^yef7ef olhtdrf7Sd7m
7efukef^rdKhzufokdh ^yefIOD;wnfvdkufavonf//

g
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ae.//0dnmOfrJhcE<mukd,fjuD;.ab;wGif tif;csyftrsdK;rsdK;
wef;pDcsxm;I pnf;wm;xm;avonf//
ukdbvSarmf. cE<mukd,fjuD;vJavsmif;ae7ma^c
7if;wGif ol.wynfhav; atmifbkpdef u pdk;7drfxdwf
vefhpGmapmifhjunhfaeavonf//
q7m/ q7m/ tcsdefaph^yD/ ^yefvmcJhygawmh
atmifbkpdefu
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wpfem7Dwdwdtcsdefjumatmif uGufwdxGef;ndS
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udk,fxJokdh ^yef0ifvm^cif;ajumifhyif^zpfygonf//
atmifbkpdefu ouf^yif;csvdkuf.//
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

48

a qm if ; vk v if
ukdbvSarmf. 7ifywfESifh0rf;Akdufonf w^znf;
^znf;vSKyf7mS ;vmum vlaumif;yuwduJhohdk touf@SL
avawmhonf//
wc%csif;rSmyif ukdbvSarmfu rsufpdzGifh
junhfvdkufonf//
qwfueJ xxkid v
f u
kd o
f nf//
awmfygao;7Jhq7m7,f/ usGefawmhf^zifh pdwfyl
vdu
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atmifbkpdefua^ymvdkufonf//
q7mwpfcgrS 'Dvdkaemufrusbl;awmh bm
rsm;^zpfaeovJvdkh usGefawmfpdwfyloGm;wm/ usGefawmf
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q7mhvkyfief;atmif^rifcJh7Jhvm;[if
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wpfa,mufeJhqkHcJh7w,fatmifbk
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atmifbkpdefu olhukdthHjopGmai;junhfaeav
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vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

49

a qm if ; vk v if
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ukdbvSarmfu ouf^yif;csvdkufonf//
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^zdK;7,f/ udk,fckxd olhemrnfawmifrod7ao;bl;/ olh7Jh
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wkH;
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vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

50

a qm if ; vk v if
csdeu
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ukdbvSarmfonf rkdufrdkufrJrJyif aehpOf7uf
qufvdyf^ymv$ifhcJhonf//
ol.q7mjuD;rdefhrSmcsuf7Sdyg
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qkH;ig;7uf^cm;xm;7ef^zpfonf// vdyf^ymv$ifhcsdefpdwfvGef;
v#if 0dnmOfyrf;um toufwkdvdrfhrnf[kqkdonf//
tm@kHpkpnf;rSKtm;vnf;
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q7mjuD;urSmjum;cJh.//
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0dnmOfv$ifhum 7SmcJh.//
awGhvnf;awGhcJhygonf//
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uif^yifokdh a7mufvmajumif;awGh7avonf// olthHjocJh
7.// i,f@G,fEke,faomrdef;ri,fonf olhq7mjuD;xuf
yifykdItpGrf;xuf^rufaeovm;//
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a7Smifa^y;avonf// olr.trnfukda^ym^y7efyif^iif;qef
cJh.//
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wpf7ufwGif ukdbvSarmfonf rdef;uav;ukd
tawGhrcHyJ wdrfwkdufwpfckjum; 0ifykef;aecJhonf//
rdef;uav;onf
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olr vmvrf;twkdif; a^rmufzufpl;pl;OD;wnfysHoef;oGm;
av.//
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

51

a qm if ; vk v if
xkdtcsdefwGif avuvnf; a^rmufzufokdhwkduf
cwfonfEiS hf juKHaomajumifh wdrrf x
J kviG hf arsmoGm;onf
ESifhtwl ukdbvSarmfonf wdrfxkxJwGifykef;ckd7if;
aemufrSvdkufvmcJhavonf//
rdef;ri,fonf olrqif;ouf7efae7mokdha7muf
onfhtcg ab;ywf0ef;usifukdvSnfhywfjunhfvdkufao;
onf// wdrfrJxkxJwGif ykef;uG,faeaomukdbvSarmfukd
olrur^rifyg//
olronf pdwfcsvufcsyif atmufzufokdhxkd;
pdkufIqif;csoGm;avonf//
ukb
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oef;vdu
k yf gcJhonf// atmufr^S rifuiG ;f rsm;ukd yD^yifpmG ^rif
7onfhae7mxdvu
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wm odvdkuf7wmyJarmif^zdK;
bm^zpfvdkhvJAsm
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vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

52

a qm if ; vk v if
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7ygw,fukdbvSarmf7,f/ a^ym7r,fhvlawGrS
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rif;wkdhtdrf[m ukd,fh7Jhpm;tdrfaomuftdrfyg/ ukd,fvnf;
rif;qDrSmESpfvyJwnf;ckdEkdifrSmyg/ oDwif;usGwfwmeJhyGJawG
p^yDav/ tck rkd;wGif;rdkhyGJem;xm;wm/ Zmwfwkdufp7mawG
7Sdwmypf^yD; ESvkH;om;tvdkvdkufrdwmyJarmif^zdK;a7
'DvdkayghukdbvSarmf7m/ oDwif;usGwfwJhtxd
vGwfvGwfvyfvyfaeyg/ usGefawmfvnf; oDwif;usGwf
wmeJh r*FvmaqmifawmhrSmav
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ukdbvSarmfu a0^zdK;aomfukdjunhfvdkufonf//
jo armif^zdK;awmif tdrfaxmif^yKawmhrSm
ukd;/ ukd,fhpdwfxJrSm uav;yJxifaewm/ ukd,f aersdK;
aZmfeJhwGJaewkH;u rif;uabmif;bDwkdav;eJh7Sdaeao;wm
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ukdbvSarmfu olh[mola^ym^yD; olhpum;ol o
abmuspGm7,farmaeavonf//

vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

53

a qm if ; vk v if

g
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^ywif;aygufqDav#mufoGm;um ^cHxJokdhvSrf;
ar#mfjunfhvdkuf.//
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a0^zdK;aomfu
ol0,f,lcJhonhfaps;ukda^ym^y
vdkufonf//
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wkdufuav;ukd tvnfwnfhwnfhrSmaqmufxm;onf//
wdwfqdwf^idrfoufaomae7mwpfckvnf;^zpfyg.//
^rdKhopf^zpfIa^ruGufvuf0,f7Sdolwkdif;u vmr
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wcsdKhuaqmufvkyfqJ/ wcsdKhu aqmuf^yD;wkdufrsm;ukd
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tuGufwpfckvnf;^zpfavonf//
ukdbvSarmfu ywf0ef;usiftaetxm;ukdjunhf
IoabmusoGm;onf//
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v$ifhOD;rvkdhvm;/ 7vdkhvm;
54
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

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d hf vyd f
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^yD;v$ifhawmh oleJhykd^yD;eD;pyfwmayghuGm/ vdyf^ymv$ifh7if;
olaewJhtrd t
f xdawmif vdkujf unhv
f hkd 7Ekdiaf o;w,f
ajomf
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ukd,fhwynfhav;atmifbkpdefu tem;uaeapmifhjunhf
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ukdzsufqD;ypfvdkufrSmpdk;7wmaygh/ vdkvdkr,fr,fapmifhcdkif;
wmyg/ ckqdk-ukd,fhrSm7efol7Sdae^yDav/ a^rykHwpfykdif;ukdif
xm;wJhvlu w^cm;EkdifiHuqkdayr,fh owdxm;7w,f
armif^zdK;/ tJ'gajumifh wynfhav;ukdapmifhcdkif;wmyg
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a7mufaewmvJ vlodwmrSr[kwfwm/ tJ-ukd,fvdyf^ym
v$ifhr,fhtcef;udkawmh
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7ygw,f
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ukdbvSarmfukdac:oGm;vdkufonf//
bk7m;cef;u us,fom;yJ
ukdbvSarmfu
bk7m;cef;ukdvSnfhywfjunhfonf// ^ywif;aygufrsm;ckdifrcdkif vSKyf7rf;junhfonf//
55
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

a qm if ; vk v if
vdyf^ymv$ifh7if bk7m;cef;xJuv$ifh7rSmyJ
armif^zdK;/ bk7m;cef;ukdawmh ukd,fhukd^yK^yifcGifhay;uGm
Asm
0ifaygufukda7m/ ^ywif;aygufESpfaygufukdyg
oHr%dwHcg;awGwyf7r,f/ukefusp7dwfvJ ukd,fyJcHrSmyg
ukb
d vSarmfvw
kd ,fxif7ifvyk yf gav/ usGef
awmfuawmhusGefawmfhtdrfawmif ykdvkH^cKHao;wmyJav/
wm;p7mr7Sdygbl;
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prf;ay;ygOD;
usGefawmhfum;,lokH;vnf; 7ygw,f
r[kwfzl;av/ ukd,fu oluav;ukdrEWav;
tESHh wpfvrf;0ifwpfvrf;xGufvdkuf7Sm7rSm/ rif;u@kH;
udpPeJh/ @kH;csdefrSm ukd,fum;okH;vdkhb,f^zpfrvJ/ um;eJhvJ
roGm;csifbl;/ vl7Smw,fqkdwm qkdifu,feJhrS ayghayghyg;
yg; oGufoGufvufvufr[kwfvm;
eSpfvavmufokH;zkdhtwGuf qkdifu,fwpfpD;
0,f7rSmukdESarsmvdkhyg
udk,f^yefawmh ^yefa7mif;chJ@kHaygh/ ukd,fhrSmaiG
aju;t^ynfhtpkHygygw,farmif^zdK;/ 'DudpPtwGufrSrokH;
7if b,fae7moGm;okH;rvJ
aumif;yg^yDAsm/ usGefawmfreufzef 31vrf;
zufywfvdkufyghr,f/ [Gef'gplyguyfqkd ^zpfw,fr[kwf
vm;
tkad uyJ


vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

56

a qm if ; vk v if

g
aemufwpfaehrSm @kH;roGm;cif ukdbvSarmf
twGufvdktyfwmawGpDpOfay;cJh7ao;onf//
vuform;q7mwpfa,mufac:ay;cJh.// ukdb
vSarmfu bk7m;cef;ukd oHr%dwcg;rsm;wyfqifzkdhudpP
vuform;q7mESifhaqG;aEG;7if;usefcJhonf//
xrif;awmhvrf;xdyfuqkdifrSm 0,fpm;vdkh7
w,fukdbvSarmf/
usGefawmfvJnpmukdtJ'DqkdifrSmyJpm;
w,f/ aehvnfpmawmh @kH;zGifh7ufqkd@kH;em;rSm0,fpm;
vdkufw,f/tdrfrSmcsufrpm;bl;
7w,farmif^zdK;/ pdwfcsvufcsomoGm;/ @kH;
qif;7ifom udk,fhtwGufqkdifu,f0,fzkdhudpP 0ifpkHprf;cJh
yguGm
pdwfcsukdbvSarmf
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ukyR%D@kH;cef;xJvSrf;t0if y,if; u olhukd^yKH;
^yonf// y,if;u tvkyfpvkyf7ef olra7ShuuGef^yLwm
ukdzGifhaeonf// y,if;onf TukyR%D.pm7if;ukdif^zpf
ygonf//
q,frdepfaemufusw,f
olha7Shem;u^zwftoGm;rSm
y,if;ucyfwkd;wkd;
vSrf;a^ymonf//
7efuek u
f {nfonfa7mufaevdhk
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a^ym^yD; @kH;wufvufrSwfxdk;pmtkyfwGifvufrSwfxdk;um
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

57

a qm if ; vk v if
tkyfcsKyfa7;t7m7Sd [k qkdif;bkwfuyfxm;aomolh
tcef;xJokdh a0^zdK;aomfvSrf;0ifcJhonf//
ol.^ymwm^zpfol ukvm;av;qmrd u
qifem;@GufwHcg;ukd[ay;avonf//
tcef;xJa7mufawmh Faxwpfapmif0ifaewm
awGhI xkdifyifrxdkifEkdifao;yJ Faxpm@Gufukd uGef^yL
wmy7ifwmqDrSqGJ,l^yD;zwfjunhfvdkufonf// ukefypPnf;
trSmpmrsm;^zpfae.//
qkHvnfukvm;xkdifrSm0ifxkdifvdkufonfESifh w,f
vDzkef;u 0ifvmavonf//
q7mhzkef;yg q7m
tcef;t^yifzuf7Sd vdkif;cGJw,fvDzkef;ukdaumuf
ukdifem;axmifay;onhfpma7;wpfa,mufuvma^ymonf/
a0^zdK;aomfu pm;yGJay:7Sdzkef;pum;a^ymcGufukd
aumuf,lIxl;vdkufonfhtcg wpfzufrS ac:olrSm
tpfukdaersdK;aZmf^zpfae.//
nDvm; / ukdukdyg
[kwfuJhukdukd
nDhqDukd bvSarmfa7mufvmyvm;
a7mufae^yDukdukd/ raehuaehvnfua7muf
w,f
nDhukdbmawGa^ymao;vJ
ola^ymwm txl;tqef;awGcsnf;ygyJukdukd
7,f/ r,kH7cuf ,kH7cufyJ/ ,kHatmifoufao^ywmxif
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[m;- [m;- [m;- [m;-
wpfzufrSaersdK;aZmfu [m;wkduf7,faeonf//
olursufvSnfhq7myJuGm/ 'gavmufawmh
wwfrmS aygh
58
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

a qm if ; vk v if
ola^ymwmawG wu,fyJvm;ukdukd/ vdyf^ym
v$ifhwJhtajumif;vJa^ymw,f/ ukdukdhukda^ymbl;vm;
a^ymbl;yghuGm/ ckvJ vdyf^ymv$ifh7if;awGhwJh
aumifrav;ukd7SmzkdhrEWav;oGm;csifw,fqkdvdkh nDhvdyfpm
ukd ukdukday;vkdufwmyJ

[kwfw,fukdukd/
ola^ymwmawGu
pdwf0ifpm; zkdhawmhawmfawmfaumif;wmyJ
csifh,kHayghuGm/ olh*D7ynmawGu rsufpdeJh
r^rif7awmhcufom;yJ/
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vlwpfzufom;ukdvdrf
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wpfckr[kwfwpfckawmh
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7rS/
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w,fukdukd7,f/ ckawmh ykdufqHvnf;awmfawmfcsrf;om
aeykHyJ / nDhukdqkdifu,f0,fckdif;aew,f
rsufvSnfhyGJu pD;yGm;^zpfw,fav/ at;avowdeJhaeayghuGm/ ukdukdwkdhukdawmh ol'k=ay;rSmrSKwfyg
bl;
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ukdukdvnf; oDwif;rusGwfcif wpfacgufvm
cJhOD;r,f/ nDwkdhr*FvmudpPtwGufvnf; judKpDpOf7atmif
'DaumifjuD;eJhvJ rEWav;rSmqkH7wmaygh
aumif;om;yJuu
dk dk
at;-at;- 'gyJnD/ y,if;ukdvnf; ukdukdu
ar;w,fa^ymvdkufyguGm/ *GwfbdkifnD

vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

59

a qm if ; vk v if
xrif;pm;csdefem;awmh pm;aeus @kH;ESifhrsufESm
csif;qkdifu qkdifrSmpm;zkdh a0^zdK;aomfxGufvmcJhonf//
tcef;t^yifa7mufawmh y,if;u olr.xrif;
Al;ukdukdif7if; olxGuftvmukdapmifhaewmawGh7.//
oGm;jupdkhy,if;
y,if;ESifhtwl xrif;qkdifokdhxGufcJhju.//
@kH;zGifh7ufwkdif; onfvdkyJ y,if;ESifhxrif;qkHpm;
aeus^zpfygonf// oluqkdifrSxrif;[if;rSmpm;/ y,if;u
tdrfu,lvmonfhxrif;Al;ESifhpm;onf// y,if;u olht
wGufygxrif;wpfAl;ykdxnfhvmzkdha^ymaomfvnf; a0^zdK;
aomfuvufrcHcJhay//
qkdifrSmyJ pm;onhfteyfta7twGufukdrSwfxm;
^yD; vukefrS7Sif;onf//
y,if;cif onf oDwif;usGwfv#if olESifhvuf
xyf7ef7nf@G,fxm;onfh olhcspfol^zpfygonf// oluukyR
%DwGif txuf^refrm^ynf tkyfcsKyfa7;t7m7Sdt^zpf rEW
av;okdha^ymif;a@$hvmpOfu y,if;ciftvkyfr0ifao;ay/
olrEWav;a7muf^yD;wpfESpftjumrSm y,if;upm7if;ukdif
t^zpftvkyf0ifvm7mrS pawGhcJhju^cif;^zpfonf// cspfol
awG^zpfcJhjuonf// cspfoloufwrf;okH;ESpft7rSm vuf
xyfzkdhoabmwl^yD;^zpfI 'DESpfoDwif;usGwfv#ifvuf
xyf7ef 7ufa@G;aejuqJ^zpfygonf//
xrif;pm;aepOf a0^zdK;aomfu ukdbvSarmf
tajumif;ukda^ym^yvdkufonf//
armifhtdrfrSm vlxl;vlqef;juD;wpfa,muf
a7mufaew,fuG/ odvm;y,if;
7efukefu{nfhonfqkdwmvm;
[kwfw,f/ olursufvSnfhq7muG

vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

60

a qm if ; vk v if
rsufvSnfhq7m/ rsufvSnfhq7mu bmxl;
qef;vdkhvJarmif7Jh
xl;qef;wmaygh/ olursufvSnfhq7m@kd;@kd;r
[kwfbl;/ pdwfukdvnf;EdkifwJhraemr,q7mrsdK;/ pdwfndSKh
wwfw,fuG
[if
armifhukdawmif iSufuav;^zpfatmifpdwfndSKh
vkdharmifcHvdkuf7ao;w,f
bm- iSuf^zpfatmifpdwfndKShw,f
rmifwif;cHaewJhjum;u iSupf w
d 0f ifomG ;wm/
ukd,fhukdukd,f wu,fukdiSufvkdhxifoGm;wmy,if;7
a0^zdK;aomfu olht^zpfukda^ym^y7if; oabmus
pGm7,farmvdkufonf// y,if;uvkdufr7,fay//em;axmif
7if;rsufarSmifjuKyfI olhukdpkdufjunhfaeonf// olhcspfol
ukd ua7mfur,ftvkyfcH7I ajueyfykHr7ay//
^yD;awmh- oluvdy^f ymvnf;v$ihf wwfw,f
wJh/ rqef;bl;vm;y,if; /vdyf^ymv$ifhw,fqkdwmy,if;
jum;bl;ovm;[if
vdyf^ymv$ifhwmrsm; bmqef;vdkhvJarmif7,f
[if- y,if;uvdyf^ymv$ifhwJhtajumif;od
w,f/ armif^zifhudkbvSarmfa^ym^yrSjum;bl;wm
y,if; pmtkyfxJrSmzwfzl;wmyg
y,if;ukd ukdbvSarmfeJhawGhay;7OD;r,f
tkd 'DvkdarSmfq7mrsdK;eJhrawGhcsifygbl;
bm- arSmfq7m/ [kwfvm;/ y,if;u
bmvdkh arSmfq7mvdkhokH;vdkuf7wmvJ/ olu rsufvSnfh
q7myg
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bl;ygw,f/ rsufvSnfhq7mjuD;u a^caxmuftxdzkH;wJh
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

61

a qm if ; vk v if
0wf@kHeufjuD;ukd0wfvdkh/ rsufESmrSmvnf;rdwfuyfawGcs,f
vdkh/ rsufvkH;w0kdufrSmvnf; trnf;a7mifawGqkd;xm;
wm/ odyfajumufzkdhaumif;wmyJ/ vlukdacgif;^zwfwJh^y
uGufawGqkd7if odyfpdwfacsmufcsm;zkdhaumif;wm/ tJ'g
arSmfq7maygharmif7Jh/ armifhvljuD;eJhrawGhcsifygbl;
[m;- [m;- [m;- y,if;ursufvSnfhyGJ
junhf^yD;ajumufaewmukd;/ t^yifrSmawmh ukdbvSarmf
u @kd;@kd;vlyguGm
y,if;u pm;vdhk uek o
f mG ;aomxrif;Al;uk^d yefyw
d f
vdkufonf// a7aEG;u7m;xJrS a7aEG;ukdtjurf;yef;uef
xJiSJhxnfhI a0^zdK;aomfa7ShukdwGef;ykdhvdkufonf//
a0^zdK;aomfu a7aEG;jurf;ukd wpfusdKufarmh
aomufvdkuf7if;
ukdbvSarmfu olvdyf^ymv$ifh7if;awGhwJhrdef;
uav;wpfa,mufukdvm7SmwmwJh/
tJ'Drdef;uav;u
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onf//
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y,if;u vkHcsnfay:usoGm;aoma7aEG;pufrsm;
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a7aEG;awGvufeJhxdrd^yD; yloGm;vdkhygarmif
y,if;u x7yfvdkufonf//
oGm;jupdkharmif / 12cGJ^yD
a^ym7if; y,if;uxGufoGm;ESifhonf//

vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

62

a qm if ; vk v if
@kwfw7ufa^ymif;vJoGm;aom y,if;trlt7mukd
thjH o7if;
y,if;aemufohdk uref;uwef;xvdu
k o
f mG ;7
avonf//

g
nae@kH;qif;awmh y,if;ukdtdrfvdkufykdhay;zkdh
um;ay:wifac:cJhonf//
reufykdif;@kH;twufrSm ukyR%DrS z,f7Dum;^zifh
y,if;@kH;ukdvmygonf// a0^zdK;aomfaeonfh^rdKhopfykdif;
ESifhy,if;wkdhtdrf7Sdonfha^rmuf^yifu rEWav;^rdKh.awmif
zsm;ESifha^rmufzsm;rsm;^zpfaeonf//@kH;u^rdKhxJ 28atvrf;
rSm7SdaeI reuf@kH;twufrSm y,if;ukdtdrftxdoGm;
ac:zkdhr^zpfEkdifawmhay//
@kH;qif;rSom y,if;ukda^rmuf^yif7Sd tdrftxd
vdkufykdhay;^yD;rS a0^zdK;aomftdrf^yefwmxkH;pH^zpfae^yD//
aps;csdKzufukd c%ykdhay;ygOD;armif/ y,if;
tusa@G;p7m7Sdvdkh
a0^zdK;aomfu usKH;eab;26vrf;rSywfum aps;
csdKzufokdhum;ukdarmif;cJhonf//
b,fqkdifvJy,if;
y,if;tyfaeus 24vrf;a'gifhu w@kyfr
qkdifyJav/ tcktyfxm;wJhtusu armifvufaqmif
ay;wJh ygwdwfaZmif;tpav;armif7Jh
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

63

a qm if ; vk v if
[kwfvm;/ armifhtpfrukd y,if;ykHpHa^ym^y^yD;
0,fckdif;xm;wmav/ y,if;judKufw,frSKwfvm;
judKufygw,farmif/ tusa7mvkcH snfa7m
0rf;qufcsKyfvdkufw,fav
^yD;cJhwhJ v a0^zdK;aomf7efuek ^f yefpOfu y,if;
twGuf0,fvmaom vufaqmiftpav;^zpfonf// rdef;
rypPnf;r0,fwwfI tpfrjuD;arrsdK;armfukd y,if;ykHpH
a^ym^yI0,fcdkif;7onf// rrarrsdK;armfu teufa7mif
atmufcHwGif
teDa7mifESifht0ga7miftpif;av;rsm;yg
onfh ygwdwfpukd0,fvmay;onf//
wuwJ/ igharmifuawmh ,lyJ,lawmhr,fh
rdef;rukd "mwfykHav;awmif,lrvmcJhbl;/ tom;^zLw,f/
oG,fw,fqkdvdkh 'Dtqifa@G;cJhw,f/ eifhaumifrav;
judKufrSmyg
y,if;u arrsdK;armf a@G;ay;vdkufonfhtpukd
judKufygonf//
a0^zKd;aomf um;ukd24vrf;ab;/ tuscsKyfqkdif
a7ShwGif7yfay;vdkufonf/
y,if;u tusa@G;7efum;ay:rSqif;I qkdifxJ
0ifoGm;.//
a0^zdK;aomfu cyfvSrf;vSrf;7Sd uGrf;,mqkdifwGif
pD;u7ufwpfvdyfoGm;0,f^yD;aomuf7if; y,if;xGuft
vmukdapmifhaevdkufonf//
y,if;u tusxkwfukdydkuf^yD; qkdifxJrS^yefxGuf
vmonf//
y,if;uvufxJrStxkwfukd b,fvuf^zifhayGh
ykduf^yD; nmvuf^zifh um;wcg;ukdqGJzGifhvdkufonf// xkd
pOf b,fvuf^zifhykdufxm;aomtusxkwfrSm atmuf
okdhikdufoGm;^yD; txJrS a@G;vmaomtusvkHcsnfrsm;
xGufusvmawmhonf//
64
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

a qm if ; vk v if
a0^zdK;aomfu um;qDa^y;oGm;^yD;a^rjuD;ay:
usoGm;aomt0wftpm;rsm;ukdaumufay;vdkufonf//
[if
olay;xm;onfhtpukdcsKyfxm;onfh tusESifh
vkHcsnft^yif wpfxGmavmufom7Sdonhf tusav;
wpfxnfukdygawGhvdkuf7I a0^zdK;aomfthHjooGm;onf//
'Dtusao;ao;av;u bmvkyfzkdhvJy,if;
tusao;ao;av;rSm olay;xm;onfhtpukd
yifcsKyfxm;^cif;^zpf^yD; y,if;csKyfcJhonfhtusykHpHESifhykHpH
wlcsKyfvyk x
f m;avonf// xkhd ^yif xkdtpESihf yifcsKyf
xm;onfh xrDpuyfao;ao;av;ukdygawGhvdkuf7^yef.//
ajomf [kd t@kyfzkdhygarmif / y,if;i,f
i,fuwnf;uaqmhcJhwJh bdkr@kyfuav;ukd0wfay;zkdhyg/
y,if;u tpykdwkdif; t@kyftwGufygtuscsKyfw,farmif
7Jh
a0^zdK;aomfu [m;wkduf7,fvdkufonf//
^zpf7avy,if;7,f/ t@kyfukdrsm; ukd,f0wf
wJhtwkdif;csKyfay;^yD;qif7w,fvdkh/
uav;vJr[kwf
awmhyJeJh/ @l;rsm;aeyvm;uGm
tkd-armifuvJ/ tpykdaewJh[mukd/ y,if;u
t@kyfuav;ukdoHa,mZOfwG,faewm/ emrnfawmifrSnfh
ay;xm;ao;w,f/ ,rif;cifvdkh
[kduf
ESpfa,mufvkH; um;ay:wufxkdifvdkufjuonf//
a0^zdK;aomfu um;pufukdESKd;7if;a^ymvdkufonf//
armifeJhr*Fvmaqmif^yD;7ifawmh ,rif;cifukd
tdrfrac:cJheJhaemf y,if;cif
bm^zpfvdkhvJarmif
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

65

a qm if ; vk v if
,rif;cifukd y,if;cifu armifhxufykdcspfae
rSmpdk;vdkhyg
oGm;
,rif;u olhukdrsufapmif;xdk;vdkufonf//

armif r0ifawmhbl;/ qkdifu,fyGJpm;wef;zuf


oGm;p7m7Sdao;vdkh
[kwfuJhygarmif
a^rmuf^yif7Sd y,if;wkdhtdrfa7Shta7mufrSmy,if;
ukdum;7yfay;7if;a^ymvdkufonf//
y,if;uESKwfquf^yD; um;ay:rSqif;oGm;onf//
a0^zdK;aomfu um;ukd*i,fauGh ^yefauGhIcsdK;
vkdufonf//
y,if;u tdrft0wGifvuf^y7if;usefcJhonf//
y,if;wkdhtdrfuav;rSm ^cH0if;av;ESifhwpfxyf
ysOfaxmifoGyfrkd;tdrfuav;// ^cHpnf;@kd;wGif yk7dyfyif
rsm;pdkufxm;I ^cH0ifaygufab;EspfzufwGif ckHwef;vsm;
av;ESpfvkH;@kdufxm;ygonf// ^cHxJwGif tdrf.a7Shzuf
a'gifhY a7wGif;av;wpfwGif;7Sdonf// y,if;wkdhtdrfu
av;rSm^refrmqefI junhfvdkufwmESifh7ifxJrSmat;oGm;
onf//
onftdrfav;rSm y,if;7,f/olrtazESifhtar
7,f/ okH;a,mufyJaejuonf// r*Fvmaqmif^yD;v#if
y,if;rdbawGu a0^zdK;aomfukdolwkdhtdrfrSmyJvmaeap
csifonf// a0^zdK;aomfuvnf; ^rdKhopfrSmtdrf0,f^yD;^yDrdkh
tJ'DrSmyJaecsifonf// y,if;rdbawGu wpfOD;wnf;aom
orD;av;ukd rxnfhvdkufcsifay//
66
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

a qm if ; vk v if
r*Fvmaqmif^yD;7if b,frSmaejur,fqkdwJhudpP
u ckxdr^ywfao;yJaqG;aEG;ae7qJ^zpfyg.//
vrf;ukdcsdK;auGhvdkufI um;aemufjunhfrSefxJrSm
y,if;wkdhtdrfav;aysmufoGm;rS a0^zdK;aomftawG;prsm;
^ywfoGm;avonf//

g
83-vrf;ESifh 84-vrf;jum;7Sd 31-vrf;ay:rS
qkdifu,fyGJpm;wef;okdh0ifI a0^zdK;aomfqkdifu,faps;ESKef;
pkHprf;vdkufonf//
aps;ESKef;oifhwifh^yD; tif*sifaumif;onfh plyg
uyfqkdifu,fESpfpD;ukdrsufpdusoGm;onf//
ukdbvSarmfjudKuf7ma@G;Ekdifzkdh tdrfvdkuf^yEkdifr
vm;qkdawmh yGJpm;ESpfa,mufpvkH;u vdkufEkdifonfqkdI
tdrfvdyfpmay;cJhum
a0^zdK;aomfum;^zifhtdrf^yefvmcJh
onf//
tdrfa7mufawmh oHr%dwcg;wyf7mwGif vuf
orm;ESpfa,mufeSifhtwltvkyfrsm;aeonfh ukdbvSarmf
ukdawGh7onf// ^ywif;aygufESpfaygufrSm oHr%dwcg;rsm;
wyfvdkhyif^yD;ae^yD//
vkyv
f cS snfvm;/ ^refvScsnfvm;ukdbvSarmf
7
'gawmif 'Daeht^yD;vkyfckdif;wm/ ypPnf;oGm;
0,fwm tcsdefukefoGm;vdkh armif^zdK;a7h/ wcg;rjuD;
eufzefwyf^yD;7ifawmh vufpoyfyg^yD
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

67

a qm if ; vk v if
cifAsm;twGuf qkdifu,fESpfpD;vm^yvdrfhr,f
ukdbvSarmf/ aemufuvdkufvmjuw,f
aus;Zl;ygyJuGm
ukdukdvJzkef;qufao;w,f/ cifAsm;7Sdwkef; ol
rEWav;vmOD;r,fwJh
a[-[kwfvm;/ aumif;wmayghuGm
c%aeawmh aemufuvdkufvmonfhqkdifu,f
ESpfpD;a7mufvmonf//
ukdbvSarmfu t^yma7mif / wpf,yufvuf/
eHygwfa^cmufaomif;ausmfqkdifu,fukd oabmus^yD;a@G;
vdkufonf//
usoifhaiG25-odef;ukd wpfcgwnf;7Sif;ay;vkduf
yg.//

g
aemufwpfaehnae @kH;qif;vkhdtdrf^yefa7muf
awmh ukdbvSarmftdrfrSmr7Sd// aomhcwf^yD; t^yifxGuf
oGm;wmawGh7onf// vdyf^ymv$ifhrdef;uav;ukd7SmykHawmf
zGifh^yDxifyg7Jh//
a0^zdK;aomfu olhaomhESifhtdrfwcg;ukdzGifh^yD;0if
vdkufonf// ukdbvSarmfudkvnf;aomhwlwpfacsmif;ay;
xm;ygonf//
tdrfxJa7mufawmh bk7m;cef;ukdoHr%dwcg;
wyfxm;wm ^yD;pD;aewmawGh7onf// aoaooyfoyf
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

68

a qm if ; vk v if
EsifhtawmfyifvkHvkH^cKH^cKHvkyfxm;wmawGh7.// wcg;eH7H
rSm t*Fawrsm;uawmhraysmufao;ay//
xkn
d u ukdbvSarmfux
dk rif;pm;zkhd apmifhaomf
vnf; awmfawmfESifh^yefrvmI a0^zdK;aomfwpfa,muf
xJ vrf;xdyfuqkdifrSmoGm;pm;vdkufonf//
ntawmfrdk;csKyfrS ukdbvSarmf^yefvm.//
b,fvdkvJukdbvSarmf/ qkdifu,fpD;aumif;7Jh
vm;/ judKuf7Jhvm;
aumif;ygw,f
ukdbvSarmfu tay:tusukdcsGwfum eH7H7Sdcsdwf
rSmcswfxm;vdkufonf//
pGyfus,f*sdKif;^ywfatmufwGif
ukdbvSarmf.
tcsdK;tpm;usaom vufarmif;ESifh7iftkyfom;juD;rsm;u
juGm;IxGufaeonf// vlvkH;^yazsmfa^zonfhtvkyfvkyfol
rkdh wrifwumvSyatmif avhusifhykHoGif;xm;^cif;^zpfyg
onf//
ukdbvSarmfuavylwpfcsufukdrSKwfxkwf7if; uk
vm;xkdifay:a^cypfvufypfxkdifcsvdkufonf//
b,fawGa7mufcJhvJukdbvSarmf/ xrif;a7m
pm;^yD;^yDvm;
^rdKhxJrSmpm;vmw,farmif^zdK;/ a7mufcJhwm
awmhtESHhyJ
cifAsm;aumifrav;a7m awGhvm;
rawGhygbl;uGm/ b,fae7mrSef;twdtusrod
yJ wpf^rdKhvkH;av#muf7Sm7wmukd;
tif; cifAsm;'k=uvnf; rao;ygvm;
udk,ftm;rav#mhygbl;uGm/ olrEWav;rSm7Sdwm
aocsmae^yDyJ/ awGh7rSmaygh/ reufzefnawmh ukd,fvdyf
^ymv$ifhr,farmif^zdK;
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

69

a qm if ; vk v if
[kwfuJh
'Dwpfcg olhukdawGh7if rsuf^cnfr^ywfvdkuf
junfhr,f/ olaewJhtdrfae7mukdod7atmifukd vdkufjunhf
xm;7r,f
ukdbvSarmfu
pdwftm;xufoefpGma^ymvdkuf
avonf//

g
vdyf^ymv$ifhwJhn//
a0^zdK;aomfonf ukdbvSarmfvdyf^ymv$ifh7ef^yif
qifaeonfrsm;ukd tem;rSavhvmjunhfaeonf//
ukdbvSarmfu bk7m;cef;ukd txl;oefh^yefh
atmif oefh7Sif;a7;vkyfxm;av.//
olu bk7m;cef;.^ywif;aygufESpfaygufukd ydwf
vdkufonf// taotcsm*sufxkd;Iydwf^yD; vkH-rvkH^yefppf
vdkufao;.//
tJ'Dvdk tcef;wcg;ukdtvkHydwfxm;awmh ukd
bvSarmf0dnmOfu t^yifukdxGufwm/ t^yifutxJukd
^yef0ifwmawGrSm taESmuft,Sufr^zpfbl;vm;ukdbvS
armf
r^zpfygbl;/ 0dnmOf[m taumiftxnfrSr7Sd
yJ/ tqkdiftcJrSr[kwfyJ/ oGm;csifwJhae7moGm;^yD;/ 0ifcsif
wJhae7m0if/ xGufcsifwJhae7muxGufvdkh7ygw,f armif
^zdK;
ajomf
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

70

a qm if ; vk v if
bk7m;pifa7ShwGif za,mif;wkdifwpfwkdifukd rD;r
xGef;ao;yJ tqifoifhpkdufxm;vdkufonf//
'g ukd,foD;oefhpDpOfxm;wJh tcsuf^yaq;z
a,mif;wkdifyJ/ vdyf^ymrv$ifhcifrSmxGef;7w,f/ olh7Jh
awmufavmifcsdef[m wpfem7DuGufwdyJ/ za,mif;wkdif
rD;^idrf;oGm;7if ukd,ftvdkvdkodw,f/ cE<mukd,fxJukd
vdyf^ym^yef0ifzkdhowday;wJh tcsuf^yaq;za,mif;wkdif
aygh
ukdbvSarmfu bk7m;pifa7Shtvnfwnfhwnfh
wGif oifzsL;zsmwpfcsyfukd^zefhcif;vkdufonf//
zsm.ywfywfvnfwGiftif;uGufrsm;ukd wpfckESifh
wpfckxdrdatmif taphtiSvdkufcsavonf// tif;uGuf
rsm;rSm oH^ym;ay:wGifa7;xm;onfhtif;uGufvnf;yg
onf/ aju;^ym;ay:wGifa7;xm;onfhtif;uGufvnf;yg
onf/ rSKdif;cHpuULay:rSm/ yvwfpwpf^ym;ay:rSm/ rSeft
junfay:rSm/ ^y'g;okwfxm;aomjunhfrSefay:rSm/ tkd;
csrf;yhJay:rSm/ tkef;rSKwfcGufay:rSm/ om;a7csyfay:rSm
a7;qGJxm;aomtif;uGuftrsdK;rdsK;ukd zsm.ywfywfvnf
wGifwef;pDI vdkufcsae.//
usGefawmfulvkyfay;7rvm;
armif^zdK;em;rvnfbl;/ 'Dtif;uGufawGu
^zpfovdkwef;pDcs7wmr[kwfbl;uG/
b,ftif;uGuf^yD;
b,ftif;uGufqkdwm pepfwuscs7w,f/ ae7mrSm;7if
vkyfief;ratmif^rifbl;
a0^zdK;aomfuawmh bmrSem;rvnfyJ xl;qef;
aomt7mwpfcktaeESifhom ab;rSxkdifjunhfae7awmh
onf//
nq,fem7DavmufwiG f ukb
d vSarmfuvdy^f ym
v$ihf 7ef pwif^yifqifav.//
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

71

a qm if ; vk v if
armif^zdK;/ xkid jf unhfaewmysif;vdrhf r,f/
t^yifxGufr,fqkd7if wcg;ukdaomhESdyfcJhaemf
ukdbvSarmfu bk7m;pifa7ShrS tcsuf^yaq;z
a,mif;wkdifukd xGef;nSdvdkufonf//
^yD;- zsmay:okdhwufum bk7m;ukdOD;okH;judrfcsI
bk7m;7Sdckd;.//
bk7m;7Sdcdk;t^yD;wGif
ukd,fukdzsmay:okdhvSJcs
vdkufonf// bk7m;pifukdacgif;^yKI yufvufvSefvSJcs
vdkuf^cif;^zpfygonf//
zsmay:wGif bmtcif;rS xyfcif;rxm;ovdk/
acgif;atmufwGifvnf; acgif;tkH;cHrxm;ay//
ukdbvSarmfu toufrSefrSef7SL7if; rsufvkH;ukd
arS;pif;um ^idrfoufae.//
olvkyfor#ukd a0^zdK;aomfonf a^c7if;jurf;
^yifay:wGifxdkif7if;junhfaecJhonf//
c%aeawmh ukdbvSarmf^idrfoufoGm;onf//
7ifywfESifh0rf;Akdufom;rsm;rvSKyfawmh// vdyf^ymonfcE<m
ukd,frSxGufoGm;[efwlonf// cE<mukd,fu taoaumif
ozG,f rvSKyfr,SufusefaecJhyg.//
onftcsdefrSm wpfpkHwpfa,mufu cE<mukd,f
ukdzsufqD;ypfvdkufygu ukdbvSarmf.0dnmOfonf ^yef
vnfcdk0ifp7mrlvcE<m7Sdawmhrnfr[kwf// xkdtcg olh0d
nmOfvdyf^ymonf vGifhcsif7mvGifharsmum aoqkH;^cif;
okdha7muf7ayvdrfhrnf//
q,fhig;rdepfcefhjumonfhtcg a0^zdK;aomfysif;
7dvmonf// ukdbvSarmfuawmh 0dnmOfe,fwGifusufpm;
^yD; olhaumifrav;eJhyJawGhaeyvm;rod//
a0^zdK;aomfu taoaumifvdkrvSKyfr,Sufvl
wpfa,mufukdqufjunfhae7rSm ysif;7dvmI xdkif7mrS
tomxum tcef;t^yifokdhxGufcJhvdkufonf//
72
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

a qm if ; vk v if
wcg;ukdtwGif;zufrScvkwfESdyfay;cJh^yD; t^yifrS
tomt,maphydwfay;cJhonf// wcg;rSm t^yifrSvlu
zGifhcsifv#if aomh7SdrSzGifhEkdifaomwcg;rsdK;^zpfygonf//
a0^zdK;aomfonf tdyfcsifvmI ukdbvSarmf.
,aehntawGhtjuKHukd reufusrSar;rnf[kpdwful;um
tdyf7mxJ0ifcJhavonf//
wpfaehvkH;yifyef;rSK'%fajumifh c%csif;rSmyif
tdyfaysmfoGm;avawmh.//

g
reuf a0^zdK;aomftdyf7mrSEkd;awmh ukdbvS
armfEkd;ESifhaewmawGh7onf//
tdrfa7Sha^ruGufvyfwGif ukdbvSarmfu okdif;u
pm;ae.//
tay:ykdif;Avmusif;xm;I vufarmif;/7iftkyf
juGufom;juD;rsm;ay:vGifaeum 7Syf[kdufaomAdkufom;/
^rifhrm;IoG,faomt7yfwkdh^zifh ukdbvSarmfonf tvGef
junhfaumif;yg.//
a0^zdK;aomftdrfa7ShxGufvmawmh ukdbvSarmf
u okdif;upm;7yfvdkufum vSrf;IESKwfqufonf//
Ekd;^yDvm;uG
[kwfuJh/ cifAsm;tdyf7mxwm apmvScsnf
vm;
reufig;em7DxaeusyJ
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

73

a qm if ; vk v if
nutqifa^y7Jhvm;ukdbvSarmf/ usGefawmf
awmhtdyfcsifwmeJh rapmifhEkdifyJtdyfaysmfoGm;w,f
tqifa^yygw,f
cifAsm;aumifrav;eJhawGhvm;[if
udk,f a7csdK;vdkufOD;r,f/ ^yD;7if vufzuf
7nfqkdifoGm;7atmif/
at;at;aq;aq;a^ym^yr,f
armif^zdK;

ukdbvSarmfaumif;uifxJa7mufawmh rdef;u
av;u olhxuft7ifa7mufeSifhaewmawGh7onf// rdef;
uav;onf atmufrSysHwufvmaom ukdbvSarmf.
0dnmOfukdjunhf^yD; thHjoaeavonf//
7Sif ta0;juD;uvmwmr[kwfbl;/ usGefr
odw,f
odyfrSefwmayghrdef;uav;/ udk,frEWav;ukd
a7mufaew,f
tkd
rif;eJheD;atmif ukd,frEWav;ukda@$hvmcJhwmyJ
rdef;uav;
rdef;uav;u rckd;rcefh^yKH;vdkufonf//
vlcsif;eD;awmha7m7Sif/ bmta7;vJ/pdwfcsif;
eD;zkdhomt"duyg/
usGefreJh7SifeJh
b,fawmhrS
pdwfcsif;eD;p 7mtajumif;r7Sdygbl;
ukd,fhrSm rif;rESpfoufp7m bmtajumif;7Sd
vdkhvJrdef;uav;/
udk,f[m
a^rumay:rSmvnf;
atmif^rifrSKawG7aewJhvlom;wpfa,mufyg
tJ'gudk usGefrpdwfr0ifpm;bl;

vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

74

a qm if ; vk v if
rif;pdwf0ifpm;atmif ukd,fbmvkyf7rvJ/
b,fvdkae7rvJ [if
rdef;uav;u ukdbvSarmfukd pl;pl;pkdufpdkuf
junhfvdkufonf//
7SifeJhusGefreJhu b0csif;rwlygbl;/ 7Sif[m
xl;uJomvGefwJhpGrf;7nfawG7Sdaeyg7ufeJh 'g ukd rodbl;
vm;[if
udk,frif;ukdcspfwmyJodw,frdef;uav;
b,fvdkrSreD;pyfEkdifwJh b0Espfckyg7Sif/ usGefr
rSmcspfol7Sd^yD;om;/ usGefrwkdhcspfolESpfa,mufqkH7cgeD;^yD
rif;cspfolu b,folvJ[if/ udk,fwkdhvdkyJ
vdyf^ymv$ifhEkdifwJhvlvm;
usGefreJh b0csif;wlwJhcspfolaygh7Sihf
rif;a^ymawmh rif;cspfolukd rif;7SmrawGhao;
bl;qkd/ rawGhbl;ao;wJhvlwpfa,mufukd cspfolvdkhrif;
ubmvkdhowfrSwf7wmvJ
usGefra^ymcJh^yDaum/ pdwfcsif;eD;zkdhu t"duyg
vdkh/ usGefrcspfoleJhusGefr pdwfcsif;qufoG,f^yD;om;/
uJyg 7Sifa0;a0;oGm;yg7Sif/ usGefrcspfolu 7SifeJhtwl
usGefrukd ^rifvdkuf7vdkh pdwfqif;7JoGm;ygOD;r,f
roGm;Ekdifbl;rdef;uav;/ rif;cspfol[m b,f
vdkvlrsdK;vJqkdwm ukd,fvJodcsifw,f/ ukd,fjunhfcsif
w,f
7Sif[mta^ym7cufwJhvlyJ/ 7SifroGm;7ifusGefr
oGm;r,f
a^yma^ymqkdqkd rdef;uav;u olha7ShrSvSpfueJ
a^y;xGufum vsif^refpGmaysmufuG,foGm;avonf//
ukdbvSarmfonf ae7mrSra@G;yJ teD;7Sdwdrf
wkdufxJ0ifykef;cdkum rdef;uav;^yeftvmukd apmifhae
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

75

a qm if ; vk v if
vdkufyg.// rdef;uav;onf tcsdefwefv#ifolhtdrfukd'D
vrf;uyJ^yefrSmr[kwfvm;// onfawmhrS rdef;uav;
aemufrSaemufa,mifcHum olrtdrfb,fem;rSm7Sdw,fqkd
wmvdkufjunhfawmhrnf//

ukdbvSarmfu vufzuf7nfukdwpdrfhpdrfhaomuf
7if; nuolhtawGhtjuKHukda^ym^yaeonf//
'g^zifh ukdbvSarmf olaewJhtdrftxdvdkuf
junhfw,faygh
7wmaygharmif^zdK;/ olhtdrfukdukd,fodcJh^yD/
rSwfvnf;aocsmrSwfcJh^yD
b,fem;rSmvJ[if
a^rmuf^yifrSmuG
a^rmuf^yif
ukd,folhaemufuvdkufoGm;w,f/ ukd,fvdkuf
vmwmukdvJ olodw,f/ olu rEWav;awmifjuD;7Jht
a@Shzufcsrf;ukdqif;oGm;wm/ olhtdrfu a*gufuGif;eJhreD;
ra0;rSmyJ
[if
ukd,faocsmrSwfxm;cJhw,f/ ol0ifoGm;wJhtdrf
u tdrfa7ShrSma7wGif;av;eJh/ ^cHpnf;@kd;rSmyk7dyfyifawG
pkdufvdkh/ ^cHt0if0rSmvJ ckHwef;7Snfav;ESpfck@kdufxm;
w,f
Asm
Aomufvufpvufzuf7nfonf a0^zdK;aomf
0rf;xJokdht7omrJhpGm wkd;0ifoGm;avonf//
nu olodyfvSwmyJuGm/ t0ga7mifeJhteD
a7miftqif;ygwdwf0wfpkHav;ukd tay:atmufqifwl
0wfvdkh/ odyfusufoa77SdwJhrdef;uav;yJarmif^zdK;
76
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

a qm if ; vk v if
a0^zdK;aomf rkdufueJ^zpfIoGm;avonf//

g
a0^zdK;aomfonf um;ukd y,if;wkdhtdrf^cHt0rSm
7yfvu
kd fonf//
,cifaehrsm;uqkdv#ifolonf[Gef;wD;Iy,if;
ukdtcsufay;avh7Sdonf// onfwpfacgufawmh a0^zdK;
aomfum;wcg;ukdyif toHr^rnfatmif^iifompGmydwfum
y,if;wkdh^cH0if;xJokdh wdwfwqdwf0ifvmcJhav.//
tdrftem; a7mufonftxd vlolt7dyft
a,mifrawGh7ao;ay//
aehvnfcif;qkdv#if y,if;.zcifOD;aomif;cif
rSmtdrfYr7Sday// aps;csdKxJrSma@$qkdifzGifhxm;I qkdifxkdif
ae^yD; naeapmif;rStdrf^yefvmavh7Sdonf// Oykofaeh
rsm;rSmom OD;aomif;ciftem;,lyg.//
,aeh paeaehrdkh a0^zdK;aomfwkdh@kH;ydwfygonf/
a0^zdK;aomfonf ,aehrdwfaqGwpfa,mufESifh^yifOD;vGif
ukdvdkufoGm;rnf[k y,if;ukdjudKa^ymxm;cJhonf// trSef
rSm a0^zdK;aomf ^yifOD;vGifukdoGm;p7mudpPr7Sdyg//
wrifwumyif
y,if;judKrodapyJvmcsifI
y,if;ukd pum;judKvSnfhxm;^cif;om^zpfygonf//
a0^zdK;aomfu tdrft0a7mufonftxd tdrfxJ
rSvloHrjum;ygI toHray;awmhyJ wdwfwqdwftdrf
xJ0ifcJhavonf//
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

77

a qm if ; vk v if
acgif;7if;zuf7Sd bk7m;cef;xJokdh uJjunhfvdkuf
onf// bk7m;cef;xJwGif y,if;.rdcif a':wifwifjuD;
u bk7m;pifa7ShwGifxkdifI ykwD;pdwfae.// y,if;wkdh
bk7m;cef;onf
bkd;awmfr,fawmftp7Sdonfhtxuf
ykdKvfrsm;.@kyfxkrsm;/ ewfaygif;pkH.ewf@kyfrsm;^zifh^ynfh
ae.//bk7m;cef;wpfckvkH;vnf; xGef;ndSxm;aomrsm;^ym;
vSonfhtar$;wkdifaygif;pkH.teHh^zifh oif;ysHhar$;tDaeay
onf//
a0^zdK;aomfonf ,cifuawmh y,if;wkdhtdrf
bk7m;cef;ukdaphaphpyfpyftuJrcwfrdyg// y,if;tara':
wifwifjuD;ukdvnf; bk7m;w7m;junfndKolrdef;rjuD;wpf
a,muft^zpfom omrefumv#HumrSwfxm;cJhonf//
ukdbvSarmfu ol.vdyf^ymv$ifhrdef;uav;0if
oGm;onfhtdrftaetxm;ukda^ym^yawmhrS
y,if;wkdhrd
om;pktay: pdwfpEkd;paemifh ^zpfvmcJh7^cif;^zpfonf//
Tywf0ef;usifwGif yk7dyfyifrsm;wef;pDpkdufxm;^yD; /
^cHt0rSmopfom;ckHwef;@kdufxm;onfh/tdrfa7ShwGifa7wGif;
av;7SdaomtdrfrSm y,if;wkdhtdrfwpftdrfxJ7Sdygonf//
vdyf^ymv$ifhpOf ukdbvSarmfawGhcJh7aomrdef;u
av;0ifoGm;onfhtdrfrSm
y,if;wkdhtdrfyif^zpfavrnf
vm;// [kwfcJhaomf xkdrdef;uav;onfrnfol^zpfrnf
vJ//
rdom;pkokH;a,mufom7SdaomtdrfrS vlokH;
a,mufukd a0^zdK;aomfcGJ^crf;pdwf^zmjunhfrdonf//
tdrfaxmifOD;pD;OD;aomif;cifrSm qkdiftvkyf^zifh
wpfaeukeftcsdefukef^yD; useftcsdefrsm;rSmat;csrf;pGmae
avh7Sdonfh vl@kd;juD;wpfa,muf^zpfonf//
y,if;.rdcifa':wifwifjuD;uawmh
,cifutrSwfrxif7Sdae^yD; oHo,^zifhawG;
awmrdvdkhyJ rouFmp7mtcsufawGawGhvm7avovm;
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

78

a qm if ; vk v if
rod// a':wifwifjuD;uawmh ykHrSef Normal vlwpf
a,mufr[kwfygay//
a':wifwifjuD;onf tcsdef^ynfha,m*D0wfpkHukd
yJ0wfonf// bk7m;cef;xJrSmyJaeonf// bk7m;cef;xJrSmyJ
tdyfonf// y,if;ta^ymt7 a':wifwifjuD;onfy,if;
q,fESpforD;uwnf;u cifyGef;ESifhtwlrtdyfawmhyJ
armifESrvdkqufqHcJhonf[kqkdonf// a,m*D0wfpkH0wfI
bk7m;w7m;tvkyfom tcsdef^ynfhvkyfawmhonf[kqkdyg
onf//
bk7m;w7m;tvkyfwJh
a':wifwifjuD;vkyfaewJh bk7m;w7m;tvkyfukd
aphikjunhfrd^yefonf//
bk7m;cef;xJwGif bk7m;qif;wkomru bkd;
awmf/r,fawmfponfh txufykdKvfrsm;.@kyfxkrsm;vJ
pH^ref;v#uf7Sdonf// 37-rif;ewf@kyfrsm;vnf;tpkHtvif7Sd
onf//
a':wifwifjuD;vkyfaewJhbk7m;w7m;tvkyfqkd
wm b,fvdkrsdK;vJ// a':wifwifjuD;vdkufaewm b,f
vdkif;rsdK;vJ//
^yD;awmh a':wifwifjuD; vlemawGukdaq;uk
ay;aewmukdvnf; a0^zdK;aomf 7Hzef7HcgjuKHbl;onf//
ya,m*vkdvdk/ pkef;yl;ewfyl;vdkvdkvlemrsm;ukd bk7m;cef;
xJac:I ref;rSKwfaewm aq;wkdufaewmawGawGhzl;
onf//
bk7m;cef;t0if0wcg;abmifrSm opfom;^ym;
ESifha7;Iuyfxm;onfhqkdif;bkwfuav;ukdyifjunhfyg//

raemr<q7mr
a_rmuf_yif-wifwifjuD;
a7m8grsdK;pkHraem_zifhukonf
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

79

a qm if ; vk v if
a7m*gukdpdwf^zifhukI 7owJhvm;// 77ifaum
a7m*grsdK;pkHukdukI^zpfowJhvm;// a0^zdK;aomfem;rvnf
Ekdifay// 'gawGukd t7ifuwnf;u^rifawGhaecJh^yD; t
rSwfrxif7SdaecJhaomfvnf; vdyf^ymv$ifhrdef;uav;0if
oGm;onfhtdrfrSm Ttdrf[kodvdkuf7onfhtcg olhrSmawG;
awmp7mawG/qif^cifp7mawG 7Sdvm7awmhonf//
ukdbvSarmfa^ymovdk 'DtdrfrSm vdyf^ymv$ifh
Ekdifolwpfa,muf7Sdaeovm;//
a0^zdK;aomfonf a':wifwifjuD;ESifhpum;rsm;
rsm;ra^ymbl;ay// olhtdrfvmvnfwkdif; a':wifwifjuD;
ubk7m;cef;xJrSm t^rJ0wf^yKaewwfwmrkdh bmodbm
omyifaecJhrdonf// a':wifwifjuD;ukd pum;a^ymjunhf
^yD;tuJcwfOD;rS^zpfayrnf//
a0^zdK;aomfonf bk7m;cef;xJrSm ^idrfoufpGm
ykwD;pdwfaeaom a':wifwifjuD;ukd ausmcdkif;vdkuf^yD;
tdrftwGif;zufokdhvSnfh0ifcJhonf//
cktcdsefxd
y,if;.t7dyfta,mifukdr^rif7
ao;ay//
olonf oJvGefp^zpfap/xl;^cm;csuf^zpfapwpf
pkHwpfckawGh7vdkawGh7^im; a^cazmheif;um ckd;acsmifckd;
0Sufyif tdrfxJokdhvSnfhjunhftuJcwfvdkufonf//
bk7m;cef;ESifhrsufESmcsif;qkdifwGif tcef;ESpfcef;7Sd
^yD; tdrfa7Shzufusaomtcef;rSm OD;aomif;cif.tcef;
^zpfygonf// uyf7uf aemufzufrStcef;rSm y,if;tcef;
^zpfygonf//
y,if;tcef;rS aemufzufokdhqufav#mufoGm;yg
u rD;zkdcef;ESifhxrif;pm;cef;wGJxm;aomtcef;okdha7muf
ayonf// a0^zdK;aomfonf y,if;tcef;ESifh rD;zkdcef;
jum;wGif7Sdaom usOf;a^rmif;onfhtcef;av;ukdowd^yKrd
vdkufonf// t7ifuawmh ypPnf;rsm;xm;onhfpwkdcef;
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

80

a qm if ; vk v if
[k omrefumv#Humowdrxm;rdcJhaomtcef;av;^zpf
ygonf//
xkdtcef;av;onf y,if;aeonfhtcef;ESifh rD;
zkdcef;jum;wGifuefhxm;um okH;aycefhomus,f0ef;aom
tcef;7Snfav;wpfck^zpfyg.// olxifovdk pwkdcef;^zpf
avrnfvm;//
olonftcef;wGifum7Hxm;onfh 7SHom;pcef;qD;
av;ukdowdxm;rdvkdufonf// ypPnf;xm;7mpwkdcef;qkdyg
u cef;qD;um7Hxm;ygrnfvm;// onftwkdif;a[mif;
avmif;xm;v#ifxm;rnf// wcg;ydwfv#ifvnf;ydwfxm;
rnf//
a0^zdK;aomfonf tcsdefukefcHpOf;pm;raeawmhyJ
olha^cvSrf;rsm;u tcef;usOf;av;qD a7muf7SdoGm;av
onf//
olu cef;qD;pukdrI twGif;okdhjunhfvdkuf
onf// twGif;wGif ^ywif;wcg;ydwfxm;ygIrJarSmifae
onf// tvif;7Sd7mzufrSvSrf;tjunhfwGif rJarSmifaom
tcef;xJokdhbmrSr^rif7ay//
olu tcef;xJohdk 0if7ef a^ctvSr;f
r0ifeJh
vSrf;atmfI [efhwm;vdkufaomtoHajumifh
wkefueJvefhoGm;um a^cvSrf;wkhHoGm;av.//
olu
y,if;toHxGufvm7mqDokdhvSnfhjunhf
vdkufonf//
y,if;u rD;zkdcef;xJrSxGufvm7if; atmfvdkuf
^cif;^zpfygonf//
armif
olu ckd;xkwfckd;xnfESifhvlrdcHvdkuf7onfhozG,f
raewwfrxkdifwwf^zpfoGm;onf//
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

81

a qm if ; vk v if
armif / ^yifOD;vGifoGm;r,fqkd
roGm;^zpfawmhwmyg/ [kwfw,f/ armifhtod
u rtm;vdkh roGm;^zpfawmhwm
y,if;u olhukdai;junhfaeonf//
tJ'Dtcef;xJ bm0ifvkyfrvdkhvJarmif
olu ukid x
f m;aomcef;qD;pukd vufxrJ v
S w
$ f
csvdkufonf//
[dk- [kd- bmrSr[kwfygbl;/ y,if;ukdrawGh
vdkh/ 'Dtcef;xJrsm;7Sdrvm;vdkh
armifuvJ / toHray; bmray;eJhuG,f/
y,if;^zifhvefhoGm;wmyJ/ armifhukd^yifOD;vGifa7mufae^yD
xifwm
t[if; [if;
olu tajumif;rJhoGm;^zD;I 7,f^yaerdonf//
armif y,if;thHjooGm;atmif um;[Gef;rwD;
wm/ [J- [J
y,if;[if;csufaewmarmif/ armifwpfcgxJ
pm;oGm;/ vm-armif / rD;zkdcef;xJukd
y,if;urD;zkdcef;xJac:oGm;um olhtwGufaumf
zDwpfcGufazsmfwkdufonf//
'Daeh olvkyfcJhwJhvkyf7yfawG[m enf;vrf;a7m
us7Jhvm;[k awG;rdvm^yefonf// y,if;7Jhyuwd@kd;om;
^zLpifwJhtrlt7mawG^rif7^yefawmh ol cdk;acsmifcdk;0Suf
vkyfcJhwmawG/
xifrdxif7mawG;rdcJhwmawGtwGuf
pdwfrvkHrvJ^zpf7^yef.//
ukdbvSarmf7Jhpum;wpfcGef;ajumifh
y,if;wkdh
rdom;pktay: oloHo,0ifrdwmygvm;// wu,fawmh
ukdbvSarmfa^ymwJhtajumif;awG[m bmrS oufao
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

82

a qm if ; vk v if
ouUm,r7SdwJhpum;awG// ol,kHoifh7Jhvm;// tpfukdaersdK;
aZmf7Jhowday;pum;ukdvnf; jum;a,mifrdonf//
a0^zdK;aomfonf aumfzDukdpdwfrygpGmaomuf7if;
tawG;awGESifh@SKyfaxG;aemufusdaeawmhonf//

g
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

83

a qm if ; vk v if
ukdbvSarmfonf qkdifu,fwpfpD;^zifh rEWav;
awmifa^ca^rmuf^yifw0kdufwGif ywfI7SmcJh7m ,aeh
awmh ol7SmaeonfhtdrfukdawGhay^yD//
ukdbvSarmfu yk7dyfyif^cHpnf;@kd;/ ckHwef;vsm;
av;ESifha7wGif;av;7Sdaomtdrfa7Sh. vrf;wpfzufwGif
qkdifu,fukdcG7yf7if; ol rkd;aumif;uifay:rS^rifcJh7
aomtdrfrSm Ttdrf[kwf-r[kwf ^yefqef;ppfaeonf//
,cku reufykdif;^zpfI vif;vif;csif;csif;^zpf
ae@kHru/ ywf0ef;usif@SKcif;ukd ukd,fESifwpfwef;wnf;
^rifae7^cif;^zpfI rkd;ay:rS^rif7onhft^rifESifhuGJ^ym;
aeygonf//
ukdbvSarmfu aumif;uifukdvnf;armhjunhf/
rEWav;awmifESifh Tae7mtuGmta0;ukdvnf; csifhcsdef
I tdrfav;ukdaphaphpyfpyf^yefjunhfvdkufonfhtcg
vdyf^ymv$ifhrdef;uav; 0ifa7mufoGm;onhftdrf^zpfwm
aocsmoGm;avonf//
c%aeawmh tdrf0if;xJrS rdef;uav;wpf
a,mufxGufvmwm^rifvdkufonf// rdef;uav;upvif;
bufukdnmyckH;wGifvG,fum vufxJrSm xrif;Al;av;
ukdifxm;onf//
ukdbvSarmfu
rdef;uav;ukdtuJcwfjunhf
vdkuf.//
olh&ifawG wvSyfvSyfckefvmavonf//
aocsmygonf// 'g olvyd f^ymv$ifh7if; aumif;
uifajumrSmqkHcJhwJhrdef;uav;ygyJ//
rdef;uav;u vrf;xdyfqDokdhOD;wnfI av#muf
oGm;aeonf//
ukdbvSarmfonf qkdifu,fukdpufESKd;um cyfaES;
aeS;pD;7if; rdef;uav;aemufrSvdkufcJhonf// rdef;uav;
u olhukdowdrxm;rday//
84
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

a qm if ; vk v if
wpfae7mta7mufwGif rsufESmcsif;qkdifrS aps;
^cif;awmif;qGJI^yefvmaom
ta':juD;wpfa,mufESifht
qkHrSm
ta':juD;u
rdef;uav;ukdvSrf;IESKwfqufvdkuf onf//
tvkyfoGm;^yDvm;
[kwu
f hJ tefwD
rdef;uav;onf vrf;xdyfta7mufwGif 7yf
xm;aomqefeDypfuyfum;av;. aemufcef;okdhwufxkdif
vdkufonf// um;u rdef;uav;um;ay:a7mufonfESifh
armif;xGufoGm;.//
olr[m tvkyfukdz,f7Dum;eJhaehpOfoGm;w,fqkd
wm ukdbvSarmf oabmaygufoGm;onf//
ukdbvSarmfu tcdsefukdrSwfvdkufonf// reuf
7Spfem7DcGJ//
tdrfukdvnf;7SmawGh^yD// rdef;uav;tvkyfoGm;wJh
tcsdefukdvnf; cefhrSef;Ekdif^yD// rdef;uav;ukdvmjudKwJh
z,f7Dum;eHygwfukdvnf;rSwfxm;EkdifcJh^yD//
'Daehawmh
'gavmufeJhajueyfyg^yD//
ukdbvSarmfonf @$ifvef;ayghyg;pGmyif qkdif
u,fukdt^yif;armif;ESif7if;
tdrfokdh^yefvmcJhavawmh
onf//

g
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

85

a qm if ; vk v if
onfuaehnrSm olrpdwfawGayghyg;vef;@$if
aeonf// tvkdvdkae7if;aysmf@$ifaerdum olr.0dnmOf
onfvnf;
oGufvufIaeayonf//
'Daeh
xl;^cm;rSKwpf
ckckjuKH7rnf[k
olrpdwfxJrSm
tvdkvdkodaeonf//
tESpfESpftvvu ar#mfvifhcJh7aom olrcspf
olukd onfnawmh awGh7awmhrnfxifonf//
olronf olr.0dnmOfcE<m^zifh tdrfxJrSxGufcJh
um aumif;uifqDokdh w[kefxdk;v$ifhwufcJh.//
v^ynfhn.tvif;a7mifu uma^rwpfckvkH;
ukdyufzsef;xm;7m olratmufrSuma^rjuD;onf at;
^raomtvif;^zifh ysysav;vif;aeayonf//
olronf aumif;uifokdhwa@Gha@Ghv$ifhwufcJh7m
atmufzufrSrEWav;awmifonf4if;/ usKH;^rdK;@kd;onf4if;/
rEWav;^rdKh. wkdufwmtdrfa^cESifhvrf;rrsm;onf4if;
w^znf;^znf; 0g;I0g;IoGm;avonf//
t^rifhqkH;.t^rifhokdha7mufonfhtcgrSmawmh
uma^rxkjuD;ukd vkH;0ef;aomt^yma7mifomefwpfck
t^zpfom^rifawGh7awmhonf//
va7mifajumifh aumif;uifonfvnf;vif;ae
.// wdrfwdkufrsm;vnf;vif;ae.//
olru wdrfwkdufwpfckay:pD;um wdrfwkduf.
avoifh7mvGifharsmrSKtwkdif;vdkufygoGm;vdkufonf// olr
u aemufqkH;csKyfvkyfxm;onfh teufcHwGift0gESifhteD
azmufxm;aom0wfpkHav;ukd0wfxm;7m wdrf^zLwpf
qkyfukdpD;eif;7if; avoifh7mc7D;EsifaeonfholrtoGif
onf vewforD;wpfyg;ozG,f wifhw,faeay.//
ajomf b,favmufyJ wifhw,fvSyygap/ ol
r7JhtvSukdcHpm;rnfholuawmhr7Sdygay// olru omref
vlom;awGa7mufEkdifcJwJh aumif;uift^rifhrSm vdyf^ym
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

86

a qm if ; vk v if
v$ihf aeolr[kwv
f m;// olrtvSub
dk ,fou
l cHpm;Ekid rf mS
vJ//
tkd cspfol7,f usGefrtvSukdcHpm;vSnfhprf;
yg// usGefr0dnmOfukdaxG;zufvSnfhprf;yg/ cspfolb,frSm7Sd
avovJuG,f
olru rqkHqnf;ao;aomcspfolukdwrf;wawG;
awm7if;rS wpfcgw7H olrukdvkduaf ESmuf,u
S fwwf
onfh vdyf^ymv$ifhvkvifysdKjuD;ukd owd7rdvdkufonf//
olhukd,fol bvSarmfvdkha^ym^y^yD; rdwfqufwJh
vdyf^ymv$ifholjuD;ukd olru b,fvdkrScifrifvdkhr7yg//
cspfzkdhqkdwmawmh a0;a7maygh// oluawmh olrukdcspf
w,fwJhav//
olronf bvSarmftajumif;awG;rd7if; bvS
armftem;a7mufvmaESmuf,SufrSmukd xdwfvefhoGm;um
ywf0ef;usifukdjunhfvdkufonf// aumif;uifwckdrSm ouf
7Sdvdyf^ymqkdvdkh olrwpfa,mufxJom7Sdygonf// olr
pdwfat;oGm;onf//
wu,fawmh ukdbvSarmfonf olr Tae7m
okdhra7mufrDuav;rSmyif vdyf^ymv$ifh7if; Tae7mukd
^zwfoef;oGm;cJhonf// ukdbvSarmf.vdyf^ymonf 7wem
oku
d u
f 7dk mS azG7eftwGuf tdd,^refrme,fpyf7dS awmeuf
xJokdha7muf7Sdaecsdef^zpfyg.//

vdyf^ymv$ifhrdef;uav;ukdpGJvrf;pdwf^zifh vdyf
^ymv$ifhwkdif; olraemufokdhcsnf;vdkufaerdI ukdbvSarmf
onf7wemodkufukd7SmazG7ef roGm;a7mufrdonfrSm t
awmfjumay^yD//
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

87

a qm if ; vk v if
,aehnawmh
ra7mufwmjum^yD^zpfaom
awmeufxJokdh olhvdyf^ymukdv$ifhcJhavonf//
rEWav;rS vdyf^ymv$ifhonfhc7D;pOfwGif awmxJ
odkhywrqkH;tjudrfoGm;7^cif;rkdh olonf vrf;rodyJ t
wefjum0Jvnfaeao;onf// aemufrStjuH7um vdyf^ym
0dnmOfukd 7efukef^rdKhtxufokdht7ifv$ifh/ ^yD;rS awm
xJokdhoGm;cJh7m acsmacsmarmarma7muf7SdoGm;av.//
awmonf va7mif.tvif;ajumifh opfyif
awmifukef;rsm;xdyfwGif vif;Iaeayonf// atmufa^r
^yifrSmawmh xlxyfaomopfawmtkyf.t7dyfajumifh rJ
arSmifae.//
ukdbvSarmfu ,cifra7mufcJhbl;ao;onfh
ta7ShtaemufoG,fwef;aeonfh awmifajumwav#muf
okdhqif;oufcJhonf//
^rifhrm;vSaomawmifjuD;. awmifapmif;wpf
ae7mwGif tvif;wef;wpfckxkd;xGufaeonfukd ukdbvS
armf^rifvdkuf7onf// tvif;wef;onf awmifeH7H7SdvSdK%f
acgif;aygufqDrS xGufvmae^cif;^zpf.//
vlolwufa7muf7efr^zpfEkdifaom
rwfapmuf
onfh um;twGif;rS tvif;a7mifajumifh ukdbvSarmf
pdwf0ifpm;oGm;um teD;okdhoGm;junhfvdkufavonf//
awmifeH7HwGif7Sdaeaom vSKd%facgif;twGif;okdh
acsmif;junhfvdkuf7m
vSKd%facgif;onf twGif;zufY vlwpfukd,fpm
omus,f0ef;^yD; vSdK%facgif;twGif;Y t0ukdaemuf
ausmcdkif;Ixdkifaeaomvlwpfa,mufukd thHjozG,fawGh
^rifvdkuf7avonf//
tvif;a7mifrSm wpfpkHwckxGef;nSdxm;onfukd
rawGh7ygI xkdifaeaomvlykdKvf.ukd,frS a7mif^yefvm
aomtvif;^zpfajumif; odvdkuf7onf// ukdbvSarmf
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

88

a qm if ; vk v if
onf xkdykdKvftm; olawmfpifwpfyg;^zpfajumif;csuf
csif;od7Sdvdkuf.// olawmfpifonf vlolav;yg;uif;a0;
aomvSKd%f*lxJY w7m;usifhjuHae^cif;^zpfykH7avonf//
ukdbvSarmfonf 7wemokduf7Sd7mukd olawmfpif
vdkwefcdk;7Sifwpfa,mufodEkdifonf[k,lqum ar;^ref;
junhf7efqkH;^zwfvdkufonf//
ukdbvSarmfuvdyf^ymcE<mukd vSKd%facgif;t0qD
csOf;uyfoGm;vdkufonf//
olawmfpifonf t^zLa7miftusESifhykqkd;ukd0wf
qifxm;^yD; t^zLxnftpwpfckukd acgif;Yaygif;xm;
avonf// a,m*Da7mifyk0gukd b,fzufyckH;wGifwifI
nmzufcsdKif;atmufrS ^yefv#dKum7pfywfxm;onf// t0
ukdaemufausmckdif;xkdifaeI olawmfpif.touft@G,f
ESifh@kyf7nfukdrlrod7ao;ay//
ukdbvSarmfonfvSKd%facgif;xJ0ifcJhum olawmf
pif.aemufem;wGif0ifxkdifvdkufonf//
tb,ft7yfuvmovJom;armif
olawmfpifu aemufokdhvSnfhrjunfhyJar;vdkuf
onf//
rEWav;^rdKhuvdyf^ymv$ifhcJhygw,ftb
tdrf;- 77Sdxm;wJhpGrf;7nfukdw7m;"rRzufrSm
tokH;csayawmhom;i,f/ w%Smukdvnf;owfyg/ avmb
ukdvnf;owfyg
olawmfpifurdefhjum;vdkuf^yD; aemufokdhvSnfhI
xkdifvdkufonf//
ukdbvSarmfonf 0wf^zLpifju,f0wfolawmfpif
juD;. usufoa7^ynfhaomrsufESmukdzl;awGhvdkuf7av./
tb[m taumiftxnf@kyf^'yfvm;/ @kyf
^'yfrJh0dnmOfcE<mvm; odyg7ap
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

89

a qm if ; vk v if
ukdbvSarmfu todcsifqkH;aomar;cGef;ukdar;
vkdufonf//
,if;okdhar;onfrSm tajumif;7Sdygonf//
olawmfpifykdkKvfjuD;ukd
olzl;awGhae7^cif;rSm
rdrduJhokdhvdyf^ymv$ifholtcsif;csif;rkdh ^rif7wmvm;/ w
u,fhouf7SdvlcE<mrkdh ^rifawGhcGifh7wmvm;- olukd,fwkdif
ruGJ^ym;I^zpfonf//
omrefvluvnf; ^rifawGhcGifhyXmef;quf7Sd
7if tbukdawGhEkdifw,f/ 'DtcgrSm ^rif7olu taumif
txnf7Sd@kyf^'yfvdkh,lqrSmaygh/ om;armifwkdhvdkh 0dnmOf
ukdEkdifeif;olrsm;^rifawGhcGifh7wmuawmh rqef;aybl;/,l
qcsifovdk
,lqvdkh7EkdifwmyuG,f/
okdhaywnfh
tb[m ouf7SdvlcE<mukd,fukd pGefhcGmcJhwmESpfaygif;7m
csDjumcJhyg^yD
ukdbvSarmfonf 0wf^zLpifju,f0wfykdKvftm;
rnfol^zpfavrnfvJ[k qif^cifjunhfaerdonf//
olodcsifaomar;cGef;ukdvnf; ar;^ref;junhf7ef
judK;pm;vdkufonf// onfawmxJrS 7wemokduf7Sd7mae7m
ukdar;^ref;7ef pum;pvdkufonf//
tbukd ar;cGef;wpfckar;^ref;cGifh^yKygtb
7wemokduf7Sd7mukdar;rvdkhvm;om;i,f/ 7w
emokdufukdr7SmcsifygeJhuG,f/ bk7m;ypPnf;rsm;^zpfI om;
i,fuHjuD;xkdufvdrfhr,f/ avmbpdwfukdy,fygighom;
olar;r,fhtajumif;t7mukdjudKodaeI ukdbvS
armfwkefvSKyfoGm;avonf//
tbu olhukdqufIqkH;rpum;awGa^ymaeonf/
ighom;[m omrefvlom;xufpGrf;7nfxl;vdkh
vdyf^ymv$ifhc7D;pOfrSm tbeJhawGhcGifh7ayw,f/ okdhay
wnfh om;armif[m 77Sdxm;wJhpGrf;7nfukdtokH;cswJh
ae7mrSm vGJrSm;aew,fuGJh/ ighom;rSm omrefvlom;wkdh
90
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

a qm if ; vk v if
rSm7SdwJh avmbeJhw%Smraysmufao;bl;/ 'gawGukd y,f
yg/owfyg/ w7m"rRzufvdkufpm;yg/ edAmefa7mufatmif
usifhjuHavmhom;i,f
rSefyg/ usGefawmf[m omrefvlwpfa,mufyg/
7wemokduftajumif;odyg7aptb7,f
7wemawG[m rormolvlrsdK;^cm;awG o,f
,lcJhwJhomoemykdifypPnf;awGyJ/ 7SmvkdhvJ7EkdifawmhrSm r
[kwf/ vlwkdhr^rifEkdifatmifuG,foGm;cJh^yD/ okdufukdapmifh
a7SmufwJhtapmifhta7Smufrsm;vJ7Sdae^yD/ aemif- bk7m;
wpfqlyGifhawmfrlI omoem^yefvnfxGef;um;vmcsdefrS
om omoemykdifypPnf;t^zpf^yefIay:xGef;vmvdrfhrnf/
7Smv#ifvnf;tcsnf;ESD;om^zpfrnf/ 7SmazG7efrjudK;pm;ESifh
awmh
ukdbvSarmf7ifrSm ESarsmpdwf^zifhqGwfusifoGm;rd
avonf//
ol.twGif;pdwfukd olawmfpiftbu 7dyfrdod7Sd
ykH7ayonf//
avmbukdowf/ avmbukdowfom;armif
tb[m b,folygvJ/ odyg7aptb
tbu ra^zqkdyJ qdwfqdwfxkdifaeavonf//
ukdbvSarmfu tb@kyfoGifukd aocsmjunhf
vdkuf.// oluta^zwpfck7oGm;um olawmfpifukdar;
av#mufvdkufavonf//
tb[m tbukdvlawGpdwful;eJhykHazmf^yD;a7;
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usufoa7r*FvmeJh^ynfhpkHygay
w,f/ tb[m bkd;bdk;atmif[kwfygovm;
tbu olhar;cGef;ukdwkduf@kduf^yefra^zyJ qkH;r
pum;pGufIrdefhjum;vdkufonf//
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

91

a qm if ; vk v if
tbb,fol^zpfw,fqkdwmta7;rjuD;/ tb
rdefhrSmcsufrsm;om tqDtESpf^zpfayw,f/ tbrSmcJho
vdk rdrd7JhpGrf;7nfxl;ukdtokH;cs^yD; edAmefa7mufatmif
usifhjuH7pfayawmhom;armif
tb. rSmjum;csuftqkH;wGif tb.@kyf
omefonf w^znf;^znf;a00g;umaysmufuG,foGm;av
onf// tb.cE<mrS xGuf7Sdaeaomtvif;a7mifonf
vnf; uG,faysmufum vSdK%f*lxJY arSmifESifhrJrJusef7pf
cJhavonf//
ukb
d vSarmfonf
vSKd %f*t
l ^yifokhd xu
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onf//
olusm;ukyfusm;cJvdkufaeaom 7wemodkufrSm
omoemykdifokdufwpfckt^zpf tapmifhta7SmufESifh7Sdae^yD
ukdodvdkuf7I pdwfxJrSmESarsmovdkcHpm;ae7onf//
olonf tbqkH;rcJhovdk avmbukdrowfEkdif
ao;yguvm;//
ukdbvSarmfonf ol.0dnmOfcE<mukd awmxJrS
xGufcJhum rEWav;^rdKhzufokdh^yefIv$ifhvmcJhavonf//

g
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

92

a qm if ; vk v if
olrpdwfrsm;onf ,cknwGifykdI@$ifvef;aeav
onf// 0dnmOfcE<monfvnf; oGufvuf^zwfvwfaeay
.//
olru wdrfwkduf^zL^zLay:ckdpD;ae7mrS [kd;zuf
atmufem;7Sd wdrfxkwpfckay:okdhckefcsvdkufonf// olr.
0dnmOfcE<mrSm wdrfwkdufay:okhd tdueJa7muf7Sdwefh7yf
oGm;avonf// olru tajumif;r7SdyJ7,farmvdkuf.//
olr.7,farmoHu a^rmuf^yefavESifhtwl aumif;uif
ajum0,fvGifharsmoGm;avonf//
xkdpOfrSmyJ taemufzufpl;pl;qDrS wa@Gha@GhysH
oef;vmaom0dnmOfvdyf^ymwpfckukd olr^rifvdkuf7av
onf// vdyf^ym0dnmOfonf olr7Sd7mzufokdhOD;wnfysHoef;
vmav7m wpwp@kyfvkH;yD^yifvmavonf//
tpawmh olru ukdbvSarmf.0dnmOf^zpfae
rnfpkd;I pdwftaESmuft,Suf^zpfoGm;ao;onf// vGifh
arsmvmaomvdyf^ymukdjunhfvkdufonfhtcg t^zLa7mif
vGvGomef^rifvdkuf7I olrpdwfat;oGm;avonf//
ukdbvSarmf.0dnmOf7dyfrSm t^zLa7mif^zpfav
onf//
0dnmOfvyd ^f yme,fwiG
f avmbESihf twWuydk ,f
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vdk /usifhjuHpl;pkdufrSKwpfckwnf;ajumifh vdyf^ymv$ifhEkdif
olrsm;vnf;7Sdygonf// twWukdy,fEkdifI vdyf^ymv$ifhEkdif
olwkdh.0dnmOfrSm ^zLpifaomtqif;7Sdum/ raemtm@kH
wpfckwnf;ukdEkdifeif;Ivdyf^ymv$ifholwkdh0dnmOfrSmrl tndK
a7mif/teufa7miftqif;rsm;7Sdavonf//
7Hzef7Hcg olr awGh7wwfaom atmufvrf;y
nm^zifhwdrfnGefhpm;7ef
aumif;uif,Hokdhwufvmwwf
aom pkef;/ua0rsm;onf ydef;ydwfatmifrJeufaom
tqif;rsdK;7Sdygonf//
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

93

a qm if ; vk v if
0dnmOfvdyf^ymavmuwGif xkduJhokdhyif vdyf
^ymv$ifhol.tqifhtwef;ukdvkdufI ta7mifuGJ^ym;avh
7Sd.//
vGifharsmvmaom 0dnmOf7dyfrSm ukdbvSarmf
r[kwfygI olrpdwfat;oGm;7avonf//
0dnmOf7dyf^zL^zLonf olrESifheD;uyfvmum olr
ukdt^rifwGif vdyf^ym7Sifu 7yfwefhvdkufavonf// olr
7ifrSm vSKdufueJckefvSKyfoGm;av.//
vdyf^ym7SifrSm vlom;a,musfm;ysdKwpfa,muf^zpf
avonf//
vdyf^yme,fwGif olawmfpifrsm;/ pkef;ua0rsm;/
atmufvrf;q7mrsm;ukdom tawGhrsm;7wwfyg.// ol
awmfpifwkdhonftouft@G,fjuD;7ifhavh7Sdum bmodbm
omaewwfonf//pkef;ua0rsm;/ atmufvrf;ynm7Sifrsm;
rSmvnf; t@kyfqkd;tusnf;wefju@kHru vdyf^ymtcsif;
csif;taESmuft,Sufay;wwfjuygI olra0;a0;rSa7Smif
avh7ydS gonf//
,ckvdk i,f@G,faomvkvifysdKwpfOD;.0dnmOfukd
vdyf^ymv$ifholwpfOD;t^zpfawGh^rif7onfrSm 7Sm;yg;vSyg
.// olr.wpfoufwmwGif olrESifhtoufcsif;rwdrf;
r,drf;^zpfaoma,musfm;ysdKwpfOD;ukd yxrqkH;tjudrfawGh
bl;7^cif;^zpfygonf//
vkvifysdKu rvSrf;rurf;wGif7yfum olrudk
junhaf eonf//
t^zLa7mif0dnmOf. acsmarmI a,musfm;yDo
aom@kyfoGifukd ^rifvdkuf7aomolronf 7ifrsm;wvSyf
vSyfckefvmavonf//
tk
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vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

94

a qm if ; vk v if
vdyf^ym7SifvkvifysdKu olrteD;okdhwa@Gha@Ghwkd;
uyfvm.// vkvifysdK.rsuf0ef;rsm;rSm tcspf7nfrsm;@$ef;
vJhaeum olrukdcspfpum;qkdaeoa,mif7Sdygonf//
vdyf^ymv$ifholtcsif;csif;wkdhonf pum;a^ym7ef
rvdktyfyJ wpfOD;oabmukdwpfOD; tvkdtavsmufem;
vnfjuygonf// olronf vdyf^ymvkvifysdKrSm olrar#mf
vifhapmifhpm;cJhaom zl;pm7SiftppfqkdwmESvkH;om;ESifhod
vdkufav^yD//
ESri,f
vkvifysdKu olrESifhteD;qkH;okdh a7Gharsmvmum
olrxHvufurf;ay;vdkufonf//
armif
olru vkvifysdKurf;vifhaomvufqDokdh olr
vufukdvSrf;vifhvdkufonf//
cspfolESpfOD;onf vufcsif;qufrdoGm;um aEG;
awG;aomcspfaoG;rsm;u ESpfOD;pvkH;.0dnmOfqDokdhvGifh
arsmoGm;juavonf//
tcspf7,f
tk-d armif
vkvifu olrukdodrf;juKH;IayGhzufvdkufonf//
olru
tvdkufoifhyif
vkvif.7ifcGifxJ
a7mufoGm;um vkvifukdokdif;zufxm;vdkufrdavonf//
cspfolESpfOD;onf
wpfOD;ukdwpfOD;ayGhzufum
wpfa,mufrsufESmwpfa,muf
junhfr0Ekdifatmifai;
pkdufjunhfaerdjuav.//
tcspf7,f armif tcspfukd7SmazGcJhwmjumyg
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ESrvnf; armifhukdapmifhar#mf7wmarmvSyg^yD
armif
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

95

a qm if ; vk v if
armifav/ yifv,fukdausmf^yD; awmawmif
teSHh7SmcJhw,f/ ESr 'Dzufykdif;rSm7Sdwm armifrodcJhbl;
uG,f
tkd- armif / armifu b,fuvJ[if
armifu ykodrfe,f [kdif;juD;usGef;uyg
[if- ta0;juD;ygvm;armif / 'ghajumihfESrwkdhrqkHqnf;rdwmyJaemf
ESrudkawGhekd;eJh tnmzufukdqefwufvmcJh
wmyJ/ tawGhaemufusav^cif;tcspf7,f
tawGhaemufusawmh twkd;cs^yD;cspf7rSmaygh
armif7,f
tcspfu b,frSmaeovJ[if
rEWav;^rdKhrSmygarmif
tdrf^yefa7muf7if armifhararukda^ymvdkuf
awmhr,f/ ararhukda^ym^yD; ESrukdvm^yD;awmif;7rf;
vSnfhr,faemf
ESruvJ tcknyJ tarhuadk ^ym^yxm;ygr,f
armif
aysmfvdkufwmtcspf7,f
cspfolESpfOD; terf;avrkef;wkdif;xJ0,f vGifhyg
oGm;juavonf//
olwhdk onf
cspfpum;rsm;wkefhwifa^ymqkdjuonf//
rarmEkdif
ryef;Ekdif//
aumif;uif,HxJ0,f vdkufwrf;a^y;wrf;upm;
7if; aysmf^rL;juonf// armyef;zkdhowdr7//
cspfolESpfOD;.7,farmoHonf uma^rtxuf
rkd;aumif;uifxJ0,f ysHhvGifhaeawmhonf//
xkdtcsdefwGif ukdbvSarmf.0dnmOfonf
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

96

a qm if ; vk v if

ukdbvSarmfonf tdrft^yefvrf;twkdif;0dnmOf
v$ifhcJh7m wpfae7mta7muf aysmf^rL;aeaompkHwGJukd
t^rifwGif thHjooGm;av.//
olu ykdIaocsmatmif ol.vdyf^ymukd xkdpkHwGJ
teD;okdh vsif^refpGmvGifhysHcsOf;uyfoGm;avonf// olu
teD;uyf^rifvdkuf7onfwGif rdef;uav;onf olcspf
aomrdef;uav;^zpfaewmawGhvdkuf7av.//
ukdbvSarmf7ifrSm vSdKufvSdKufvSJvSJajuuGJrSKukd
eifheifhoD;oD;juD;cHpm;vdkuf7onf//
olonf oihfawmfovm;/ roifhawmfovm;
ra0cGJEkdifawmhyJ rdef;uav;ukd7efawGhpGyfpGJvdkufav.//
rif; rif; 7ufpufvScsnfvm;[if
rdef;uav;.cspfolvkvifysdKonf ukdbvSarmf
ukdtHhjopGm pl;pkdufjunhfvdkuf.//
usGefrukd7ufpufw,fvdkha^ym7atmif 7SifeJh
usGefrbmqkdifvdkhvJ
rde;f uav;.xdreS v
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d
vSarmfajumiftoGm;avonf//
olu b,folvJESr7,f
tkd- armif / tvum;yg/ ESrukdvkdufvkduf
aeSmuf,SufaewJh avvGifhvdyf^ymjuD;yg
olhukd avvGifhvdyf^ymvdkh pGyfpGJcHvdkuf7onfh
twGuf ukdbvSarmfrcHcsif^zpfoGm;onf// okdhaomf ol
onf pdwfqkd;rdonfxuf 0rf;enf;pdwfuykdum rdef;u
av;ukd ava^y^zifhawmif;yefpum;qkdvdkufonf//
bmyJ^zpf^zpf/ ukd,f[m rif;ukdt7ifOD;qkH;awGh
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vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

97

a qm if ; vk v if
7Sifu usGefr7Jhzl;pm7SifrSr[kwfyJ/usGefr7Jhzl;pm
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l dk usGefrawGh^yD/ 'g- usGerf cspfoyl J
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ocsif;uGmvSrf;vdkh 'DaehrSqkHju7ygw,f/ quf^yD; t
aESmuft,Sufr^yKzkdh awmif;yefygw,fAsm
vkvifysdKu odrfarGhpGm0ifa^ymvkdufonf//
tkd- armifuvJ/ awmif;yefaep7mrvdkygbl;/
EsrwkdhrSm bmtrSm;7SdvdkhvJ/ oGm;juygpkdharmif/ ESr
armifwkdha'oukdvdkuf^yD;junhfcsifygao;w,f/ armifwkdh
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pkdharmif
rdef;ri,fu olhukdtodtrSwfyifr^yKawmhyJ
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cspfolESpfOD;. 0dnmOf^zLESpfckonf yl;uyfpGm,SOf
wGJ7if; olh^rifuGif;a7ShrSvsif^refpGm a0;uGmoGm;avonf/
xkdpOf ukdbvSarmf.0dnmOfonf qwfueJ
wkefvSKyfoGm;onf// ywf0ef;usifwpfckvkH;rSm olht^rifY
a00g;oGm;onf// ol^yef7eftcsdefoifhay^yD// tcsdefrSwf
tif;za,mif;wkdifjuD;rD;^idrf;oGm;ay^yD//
rEWav;tdrfrSm
awmh olhukdowday;rnfhwynfhav;atmifbkpdef7Sdrae
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ukd,fhukdukd,fcsifhcsdefxdrf;odrf;EkdifrS awmfumusayrnf//
olonf ol.vdyf^ymtm; a^rumay:okdhxkd;
pkdufqif;um rlvcE<mukd,f7Sd7mokdhvsif^refpGmysHoef;cJhav
awmhonf//


vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

98

a qm if ; vk v if

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t^yifxGufcJhawmh
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onf//
wkdifuyfem7DqDvSrf;junhfvdkufawmh reuf8-em
7Dxkd;aeay^yD// 'Daeh we*FaEGaehrdkh a0^zdK;aomfae^rifh
wJhtxdtdyfae^cif;^zpfonf// raehupaeaehnu ukdb
vSarmfvdyf^ymv$ifhonfhaehrdkh olu bk7m;cef;xJrSm c%
xkdifjunhfaeao;onf//
ukdbvSarmfukdjunhf7onfrSm ikdifawGawG^zpf
aeonfrdkh a0^zdK;aomfu ukvm;xkdifwpfvkH;rSm0ifxkdif
7if;ar;vdkufonf//
idik v
f cS snfvm;ukb
d vSarmf / okdif;upm;^yd;
yvm;
pdwfrygvdkh rupm;^zpfygbl;uGm
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rSKdifaewJhukdbvSarmfukdjunhfI a0^zdK;aomfu a0cGJr7
^zpfoGm;onf//
cifAsm; bm^zpfaewmvJukdbvSarmf/ rsufESm
ndSK;aewmodomvdkufwm
olhrSm cspfolawGhoGm;^yDarmif^zdK;7m
Asm
a0^zdK;aomfu @kwfw7ufem;rvnfEkdifyJ7Sdae.//
ud,
k hf red ;f uav;av/ vdy^f yme,fxu
J uk,
d hf
aumifrav;aygh
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

99

a qm if ; vk v if
ajomf- olvm;/ awGhvdkhvm;/ nu oleJh
awGhcJhw,faygh
awGhygw,farmif^zdK;/ oluw^cm;a,mufsm;
wpfa,mufeJhwGJvdkh/ tJ'g olhcspfolwJh
aeygOd;/ [kdt7iftacgufawGwkH;uawmh ol
wpfa,mufxJyJawGhwmqkd/ b,fvdkvkyf^yD;cspfol7oGm;
wmvJ/ tJ'Dvluaum b,fuay:vmwmvJAs
ukd,fvJem;rvnfawmhygbl;armif^zdK;7m/olwkdh
u
wpfa,mufeJhwpfa,muf7Smaejuwmjum^yDwJh/
rawGh
jubl;yJeJh
bmajumifh7SmaewmvJ/
ukd,fvJrodbl;
cifAsm;awmfawmfcHpm;oGm;7ovm;/ xm;
vkdufygAsm/ wu,fhvlrdef;rwpfa,mufukdyJ 7Smcspfvdkuf
prf;yg
r7bl;armif^zdK;7,f/ ukd,fuolhukd ukd,hfcspf
olt^zpfowfrSwf^yD;om;/ ukd,fhESvkH;om;u w^cm;wpf
a,mufukda^ymif;cspfzkdhqkdwm r^zpfEkdifygbl;/ ukd,fhpdwfu
omrefr[kwfbl;qkdwm rif;vJodom;yJ/ ukd,fav- olh
ukdw^cm;a,mufsm;wpfa,mufeJhwGJ^rifvdkuf7wm b,fvdk
cHpm;7r,fqdkwm awG;junhfprf;yguGm
a0^zdK;aomfu
ukdbvSarmfukd*@k%moufpGm
junhfvdkufonf// pdwfukdEkdifeif;ygw,f/ vkd7mappm;Ekdifyg
w,fqkdwJh pdwfynm7SifjuD;wpfa,muf ajuajuuGJuGJcH
pm;ae7wmawGhvu
kd 7f awmh olhcpH m;csufuu
dk ,
dk cf sif;
pmrdoGm;7onf//
udk,fcsif;pmygw,fudkbvSarmf/ cifAsm;u
olhukdESvkH;om;wpfckvkH; ykHtyfxm;wmukd;/ usGefawmfvJ
y,if;ukd
w^cm;a,mufsm;wpfa,mufeJhwGJ^rif77if
'DvdkyJ cHpm;rdrSmyJ
bm- b,fol/ y,if; [kwfvm;
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

100

a qm if ; vk v if
y,if;qkdwm usGefawmfeJhvufxyfzkdh7nf@G,f
xm;wJhcspfolyg/ y,if;cif-wJh
ajomf- [kwv
f m;
vufzuf7nfqkdifoGm;7atmifAsm/ usGefawmf
rsufESmopfvdkufOD;r,f
a0^zdK;aomfu rsufESmopf7ef {nfhcef;xJrSx
oGm;onf//
olikdifawGaewmukd a0^zdK;aomfawmif7dyfrdoGm;
ygyaum//
raehnujuKHcJh7wJhtawGhtjuKHESpfcku olh7Jht
em*wf7nfrSef;csufawGtm;vkH;ukda00g;oGm;ap^cif;yJ^zpfyg
onf// 7wemokduftwGufvnf; ar#mfvifh7efr7Sdawmh//
cspf7oluvnf; cspfolawGhoGm;^yD// olar#mfvifhwnf
aqmufxm;aompdwful;,OfumxJrS t"dutajumif;
tcsufESpfckvkH; aysmufysufoGm;onfrkdh a^rqnfEkdif
atmifrsufESmysufae^cif;yJ^zpfvdrfhrnf//
bmyJ^zpf^zpf ukdbvSarmfu cspf7olrdef;u
av;twGuftm;ravsmhao;yg// rdef;uav;7Jhaetdrfukd
olodxm;^yD// rdef;uav;ukdvnf; vlom;wpfa,muft
^zpfrsuf0g;xifxifawGh^rifcJh^yD;^yD// olvkdpdwfynm7Sifwpf
a,muf[m tcspfa7;udpPukd bmvkdhvG,fvG,feJhtav#mh
ay;7rSmvJ//
olcspfwJhrdef;uav;7Jhtcspfukd r77atmifjudK;
pm;rnf//
tdyfrufum 0dnmOfavmuxJrSmr7vJ vl
om;umxJrSmrdef;uav;ukdykdifqkdifEkdifatmif judK;pm;7
ayrnf//
a0^zdK;aomfu rsufESmopf^yD; t0wftpm;vJ
um tcef;xJrSxGufvmonf//
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

101

a qm if ; vk v if
olwkdhESpfa,muf tdrfrSxGuf7ef^yifaepOfrSmyif
tdrfxJokdh ukvm;av;wpfa,muf0ifvm.//
a[m- qmrd
a0^zdK;aomfu
ukvm;av;ukdESKwfqufvdkuf
onf//
qmrdrSm a0^zdK;aomf@kH;rS @kH;apav;^zpf^yD;
pae/we*FaEG7ufrsm;rSm a0^zdK;aomftdrfukdvm7Sif;ay;
aeus^zpfygonf// vlysdKwpfa,mufxJaewJha0^zdK;aomf
twGufvnf;tultnD7/ olvnf;rkefhzkd;7rkdh tqifa^y
aeonf//

qmrdu
@kH;u
usGefawmhf^yGef;av/
@kH;ydwf7uf wkdif; tdrfvm7Sif;ay;aeus
a0^zdK;aomfu qmrdukd ukdbvSarmfESifhrdwfquf
ay;vdkufonf//
[kwfvm;/ tJ- bk7m;cef;ukdawmh r7Sif;ap
csifbl;armif^zdK;/ ukd,fcsxm;wJhtif;uGufawG taet
xm;ysufoGm;rSmpdk;vdkhyg
ukdbvSarmfu a0^zdK;aomfukda7m/ qmrdukdyg
a^ymvdkufonf//
[kwfw,fqmrd/ rif; bk7m;cef;xJ0ifr7Sif;
eJh/ 'Dq7mjuD;ypPnf;awG7Sdw,f
[kwfuJhygq7m
rif;- 'Dq7mjuD;ukdodvm;/ emrnfjuD;rsuf
vSnfhq7ma'0dqkdwm 'Dq7mjuD;yJ
tkd;- q7m/ usGefawmf q7mjuD;rsufvSnfh
junhfbl;wmaygh/ odyfaumif;wmyJq7m
qmrdu ukdbvSarmfukd txifjuD;pGmjunhf7if;
a^ymvdkufonf//
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

102

a qm if ; vk v if
uJ- vm/ igwkdhvufzuf7nfoGm;aomufrvdkh/
rif;ygvkdufcJh
usGefawmfaomufcJh^yD;^yDq7m/ q7mwkdhoGm;yg/
usGefawmftdrf7Sif;xm;ESifhyghr,f
tdrfxJuxGufcgeD;rSm ukdbvSarmfu qmrdukd
pdwfrcsI bk7m;cef;ukdaomhcwfvdkufonf// pdwfrcswm
u ckd;rSm0SufrSmpdk;Ir[kwf/ vli,fqkdawmh pyfpk^yD;
olhypPnf;awGukd [kdjunhf'Djunfh vkyfaerSmpkd;I^zpfonf//
olwkdhESpfa,muf
vufzuf7nfqkdifxGufvm
awmh qmrdwpfa,mufxJ tdrf7Sif;7if;usefcJhavonf//

vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

103

a qm if ; vk v if

g
onfuaehreuf ukb
d vSarmfonf a^rmuf^yif
7Sdvdyf^ymv$ifhrdef;uav;tdrfa7Shrsufapmif;xdk;wGif qkdif
u,f7yfum opfyifukduG,fI rdef;uav;xGuftvm
ukd apmifhaevdkufonf// onfaeh wevFmaehrdkh rdef;u
av;tvkyfqif;vdrfhrnf//
olxifxm;onfhtwkdif;yif 8em7Dausmfausmf
avmufwGif rdef;uav; tdrfxJuxGufvmonf//pvif;
bufukdvG,fv#uf/ vufwpfzufu xrif;Al;ukdukdif
v#uf /
rdef;uav;u z,f7Dum;vmjudKrnfhvrf;xdyfokdh
vrf;av#muftoGm;rSm ukdbvSarmfu qkdifu,fukdw
^znf;^znf;armif;7if; aemufrv
S dkufcJhonf// rdef;uav;
ukdaemufausmzufrSjunhf7if; aumif;uifwGif olawGh
cJhonfh rdef;rysdK[kwf-r[kwfqef;ppfjunhfaerdonf//
@kyf7nfrSm ntcsdefaumif;uifxufrSmawGh7
wJh@kyf7nftwkdif;csGwfqGwfwlaeonf// qHyifykHpHutp
wlyg.// rkd;aumif;uifay:rSm vrf;av#mufp7mrvdkyJ
vGifharsmae7onfrdkh rf;av#mufykHwl/rwlukdawmh qef;
ppfvdkhr7ay//
rdef;uav; onfaeh0wfxm;onfh 0wfpkHrSm
vdyf^ymv$ihfpOfu 0wfxm;onfh0wfpkHyif^zpfae^yefonf//
teufa7mifatmufcHwGif t0gESifhteDpif;av;rsm; a7;
cs,fxm;onfh ygwdwfqifukd txufatmufqifwl0wf
xm;.//
rdef;uav;u vrf;xdyfta7mufwGif yvuf
azmif;ay:Y7yfI olrukdvmjudKrnfh z,f7Dum;ukdapmifh
aeav.//
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

104

a qm if ; vk v if
ukdbvSarmfu qkdifu,fukd cyfvSrf;vSrf;rSm
axmufxm;cJh^yD; rdef;uav;ESifhab;csif;,SOfIcyfcGmcGm
7yfvu
kd fonf//
rsufESmcsif;qkdifI aocsmjunhfvdkufrS rdef;u
av;rSm vdyf^ymv$ifhrdef;rysdKqkdwm ykdIaocsmoGm;av
onf//
rdef;uav;u ukdbvSarmfukd trSwfrxifvSnfh
junhfvdkufav.// ukdbvSarmf7ifrSm xdwfueJckefoGm;
onf// okdhaomf rdef;uav;.trlt7mrSmawmh wpuf
uav;rSxl;^cm;roGm;cJhacs// ukdbvSarmfZa0Z0g^zpfoGm;
onf// rdef;uav;[mvdyf^ymv$ifhpOfu tawGhtjuKH
awGukdrrSwfrdawmhwJh rodpdwfeJhvdyf^ymv$ifhol^zpfae
avrvm;// olroGif^yifu ukdbvSarmfukd^rifvdkuf7I
wpfpkHwckxl;^cm;oGm;ykHray:ay//
xkdpOf vrf;wpfzufqDrS rdef;uav;wpfa,muf
^zwful;vmum olrukdESKwfqufvdkufonf//
a[;- y,if; / @kH;oGm;awmhrvdkhvm;
at;uG/ z,f7Dapmifhaewm
y,if; / y,if;wJh// olhemrnfu y,if;qkdyg
vm;// ukdbvSarmfonf y,if;qkdonfhtrnfukd jum;zl;
oa,mif@Gwfqkdjunhfvdkufrdonf//
y,if;qkdwJhemrnfrsdK;ukd rjumcifuyif jum;cJh
zl;ygonf// b,frSmjum;zl;wmvJ// olpOf;pm;r7awmhay//
c%aeawmh rdef;uav;ukdvmjudKonfh qefeD
ypfuyf @kH;z,f7Dum;a7mufvmonf// y,if;qkdolrdef;u
av;u aemufcef;wGifwufxdkifvdkuf.// um;aemufcef;
wGify,if;uJhokdh 0efxrf;trsdK;orD;wpfOD;ygvmonf//
um;u usKH;ab;12vrf;rS taemufzufokdh
qufarmif;oGm;onf//
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

105

a qm if ; vk v if
ukdbvSarmfonf qkdifu,fukdpufESdK;um ypf
uyfum;.aemufrS cyfcGmcGmvdkufvmcJhonf// y,if;
onf ukdbvSarmfvdkufvmonfukd owdr^yKrday// um;
ay:rSmygvmonfh trsdK;orD;ESifhpum;a^ym7if;ygoGm;.//
qefeDum;av;u
taemufzufokdhwnfhwnfh
armif;oGm;7if; 81vrf;a7mufrS b,fzuf(awmifzuf)okdh
csdK;auGhvdkuf.// 81vrf;ESifh16vrf;a'gifhem;wGif 7yf
apmifhaeaom0efxrf;trsdK;orD;wpfOD;ukd wifac:cJh^yef
onf//
ukdbvSarmf qkdifu,f^zifhaemufrS awmuf
av#mufvdkufvmaomfvnf;
um;ay:rStrsdK;orD;rsm;
owd^yKrdykHr7ay// olwkdh[molwkdh pum;awGa^ym7if; yg
oGm;juonf//
z,f7Dum;av;u 26vrf;ta7mufwGif b,f
zuf(ta7Shzuf)okdhcsdK;auGhvdkuf^yefonf//
y,if; / y,if; / emrnfukda7@Gwfjunhf7if;
'Demrnfb,frSmjum;bl;ygvdrfh[kta^zxkwfum ukdbvS
armfu um;aemufrSxyfcsyfrcGmvdkufygvmcJhavonf//
um;onf26bDvrf;taemufzufrS ta&Shzufokdh
ul;um wnfhwnfhjuD;qufarmif;oGm;.//
62vrf;ta7mufwGif nmzuf(awmifzuf)okdhcsdK;
auGhvdu
k o
f nf//
xkdtcdsefwGif um;a7Shwcg;wGif uyfxm;onfh
trSwfwHqdyfvdk*kdav;ukd ukdbvSarmfowd^yKrdvkdufonf/
vdk*kdwHqdyfu ol 7if;7if;ESD;ESD;^rifbl;aeaom wHqdyfrsdK;
av;^zpfonf// b,frSm^rifzl;ygvdrfh//
um;onf 28vrf;ta7mufwGif @kwfw7ufnm
zufokdhcsdK;auGhvdkufI ukdbvSarmfu qkdifu,fb7dwf
ukdzdeif;vdkuf7onf// olu [kdawG;'DawG; awG;vmI
um;u nmzufcsdK;auGhrnfqpf*e,frD;^ywmukdr^rifvdkuf
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

106

a qm if ; vk v if
rd// um;@kwfw7ufcsdK;tauGhrSm aemufrSxyfcsyfygvm
aomqkdifu,fut7SdefESifhrdkh um;ESifheD;uyfoGm;^yD;wkdufrd
rvdk^zpfoGm;onf//
ukdbvSarmfonf um;oGm;onhfvrf;twdkif; 28
vrf;xJokdhvdkufIcsdK;vdkufonf//
xkdokdhvrf;xJokdhcsdK;auGht0ifrSmyJ olhOD;aESmuf
xJY tod]m%ftm;vkH;vif;vufoGm;avonf//
armif^zdK;/ y,if;/ @kH;wHqdyfvdk*kd/ armif^zdK;wkdh@kH;
ponhftodrsm;u awGaeaomolhacgif;xJokdh wef;pD
0ifvmum ta^zukdcsufcsif;7vdkufav.//
a0^zdK;aomfu olh@kH;rSm28vrf;Y7Sdonf[ka^ymzl;
aomfvnf; olwpfcgrSvdkufrvnfzl;ay// ,ck28vrf;
xJauGh0ifvdkufrS armif^zdK;a^ymzl;onhf 28vrf;/6263
jum;qkdonfh armif^zdK;@kH;vdyfpmukd ^yefrSwfrdoGm;onf//
wqufxJyif z,f7Dum;tzkH;rSvkd*kdrSmvnf;
armif^zdK;tdrfrSm aehpOf^rifawGhae7onfh/ armif^zdK;@kH;
oGm;v#ifwyfoGm;aeus
7ifxkd;ay:rSwHqdyf^zpfaewm
owd7oGm;^yefavonf//
xkdtcgrS vrf;wGifjum;cJhaom y,if;qkdonfh
rdef;uav;trnfonf armif^zdK;a^ymbl;aom armif^zdK;
ESifhvufxyfrnfhrdef;uav;trnf^zpfaewmukd owd7
vdkufrd^yef.//
wpfckESifhwpfckqufpyfI @kwfw7uftoday:
vmaomukdbvSarmfonf xdwfueJvefhoGm;avonf//
olodvdkufwmawG[kwfrSefygu
olcspfaeaomrdef;u
av;rSm armif^zdK;cspfol y,if;^zpfaeygyaum//
ukdbvSarmfu qkdifu,fukdt7Sdefav#mhvdkufonf
a7ShrSum;uvnf; vrf;nmzuf7Sd^cHa7ShokdhauGh0if
vdkufum Gef;wpfcsufwD;vdkufonf// ^cHwcg;yGifhoGm;um
um;onf ^cHxJokdharmif;0ifoGm;av.//
107
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

a qm if ; vk v if
xkdtcg ^cHxJwGif^rifvdkuf7aom^rifuGif;tm;
vkH;u ukdbvSarmf.txift^rifrsm;ukd axmufcHcsuf
ay;vdkufovdk7Sifhvif;oGm;apawmh.//
^cHxJwGif armif^zdK;.ukd,fykdifum;av; 7yfxm;
onf// xkdum;av;ukd ukvm;av;qmrdu zkefokwfay;
aeygonf//
onfhxuf7Sif;vif;aom^rifuGif;r7Sdygav
awmh//
ukdbvSarmfonf 7ifxJpkdhovkd^zpfoGm;umqkdif
u,fukd *i,fauGhauGhI vmvrf;twkdif;^yefvSnfhvdkuf
onf//
r@$ifaompdwf^zifh
^rdKhopfzufokdhOD;wnfum
tdrfokdh^yefvmvdkufawmhonf//

g
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

108

a qm if ; vk v if
tdrf^yefa7mufa7mufcsif; ukdbvSarmfonf w
cg;zGifh0ifum armif^zdK;.tcef;xJokdh wef;wef;rwfrwf
0ifomG ;vdu
k fonf//
armif^zdK;tcef;wcg;u aomhrcyfyJ aph@kHaph
xm;ygonf// olonf TtdrfrSmwnf;cdkaeaomfvnf;
armif^zdK;tcef;xJokdhwpfcgrSr0ifcJhzl;ay// ,ckawmh ol
wdwdususodcsifaeaomta^zwpfck7SdaeI um,uH7Sif
rodyJ tcef;xJ0ifcJhrday^yD//
ukdbvSarmfu tcef;ywfywfvnfukda0h0Jjunhf
vdkufonf// ykdI^rifomatmif ^ywif;wcg;wpfaygufukd
zGifhvdkufonf//
olu armif^zdK;.ukwifeab;ukdjunhfvdkufonfh
tcg awGhyg^yD//
ukwifeab;wGif pmtkyfwifonhfckHtao;av;
wpfck7SdaeI xkdtay:wGif "mwfykHwpfykHukdrSefabmif
oGif;Iaxmifxm;onf// "mwfykHxJrS ^yKH;Ijunhfaeaom
rdef;uav;rSm y,if;ac:y,if;cifyif^zpfygonf//
ukdbvSarmfonf ukwifESifhvufwurf;tuGm7Sd
ckHav;ay:rS y,if;."mwfykHav;ukd,ljunhfvdkufonf//
y,if;cif[m vdyf^ymv$ifh7if; olESifhrdk;aumif;uifrSmqkH
cJhzl;wJhrdef;uav;tppfygyJ// ^zpf7avuG,f //
ukdbvSarmfonf olhukd,folyJoem;7rvm;/ a0
^zdK;aomfESifhy,if;cifukdyJoem;7rvm; a0cGJr7^zpfae
awmhonf// ^zpf7ykHu b,folhrSmrSt^ypfr7SdyJ juKHvm7
wJht^zpfawG7,fav//
armif^zdK;onf olhcspfolukdowd7wkdif; tvG,f
wul,ljunhfEkdifzkdh y,if;cif"mwfykHuav;ukdvufwpf
urf;tuGmrSmxm;ykH7onf// y,if;cifukd odyfcspfwJht
ajumif;awG olhukda^ymbl;onf// ^zpfrS^zpf7av^cif;
armif^zdK;7,f//
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

109

a qm if ; vk v if
olonf wpfyg;olukd,fa7;ukd,fwmukdcdk;acsmifcdk;
0Suf0ifjunhf^yD;rSawmh rxl;awmh^yDrkdh y,if;"mwfykH
av;ukdrSefabmifjum;rSxkwf,lvdkufonf// cspfolcsif;ay;
wJh"mwfykHawGrSm "mwfykHaemufausmwGif pma7;ay;wwf
juwmrdkh aemufausmrSm pmyg-rygvSefjunhfvdkuf
onf//

toufwr#cspf7wJh
armifhtwGuf
xm07owd7zkdh
odyfcspfwJh

y,if;
y,if;vufa7;ESifha7;xm;onfh pmrsm;ukdawGh
vkduf7avawmhonf//
ukdbvSarmf ouf^yif;csvdkufonf//
"mwfykHav;ukd rSefabmifxJae7mwus^yefoGif;
7if; ae7mrysuf^yefxm;vdkufonf//
^ywif;aygufukd^yefydwfI
armif^zdK;tcef;xJrS
xGufcJh.//
ol bmqufvkyf7rvJ //

ukdbvSarmfonf{nfhcef;xJwGifwkdif7if; tawG;
xJYepfarsmaerdonf//
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

110

a qm if ; vk v if
y,if;cifonf olvdyf^ymv$ifh7mwGif awGhqkHcJh
onhfrdef;uav;qkdwmawmh aocsmae^yD//
onfrdef;uav;onf Tr#i,faomtouft
@G,f^zifh vdyf^ymv$ifhusifhpOfukd b,fvdkrsm;wwfa^rmuf
aeygvdrfh// b,fq7mursm; oifay;cJhygvdrfh//
y,if;cif.vdyf^ymv$ifhc7D;pOftay: oHo,0if
p7mtcsuf7Sdygao;onf// olronf olr.vdyf^ymv$ifhc
7D;pOfukd e*kdrlvta^ctaewGif rSwfrdod7Sd^cif;a7m7Sdyg7Jh
vm;// tb,fajumifhqkdaomf vrf;wGif ukdbvSarmfukd
@kwfw7ufjunhfvdkufpOfu y,if;cif.trlt7monfbm
rSxl;^cm;roGm;cJh/ ukdbvSarmfukdrodoa,mif7Sdaeonf//
[efaqmifvdkuf^cif;qkdygu tawmfyif[efaqmifaumif;
onhfrdef;uav;^zpfvdrfhrnf//
aemufwpfcsufu olrwGif cspfola0^zdK;aomf
7Sdae^yD;^zpfygv#uf vdyf^ymavmuwGif t^cm;cspfolwpf
a,muf7Sdae^yef^cif;yif//
y,if;cifonf rodpdwfESifhvdyf^ymv$ifhaeolyif
vm;//
usifhjuHtm;xkwfrSKajumifhr[kwfyJ tdyfruf
ruf7if;vdyf^ymvGifhoGm;7mrS 0dnmOfavmuwGif oD;^cm;
vdyf^ymukd,fu usifvnfusufpm;ae^cif;rsdK;vnf;^zpfEkdif
onf// vdyf^ymv$ifhaepOfwGif rl7if;b0ukdrrSwfrdovdk/
omrefvly,if;cift^zpfaexdkifpOfrSmvnf; vdyf^ymv$ifh
b0ukdarhae^cif;rsdK;^zpfvdrfhrnf//
odpd^zifh y,if;cift^zpfwpfb0/ rodpdwf^zifh
vdyf^yme,fwGifwpfb0usifvnfaom xl;^cm;onhfrdef;
uav;rsdK;vnf;^zpfEidk yf gonf//
tdyfrufruf^yD; tdyf7if;xvrf;av#mufonfh
vlrsm;wGif xkdt^zpfrsdK;juKH7avh7Sdygonf// tdyfrufrS
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

111

a qm if ; vk v if
vefhEkd;vmonfhtcg bmrSrrSwfrdawmhaoma0'emonf
wpfrsdK;^zpfonf//
y,if;cifonfvnf; 0dnmOfwpfckxJu b0ESpf
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114

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115

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116

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117

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118

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119

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120

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121

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vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

123

a qm if ; vk v if
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@SKcif;ukd oD;^cm;oGm;a7mufjunhf@SK7efrvdkatmif pDpOf
xm;^cif;^zpfygonf//
zGifhyGJukd ^rpfurf;ezl;^rufcif;^yifwGifpDpOfxm;ay
onf//
azsmfa^za7;pif^rifhu ^rpfukdab;apmif;wkduft
aetxm;wGif7Sdaeonf//
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xkdifaeonfh{nfhy7dowftrsm;pkrSm EkdifiH^cm;om;rsm;^zpf
ygonf// [kdw,fwm0ef7Sdolrsm;u rEWav;7Sdt^cm;[kd
w,frsm;wGif vwfwavmwnf;cdkaeonfhEkdifiH^cm;om;
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wnf;qGJaqmifvkduf^cif;^zpfonf//
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,m;^zpfaeonf//
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pOfpwifyg.//
^refrmtursm;^zifh OD;qkH;azsmfa^zonf//
"avhxkH;pHrwlolrsm;. 7ifxJukd tvG,fwul
a7mufEkdifonfh oGufvuf^rL;juGIcHpm;vG,faomtu
rsm;^zifhazsmfa^zoGm;ygonf//
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,drf;/ ojuFef,drf;/ oef;oef;qifh. rav;vufcwfoH
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124
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

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rkd;tu^zifhazsmfa^zygonf//
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zufEkdif7ef a':rdk;tuukdxyfrHwDxGifcJhajumif;7Sif;^yum
tpDtpOfuw
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OD;a@$@kd;turSm
OD;a@$@kd;wpfa,mufxJESifhyif
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om;rsm; w0g;0g;yGJusrqkH;7Sdavonf//
tDwvDrjuD;u
a0^zdK;aomfESifhy,if;zufokdh
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rsdK;yJ
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@kyfao;yGJonfvnf; y7dowf7ifukdcdkufatmif
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wwd,ykdif;ESifh aemufqkH;tpDtpOfrSm q7m
a'0d. rsufvSnfhyGJtpDtpOf//
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

125

a qm if ; vk v if
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ESifhyif uGJ^yD// tvGefowdxm;7ygonf//
^yD;awmh ^refrmhobiftuESifhjudK;qGJ@kyfao;
wkdhrSm ^refrmwkdh.ukd,fykdiftEkynmypPnf;rsm;^zpfonf//
aumif;zkdhyJvdkonf// rsufvSnfhuawmh tEkynmvdkhvJ
rqkdom/ ukd,fykdifazsmfa^za7;ypPnf;vJr[kwf// wpfum
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ekdifiH^cm;om;utrsm;pk^zpf.//
xkdtajumif;rsm;ajumifh a0^zdK;aomfonfukdb
vSarmftwGuf ukd,fpm;7ifckefaerd^cif;^zpfyg.//
bmyJ^zpf^zpfav a'0d.azsmfa^zrSKukd aemuf
qkH;rSmxm;onfqkduwnf;u yGJpDpOfolrsm;u ukdbvS
armfukd ,kHjunfvdkhyJ^zpfygvdrfhrnf//

a'0d.rsufvSnfhyGJtpDtpOfpwifygav^yD//
uwWDygum;vdyfteDjuD;a7Shukd q7ma'0dxGuf
vmonf//
ukdbvSarmfonf wkdufykHtust^zLa7mifeSifh 7
ckdifykqkd;teDa7mifukd0wfqifxm;.// rdwfuyftenf;i,f
vl;xm;onf// ^refrmqefqefESifha,musfm;yDyDooacsm
armaeyg.//
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

126

a qm if ; vk v if
olu pum;a^ymcGufa7ShrSm7yfvdkufum y7dowf
ukdESKwfcGef;qufovdkufavonf//
r*Fvmyg
onfwpfcGef;om^refrmvdka^ym^yD; qufvufI
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bmomav,lavodrf;ESifh pum;vkH;a7G;cs,fykHwkdhrSm t
awmftqifh^rifhaeI
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onf//
ukdbvSarmfu
rsufvSnhfynmtajumif;ukd
ed'gef;csD^yD; y7dowfukda^ym^yaeonf//
^refrmEkdifiHwGif rsufvSnfhynmrsm;a7Shya0o%D
uyifxGef;um;cJhykH/ okdhaomf- rsufvSnfhynm7Siftrsm;pk
rSm q7mpm;csefIynmukdr^zefha0onfht^yif- pkef;
a,mifa,mif/ua0a,mifa,mif vlxkukdxif^rifapI
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wdrfaumoGm;7ykH/ ,cktcg olonf ^refhrma7S;a[mif;
rsufvSnfh/vufvSnfhynmrsm;ukd7SmazGI pmtkyfwpftkyf
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oifjum;ay;cJhaom
tdd,ypPvufq7mjuD;em,7ef;
tm;*g70^yKygajumif; q7mhaus;Zl;ukdxkwfazmfa^ymjum;
oGm;cJhonf//
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wJh^yuGufwpfckdukdazsmfa^zoGm;rSm^zpfygw,f/
^yuGuft
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apmifhaewJh sdKif;wpfaumifykHygwJh yef;csDum;jud;wpfcsyf
ukd y7dowfrsm;^rifawGh7rSm^zpfygw,f/ yef;csDum;juD;[m
b,fvdkarSmf"mwfawG0if^yD;
b,fvdktouf0ifvSKyf7Sm;
vmw,fqkdwmukd junhfjuygpkdhcifAsm;
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

127

a qm if ; vk v if

onf//

uwWDygum;vdyfteDjud;u

^znf;nSif;pGmyGifhoGm;

pifay:rS^rifuGif;u aemufcHydwfum;t^zLwpfck
om7Sdonf//
pif.b,fzufa'gifhrSaeI vli,fESpfa,mufu
yef;csDum;csyfjuD;wpfckukd wGef;I,lvmavonf// yef;csD
um;juD;rSm tvsm;12ay/teH9aycefh7Sd^yD;/ ZmwfpifESifh
t^ynfr#juD;rm;vSyg.//
yef;csDum;ukd a7ShrSqGJvmolrSm ukdbvSarmf.
wynfhav;atmifbkpdef^zpfygonf// aehvnfcif;u olh
tzGJhom;okH;a,mufESifhrdwfqufay;xm;I atmifbkpdef
ukda0^zdK;aomfodae^cif;^zpfonf// ,ckyGJukd ukdbvSarmf
OD;aqmifI atmifbkpdef7,f/ arpDysdKqkdonhfrdef;u
av;7,f/
awmufxdefvif;qkdonhfvli,fav;7,f
av;a,mufxJu azsmfa^zwifqufrnf^zpfygonf//
atmifbkpdefwkdh wGef;,lIa@$hvmaomyef;csDum;
xJwGif prf;acsmifav;wpfckykHukd a7ShzuftusqkH;Ya7;
qGJxm;avonf// xkdprf;acsmif;xJokdh a7tkd;av;ukdcs
um wifyvGJxkdif7if; a7ikHhcyf[ef^yifaeaom rdef;rysdK
av;ykHukda7;qGJxm;avonf// rdef;rysdK.ykHrSm yuwdvl
.t7G,ftpm;twkdif;a7;qGJxm;yg.//
yef;csDum;xJrS rde;f rysdKykrH mS aehvnfuolEiS hf
rdwfqufay;xm;onfh wpfOD;wnf;aomtzGJh0ifrdef;u
av;^zpfonfh arpDysdK.ykH^zpfaewmawGh7avonf//
prf;acsmif;.tpyfwGif
a^cwpfzufaxmufI
7yfaeaomAsdKif;wpfaumif.ykHukdyga7;qGJxm;onfukdawGh
7yg.// aemufcH@SKcif;uawmh t^yma7mifaumif;uif
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

128

a qm if ; vk v if
wGif wdrf^zLrsm;a7Ghvsm;aeykH^zpfonf// naecif;@SKcif;
t^zpf ta7mifcyfa^ya^ya7;qGJxm;yg.//
atmifbkpdefwkdhu yef;csDum;juD;ukd pif.t
vnfwnfhwnfhavmufwGifae7mcsvdkufonf//
atmifbkpdefonf pum;a^ymrdkufcGufa7ShokdhxGuf
vmum y7dowfukd pum;a^ymvdkufonf//
a@$yGJvmy7dowfrsm;cifAsm;/ y7dowfrsm;^rif
awGh7wJhtwkdif; naeae0ifqnf;qmrSm a7cyfvmwJh
vkHrysdKav;eJh prf;acsmif;xJrSmtpmaumufzkdh ig;apmifh
aewJhAsdKif;uav;wpfaumifukd yef;csDum;xJrSmawGh7rSm
yg/ [kwfygw,fcifAsm;/ 'g[m yef;csDum;tppfyg/ vuf
7ma^rmufwJhyef;csDum;ppfppfwpfcsyfyg/ yef;csDum;wpfcsyf
om^zpfajumif; usGefawmfvufawGh^yygr,fcifAsm;
atmifbkpdefu Armvdka^ym^yD; EkdifiH^cm;om;
y7dowftwGuf7nf@G,fum
t*FvdyfvdktwkdcsKyfa^ym
vdkufonf//
Its real painting , Look !

atmifbkpdefESifhawmufxdefvif;u yef;csDum;
juD;ukdrum qkHvnfvSnhfI^yvdkufonf// yef;csDum;
aemufwGif tH0Sufrsm; / ykef;cdkaeaomvlrsm;rygajumif;
odomatmif^yvdkuf^cif;^zpf.//
yef;csDum;rSm ywWLpukdopfom;abmifwGifusuf
I a7;qGJxm;aomomrefyef;csDum;om^zpfajumif; y7d
owftm;vkH;^rifawGhju7avonf//
yef;csDum;ukdwpfywfvSnfhI a7Sha7m/aemufa7m
^yum e*kdtwkdif;ae7mwus^yefcsxm;vdkufonf//
a[m'Dyef;csDum;juD;ukdtouf0ifvSKyf7Sm;vm
atmif zefwD;^yr,fholuawmh usGefawmfwkdh7JhrsufvSnhf
q7mtausmftarmf q7mjuD;a'0dyJ^zpfygw,fcifAsm;
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

129

a qm if ; vk v if
qkdif;tzGJhu
bifoHukdus,favmifpGmwD;ay;
vdkufonf//
pif.b,fzufa'gifhrS q7mjuD;a'0dxGufay:
vmavonf//
a'0donfrdwfqufpum;a^ympOfu ^refrm0wf
pkHESifhr[kwfawmhay// teDa7miftom;uyfykd;abmif;bD
Esifhtusukd0wfqifxm;onf// tom;uyf0wfpkH^zpfI ol
.a,mufsm;yDoaom tzktxpftcsdK;tpm;wkdhu juGm;
@Gm;pGmay:vGifaeavonf// teDa7mif0wfpkHtay:wGifrS
a^czsm;txd7Snfvsm;aom 0wf@kH7SnfjuD;ukd 7ifywf[I
0wfqifxm;avonf// vufxJwGifESifwHuJhokdhwkwfwpf
acsmif;ukdukdifxm;onf//
bifoHESifh,uGif;oHu pnf;csufnDpGmESifh s,f
avmifpmG xGufay:ae.//
atmifbkpdefu q7ma'0da7ShokdhoGm;um @kd
aopGmOD;n$wfIa^ymvdkufonf//
q7mcifAsm;/ yef;csDum;xJuvkHrav;eJhAsdKif;
uav;wkdh[m 'Dtwkdif;ykHaoo@kyf^yae7vdkh nmif;nm
aejuyg^yD/ wdrfwkdufawGuvnf; avxJrSmvGifharsmu
ckefcsifaeyg^yD/ olwkdhukd anmif;tnmqefhEkdifatmif
acwWc%r# touf0ifatmifzefwD;ay;ygcifAsm;
a'0du acgif;wqwfqwfndwfI tdrf;- tdrf;-
a'0du yef;csDum;a7ShwGif7yfum ESifwH^zifh
n$ef7if; ESKwfrSwwGwfwGwf@Gwfqkdvdkufonf//
tyfcsavmif; tyfcsavmif;

bmawGreS ;f rod/ tawmfjum@Gwaf e.//
tyfcsavmif; tyfcsavmif;
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

130

a qm if ; vk v if
tyfcsavmif;qkdwmvJ bmt"dg,f/bm bmom
pum;vJrod// rsufvSnfhq7mwdkif;@Gwfaeus tmvkyfoH
^zpfonf//
tyfcsavmif;
a'0du yef;csDum;a7ShrStenf;i,fcGmum 0wf
@kHab;tdyfxJrS t7mtcdsKhukdxkwf,lvdkufonf// xkdt7m
rsm;ESifhyef;csDum;ukdypfaygufvdkufonfhtcg
rD;cdk;vkH;rsm;v#Hwufvmum pifwpfckvkH;rD;ckd;rsm;
zkH;v$rf;oGm;av.//
rD;ck;d rsm;vGihf ys,fomG ;onht
f cg
yef;csDum;juD;^yefay:vmonf// yef;csDum;onf
,cifutwkdif;yif// bmrSra^ymif;vJao;//
okhd aomf
a'0dutrdehf ay;vdu
k fonfhtcg
wGifum;
qif;cJhavmh / qif;cJhavmh / t^yifxGufcJh
avmh
yef;csDum;xJrSrdef;uav;u xkdifae7mrSx7yf
vdkufonf// yuwdvlom;wpfa,muf^zpfaeay^yD//
AsdKif;onf tawmifukdwzswfzswf@kdufcwfvdkuf
avonf//
wdrfwkdufrsm;onf b,frSnmokdha@Ghvsm;umyef;
csDum;abmifxJrSxGufoGm;av.//
rdef;uav;u a7tkd;av;ukdykdufum yef;csDum;
abmifxJrSxGufI
Zmwfpifjurf;^yifay:okdhqif;vdkuf
onf//
tk;d
[if
[m
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

131

onf//

a qm if ; vk v if
y7dowfxJrS tmardwfoHrsm;v#HxGufvmav

vufckyfoHrsm;vnf; wazsmif;azsmif;xGufvm.
AsdKif;onftawmifcwfIysH0Jum Zmwfpift^yif
txdysHoef;oGm;onf// AsdKif;uav;u yGJcif;w0kdufwGif
rkd;aumif;uifrS wpfywfywfIysHoef;^yvdkuf7m {nfh
onfrsm;onf AsdKif;aemufokdhvnfI vdkufjunhfrd7awmh
onf//
AsdKif;uav;onf tvnfem;7Sdpm;yGJwpfvkH;ay:
xkd;qif;I em;vdkufavonf//
Oh! God . This is a real bird

xkdpm;yGJ7Sd t*FvdyfrjuD;u tvkdawmf/ iSuf


tppfjuD;ygvm; -[k tvefhwjum;atmf[pfvdkufonf/
[Jh- aumifrav;
atmifbkpdefu rkdufcGufem;uyfIatmfvdkuf7m
y7dowfrsm;tm@kHu pifay:^yefa7mufoGm;avonf//
[Jh- aumifrav;
bmwkef;awmh
eif vltppfygaemf
tk-d 7Sirf ^rifb;l vm;/ vlrS vltppf@iS hf /
junfhygvm;
yef;csDum;xJuxGufvmwJhvlqkdawmh eifh
udk,fvkH;juD;u csyf^ym;juD;^zpfaerSmayghaemf
tkd- bJheJhcsyf^ym;7rSmvJ/ a[m-junhf- armf
',fawGxufawmifvSao;w,f
rdef;uav;u a7tkd;av;ukd cg;wGifxpfIwif
um ukd,fvkH;ukdwpfywfvSnfh^yvdkufonf// wD;vkH;uem
aysmfzG,faumif;aomoHpOfwpfckukdwD;ay;vdkuf7m rdef;u
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

132

a qm if ; vk v if
av;uoHpOftwkdif;
ukd,fvkH;av;ukdvSnfhywf^yvdkuf
^cif;^zpfyg.//
[,f- eifhukd,fvkH;u csyf^ym;juD;r[kwfwm
awmhawGhyg^yD/ eifvltppfygaemf
vltppfayghawmf
'gqkd t0wftpm;awGzkH;xm;wJhatmufrSm
wu,fhvlhtom;ta7awG7Sdw,faygh
7Sdwmaygh7Sifh
igr,kb
H ;l [,f/ ukid jf unh7f rS,rHk ,f
rdef;uav;u a7tkd;xJrSa7rsm;^zifh atmifbk
pdefukdavmif;csvdkufonf// atmifbkpdefwpfukd,fvkH;@$J@$Jpkd
oGm;av.//
y7dowfxJrS 7,farmoHrsm;xGufvmavonf//
atmifbkpdefu vl@$ifawmft^zpftokH;cH7if;
rdef;rysdKESifhAsdKif;owW0grSm
puf@kyfrsm;r[kwfajumif;
oufaoxlvdku^f cif;^zpfonf//
uJ- uJ- usGefrvnf;tanmif;a^y^yD/ yef;csD
um;xJukd^yefawmhr,f
aeygOD;[,f/ ig eifeJhrcGJekdifao;vdkhyg
tkd- 7SifwkhdvlawGvdkae7wm tbdmrsm;
w,f/ tckawmif usGefrukd,fxJukd avmb/a'gopdwf
awG0ifvmovdkvkd^zpfae^yD7Sifh/ yef;csDum;xJrSmat;at;
csrf;csrf;ae7wmaumif;ygw,f/ ^yefawmhr,f7Sif
^yefcsif7if eifhukdtouf0ifatmifvkyfxm;wJh
arSmfq7mjuD;ukda^ymayawmh
rdef;uav;u pifa'gifhwGifvufykdufI [efygyg
7yfaeaom q7mjuD;a'0da7ShokdhoGm;Ia^ymvdkufonf//
q7mjuD;7Sifh/ usGefreJhusGefrtazmfAsdKif;av;
ukd yefcsDum;xJ^yefykdhay;ygawmh7Sifh
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

133

a qm if ; vk v if
tdrf;- tdrf;- tdrf;-
a'0du acgif;wqwfqwfndwf7if; oabm
wl[ef^yvdkufonf//
tyfcsavmif;- tyfcsavmif;- ^yefayavmh
^yefayavmh- ukd,fhae7mukd,f^yefayavmh
a'0dut7iftwkdif;yif tdyfxJrStvkH;av;rsm;
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134

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135

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136

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vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

137

a qm if ; vk v if
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138

a qm if ; vk v if
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139

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140

a qm if ; vk v if

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awGh7ao;ay//
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y,if;cif
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

141

a qm if ; vk v if
cspfolvm7mvrf;^zpfonfh awmifzuft7yfqD
okhd ar#mfjunfhaeaomrde;f uav;onf ukdbvSarmfac:oH
ajumifhvefhoGm;rd.//
aemufokdhvSnfhjunhfvdkufonf//
olrrESpfrsdKhaomvdyf^ymawavjuD;ukdawGhvdkuf7I pdwf
npfoGm;avonf//
y,if;cif
rdef;uav;.rsufESmwGif thHjoonfhoGif^yifrsm;
ay:vGifoGm;.//
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rif; bm7,fwmvJy,if;cif
rdef;uav;u 7,f7Sdefukdowf7if;^yefa^ymvdkuf
.//
usGefrukdy,if;cifygvkdh 7SifbmajumihfpGwfpGJ7
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7SifeJhusGefreJhbmqkdifvdkh
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vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

142

a qm if ; vk v if
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^zdK;aomfqw
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oifhovm;
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rdef;uav;u olhukdpdrf;pdrf;junhfum avoH
^ywf^ywf^zihfac:vkdufonf//
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r[kwfbl;7Sifh
bmuG
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ygy,if;cif
7Sift@l;yJ
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

143

a qm if ; vk v if
ukd,f rif;ukdcspfw,fy,if;cif/ rif;ut@l;
vdkhpGyfpGJawmhvnf; ukd,f[mtcspf@l;yg
[m; [m; [m; [m;
rdef;uav;.[m;wkduf7,farmoHrSm aumif;uif
wpfckvkH;ysHhvGifhoGm;avonf//
7Sifh[m7Sif @l;csifovkdom@l;ae/ usGefr7Sifhukd
*@krpdkufbl;/ a[m- [kdrSm usGefrcspfolvm^yD
rdef;uav;u awmifzuft7yfqDar#mfjunhf7if;
a^ymvdkufonf//
0dnmOf^zLwpfcku awmift7yfqDrS wa@Gha@Gh
ESifhvGifharsmvmaeonf//
usGefreJhusGefrcspfol[m rjumcifvufxyf
awmhrSm7Sifh/ vljuD;awGukdzGifha^ym^yD;^yD/ 7Sif raESmuf
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rdef;uav;u a^ym7if; olhcspfol7Sd7mokdhvGifh
arsmoGm;avonf//
0dnmOf^zLESpfckonf vufcsif;csdwfwGJ7if;aygif;
pyfrdoGm;.// cspfolESpfOD;.vdyf^ymESpfcku ykdIa0;uGm
aomrkd;aumif;uiftxufqDokdh wa@Gha@GhwufoGm;ju
avonf//
ukdbvSarmfonf
y,if;cifwkdh0dnmOfaysmufuG,f
oGm;7mokdhrsufpdwqkH;ar#mfjunfh7if; vGrf;qGwfajuuGJI
usefcJhavonf//
ol bmvky7f rvJ//
olhtwGuf vdy^f yme,frmS tcsdeu
f ek fviG hf arsm
aevdkhvJt"dg,fr7Sdawmh// olar#mfvifh7SmazGcJhonfh7w
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edrfhcJh7^yD//
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

144

a qm if ; vk v if
y,if;cifuvnf; olbmvkyfvkyf *@krpdkufyg[k
pdrfac:oGm;cJh.//
olhtwGuf aumif;uifxJrSm vdyf^ymwpfaumif
t^zpfvGifharsmae7eft"dg,fr7Sdygavawmh//
olu tdrf^yef7efqkH;^zwfvdkufum r@$ifaom
ESvkH;^zifh rlvcE<m7Sd7mokdh wa@Gha@GhysHoef;ckd0ifcJhawmh
onf//

ukdbvSarmf^yefvnfEkd;xvmonfhtcsdefwGif t
csdefrSwfza,mif;wkdifjuD;yifawmufavmifqJ7Sd.//
olu yufvufvJavsmif;ae7mrS ^iifompGmx
vdkufonf//
tdyf7mab;7Sdtif;uGufrsm;ukd reif;rdatmift
omausmfI xGufvdkufonf//
olonf vdyf^yme,fwGif y,if;cif.vdyf^ymESifh
ta^ctwifa^ymqkd^iif;ckefcJhonfrsm;ukd^yefawG;7if; pdwf
awGa,muf,ufcwfae7onf//
onftwkid ;f qkv
d #if y,if;cifonf rlvcE<m
ukdarhavsmhaeaom0dnmOfwpfaumifr[kwfawmhay// ol
ronfy,if;cift^zpf
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v#uf/ ododjuD;ESifhyif vdyf^yme,frSmcspfolwpfa,muf
xm;aomrdef;uav;^zpfaeonf//
armif^zdK;zufrS rcHcsif^zpfrdovkd/ y,if;cif.
pdwfxm;ukdvnf; thHjordayonf//
okdhaomf- olonf y,if;cifukdrkef;vdkhr7ay//
vlom;rdef;rwpfa,mufukdrS rcspfcJhzl;/7nf;pm;yifrxm;
cJhzl;aom olonf 0dnmOftaeESifhqkH7aomrdef;uav;
ukdrS tonf;pGJcspfaerd.// tcspfqkdwmqef;ju,fvScsnf
vm;//
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

145

a qm if ; vk v if
uHqkd;csifawmh xkdrdef;uav;onf olhtay:rSm
aus;Zl;7Sdaomrdom;pkxJu a0^zdK;aomfESifhywfoufae
ao;onf//
olonf y,if;ciftajumif;ukd armif^zdK;od
atmif^yefa^ym7aumif;rvm;/ Oy=m^yK7aumif;rvm;
ta^z7Smr7^zpfae.//
y,if;cifukda7m olpGefhv$wfEkdif7Jhvm;[k olhES
vkH;om;ol ^yefar;junhfonhftcg rpGefhv$wfEkdifqkdwJh
ta^zomxGuaf vonf//
tkd ,if;cifukd,fwkdifu opPmrwnfwJhrdef;u
av;yJ// tcspfeJhppfrSm rw7m;wmr7Sdbl;wJh// ESvkH;om;
tvdkudk olvdkufavsmvdkufawmhrnf// y,if;cifESifhb,f
vdkb0rsdK;rSm^zpfap aygi;fEdkifatmifoljudK;pm;awmhrnf//
ukd,fhukdcGifhv$wfygarmif^zdK;7,f//
olu qkH;^zwfcsufukdcdkifckdifrmrmcsvdkufav.//

vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

146

a qm if ; vk v if

g
aemufwpfaeh paeaehrSmyif olhqkH;^zwfcsufukd
taumiftxnfazmfvdkufawmhonf//
olonf armif^zdK;ESifhvufzuf7nfqkdifukdtwl
oGm;vdkufao;onf//
armif^zdK;ukd olucsnf; pum;awGazmifavmuf
atmifa^ymaevdkuf.// rsufvSnfhynmtajumif;/pdwfnSdKh
ynmtajumif; armif^zdK;pdwf0ifpm;atmif olusGrf;usif
onfhtajumif;rsm;ukd pDumywfukH;a^ym^yaecJhonf//
vufzuf7nfqkdifrS pcJhaompum;0kdif;rSm t^yef
vrf;txdr^ywfao;acs// olua^ymol/ armif^zdK;u em;
axmifol//
armif^zdK;.tm@kHtm;vkH; olhpum;xJ pl;pkdufpdwf
0ifpm;vmonhftcg olu olhvkyfief;ukdpavawmh.//
armif^zdK;
cifAsm;
'Daeh[mpaeaehqkdawmh rif;@kH;tm;wJhaehyJ/
rif;[m wpf@kH;vkH;ukd kyfcsKyf7wJhvlqkdawmh @kH;zGifh7uf
awGrSm pdwfa7mukd,fa7m em;r7bl;/ 'Dawmh 'Daehvdk
@kH;ydwf7ufrsdK;rSm at;at;aq;aq;tdyf^yD; em;,loifh
w,f
armif^zdK;u olhukd ^yL;ajumifaomrsufvkH;rsm;
^zifh^yefjunfhaeonf//
armif^zdK;onf ol.ndSKhcsufwGifrdoGm;av^yD//
olu ol.pdwfndSKhynmukd tpGrf;ukeftokH;cs
vdkufonf//
armif^zdK;/ rif;tdyf7r,f
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

147

a qm if ; vk v if
armif^zdK;onf olhukdjunhf7if; rsufvkH;rsm;arS;
pif;vmonf//
rif;tdyf7r,f/ rif;tdyf7may:oGm;^yD; wpfaeh
vkH;EspfESpfcsdKufcsdKuftdyfae7r,farmif^zdK;/ x-x- rif;
cef;xJukdoGm;
armif^zdK;u tdyfrufrSa,mifIvrf;av#mufol
vkd xkdifae7mrS ',D;',dkfifx7yfvdkufonf//
oGm;-oGm;- rif;tcef;xJukdoGm;
armif^zdK; pdwftm@kHysufroGm;ap7ef olu
armif^zdK;a7ShrSaeI aemuf^yeftaetxm;vrf;av#muf
um armif^zdK;ukdtdyfcef;qDndSKhI ac:cJhavonf// yg;pyf
rSvnf; r^ywfwef;trdefhay;ae.//
rif;tdyfcsifae^yD/ vmvdkufcJh
armif^zdK;onf tcef;xJa7mufonftxd olhukd
7Da0aomrsufvkH;rsm;^zifhjunfh7if; ygvm.//
[kwf^yD/ rif;odyftdyfcsifae^yD/ rif;ukwifay:
wuf/ tdyf7may:vSJvkdufarmif^zdK;
armif^zdK;u olhtrdefhtwkdif;emcHpGmvkdufvkyfae
.//
ukwifay: yufvufvSefvSJcsvdkufaom armif
^zdK;ukd oluvufndSK;^zifhxkd;7if; qufItrdefhay;onf//
junfhprf;/ igh a[m'DvufndSK;ukdjunhfprf;/
junhfae/junfhae/ [kwf^yD/ rif;tdyfcsifae^yD/ tdyfaysmf
awmhr,f/ tdyfypfvdkuf/ tdyfypfvdu
k /f ESpEf pS cf sdKufcsdKuf
tdyfypfvdkufprf;
olhvufndSK;ukdpkdufjunhfaeaom
armif^zdK;.
rsufvkH;rsm;onf arS;pif;vmum av;vHydusvmaom
rsufcGH.tm;ukd rwGef;vSefEkdifawmhay//
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

148

a qm if ; vk v if
[kwf^yD/ rif;tdyfcsifae^yD/ rsufpdrSdwf/ rsufpd
rSdwf/ rsufpdukdrSdwfvdkuf
armif^zdK;rsufvkH;rsm;ydwfoGm;av^yD//
tdyf/ tdyf/ tdyf/ pdwfcsvufcstdyf
olu ab;rSqufIa^ymay;aeonf//
tdyfawmh/ tdyfawmh/ ESpfESpfcsdKufcsdKuftdyf
vkdufawmharmif^zdK;
uav;wpfa,mufukd acsmhodyfovdkrsdK; ^znf;
nSif;nifompGma^ymay;aevdkufonfhtcg armif^zdK;onf
ESpfESpfcsdKufcsdKuftdyfaysmf^cif;t^zpfokdhqkdufa7mufoGm;av
.//
olu aocsmatmif ukwifab;rSrvSKyfr,Suf
7yfjunfhaeao;onf//
armif^zdK;um; wu,fyiftdyfaysmfoGm;av^yD//
c%aeawmh tdyfarmusolwkdhxkH;pHtwkdif; yg;
pyf[vmum yg;pyfESifhygtouf@SL7if; ttdyfumYepf
arsmoGm;avonf//
ukb
d vSarmfu ^cifaxmifut
dk omt,mcsI
tem;prsm;ukdtdyf7matmufokdhoGif;ay;vdkufonf//
'DykH
twkdif;qkd tenf;qkH;okHem7Davmuf tdyfarmusaeay
vdrfhrnf//
ukdbvSarmfu pma7;pm;yGJay:rS pma7;puUL
u'fukd,lI pmwpfapmift^refa7;vdkuf.//
pmukdacgufI y,if;"mwfykHwifxm;onhfpm;yGJ
av;ay:wGif "mwfykHrSefabmifESifhzdxm;vdkufonf//
xkdhaemufwGifawmh
oluvdktyfonfrsm;ukd
oGufvufpGmyifvSKyf7Sm;vdkufyg.//

vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

149

a qm if ; vk v if
bk7m;cef;xJrS ol.tif;uGufrsm;udkodrf;onf//
vdyf^ymv$ifh7mwGifokH;onfh ypPnf;ypP,tm;vkH;ukd yg
atmif*@kpdkufum om;a7tdwfxJxnfhvdkufonf//
t0wftpm;rsm;ukdawmh wef;ay:wGifvSrf;xm;
aomzGwf^yD; t0wfESpfpkHukdyJ uref;uwef;xnhf,lcJh
awmhonf//
ol 'DtdrfrScGmawmhrnf//
ukdbvSarmfu a0^zKd;aomftdyfaysmfaeonfht
cef;xJokdh vSrf;Ijunhfvdkufonf// armif^zdK;u ESpfESpf
csdKufcsdKuftdyfaysmfae7m ukd,fukdvl;vGefhI wpfzufokdh
yifapmif;vdkufao;onf//
ukd,fhukd cGifhv$wfaywmharmif^zdK;a7//
olu tdrfa7ShokdhxGufcJhum wkdifwGifcsdwfxm;
aomum;aomhukd ^zKwfvdkufonf//
qufwDpm;yGJay:wifxm;onfh armif^zdK;.[Jef;
zkef;av;ukd^rifrSowd7um zkef;cvkwfukdydwfypfcJhvdkuf
onf// rawmfwq wpfae7mrS zkef;ac:ygu zkef;^rnf
oHajumifh armif^zdK;Ekd;oGm;Ekdifygonf// cvkwfukdydwfypfcJh
awmh pdwfcsoGm;7.//
ol.qkdifu,fukd tdrfxJokdhoGif;xm;cJhvdkufonf/
tdrfwcg;rjuD;ukd twGif;*sufcsIydwfay;xm;cJh
vdkufonf// armif^zdK;Ekd;v#if twGif;rSwcg;ukd tvG,f
wulzGifhEkdifonf// t^yifrSvluawmh aomh7SdrSzGifh0ifEkdif
ayrnf//
ukdbvSarmfonf olhypPnf;rsm;ukd um;aemuf
tzkH;ukdzGifhIxnfh^yD; aomhcwfvdkufonf//
um;pufukdESdK;junhfonfhtcg qD*dwfu qDt
^ynfheD;yg;7SdaeonfhtrSwftom;^yaeI pdwfajueyfoGm;
7onf//
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

150

a qm if ; vk v if
olonfaemufqkH;tae^zifh tdrfuav;ukd ESKwf
qufjunhfjunfhum a0^zdK;aomf.um;ukdtykdifpD;armif;
ESif7if; tdrf;0if;xJrS xGufcGmcJhavawmhonf//

g
ukdbvSarmfarmif;vmonhfum;uav; y,if;
wkdhtdrfa7Sha7mufonhftcsdefwGif eHeuf11em7D7Sday^yD//
y,if;u tdrfa7Sha7wGif;uav;wGift0wfrsm;
zGwf7ef qyf^ym7nfpdrfxm;aomt0wfZvkHkukdykdufIxGuf
vmonf//
ukd^zdK;.um;av; tdrfa7Sh 7yfvdkufwmawGh^yD;
um;ay:rS ukdbvSarmfqif;vmonfukd^rifvdkuf7onfht
cg y,if;thHtm;oifhoGm;rdavonf//
ukdbvSarmfu cyfwnfwnfyif ^cHxJ0ifvmcJh
onf// olu ta7;wjuD;toGifrsdK; [efvkyfxm;.//
a[m- ry,if;cif
ukdbvSarmfygvm;
armif^zdK;aeraumif;vdkhvmac:wmyg ry
,if;cif
7Sif
y,if;cifu pdk;7drfxdwfvefhoGm;rdonf//
ukd,fhcspfolaeraumif;bl;jum;7@kHESifh ysmoGm;7
onfrSm rdef;rom;obm0^zpfavonf// pkd;7drfpdwf^zifh
a7ShaemufrpOf;pm;cJhrd^cif;u
trSm;wpfck^zpfajumif;
aemifrS y,if;od7awmhonf//
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

151

a qm if ; vk v if
b,fvkd^zpf7wmvJ/ raehunaetxd t
aumif;juD;yg
nu vufzuf7nfqkdifxGufxdkifwm rdk;csKyf
oGm;vdkh tat;rdoGm;wmxifyg7Jh/ ry,if;cifukda^ymckdif;
vdkufvkdh usGefawmfvma^ymwm
y,if;wpfcgxJvdkufcJhr,f/ c%aemf
y,if;u t0wfZvkHukda7wGif;abmifab;wGif
cscJhum tdrfxJ0ifoGm;onf// uref;uwef;t0wftpm;
vJI^yefxGufvmonf//
onfvdkusawmvnf; armif^zdK;twGufpkd;7drf7Sm
om;ygvm;// nu olESifhrkd;aumif;uifay:wGif ta^c
twifpum;rsm;cJhwm olr[kwfoa,mifyif// [efaqmif
aumif;vScsnfvm;y,if;cif7,f//
'grSr[kwf- y,if;cift^zpfeJh 0dnmOfv$ifhb0
ukd wu,frrSwfrdawmhwmvm;//
y,if;cifu a7Shcef;wcg;ukdzGifhI um;ay:wuf
xkdifvkdufonf//
ukdbvSarmf armif;olae7m0ifxkdifum um;ukd
armif;xGufcJhonf//
um;ukd12vrf;twkdif;ta7Shzufvm/ usKH;vrf;r
ukdcsdK;/ eef;a7Sht7yfzufxyfcsdK;^yD;/ 62vrf;twkdif;
armif;vmonftxd y,if;bmrSoHo,r0ifao;// onf
vrf;onf ukd^zdK;tdrf7Sd7m^rdKhopftdrfokdhoGm;onfhvrf;yif
^zpfonf//
ukdbvSarmfu um;ukd^yifOD;vGiftxd t^yif;
armif;oGm;^yD; y,if;ukdckd;,loGm;7efjuH^cif;^zpfygonf//
olu odHvrf;ta7mufwGif b,fzufokdhcsdK;um
wnfhwnfhjuD;armif;vmcJhonf//

vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

152

a qm if ; vk v if
a0^zdK;aomftdrf7Sd7mvrf;csdK;ukdvGefI armif;vm
onfhtcg y,if;uowday;vdkufonf//
auGh7rSmavukb
d vSarmf
a7ShrSm "mwfqDoGm;wnhfrvkhd
ukd^zdK;aeraumif;^zpfaeygw,fqkdrS
"mwfqD
xnfhzkdhta7;juD;aewJhukdbvSarmfukd
y,if;pdwfxJu
rsufoGm;rdonf// bmrSawmh ^yefra^ymawmhyJ vdkufvm
cJhonf// "mwfqDqkdifawGa7Shem;rSm wef;pDv#uf7Sdonf//
ukdbvSarmfu vDAmukdzdeif;vdkufum um;ukd
t7Sdef^rSifhvdkufonf//
bdk;bdk;juD;ewfeef;tausmfwGif vrf;opfazmuf
um ESpfvrf;oGm;vkyfay;xm;onfrdkh um;rsm;vGwfvyf
pGmoGm;vmEkdifygonf// rsufESmcsif;qkdifum;ukda7Smifp7mr
vdkawmh//
ukdbvSarmf.um;av;onf
a7ShrSum;rsm;ukd
wpfpD;^yD;wpfpD;ausmfwufcJh.// "mwfqDqkdifrsm;ukdvnf;
ausmfvGefIvmcJhavonf//
qDu b,fqkdifrSmxnfhrSmvJ ukdbvSarmf
ukdbvSarmfu y,if;tar;ukd^yefra^zay//um;
ukdomzdarmif;ae.//
y,if;oHo,0ifvmum qD*dwft0kdif;av;ukd
vSrf;junhfvdkufonf// qDt^ynfheD;yg;7Sdajumif; ^rm;t
rSwftom;^yv#uf7Sd.//
ukdbvSarmf/ 7Sifb,foGm;rvdkhvJ/ um;xJrSm
qD7Sdom;yJ
ukdbvSarmfu bmrS^yefra^ym// ^yKH;v#ufum;
ukdomqufarmif;aeavonf//
ukdbvSarmf/7SifbmvkyfwmvJ/ um;ukd7yfyg/
^yefvSnfhyg
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

153

a qm if ; vk v if
ukdbvSarmfu y,if;7Sd7mokdh apGIjunhfvdkuf
um wpfvkH;csif;a^ymvdkufonf//
udk,f rif;ukdcdk;vmwmy,if;cif
bm
rif;ukd ukd,fac:vmcJh^yD/ rif;7Jh0dnmOfukda7m/
vlcE<mukd,fukdyg ukd,fyJykdifap7r,fy,if;cif
trav;/ 7SifbmawGa^ymaewmvJ/ 7SifeJh
usGefr bmqkdifvdkhvJ
qkdifygaomfaumy,if;cif/ rif;ukdvlukd,fwkdif
rawGh7cifuwnf;u
vdyf^ymv$ifh7if;cspfa7;qkdxm;wJhol yJ/ qkdifwmaygh/
rif;7Jhvdyf^ymcspfol[mvJ ukd,fhaemufrS awGhwJholyg
r[kwfzl;/ 7SifrSm;ae^yD
r7awmhbl; y,if;cif/ ukd,fqkH;^zwf^yD;^yD/
wu,fawmh ukd,fwkdhESpfa,muf[m vdyf^ymv$ifhEkdifol
tcsif;csif;vnf;^zpfw,f/ ukd,f[m armif^zdK;xufykd^yD;
rif;eJhvdkufzufwJhzl;pm7Sifyg
ukdbvSarmf/7Sifa^ymwmawG wpfckrSr[kwfzl;/
7yf/ 7yf/ um;ukd7yfyg
ukdbvSarmfu acgif;ukd cg7rf;^yvdkufonf// w
ZGwfxkd;vkyfawmhr,fhykH//
y,if;pOf;pm;7yg^yD// y,if;tzkdh t^zpfrSefawG
tm;vkH;ukdzGifha^ymzkdh tcsdefusvmyg^yD//
okdh7mwGif ukdbvSarmfonf y,if;pum;ukd
vG,fvG,fESifhvufcHvdrfhrnfr[kwf//
y,if;onf rkdufrkdufrJrJyif pGefhpm;um rxif
rSwfaomt^yKtrlwpfckukd @kwfw7ufvsif^refpGmvkyfcs
vdkufonf//
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

154

a qm if ; vk v if
olrESifhukdbvSarmfjum;7Sd *D,mtkHrS *D,mwHukd
eHygwfESpfokdhcsdef;ypfvdkufum um;pwD,m7ifukdnmzuf
okdhtwif;wGef;vSnfhypfvdkuf^cif;^zpfonf//
um;onf a7Shohdk w7Sed x
f ;dk wnfhwnfha^y;ae7m
rS vrf;.nmzufokdhacsmfxGufoGm;avonf// um;u
vrf;ab;a^r^yefhokdhapmif;v#uf qif;oGm;um a7ShrSopf
yifjuD;qDokdhOD;wnfoGm;aeyg.//
[if- rif;- rif;- bmvkyfvdkufwmvJ
udkbvSarmfonf tvefhwjum;atmf7if; um;
b7dwfukdaqmifheif;vdkuf7onf//
um;u opfyifjuD;qDohdk OD;wnfa^y;ae.//
tm;
y,if;u ajumufvefhwjum;^zifh pl;pl;0g;0g;
atmfvdkufonf//
ukdbvSarmf tcsdefrDb7dwfeif;vdkufEkdifI um;
onfopfyifESifhvufwpfurf;tuGmrSm 7yfoGm;onf//
rif;- rkdufvScsnfvm;/ uHaumif;vdkhy,if;
cif7,f
y,if;u ajumufvefhwjum;^zifhrsufESmudkuG,f
xm;onfhvufz0g;Espfzufudk z,fvdkuo
f nf// um;onf
opfyifa7ShwnfhwnfhwGif7yfv#uf//
y,if;u owd0ifvmum um;wcg;ukdzGifhI
qif;vdkufonf//
a[h- y,if;cif
udkbvSarmfonf olhzufrS um;wcg;ukdzGifhqif;
7if; y,if;ukdvSrf;atmfvdkufonf//
y,if;cif / ra^y;eJh
ukdbvSarmf. joZmygaomtoHajumifh y,if;
wkHhueJajumifI7yfoGm;onf//
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

155

a qm if ; vk v if
y,if;cif / rif; ighrsufvkH;ukdjunhfprf;
y,if;cif / rif; ighrsufvkH;ukdjunhfprf;
ukdbvSarmf olrukd pdwfndSKhawmhr,fqkdwmod
vdkufonf//
y,if;u rsufvkH;ukdpkHrSdwfxm;vdkufonf//rcHbl;/
rcHbl;/ igpdwfndSKhrcHbl;//
y,if;cif / rif;ighukdjunhfprf;
ukdbvSarmf/ 7Sif usGefrukdpdwfndSKhzkdhrjudK;pm;
eJh/ usGefra^ymwmukd7Sifem;axmifOD;/ 7SifeJhvdyf^ymv$ifh
7if;awGhwJhrdef;uav;[m usGefrr[kwfzl;/ usGefrr[kwf
zl;7Sihf
olru rsufv;Hk ukpd Hkrw
dS f7if;atmfypfvdkufonf//
rif;nmwm
usGefrrnmbl;/ 7Sifaocsmem;axmifyg/ 7SifeJh
awGhwm usGefrnDryJ
bm
ol[m usGefrnDr
rif;rSm nDtpfrrSr7SdyJ / igod^yD;^yD
7Sdw,f/ ol[musGefrnDr/ emrnfuovif;cif
'gayr,fh ol[mvlr[kwfzl;
bm
ovif;cif[m vltppfr[kwfzl;/ vla^cmuf
7Sihf / vla^cmuf ovif;cif[m vltppfr[kwzf ;l /
vla^cmuf 7Sifh/ vla^cmuf


vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

156

a qm if ; vk v if

g
aersdK;aZmfpD;vmaom '*kHref;7xm;onf rEW
av;blwmokdh aemufusrSqkdufvmyg.// rEWav;blwm
a7mufawmh aehvnf12em7D7Sdae^yD//
t7SdefaovkqJ7xm;ay:rSacgif;^yLum vmjudK
rnfhnD^zpfola0^zdK;aomfukd aersdK;aZmf7Smjunhfao;onf//
7xm;ay:rS olqif;vm^yD; blwmxJrSmvlusJ
oGm;onfxd a0^zdK;aomfukd7Smaomfvnf; rawGhEkdifacs//
raehunmaeykdif; 7efukefblwmjuD;rSaeI '*kef-ref;7
xm;Esifholvdkufvm^yD^zpfajumif; a0^zdK;aomfukdzkef;quf
tajumif;jum;cJhao;onf//
a0^zdK;aomfukd,fwkdif@kH;rS
zkef;vufcHpum;a^ymcJhyg.// blwmrSmvmjudKaernf[k
vnf;a^ymcJhonf//
olu aomjumaehnaerSm 7efukefrSxGufvm
7m rEWav;a7mufaeonfh Tpaeaehonf a0^zdK;
aomf@kH;tm;7uf^zpfyg.// bmvkdhvmrjudKygvdrfh//
7xm;aemufusvdkhrsm; wpfae7m7mxGufoGm;o
vm;[kawG;rdum blwma7ShwGif7yfapmifhaeao;onf//
onfaeh rEWav;rSm nDtpfukdESpfa,mufqkHju
^yD; reufzefwe*FaEGaehrSm rdwWDvmukda0^zdK;aomf.um;
ESifhoGm;jurnf^zpfonf//
arrsdK;armf.om;rsm;7Sif^yKrSm
reufzefwGif rdwWDvmYvkyfrnf^zpf.//

vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

157

a qm if ; vk v if
aersdK;aZmfonf apmifhae7wmpdwfr7SnfawmhyJ
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ygwfukdac:junfhvdkufonf// wpfzufrS^yefrxl;ygay//
aersdK;aZmfonfapmifhraeawmhyJ wufpDwpf
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g
rif; bma^ymvdkufw,fy,if;cif
usGefrrSm vla^cmufnDrwpfa,muf7Sdw,f/
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vSKyf7Sm;juw,fukdbvSarmf/ olwkdh[m tarehJyJquf
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ovif;cifeJh7SifeJhvdyf^ymv$ifh7if;awGhjuwmukd usGefrod
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^yw,f/ taruusGefrukd^yefa^ym^yvdkh usGefrodxm;^yD;
yg^yDukdbvSarmf
rif; wu,fa^ymaewmvm;y,if;cif
7Sif,kHatmifusGefroufao^yyghr,f/ ovif;
cif7hJcspfolqkdwmvJ olhvdkyv
J la^cmufygukdbvSarmf/olwkdh
vla^cmuftcsif;csif;arwWmr#wJhtxJrSm 7Sifuoufouf
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vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

158

a qm if ; vk v if
ukd,fu 0dnmOftaeeJhyJ^rif7wmukd;/ b,fuGJ
^ym;rvJy,if;cif/ 'gayr,fh- ol[m rif;eJhodyfwlw,f
nDtpfrukd;7Sifh/ usGefruawmh ovif;cifukd
wpfcgrSr^rifzl;ygbl;/ tareJhuawmhtdyfrufxJrSmquf
oG,fvkdh7w,fav/taruvnf; ovif;cif[musGefreJh
odyfwlwJhtajumif; c%c%a^ymw,f
olu y,if;cif[ek mrnfwyfac:vku
d o
f nfht
csdefwGif [m;wkduf7,farmcJhaom 0dnmOfrdef;uav;
omefukd ^yef^rifa,mifvmrdonf//
rif;a^ymwmawG[m trSefawGygaemf
ukdbvSarmfu Za0Z0g^zifh ar;vdkufonf//
usGefroufao^yr,f/ usGefrnDrovif;cif
vla^cmufuav;ukd 7Sifhukd^yygr,f/ um;ay:wufyg/
um;aemufcef;uwufygukdbvSarmf/ um;ukdusGefrarmif;
r,f/ 7Sif ^idrf^idrfqdrfqdrfvdkufcJhyg/ usGefrukd pdwfndSKhzkdh
rjudK;pm;ygeJh

vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

159

a qm if ; vk v if

g
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tdrftaetxm;ukd^rifvdkuf7I pdwfxJrSmwpfrsdK;juD;^zpf
oGm;onf//
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um;*kda'gifwcg;rSmvnf; yGifhaeum wkduftdrf
av;ukdawmh wcg;ydwfxm;ygonf// a0^zdK;aomfonf
t^yifxGuftoGm;rSm ^cHwcg;ESifh*kda'gifwcg;ukdrydwfcJhbl;
vm;// olhnDav;onf earmferJhEkdifaomvli,fwpf
a,mufr[kwfyg//
aersdK;aZmfu um;c7Sif;ay;^yD; wufpDay:rS
qif;cJhonf//
yGifhaeaom^cH0if;wcg;rS tdrfxJ0ifcJh.//
wkduftdrfwcg;rSm twGif;xJrSydwfxm;wmawGh7
.//
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armfvm;//
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f kduo
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f rJ mS xifhueJ ^zpfomG ;onf//
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160
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

a qm if ; vk v if
olodonf// 'Daumifu olhtwGufomjunhfwwfonfh
twWorm; / ^yD;awmh- *D7ynm7Sif // bvSarmfonf
cifvJcifp7maumif;I/ csOfvJcsOfp7maumif;aom ol
i,fcsif;rsdK;^zpfygonf//
olonf tdrfxJukdvSrf;ac:r7I tdrfab;rSywf
umav#mufcJhonf//
a0^zdK;aomftcef;7Sdonfhzufta7mufwGif rSefw
cg;rStwGif;zufokdh acsmif;junhfvdkuf.//
a0^zdK;aomfukwifwGif ^cifaxmifcsxm;onf//
olurSefcsyfem;uyf^yD; aocsmacsmif;junhfvdkuf
onfhtcg
ukwifay:wGiftdyfaysmfaeaom a0^zdK;aomfukd
awGh7avawmhonf//
nD/ nD/ nDav;
olu wcg;em; yg;pyf^zifhuyfumac:junfhonf
nDav;/ armif^zdK;/ nD
armif^zdK;u rjum;ygacs//
'g ykHrSefr[kwf//
tcsdefu aehvnfcif;12em7Dausmf// tdyfcsdefr
[kwf// a0^zdK;aomfonf aehvnfaehcif;tdyfwwfolvJ
r[kwfay//
aersdK;aZmfonf nDtwGufpdwfyloGm;umtem;
7SdcJvkH;wpfvkH;ukdaumuf,lvdkufonf//
rSef^ywif;wcg;ukd cJ^zifhxkvdkufonfhtcg rSef
uGJoGm;avonf//


vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

161

a qm if ; vk v if

g
y,if;cifu tcef;usOf;av;xJwGif olhtwGuf
ae7moyfoyfvkyfay;xm;aom vla^cmufuav;ukd,lI
t^yifxu
G v
f monf//
wpfxGmcefh7Sd vlykHomeftwdkif; a^cvuft*Fg
tpkHygaom vla^cmufuav;ukd ukdbvSarmfvufxJ
wnfhvdkufonf//
tJ'g usGefrnDrovif;cifygyJ ukdbvSarmf
ukdbvSarmfonf vla^cmufrav;ukd vuf0g;
ESpfzufay:wif7if; thHjopdwf^zifhvufrsm;wqwfqwf
wkefvmonf//
vla^cmufuav;ukd olht@G,ftpm;twkdif; t
0wftpm;csKyfvkyf0wfqifay;xm;yg.// vla^cmufrav;
.ukd,fay:wGif avmavmq,f0wfqifxm;aomt0wf
tpm;rSm raehnu olESifhvdyf^ymumwGifawGhcJhpOfu
t0wftpm;twkdif;^zpfonf// xkd0wfpkHonf y,if;cif
ol.rsufvSnfhyGJvmjunhfpOfu 0wfcJhonhf0wfpkHESifhtm;
vkH;wlnDaeyg.//
'g- 'g- tdyfrufr[kwfygbl;aemf/ t0wft
pm;utpwlaeawmh ukd,fu rif;vdkhyJxifcJhrdwmaygh
y,if;cif7,f
usGefr 0wfpkHtopfwpfpkHcsKyfwkdif; olhukdvJ
csKyfay;w,f/usGefrwkdhrsuf^rifrSm ol[mtoufr7SdwJhcE<m
ukd,fta^cmufuav;^zpfayr,fh olhrSm0dnmOf7Sdygw,fukd
bvSarmf/ ol[m tareJhqufoG,fEkdifw,f/ tdyfrufxJ
rSmtareJhpum;a^ymEkdifw,f/ olhvdyf^ym[m oleJhb0wl
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

162

a qm if ; vk v if
awG7SdwJh vdyf^ym0dnmOfe,frSm vlwpfa,mufvdkoGm;vm
vSKyf7Sm;Ekdifwmukdwmh ukdbvSarmfvufawGhyJ/ 7SifuusGef
rxufykdodygw,fav
ukdbvSarmfu vufz0g;ay:rS vla^cmufu
av;ukdr7Jw7JikHhjunhfvkdufonf//
vla^cmufrav;onf
wu,fhvlrsm;twkdif;
acgif;/ a^cvuft*FgtpkHESifh vufrsm;a^crsm;wGifvnf;
vufacsmif;a^cacsmif;ig;acsmif;pDtpkHtvifESifh^zpf@kHru
vufonf;av;rsm;yif 7Sdaeygao;onf// acgif;wGifvJ
qHyifcyfusJusJtcsdKh7Sdaeyg.//
olr.tajumrsm;ukd yg;v$maomta7^ym;tm;
azmufI^rifae7yg.//
xkdpOf bk7m;cef;xJrS a':wifwifjuD;xGuf
vmonf//
a':wifwifjuD;u
ukdbvSarmfukdjunhfIar;
vdkufonf//
olu b,folvJorD;
ukdbvSarmfqkdwm olayghtar/ ovif;cif
ukdvdkufaESmuf,Sufw,fqkdwJh vdyf^ymawavjuD;[mol
ygyJ
tkd
olu vdy^f ymv$ihf 7if;awGhchJ whJ ovif;cifudk
orD;vdkhxifaew,ftar/ orD;u ovif;cifukd^y^yD;
orD;r[kwfwJhtajumif;7Sif;^yaewmyg
ajomf rif;ukd;
a':wifwifjuD;u ukdbvSarmfukda^cqkH;acgif;
qk;H junfhvdkufonf//
wkdhrsm;orD;av;[m vla^cmufrav;yguG,f/
vlom;eJhaygif;zufvdkhr7Ekdifygbl;/ armif7ifhtajumif;ukd
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

163

a qm if ; vk v if
orD;av;u ta':hukda^ym^yygw,f/ olhrSm olwkdhvdkvl
a^cmufcsif; b0wlcspfolawGhoGm;^yDuGJh/ nu tdyfruf
ay;7if;a^ymoGm;w,f/ olhcspfolaumifav;7JhrdbawG r
jumcifvm^yD;awmif;7rf;juvdrfhr,f
Asm
armif7if thHjoaeovm;
wu,fukdthHjordygw,fta':7,f
tif; orD;wkdhvdkvla^cmufawG[m 7Sm;yg;
vGef;awmh thHjop7m^zpf7wmayghuG,f/ wu,fawmh
olwkdh[m cE<mukd,frzGHhxGm;ratmif^rifvdkh toufeJh,SOf
wGJ^yD; vl^zpfrvm7ayr,fh 0dnmOf7SdwJhvlom;awGyg/
rdbaqGrsdK;om;csif;awGukd aumif;usdK;ay;wJhuav;awG
yguG,f

orD;y,if;cifukdarG;^yD;2ESpftjumwGif a':
wifwifjuD;Y aemufxyfukd,f0ef7SdvmcJhonf//
ukd,f0efonf wpwp 7ifhvmcJhaomfvnf;
7-vt@G,frSpI
ukd,f0efrSmqufIrjuD;awmhonfht
^yif csyfI-csyfIoGm;avonf// aehaphvaphtcsdef7Sd
onfhtcg ukd,f0efaqmifwpfOD;ESifhyifrwlawmhyJ om
refAdkuftwkdif;om7Sdaeawmhonf//
okdhaomf- tcsdefusonfhtcg a':wifwifjuD;
onfuav;i,fukdarG;zGm;vmcJhyg.//
uav;utoufygrvm// udk,fvuft*Fgawmh
pkHygonf// rdef;uav;^zpfonf// wpfxGmcefhr#omt@G,f7Sd
yg.//

vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

164

a qm if ; vk v if
tawGhtjuKH7Sdaom
t7yfxJrSvljuD;rsm;u
uav;taoarG;^cif;r[kwf/ vla^cmufarG;^cif;^zpfonf
[ka^ymjuonf//
a':wifwifjuD;onf toufrygyJao;i,fae
onfrSty ykyfokd;aqG;a^rhroGm;aomuav;i,f.cE<m
ukd,fukd oHa,mZOfwG,fum rypf7ufyJ7Sdav.// ukd,fh
7ifaoG;rkdh orD;wpfa,mufvdkhyJrSwf,laecJh.//vla^cmuf
arG;onfqkdonfh vltrsm;ta^ymukdvnf; ,kHjunfaecJh
.//
vla^cmufrsm;onf
rdbrsm;ukdaumif;usdK;ay;
wwfajumif;/ vla^cmufarG;v#if juD;yGm;csrf;omwwf
ajumif; jum;zl;em;07Sdxm;I tusdK;ay;vdrfhrnf[kvJ
ar#mfvifhaerdonf//
aq;ynmt7qkdygrl
vla^cmufukd
Fetus
padyrpaceus [kac:I oaE<om;onf trd0rf;wGif;
rSmyifaoqkH;oGm;^yD; a^cmufuyfum cE<mukd,fao;auG;
oGm;^cif;^zpfonf// ratmif^rifaomoaE<om;t^zpfrSwf
,ljuyg.//
aq;rSwfwrf;rsm;t7 uav;arG;zGm;^cif;tjudrf
wpfoef;wGif wpfjudro
f m vla^cmufarG;zGm;wwfyg.//
,ckacwfwGif Fetus padyrpaceus arG;v#if
aq;@kHwGif^zpfygu csufcsif;pGefhypfjuygonf//
a':wifwifjuD;uawmh ^refrmhvlrSKtzGJtpnf;
twGif;rS t@kd;pGJaeaom,kHjunfrSKrsm;ajumifh vla^cmuf
ukdwu,fhorD;av;vdkquf^yD; xdrf;odrf;xm;cJhonf//
vla^cmufuav;.ta7^ym;rsm;rSm
yg;v$m^yD;
twGif;rS t@kd;ESifhtajumrsm;ukd^rifae7ygonf// ovif;
ausmufwpfckozG,fazmuf^rifae7ygI ovif;cif
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

165

a qm if ; vk v if
[kyifemrnfrSnfhay;vdkufonf// orD;juD;y,if;cifESifhvJ
emrnfcsif;qifwloGm;av.//

vla^cmufrsm;onf rdom;pkESifhqufoG,fonfht
cg tarrSwpfqifhqufoG,fonf// tarrSwyg; t^cm;
rnfolESifhrSrqufoG,fyg//
tarESihf qufo,
G 7f mY ntdycf sdew
f iG f rdcif^zpf
olukd tdyfrufay;Ipum;a^ymjuonfqkd.// tdyfrufxJ
rSmyif vla^cmufonf t^yifrSmtouf7Sifv#uf7SdEkdif
onfht@G,ftwkdif; wppjuD;^yif;vmjuonf[kqkdyg.//
tcsdKhvla^cmufwkdhrSm tdyfrufray;juI arG;u
wnf;u 0dnmOfygrvm^cif;^zpf[efwlonf// tdyfrufay;
Itouf7Sifajumif;od7onfhvla^cmufrsm;rSm olhuHw
7m;twkdif;touf7Snfjuavonf// tcsdKhvla^cmufwkdhrSm
6vwpfESpftouf7Snfjuonf//wcsdKhu vlysdKazmf/tysdK
azmf0ifonfxdae7onf//
rSwfwrf;pmtkyfygaqmif;yg;rsm;t7 touf42
ESpft@G,ftxd
rdbukdaq;q7mt^zpfvkyfausG;aeqJ
vla^cmufwpfO;D 7Syd gonf// vlemukd rnfohdk rnfyaHk q;uk
yg[k rdcifukdtdyfrufxJwGifn$efjum;^yD; aq;ukcdkif;^cif;
^zpfonf// tcsdKhvla^cmufrsm;u v,f,mvkyfief;^zifh/
tcsdKhu ukefonfyGJpm;t^zpf rdbukdvkyfausG;wwfju.//
v,form;t^zpfvkyfausG;aomvla^cmuf. rdb
rsm;v,frSm txl;vkyfaqmifxGef,ufp7mrvdkyJ t
xGufaumif;I oD;ESHrsm;rsm;7wwfonf// ukefonfyGJpm;
t^zpf vkyfausG;aomvla^cmufrSm b,fukefypPnf;ukd
avSmifI b,fae7mb,f^rdKhrSmoGm;a7mif;yg[k rdcifrS
wpfqifhn$efjum;wwfygonf//
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

166

ygonf//

a qm if ; vk v if
vla^cmufrsm;rSm uG,fvGefaoqkH;^cif;vnf;7Sdju

olwkdhuG,fvGefv#if aooGm;^yD^zpfajumif; rdcif


ukdtdyfrufxJwGifa^ym^yESKwfqufonf// aemufxyf tdyf
rufrrufawmh// olwdkh@kyftavmif;ukd rnfonfhae7m
wGif rnfokdhrnfykHpGefhypfyg[kvnf;rSmjum;wwfjuonf//
t@G,fa7mufvmaomvla^cmufrsm;onf tdrf7m
xlaxmif^cif;vnf;^yKjuyg.//
olwkdh.0dnmOfe,fwGif
vla^cmuftcsif;csif;awGhqkHcspfjudKufjuonf// vla^cmuf
a,musmf;av;u rdcifukd olhcspfoltm; oGm;a7muf
awmif;7rf;ay;7ef ae7yfvyd fpmtwdtusa^ym^yI ap
v$wfwwfjuonf// vla^cmufa,mufsm;av;rdbrsm;u
oGm;a7mufawmif;7rf;onfhtcg xkdtdrfwGif wu,fyif
vla^cmufrdef;uav;wpfOD; 7Sdaeajumif;awGh7wwfyg.//
a':wifwifjuD;onf
vla^cmuforD;av;ukd
aumif;usdK;ay;vdrfhrnfqkdaomar#mfvifhcsuf^zifh qufI
arG;cJhonf//
vla^cmufrav;6-vt@G,fwGif a':wifwif
juD;tm; tdyfrufxJwGif pwifqufoG,fcJhyg.//
a':wifwifjuD;.cifyGef;OD;aomif;cifu xkdudpP
rsm;udkodyft,kHtjunfr7SdcJhay// tdyfrufay;onfqkd7mY
vnf; vla^cmufrsm;^zpfavh^zpfx7Sdonfh jum;zl;em;0
pum;rsm;ukdpdwfpGJvrf;rSK^zifh xifa,mifxifrSm;^zpfae
^cif;[kom,lqcJh.//
okdh7mwGif ovif;cif2-ESpft@G,fY xDxkd;
7eftdyfrufay;a^ymjum;cJh7m xDaygufcJhavonf// o
vif;cifu b,fae7mb,fqkdifrSmxdk;yg[ktxdtusn$ef
jum;cJhonhftwkdif;xkd;cJh^cif;^zpfonf//
xkdtcsdefrSpI a':wifwifjuD;onf ovif;
cifukdouf7Sdvlom;orD;i,fozG,fxm;cJhonf// ovif;
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

167

a qm if ; vk v if
ciftwGuf tcef;wpfckaqmufvkyfay;onf// tdyf7m/uk
wify7dbm*ESifh pmjunhfpm;yGJrsm;ygaomtcef;wpfcef;
^zpfavonf// ypPnf;ud7d,mawGtm;vkH;uawmh ovif;
cift@G,fESifhvdkufzufaom ao;ao;uav;awG//
t0wftpm;qkdv#ifvnf; orD;juD;y,if;cifukd
wpfpkHcsKyfay;wkdif; ovif;ciftwGufyg wpfpkHcsKyfay;
onf//
ovif;cift@G,fa7mufvmonfhtcg tdyfruf
xJwGifawGh7onhfykHpHrSm y,if;cifESifh csGwfqGwfwlae
onf//ajomfouf7Sdomrefvlom;om^zpfv#if nDtpfr
ESpfa,mufukd tr$mvdkhyifxifjuayrnf//

ovif;cif8ESpforD;t@G,fwGif a':wifwifjuD;
ukdOykofoDvaqmufwnfzkdhESifh a,m*D0wfukdomxm07
0wfqifyg[ka^ymjum;cJhonf// ^yD; vlemrsm;ukdaq;uk
ay;zkdhvnf;wkdufwGef;cJhonf//
aq;ukoykHukoenf;rsm;ukd
ovif;cifu
tdyfrufxJrSwpfqifhn$efjum;rnf^zpfonf//
xkdtdyfrufruf^yD;aemufrSpI a':wifwifjuD;
onf OD;aomif;cifukdvifr,m;vdkrqufqHawmh// tdyf
7mcGJtdyfonf// a,m*Dt0wftpm;EsifhyJaeonf// vlem
rsm;ukdvufcHI aq;ukoay;awmhonf//
ukd,fwkdifwkduf@kdufukEkdif^cif;r[kwfyJ/ vla^cmuf
orD;.n$efjum;csuf^zifh wpfqifhuk7^cif;^zpfI raem
^zifhukonfh raemr,q7mr [kbGJhrnfcHvdkufonf//
a0'em7Sifrsm; a':wifwifjuD;. ukorSK^zihf
aysmufuif;cJhygonf// ovif;cifonf ,cifb0u
^refrmAdamq7mwpfOD;^zpfcJhavonf//
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

168

a qm if ; vk v if
pD;yGm;wufvmaomrdom;pkonf wHcGefwkdifwGif
ae7mrS a^rmuf^yifwGifa^ruGuf0,f^yD; tdrfaqmufum
a^ymif;a@$hcJhonf// ae7mopfrSvlrsm;u a':wifwifjuD;
wkdhrSm vla^cmuforD;i,f7Sdajumif;rodjuyg//
OD;aomif;cifvnf;
rlvwef;^yq7mtvkyfrS
xGufum aps;csdKxJwGifa@$qkdifzGifhEkdifcJhonf//
ovif;cifonf ,ck touf19ESpf7Sdyg^yD//
tdyfrufbkHwGif olESifhb0wlcspfolukdvnf;awGhcJh
^yD// olhcspfolarmifvlar$;rSm ^rpf0usGef;ay: [kdif;juD;
usGef;rS[kod7onf//
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umcspfjudKufcJhjuonf//
aemufwpfywfaev#if armifvlar$;.rdbrsm;
rEWav;a7mufvmum vma7mufawmif;7rf;juvdrfhrnf//
olESifholhcspfol oabmwlnD^yD;^zpfajumif; ovif;cifu
tdyfrufxJwGif a':wifwifjuD;ukda^ym^ycJhygonf//

wu,fawmh orD;av;ovif;cifwkdh[m
tdyfrufbkHom;awGyguG,f
a':wifwifjuD;u tajumif;pkHa^ym^y^yD;ukdb
vSarmfxH vufurf;vdkufonf//
ukdbvSarmfu vla^cmufuav;ukd 'g olodyf
cspf7wJhrdef;uav;tppfygvm;[k thHjopdwf^zifhikHhjunhf
^yD; a':wifwifjuD;xHvSrf;ay;vdkuf.//
a':wifwifjuD;u ovif;cifuav;ukd w,k
w,vSrf;,l7if;ayGhcsDxm;vdkufonf//
orD;av;ovif;cif[m ta':eJhtdyfrufxJ
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vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

169

a qm if ; vk v if
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ukdvnf; wkdufqkdifwmvdkh oluxifaewm/ armif7ifu
ovif;cifeJhvdyf^ymb0rSmqkHbl;w,fqkdawmh ta':h
orD;av;ovif;cifwu,f7dSajumif; oufao7oGm;wm
ayghuG,f
ovif;cif[m wu,f7ydS gw,fta':
at;av/ a[m/ rjumcif armifvlar$;7Jh
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qkd7if vla^cmufawG[m tdyfrufbkHrSm olwkdhbm0vSKyf
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vdkae7mrsdK;u 'DrEWav;a^rmuf^yifrSm vla^cmufrav;
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atm- olwkdha7mufvmjuawmhrSmukd;
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armifvlar$;eJhtdrfaxmif^yKawmhr,fwJh/ a[m'DorD;juD;
y,if;cifuvnf; 'DoDwif;usGwf7if armifa0^zdK;aomfeJh
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wpfESpfxJrSm 2-r*Fvmrvkyfaumif;bl;vkdh

vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

170

a qm if ; vk v if

g
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atmfac:vkdufonf//
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ae7mrS vl;vGefhvmonf//
aersdK;aZmfu cyf@G,f@G,fcJwpfvkH;ukdaumuf,l
um a0^zdK;aomf.^cifaxmifqDypfaygufvdkufonf//
toHrsm;ajumifh a0^zdK;aomftdyf7mrSekd;oGm;yg^yD//
a0^zdK;aomfu a,mifawmifawmifxxkdif7if;
ab;bDukdjunhfvdkufonf//
nD / armif^zdK;
[if / ukdukd
^ywif;aygufrSefuGJrsm;rS rsufESmtyfIjunhfae
aomaersdK;aZmfukd^rifvdkuf7rS a0^zdK;aomfowd0ifvm.//
ol tcsdefrawmfjuD; tdyfaysmfoGm;wmygvm;//
xpr;fnD/ ukdukdhukdwcg;zGifhay;prf;
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onf//
^ywif;wcg;qDa^y;oGm;7if;
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vdkuf.//

vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

171

a qm if ; vk v if
ukdukd/ nDhukd ukdbvSarmftdyfarGhcsoGm;wm/
nDrSwfrd^yD
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ukdukd/ nDhukdpdwfndSKh^yD;tdyfcdkif;wm
uJ- tdrfa7Shuwcg;rjuD;zGifhuGm/ 'Daumif
bm,kwfrmoGm;ovJrodbl;
[if
a0^zdK;aomfu tdrfa7Shzufa^y;oGm;um wcg;r
juD;ukdtwGif;zufrSzGifhay;vdkufonf//
aersdK;aZmftdrfxJ0ifvm.//
^cHxJrSm nDhum;r7Sdbl;nD
[if- ukdbvSarmfqkdifu,fu tdrfxJa7muf
aew,f/ nDtdyfaysmfaevdkh ukdukdhukdblwmvmjudKzkdharh
oGm;w,fukdukd
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wufpDiSm;vmcJhwm
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aumuf,jl unhv
f du
k o
f nf// cvkwyf w
d fxm;yg.//
ukdbvSarmf bmawGvkyfoGm;ygvdrfhukdudk7,f
'DaumifhrSm tjuHtpnf7Sdvdkhaygh/ oJvGefp
wpfckckvdkuf7Smprf;nD
nDtpfukdESpfa,muf bk7m;cef;xJ0if7Smawmh ukd
bvSarmfypPnf;awGr7Sdawmh//
a0^zdK;aomftcef;xJrSmvdkuf7SmrS y,if;.
"mwfykHatmufrSm
acguf7ufzdxm;aompmwpfapmifukd
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vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

172

a qm if ; vk v if
nDav; armif_zdK;
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y<if;cif[m
ukd<feJhvdyf_ymvSGifh7if;
awGhwJhrdef;uav;yJ? raehnu aocsmod vdkuf7_yD?
ukd<folhukdodyfcspfvdkh armif_zdK;tay: rSm
aus;Zl;awGuef;rdyg_yD
armif_zdK;um;ukd ukd<f<loGm;w<f?
y<if;cifukdac:_yD;
wpfae7mukd
xGufoGm;awmhr<f?
ukd<fhukdcGifhvSGwfyguGm?
vlrdkufjuD;
bvSarmf

awmuf
aersdK;aZmfxHrS
^yif;xefaomawmufacgufoH
xGufay:vmonf//
[if- uku
d dk vkyyf gOD;/ vkyyf gOD;uku
d kd7,f/ nD
bmvkyf7rvJ
a0^zdK;aomfu pdwfvSKyf7Sm;,ljuKH;r7pGm^zifh ikd
oHygvmonf//
vkduf7rSmaygh/ 'DaumifhukdawGhvdkhuawmh
trSKefhjudwfypfr,f/ uJ-nD/ olhqkdifu,feJhyJvkdufr,f/
y,if;tdrfukd t7ifoGm;ar;jupkdh


vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

173

a qm if ; vk v if

g
qkdifu,fukd olarmif;rnf/ ukd,farmifrnfESifh
t^iif;yGm;aejuao;onf//
nDodyfpdwfvSKyf7Sm;aew,f/ ukdukdarmif;cJhr,f
nD
ukdukdu7efukefrSmqkdifu,frpD;7awmh rusGrf;
rSmpkd;vkdhyg
wufprf;ygnD
aersdK;aZmfu qkdifu,fukdcGxkdif7if; t^yif;
armif;ESif7if; nDtpfukdESpfa,muftdrfrSxGufcJhonf//
vrf;xdyt
f a7muf
vrf;xJokdhcsdK;auGhvmaomum;wpfpD;ajumifh
qkdifu,fukdab;okhduyftay;rSm um;onfa0^zdK;aomf
um;^zpfaeI thHjooGm;7onf//
aersdK;aZmfu qkdifu,fukdpufoyfvdkufonf//
um;ukdarmif;vmoluy,if;/
ukdbvSarmfu um;aemufcef;wGifxkdifv#ufyg
vmonf//
a0^zdK;aomfonf qkdifu,fay:rSqif;um um;
qDa^y;oGm;vdkufonf//
y,if;u olwkdhqkdifu,fukd^rifI um;ukdvrf;
ab;okdhxkd;7yfvdkuf.//
aersdK;aZmfonf um;qDa^y;vmumum;aemuf
cef;wcg;ukdqGJzGifhvdkufonf//
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

174

a qm if ; vk v if
ukdbvSarmfukdtusaumfvmrSqGJum um;ay:rS
qGJcsvdkufonf//
vmprf;/ ,kwfrmwJhaumif
yg;pyfrSvnf;qJqkd7if; aersdK;aZmfu bvSarmf
ukdvufoD;rsm;wpfvkH;^yD;wpfvkH;ypfoGif;vdkufavonf//
ukdbvSarmf bmrS^yef^yD;rwkhH^yef7Smay// acgif;ikHh
7if;^idrfcHaeonf//
tkd- r[kwfzl;/ r[kwfzl;/ tpfukdaersdK;aZmf /
rSm;r,f/ rSm;r,f/ y,if;wkdhtm;vkH;7Sif;^yD;yg^yD
aersdK;aZmfu a'goxGufxGufESifh qufxkd;ae
qJ^zpfonf//
xkd;yg/ xkd;yg/ oli,fcsif;7,f/ rif;pdwfaju
eyfatmifvkyfyguGm
bvSarmfyg;pyfxJrS aoG;awGxGufusvmonf//
ukdbvSarmfu aersdK;aZmfvkyfor#^idrfcHae7if;
a,musfm;juD;wefrJh ikdcsvdkufonf//
tpfukdaersdK;/ ukdbvSarmfeJhy,if;eJh7Sif;^yD;yg
^yD/
y,if;vJrSJhwpfaygufrpGef;ygbl;tpfukd7,f/
ol
tpfukdwkdhukdawmif;yefzkdh^yefvmwmyg
y,if;u7Sif;^yonf//
vrf;rjuD;rSm raumif;ygbl;/ tdrfoGm;juygpkdh/
tdrfa7mufrS y,if;7Sif;^yyghr,f/ vmyg/ vmyg/ tpfukd
a7m ukd^zdK;a7m vmjuyg7Sif
a0^zdK;aomfESify,if;u qkdifu,f^zifh^yefcJhum
aersdK;aZmfu bvSarmfukdum;ay:wifac:7if; tdrf^yef
cJhju.//


vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

175

a qm if ; vk v if

g
tJ'gygyJarmif /y,if;rSm vla^cmufnDrav;
wpfa,muf7Sdygw,f/ nDrav;ovif;cifukd 0dnmOfe,f
rSmawGhcJhwJhukdbvSarmfu y,if;vdkhtxifrSm;^yD; tckvdk
awG^zpf7wmyg
{nfhcef;rSmxkdifrdv#ifxkdifrdcsif; y,if;u t
ajumif;pkHukd7Sif;^yvdkufonf//
rSwfrdao;vm;armif/ y,if;tusa@G;vmawmh
0wfpkHao;ao;av;tykdygvmwmav/ tJ'g nDrav;t
wGufcsKyfcJhwmyg/ y,if;0wfpkHtopfcsKyfwkdif; nDrav;
ukdwpfpkHcsKyfay;wmxkH;pHyJ/armifar;wkef;u bkdr@kyfav;
,rif;ciftwGufqkdwm
y,if;yg;pyfxJawGh7mav#muf
a^ymvdkufwm
y,if;7,f/ armifbmrSrod7ygvm;/ ukdbvS
armfu ovif;7Jhvdyf^ym y,if;wkdhtdrfxJ 0ifoGm;w,f
a^ymwkH;u armifukd,fwkdiftxifrSm;cJhrdw,f
y,if;wpfaehzGifha^ymrvdkhyg/ y,if;wkdhrdom;
pku 'grsdK;awGt,kHtjunf7Sdw,fqkd7if armifuuJh7JhrSm
pkd;vdkh/ txift^rifao;rSmpkd;vdkh y,if;csifhcsdefaewmyg/
bmyJ^zpf^zpf armifeJhvufxyf^yD;7ifawmh zGifha^ym7rSm
yJrSKwfvm;armif
ajomf- y,if;7,f
ckawmh tm;vkH;7Sif;oGm;ay^yD//
aersdK;aZmfuawmh bvSarmfukdpdwfqkd;ra^yao;
ay//
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

176

a qm if ; vk v if
ukdbvSarmfonf aersdK;aZmf.vufcsufajumifh
rsufESmw^yifvkH;zl;a,mifae^yD;
w7m;cHwpfa,mufvdk
acgif;iku
d pf dkufcsxkid af eavonf//
uJ- bvSarmf/ rif;[m b,fae7mrqkd wpf
ckck@SKyfvdkuf7rS ajueyfwJhtrSKdufyJ/ ighnDav;vdyfpmay;
^yD; rif;ukdv$wfvdkufrdwm ightrSm;ygyJuGm
ukdbvSarmfu tm;vkH;ukdacgif;armfjunhfvdkuf
7if; igawmif;yefygw,faersdK;7,f
ukdbvSarmfu yg;pyfxJrSqkdhxGufvmonhfaoG;
rsm;ukd vufckH^zifhqkwfypf7if;a^ymvdkufonf// olonf
okdif;/Aefwkd/Aef7SnfusGrf;usifaom oefpGrf;olukd,fcHynm
7Sifwpfa,muf^zpfI aersdK;aZmfukdarSmufoGm;atmif ^yef
ckcHEkdiftm;7Sdygonf// olhzufu trSm;rsm;oGm;onfrkdh
tav#mhay;um^idrfcH7if; ukd,fhukdukd,ft^ypfay;vdkuf
^cif;^zpfyg.//
at;/ rif;^yefawmhbvSarmf
[if
rif; igha7ShuxGufoGm;ygawmhuGm/ rif;[m
raygif;oifhwJholi,fcsif;yJ/ awmf^yD/ rif;^yefawmh
ukdbvSarmfonf a,mufsm;juD;wefrJhrsuf7nf
rsm;usvmonf//
ikdoHygjuD;^zifh
ighukdcGifhv$wfyguGm/igawmif;yefygw,faersdK;
7,f/ ig 'DrSmwpf7ufawmhqufaeyg7apOD;
bmuG
ig / ig / olhukdESKwfqufcsifao;vdkhyg
bm
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

177

a qm if ; vk v if
'DrEWav;uaevdyf^ymv$ifhwm oleJhawGhzkdh
vG,fw,fav/ ig aemufqkH;wpfcgvdyf^ymv$ifh^yD;7if
^yefyghr,f/ vdyf^ymv$ifh^yD; olhukdESKwfqufcJhyg7apOD;
aersdK;7m

vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

178

a qm if ; vk v if

g
aemufwpfaehreuftapmjuD;rSm rdwWDvmoGm;zkdh
^yifju.// tvSLrDatmif reufav;em7D tapmjuD;x
oGm;jurnf^zpfonf//
ukb
d vSarmfudkvu
kd cf hJ 7ef a0^zdK;aomfuac:onf
aersdK;aZmfvnf; vkyfor#^idrfcHcJh^yD; olhvuf
csufajumifh'%f7mawG7oGm;aom bvSarmfukd tenf;
i,fawmhpdwfa^yoGm;^yD//
a0^zdKaomfuawmh ukb
d vSarmf y,if;udkvrl mS ;
^yD;ckd;,lzkdhjuHpnfcJhayr,fh
rSJhwpfaygufrpGef;yJa^yvnf
oGm;onfhtwGuf tndSK;rxm;awmhyg// ukdukdvkyfxm;vdkh
rsufESmjuD; zl;a,mifaeonfhtwGufvnf; oem;aerd
onf//
ukdbvSarmfukd
rdwDWvmvkdufzkdh
b,fvdkrS
ac:r7ay//
cifAsm;wpfa,mufxJusefcJh^yD; bmvkyfrvJukd
bvSarmf
ukd,fwpfa,mufxJ at;at;aq;aq;ae
csifvdkhygarmif^zdK;7m
cifAsm; 'Daehwpfaehawmh vdyf^ymrv$ifhygeJh
OD;ukdbvSarmf7m/ vdyf^ymv$ifh7uf odyfeD;7if yifyef;
w,fqkd/ cifAsm;yJa^ymwm/ wpfywfrSwpfcgv$ifh7wm
rSKwfvm;
at;ygarmif^zdK;7,f
aersdK;aZmfuvnf; 0ifa^ymonf//
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

179

a qm if ; vk v if
xm;omxm;cJh7w,f/ rif;udkpdwfrcsbl;

bvSarmf
igrif;wkdhxdcdkufatmif bmrSrvkyfawmhygbl;
uGm/ uwday;ygw,f
cifAsm; ovif;cifukdESKwfqufcsifvdkh vdyf^ym
v$ifhr,fqkd7ifvJ usGefawmfwkdh^yefvmwJhtxdapmifhygAsm/
cifAsm;wpfa,mufxJ7SdwJhtcsdefrSm wpfckck^zpfoGm;rSmpdk;
vdkhyg
a0^zdK;aomfu vdyf^ymrv$ifh7ef twefwefrSmcJh
onf//
okdhaomf- - -

vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

180

a qm if ; vk v if

g
narSmif7DysdK;onfeSifh ukdbvSarmf vdyf^ymv$ifh
7ef^yifawmhonf//
olhtif;uGufrsm;ukd bk7m;pifa7ShrSm ae7mwus
^yefcsonf// tcsdefrSwfza,mif;wkdifjuD;ukdxGef;onf//
olonf ovif;cifukdESKwfqufrnf[k ab;vl
jum;aumif;atmifa^ymcJh^cif;om^zpfonf//
wu,fu
olh7nf@G,fcsufrSm w^cm;^zpfygonf//

ovif;cifukd armifvlar$;vufrS t^yD;tykdif


vk,l7efom^zpfonf//
vla^cmufarmifvlar$;.vdyf^ymukd owfypfrnf//
vla^cmufeJhvl b,folutiftm;omovJjunhf
juao;wmaygh//
ukdbvSarmfonf tppt7m7m^yifqif^yD;onfh
tcgwpftdrfvkH;wcg;awGydwf/ vdyf^ymv$ifhrnfhoifzsL;
ay:yufvufvJavsmif;7if; pdwftm@kHukd^idrfapI cE<m
ukd,frSvdyf^ymukdcGmcJhonfhtcgc%csif;yif aumif;uif
av[m^yifxJokdha7muf7SdoGm;av.//

a0^zdK;aomf.tdrf7Sd7mvrf;xJokdh
Surf um;juD;wpfpif;0ifvmonf//

t^yma7mif

vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

181

a qm if ; vk v if
um;ay:rSmygvmoluav;a,muf/ um;armif;
oltygt0ifa,musmf;av;a,mufpvkH;rSm tdd,trsdK;
om;rsm;^zpfygonf//
um;armif;olrSm rEWav;^rdKhwcGif tusdKtjum;
rusefusGrf;usifaom
0g7ifh'@kdifbmwpfOD;^zpfonf//
aemufwpfa,mufrSm a0^zdK;aomf@kH;rS ^ymwmuav;
qmrd^zpfyg//
usefESpfa,mufuawmh tdd,EkdifiH/ r'7yf^rdKh
rSolaX;juD;rpPwmtmrufapv$wfvdkufaom
oufawmf
apmifhAmoD;ESifh
^refrm^ynfrSmaexkdifoGm;zl;ol
tdd,^refrmu^ym;armifwifwkdh^zpfygonf//
a0^zdK;aomftdrfem;ra7mufrD qmrdu um;ukd
7yfcdkif;vdkufonf//
a7ShrSm rD;t^yma7mifav;xGef;xm;wm usGef
awmhfq7mtdrfyJ/ tdrfeHygwfu68/ tJ'DtdrfxJrSm cifAsm;
wkdhvdkcsifwJh rsufvSnfhq7m7Sdw,f/ usKyf'Dae7muqif;
aecJhawmhr,f/
cifAsm;wkdhukd
usKyfvrf;^yw,fqkdwmusKyf q7modvdkhr^zpfzl;
qmrdu Armvdak ^ymvdkuo
f nf//
ukvm;^zpfaomfvnf; ^refrm^ynfayguf^zpfI uk
vm;pum;ra^ymwwfaomqmrdpum;rsm;ukd armifwifu
AmoD;em;vnfatmif bmom^yefay;onf//
AmoD;u tdwfxJrSaiGpuULwpfxyfukdxkwf,l^yD;
qmrduadk y;um aumif;^yD/ rif;wm0efaus^yD/ rif;zufuvJ
ESKwfvyHk gap
-[ka^ymvdkufonf//

vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

182

a qm if ; vk v if
armifwif bmom^yefay;aompum;ukd em;
axmif^yD;aemuf aiGpuULrsm;ukd,lum qmrdum;ay:rS
qif;vdkufonf//
um;u qufarmif;oGm;.//
qmrdonf tarSmifxx
k JwiG af iGpuULwpfxyfudk
ukdif7if; olhvkyf7yfrSm;rsm;rSm;oGm;^yDvm;[k awG;7if;
usefcJhonf// q7mhukdolav;pm;oonf// q7mhukdaus;Zl;
uef;7mrsm;usoGm;^yDvm;//
um;u a0^zdK;aomftdrfukdvGefI armif;oGm;um
tarSmif7dyfusonfh opfyifatmufrSm7yfvdkufwmukd qm
rd^rifae7onf//
qmrdonf xkdae7mrSrcGmEkdifao;yJ ikdifawGum
7yfaerd.//

ukdbvSarmfapmifhae^yD; rjumrDyif ovif;


cif.vdyf^ym atmufa^crSwa@Gha@Ghwufvmonf//
ovif;cif
oluvSrf;ac:vkdufonfhtcg
ovif;cifu
^yKH;pprsufESmay;^zifh olhem;okdhvGifharsmvmavonf//
7Sif odcJh^yDaygh/ [kwfvm;/ uJ- 7Si[
f m
b,favmufajumifwJh vlajumifjuD;vJqkdwm 7Sifhukd,f
7Sif od^yDrSKwfvm;/ raehu tdrfrSm^yoemvm7Sif;
juawmh ^zpfaewJh 7SifhrsufESmay;juD;ukdjunhf^yD; usGefr
rSm 7,fvkduf7wm/ [m-[mh
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t^ywfpm7if;7Sif;7r,f
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

183

a qm if ; vk v if
atmifrm/ vm vmcsnfao;/ 7SifeJhbmrS7Sif;
p7mr7Sdbl;/ taeomjuD;
7Sdwmayghovif;cif/ rif;eJhb0wlvla^cmuf
aumifukdtquf^zwfyg
bm7Sifh
rif; ighudk,7l r,f
7Sif @l;aeovm;
@l;7ifvnf; ig[mtcspf@l;
7Sifh[m7Sif @l;aeyg/ usGefreJhvmrywfoufyg
eJh
ovif;cifu olhukd pdwfysufpGmpkdufjunhfum
txufwpfae7mokdhvGifharsmoGm;awmhonf//
xkdpOf us,favmifaomxpfcsKef;oHESifhtwl
v#yfpD;wpfcsufvufvdkufonf//
aumif;uifwpfckvkH;
vif;xdefoGm;av.// v#yfpD;.tvif;u aehtvif;
tvm;yif xdef0if;oGm;yg.//
v#yfpD;vufvdkufonfwGif ovif;cif.vdyf^ym
cE<mukd r^rif7awmhyJaysmufuG,foGm;avonf// v#yfpD;
^yD;qkH;oGm;rS ^yefI^rifvdkuf7yg.// vdyf^ymcE<mwkdhonf
vif;xdefaomtvif;a7mifxJwGif r^rifomyg/ nt
arSmifxk (okdhr[kwf)yg;v$maomtarSmifcyfa^ya^yrSmom
^rifomygonf//
7moDOwkr rkd;7moDrkdh rdk;pI@Gmay^yD//
ukdbvSarmf 7yfwnfae7m. atmufzufqDrS
rkd;a7rsm;onf a^ray:okdh ykd;ykd;aygufayguf,kdusoGm;.//
ukdbvSarmfwnf7Sdae7m ae7mrSm rdk;aumif;uift^rifh
rSmrdkh rkd;EsifhvGwfaeonf// rkd;u olhatmufzufrS pwif
@Gmae^cif;^zpfyg.//
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

184

a qm if ; vk v if
wc%twGif;rSmyif rkd;csdrf;oHrsm;/v#yfpD;rsm;
qufwkdufxGufay:vmawmhonf//
olonf ovif;cif.0dnmOfukd rsufa^c^ywfrcH
yJ aemufrSvdkufoGm;avonf//

armifwif tdrfqDokdhcsnf;uyfrdonfhtcsdefwGif
rkd;uwzGJzGJ@Gmvmonf//
vloltapmifhta7Smufr7Sdaom tdrfukd csif;eif;
0ifa7muf7onfrSm vG,fulvGef;ygayh/
AmoD;ESifh'@kdifbmu tarSmif7dyfxJrSmapmifh7if;
usefcJhonf//
armifwifonf tdrfwcg;rjuD;.*sufukd toHr
^rnfatmif tvG,fwulyifzGifhEkdifcJhonf//
armifwifu rD;rsm;ydwfxm;aomtdrfxJokdh prf;
w0g;0g;0ifcJh7m c%tjumrSm tarSmifxJYrsufvkH;usifh
om;7oGm;onf// olu tcef;rsm;ukd wpfcef;^yD;wpfcef;
vdkufjunhf.// vlolwpfa,mufrSr7Sdacs// yuwdwdwf
qdwfv#uf/
oljunhfp7m tcef;wpfckom usefawmhonf//
xkdtcef;u twGif;zufrS*sufcsydwfxm;.// twGif;rS
ydwfxm;ykHaxmufI tcef;xJrSm vl7Sd7ayrnf//
armifwifu
wcg;ukduyfIem;axmifjunhfonf//
bmoHrSrjum;7//
txJrSmvl7Sdv#if touf@SLoHjum;7 rnf// olhem;u
odyfyg;onfh
olckd;em;^zpfonf//
tcef;
xJrS
bmoHrSrjum;7ay//
armifwifu tom;uyfabmif;bDtdyfxJrS ud7d
,mwcsdKhukdxkwfum wcg;aomhukdzsufonf//
okH;rdepftwGif;rSm aomhysufoGm;yg.//
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

185

onf//
a,muf//

a qm if ; vk v if
xcg;ukdtom[I twGif;ukdacsmif;junfhvdkuf
bk7m;pifa7ShrSm

yufvufvJaeaom

vlwpf

rvSKyfr,SufyJvJaeaomomefukd ^rifvdkuf7I
tavmif;juD;rsm;vm;[kxifvdkufum armifwifjuufoD;
xoGm;onf//
armifwifu xkdvlhtem;okdha^czGeif;um wa@Gh
a@Ghwkd;uyfvmonf//
za,mif;wkdifrD;tvif;^zifh olu xkdvl.rsufESm
ukjd unhfvu
kd o
f nf// "mwfyu
Hk t
dk xyfxyftzefzefjunhI
f
tvGwfusufxm;onfh rsufvSnfhq7mygyJ//
armifwifonf tdyf7mab;ywfvnf7Sdtif;uGuf
rsm;udkausmfcGum rsufvSnfhq7mteD;okdhcsnf;uyfcJhonf//
rsufvSnfhq7monf yuwdtoufuif;rJhonfh
tavmif;aumifozG,f// olu rsufvSnfhq7m.ESm0okdh
vufukdawhum
prf;junhfvdkufonf//
tvdktvmt7Sif / 'Dvltoufr7SLygvm;//
aorsm;aoae^yDvm;/
rsufESmwpfckvkH;vnf;
zl;a,mifvdkh//
olu
7ifywfukdvufESihfprf;junhfvdkufonf//
7ifckefaeonf//
7ifckefae7ifraoao;vdkhaygh/ bmvkdhtoufr
@SLygvdrfh/ armifwifem;rvnfEkdifatmif7Sdonf//
okkdhaomf- olhwm0efu rsufvSnfhq7mukdzrf;
ac:vmzkdhom7Sdonf// taoaumifvdktdyfarmusaewm
olhtwGufb,favmufuHaumif;ovJ//
armifwifu rsufvSnfhq7mcE<mukd,fukd tm;
pkdufrjunhfvdkufonf// rmawmifhawmifhjuD;ygvmonf//
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

186

a qm if ; vk v if
armifwifu cE<mukd,fjuD;ukdayGhcsDum xrf;
vdkufonf//
tcef;xJrSxGufvmawmh tif;uGufrsm;ukdwkduf
rdum tif;uGufawGuGJwmuGJ/ ae7ma@Ghwma@Gh^zpfI
usefcJhavawmhonf//
rdk;a7rsm;ukd^zwfoef;I rsufvSnfhq7mukd um;
qDohdk o,fvmcJhavawmh.//

c%tjumwGif
vla^cmufuav;armifval r$;
a7mufvmonf//
armifvlar$;ESihfovif;wkdh.0dnmOfESpfck yl;,SOf
oGm;juonf//
ukdbvSarmfu vdyf^ymukdw[kefxkd;v$ifhum ol
wkdhtem;okdha7mufatmifoGm;vdkufonf//
a[h- aejuOD;
olu vSrf;atmfa^ymvdkufonf//
7Sif bmaESmuf,u
S Of ;D rvkhd vJ
ovif;cifu vSnfhjunhfum 7efawGhvdkuf
onf//
a[h- armifvlar$;qkdwJhvla^cmufaumif/
rif; ukd,fha'oukd,f^yefyg
cifAsm/ aemifjuD;u bmajumifhusGefawmhfukd
ESif7wmvJ
armifvlar$;u ,Ofaus;pGmyif^yefa^ymavonf/
ovif;cifu a'goxGufae.//
olhukdtzufvkyf^yD; ^yefa^ymraeeJharmifarmif
tvum; vdyf^ymayGvDjuD;
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

187

a qm if ; vk v if
'Dr,farmifvlar$;/ ovif;cif[m ighcspfol/
rif;a7Smifay;yg
cifAsm; bmawGa^ymaewmvJ/ usGefawmfwkdh
ub0wlcspfolawGyg/ usGefawmfwkdhu 0dnmOfwpfckyJ7Sif
oefEkdifwJh vla^cmufawG/ aemifjuD;u vlom;pifppfyg/
ovif;cifeJh aygif;oif;vdkhr7Ekdifygbl;/ usGefawmfa7Smif
ay;p7mvJrvdkygbl;Asm
'gawG igem;rvnfbl;/ ovif;ciftem;rSm
b,folrSr7Sdap7bl;
aemifjuD; pdwf^idrf^idrfxm;yg/ a'gojuD;7if
aemifjuD;vdyf^ym^yKwfusoGm;vdrfhr,f
[if
t^zpfrSefukdqif^cifjunfhygOD;/ a[m'D rkd;
aumif;uifxJrSm aemifjuD;eJhusGefawmfwkdhta^ctae^cif;
rwlygbl;
tkd- pum;r7SnfeJhuGm/ rif;xGufroGm;bl;
vm;/ roGm;7if- uJ-
a'gojuD;um tqif^cifrhJaeaomukdbvSarmf
onf armifvlar$;teD;okdh w[kefxkd;pD;arsmoGm;^yD;
vufo;D ESifhxdk;vdu
k o
f nf//
rar#mfvifhyJ tikdufrdoGm;onfhtwGuf armif
vlar$;.0dnmOfonf ukdbvSarmf.vufoD;csufajumifh
ta0;okdhvGifhpOfoGm;av.//
tkd- trav; / 7Sif ,kwfrmvScsnfvm;
ovif;cifu 7efawGhvdu
k fonf//
ukdbvSarmfu armifvlar$;vdyf^ymvGifhoGm;7m
okdh vdkufygoGm;onf//
armifvlar$;u wdrfrJwpftkyfukduG,fumykef;7if;
olhukdapmifhaevdkufonf//
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

188

a qm if ; vk v if
ukdbvSarmf tem;a7muftvmwGif wdrfrJtkyf
xJrS armifvlar$;xGufvmum a^caxmuf^zifhuefcs
vkdufonf//
ukdbvSarmf.0dnmOfonf atmufzufokdhw[kef
xkd;usqif;oGm;avonf//
rkd;@Gmaeaom{7d,mxJtxd
a7mufoGm;um ol.0dnmOfxJokdh rkd;a7rsm;^zwfoef;oGm;
avonf//
olu tm;ukdwif;um tay:okdh^yefqefwufcJh
avonf//
armifvlar$;ukdt^rifwGif tem;okdhw[kefxkd;a^y;
oGm;um vufoD;ESifhxkd;7ef@G,fvdkufonf//
v#yfpD;wpfcsufvufvdkufonf//
ae7mteShHrS v#yfpD;rsm; wpfcsuf^yD;wpfcsuf
vufvdkuf7m aumif;uifwcGifvkH;vif;xdefoGm;av.//
armifvlar$;.0dnmOfukdvnf; r^rif7awmhay//
ukdbvSarmfonf vufoD;ukd@G,f7if; ae7mrSm
yifajumifI7yfaerdawmhonf//

ukdbvSarmf.cE<mukd,fjuD;ukd o,faqmifvm
aomum;onf ^yifOD;vGifzufokdhoGm;aomvrf;rjuD; w
av#muf w7dyf7dyfa^y;aeonf//
AmoD;u yufvufjuD;vJv#uf toufrhJ ovkyd g
vmaom ukdbvSarmfukdjunhfIthHjoaeonf//olhtxif
u rw7m;zrf;qD;csKyfaESmifI vufcufcJcJo,faqmif
vm7rnf[kxifaeonf// tdyfaysmf7ufjuD; tvG,fwul
o,fxkwfvdkh7vmI thHtm;oihfae7onf//
armifwif / rif;o,fvmwm wu,fhvl
[kwfygw,faemf
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

189

a qm if ; vk v if
[m- q7muvJ/ wu,fhvlrS bvSarmfqkd
wJhrsufvSnfhq7mtppf/ "mwfykHeJhwkdufjunhfygvm;
[kwfygw,fuGm/ igu oltdyfvGef;tm;juD;vdkh
thHjovdkhyg/ ighwkhdabmhpfjuD;a^ymvdkufawmh odyfvsif^ref
^zwfvwfwJh*D7ynm7SifjuD;qkd/ [D-[D
abmhpftmrufa^ymvdkufwJhtxJrSm ]m%feD
]m%feufodyfrsm;w,fvdkhvJ ygao;w,favq7m/ ol
wu,ftdyfaysmfaewm[kwfcsifrS[kwfrSm/ usGefawmfwkdhukd
vSnfhpm;aeovm;rSrodwm
a[- at;[kwfw,f/ owdxm;a[h/ tvpf
ray;eJh
um;u nmzufohdk csdK;auGhvu
kd o
f nf//
vrf;rjuD;.nmzufokdh vrf;jurf;jurf;twkdif;
0ifoGm;7m 2zmvkHcefhta7mufwGif a7S;cspfwD;wkdufysuf
juD;wpfvkH;ukdawGhvdkuf7yg.//
'@kdifbmu AmoD;wkdhukdvSnfhIa^ymvkdufonf//
a7muf^yDq7m/ 'Dae7mrSm q7mwkhdpdwfwkdif;
ustvkyv
f yk fEidk yf gw,f
armifwifESifhAmoD;u bvSarmf.cE<mukd,fjuD;
ukd ESpfa,mufo,fr7if; tdrfxJ0ifoGm;juonf//

v#yfpD;vuf^cif;rsm;7yftoGm;wGif armifvlar$;
.0dnmOf7dyfu ^yefay:vmonf//
ukdbvSarmfu
armifvlar$;qDokdha^y;oGm;um
uefxnfhvdkufonf//
armifvlar$;u a7Smifvdkuf.//

vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

190

a qm if ; vk v if
a7Smifvkduf7if;rS olhaemufokdh w[kefxkd;vsif
^refpGma^y;oGm;um ukdbvSarmfukd a^caxmufrSqGJcg7rf;
vdkufonf// ukdbvSarmfonf armifvlar$;vufwGif csm
vywfvnf7if; ar$h,rf;aeavonf//
armifvlar$;u t7SdefESifhv$JI vufxJrSv$wfypf
vdkuf7m ukdbvSarmf.0dnmOfonf csmvywf7rf;7if;
ta0;juD;qDokdhvGifhygoGm;av.//
ukdbvSarmf rl;aemufoGm;avonf//
xkdpOftckdufrSmyJ ol.cg;qDrSemusifaom'%f
ukd pl;ueJcHpm;vkduf7onf//

AmoD;u bvSarmf.cg;jum;qDokdh @SL;zdeyft


cGsef^zifhydwfuefxnfhvdkufonf//
olwkdhonf tdrfxJokdha7mufv#ifa7mufcsif;rSmyif
bvSarmf.cE<mukd,fjuD;ukd jurf;^yifay:okdh rnSmrwm
ypfcsvdkufjuonf// ukdbvSarmfonf ypfcsvdkufonhft
wkdif;usoGm;um rvSKyfr,Suf^idrf^rJ^idrfae.//

bJheJhvkyfrvJarmifwif/
rif;aumifu
wu,ftdyfaysmfaewmvm;/ [efaqmifaewmvm;
ra^ymwwfawmhbl;q7m/ tdyfaysmfwJhvl[m
'gavmufjurf;jurf;wrf;wrf;ukdifwG,fwmukd cHEkdifyghr
vm; / Ekd;vmrSmaygh
'DykHtwkdif;qkd 7wema^rykHb,frSmxm;w,fqkd
wm 'Daumifhukdb,fvdkar;rvJ/ jumw,fuGm/ uJ-
AmoD;u a^yma^ymqkdqkd pdwfr7SnfEkdifawmhyJ
ukb
d vSarmfcg;qDohdk zdeyfO;D csGef^zifh aqmifhuefvdkuf^cif;
^zpfavonf//
191
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

a qm if ; vk v if

ukdbvSarmf/ 7Sif^yefawmh
ovif;cifu armifvlar$;ESifhukdbvSarmfjum;
okdh0ifvmum ukdbvSarmfukda^ymvdkufonf//
r^yefbl;/ 'Daumifhukdowf^yD;rS^yefr,f
ukdbvSarmf/ 7Sif usGefrwkdhukd r,SOfcsifygeJh/
usGefrwkdhu vdyf^yme,frSmt^rJaewJholawG/tcsdeftuefh
towfr7Sd aeEkdifw,f/ 7Sif 'k=a7mufrSmpkd;vdkh usGefr
uapwemeJha^ymwmyg
ukdbvSarmfawGoGm;onf//
ovif;cifa^ymwmrSeyf gonf//
tpuawmh olujuHhckdifaomvlom;rkdh armifvl
ar$;vdkvla^cmufuav;ukd
tvG,fwultEkdif7rnf[k
xifcJhonf// wu,fwef;usawmh armifvlar$;avmuf
oloufvkHraumif;// vla^cmuftaetxm;ukd olr,SOf
EkdifwmawGh7onf//
olu tcsdefukdwGufqjunhfvdkufonf//
olvdyf^ymv$ifhcJhonfrSm wpfem7DeD;yg;7Sday^yD//
olhtm;tifawG w^znf;^znf;ukefcrf;vmonf//
tcdsefrSwfza,mif;wkdifjuD;rsm; ^idrf;oGm;av^yD
vm;//
olheH@kd;xJrSpl;ueJemusifoGm;^yefonf// bk7m;bk7m; / atmufrSmusefcJhwJh olhcE<mukd,fjuD;rsm;wpfckck
^zpfae^yDvm;//
ukdbvSarmf/ ^yefyg7Sif/ ^yefyg/ 7Sif 'k=
a7mufvdrfhr,f
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

192

uGm

a qm if ; vk v if
ovif;cifu owday;vdkuf^yefonf//
olhrsufvkH;rsm; a00g;vmonf//
ol r^yefvdkhr^zpfawmhay//
at;- aemufrS rif;eJhigawGhjuao;wmaygh

olu judwfrEkdifcJr7a7@Gwf7if; armifvlar$;ukd


pdrf;pdrf;junhfvdkufonf//
xkdhaemuf olvdyf^ymt^zpfqufvuf7yfwnf7ef
rpGrf;omawmh//
olonf atmufokdhvsif^refpGmxkd;qif;oGm;av
onf//

armifwifonf ukdbvSarmfcE<mukd,fteSHhukd "m;


^zifhr$ef;aeonf//
tusukdcsGwfypfum bvSarmf.ta7^ymrsm;ukd
"m;^zifhZdrfa^yea^yr$ef;7if; tdyf7mrSEkd;xvmatmifvkyf
aeonf//
bvSarmfu toufvJr@SL/ Ekd;vJEkd;rvmacs//
armifwifu pdwfr7SnfawmhyJ 'g;OD;csGef^zifheH
@kd;jum;xJokhdxkd;pkdufcsvdkufonf// 'g;@kd;onf eH@kd;jum;xJ
okdh ESpfvufrcehfpdkuf0ifoGm;avonf//

aersdK;aZmfESifa0^zdK;aomfwkdhnDtpfukdonf aeh
csif;yif rdwWDvmrS^yefvmcJhjuonf//
arrsdK;armfu aemufwpfaehrSm at;at;aq;
aq;^yef7efa^ymaomfvnf; bvSarmfukdwpfa,muf
xJpdwfrcsI^yefvmcJhju^cif;^zpfonf//
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

193

a qm if ; vk v if
olwkdhonf tvSLudpPrsm;tm;vkH;^yD;^ywfonft
xd n7-em7Davmuftxd arrsdK;armfauseyfatmifae
ay;cJhum 7em7DcGJrSm rdwWDvmrSxGufvmcJhju^cif;^zpf
onf//
ukd,fykdifum;rdkh t^refarmif;vmonfhwkdif 7ef
ukef-rEWav;ta0;a^y;vrf;rjuD;rSm tawmfysufpD;ae^yD
rkdh armif;csifwkdif;armif;Ir7// xdef;Iarmif;vm7aom
ajumifh rEWav;0ifawmh 11em7Dxkd;ay^yD//
a0^zdK;aomf tdrfvrf;xdyfa7mufawmh 11em7DcGJ/
um;ukdaersdK;aZmfu armif;vmcJh^cif;^zpfonf//
tdrfvrf;xdyfta7mufrSm aersdK;aZmfu um;ukd
vrf;xJcsdK;auGhvdkufonf//
xkdpOfrSmyJ
um;rD;a7mifxJbGm;ueJay:vm
aomvlwpfa,mufonf vrf;ab;opfyif7dyfatmufokdh
tvsift^refa^y;0ifvdkufwmukdawGhvdkuf7onf// xkdolukd
7dyfueJ^rifvdkuf7@kHESifhyif a0^zdK;aomfodvkduf.// olh@kH;
u ^ymwmuav; ukvm;av;qmrd^zpfonf//
[if- ukdukd/ qmrdygvm;/ tcsdefrawmfjuD;
'Daumifbmvmvkyfygvdrfh/ um;c%7yfvdkufOD;ukdukd
aersdK;aZmfum;7yftay;wGif a0^zdK;aomfuum;
ay:rSqif;um qmrda^y;0ifoGm;aomopfyifatmufokdh
a7mufoGm;awmhonf//
qmrdudk olawGhvu
kd af wmh qmrdwpfudk,v
f ;Hk
wqwfqwfwkefaeonf//
a[haumifqmrd/ rif;bmvkyfaewmvJ
q7m/ q7m/ usGefawmf
qmrdu qufra^ymEkdifacs// wckckajumuf@GHae
onfhozG,fwpfukd,fvkH;wkef,ifaeonf//
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

194

a qm if ; vk v if
[if- rif;tcsdefrawmfjuD; 'Dtem;bmvm
vkyw
f mvJ
um;ay:rSaersdK;aZmf qif;vkdufvmonf//
ykdIvl7nfvnfaomaersdK;aZmfu qmrd trl
t7mysufaeykHukdjunhfI cef;rSef;vdkufEkdifonf//
a[haumifqmrd/ rif; bmawGvkyfxm;ovJ
a^ymprf;
qmrdrSm
e*kduyifvlajumufwwfol^zpfonf//
olhq7ma0^zdK;aomfukdawmh av;pm;7if;pGJvnf;7Sdonf//
aiGykHay;I onftvkyfukdvkyfvdkufrdaomfvnf; olpdwf
raumif;^zpfaeonf// xkdhajumifh ukdbvSarmfukdyckH;ay:
xrf;um
um;ay:wifac:oGm;onfukdawGh7ygv#uf
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195

a qm if ; vk v if
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196

a qm if ; vk v if
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bk7m;pifa7ShwGif tif;uGufrsm;taetxm;ysuf
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onhftcg ukdbvSarmf tonf;cdkufatmifajumufvefh
oGm;rdav.//
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ukd,fukd wpfa,mufa,mufuzsufqD;aewm(okdhr[kwf)
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7yfwnf7efr^zpfEkdifyg// onftcg olhvdyf^ymonf vGifh
csif7mvGifhI cE<mESifhraygif;pyfrdyJ aouHra7mufao;
ygyJ aoqkH;7ayawmhrnf//
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

197

a qm if ; vk v if
olu b,fvdk7efolrsdK;u olhukd7efrlaeovJqkd
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ukdtdrfa7ShqDokdhvGifharsmoGm;vdkufonf//
tdrfxJokdh0ifvmaom aersdK;aZmf/a0^zdK;aomfESifh
twl ukvm;av;qmrdukdygawGhvdkuf7onf//ukvm;av;
qmrdukd^rifvdkufrS olonf olh7efolukdowd7vkdufav
onf// tcspfa7;udpPrSmyJpdwfa7mufaeI tdd,rSolh7ef
oltmrufukd arhxm;cJhrdygvm;//
aersdK;aZmfwkdhu olhukdr^rif//
olwkdhu bk7m;cef;xJokdh0ifvm^yD; ta^ctae
ukdjunhfvdkufjuonf//
olwkdha^ympum;rsm;ukdem;axmifjunhf7mrS olh
txift^rifrSefaewm ukdbvSarmfodvdkuf7.//
bvSarmfukdzrf;oGm;wm b,folawGvJqmrd
usGefawmhftpfukd0rf;uGJu ulwmygq7m/
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vmwmwJh
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vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

198

a qm if ; vk v if
vlawGu{nfhonfawGqkdawmh
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uvmwmESpfa,mufyg/ wpfa,mufu i,fi,fu ^ref
rm^ynfrSmaebl;w,fa^ymw,f/ ^refrmpum;wwfw,f
q7m/ wa,mufuawmh ukvm;tppfjuD;
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pufzsufqD;^cif;cHae7^yDxifygonf//
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vrf;^y7if;vdkufvmaom
armifwifukd,fwkdif
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199
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

a qm if ; vk v if
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7dyfta,mifr^rif7ao;//
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ukdbvSarmfonf um;xJrScGmvmum olhcE<m7Sd
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aersdK;aZmfwkdhum;ESifh
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wpfae7mta7mufwiG
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d 7f .//
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vdyf^ymudkwa@Gha@Gh
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oGm;avonf//
^rifvdkuf7wJh^rifuGif;u

vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

200

a qm if ; vk v if
ukvm;vlrsdK;ESpfa,mufu
tusukd,fcsGwfESifh
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onf// wpfa,mufu vufxJrSm'g;ESifh// 'g;wGifaoG;
pufrsm;ayusHv#uf7Sdonf//
olh7JhcE<mukd,fuawmh
7p7mr7Sdatmif'g;Esifhtr$ef;cHxm;7um aoG;t
vl;vl;ESifh7Sdaeonf// jurf;^yifay:wGif olhukd,frSxGuf
aomaoG;rsm;^zifhtkdifxGef;ae.//
ukdbvSarmfu ^rifuGif;ukdjunhf7if; 0rf;enf;
oGm;onf//
ol[m olhcE<mxJukd vdyf^ym^yef0ifEkdif7ifawmif
touf7SifEkdifygOD;rvm;// cE<mukd,fum; 7p7mr7Sdatmif
ysufpD;aeav^yD//
prwfusus0wfxm;aom
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ukvm;juD;u olhcE<mukd,fay:okdh wHaxG;^zifhaxG;cs
vdu
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onf//
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awmhonf//
ukdbvSarmfu olh0dnmOfukd cE<mukd,fxJokdh t
^ref^yefI0ifa7mufvdkufav.//

vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

201

a qm if ; vk v if
olhvdyf^ymonf
cE<mukd,fxJa7mufonfESifh
^yif;xefaomemusifrSKukd cHpm;vdkuf7onf// olonf
omrefvlom;wpfOD;b0okdh^yefa7mufoGm;ay^yD//
armifwifESdyfpufnSif;yef;xm;onfh '%f7mrsm;
ajumifh emusif^cif;ukd olu vlom;yuwdtwkdif;cHpm;
vkduf7.// emusifrSKajumifh ol.ESKwfrSpkwfoyf^iD;^iLoH
ay:xGufoGm;avonf//
bvSarmf.^iD;^iLoHajumifh armifwifu ikdifae
7mrS tvefhwjum;armfjunhfvdkufonf//
ajom- arSmq
f 7mEk;d vm^yDu;dk
ukdbvSarmfonf 7efolukdcE<mtiftm;^zifhrwkHh
^yefEkdifonfhtwl pdwf"mwftiftm;^zifhwkdufcdkuf7efqkH;
^zwfvdkuf.//
olu vufndSK;ukd ESKwfcrf;0wGifawh7if;
@SL;- wkd;wkd;
wkd;wkd;wdwfwdwfae7ef trlt7m^yvdkuf.//
armifwifu olhukd thHjopGmpkdufjunhfaeav
onf//
ukdbvSarmfu armifwifhrsufvkH;rsm;ukd olhrsuf
vkH;rsm;ESifhwnfhwnfhpl;pkdufjunhfvdkufonf//
7wema^rykHukd rif;wpfa,mufxJr,lcsifbl;
vm;
bma^ymw,f
^refrmpum;^zifh^yefa^ymvdkuI
f
qmrda^ymaom
^refrmEkdifiHrSmaezl;olqkdwm 'DvlrSef;odvdkuf.//
7wema^rykHukd rif;ukdyJay;r,f
tif
armifwifawGa0oGm;onf//
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

202

a qm if ; vk v if
rif;[m usm;wpfaumifyJ/ rif;[musm;wpf
aumif
olu armifwifhukd pdwfndSKh7ef^yifonf//
rif;[musm;wpfaumif^zpfwJhtwGuf rif;t
azmfukdukdufowf7r,f/
'grS
7wemawGukdrif;wpfa,muf xJ7rSm/ rif;[musm;/
rif;[musm;
olhupdwfndSKh7if; armifwifhukdusm;pdwfoGif;ay;
ae.//
tawGhtjuKHr7Sdaom armifwifonf ol.nSdKh
csufwGifrdoGm;ay^yD//
ukdbvSarmfonf pdwfndSKhaeaomfvnf; 7xm;
aom'%f7m'%fcsufrsm;ajumifh
renf;tm;wif;xm;7
av.// oljumjumwif;rcHEdkifawmhajumifh olhukd,folod
onf//
rif;[musm;wpfaumifyJ/ owWd7SdwJh tm;
aumif;armif;oefusm;juD;wpfaumifyJ/
rif;vufxJu
7wemawGukdcGJ,lr,fhvlukd rif;ukdufowf7r,f/ ukduf
owf7r,f/ jum;vm;
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pdwfukdndSKhaeonf// vlwpfa,mufrdrdvdk7mygvmatmif
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wkdif'%f7mrsm;jum;rS pdwfndSKhae7onfrSm tm;tifrsm;
qkwf,kwfvmav^yD//
usm; / a[haumif- usm; / rif;7efolukd
ukdufowf/ ukdufowf
ukdbvSarmfu armifwifhwGifusm;pdwft^ynfh0if
vm^yD[k,lqonfhtcg t^yifrSAmoD; txJ0ifvm
atmifjuH7^yefonf//
usm;AsdKh / usm;-usm; / vmjuygOD;AsdKh
203
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

a qm if ; vk v if
olu toHukef[pfIatmfvdkufonf//
tdrf^yifzufwGif7yfaeaomAmoD;onf twGif;rS
vlwpfa,mufatmfoHajumifh thHjooGm;um wkdufysuf
xJ0ifcJhavonf// olonf usm;[kArmvdkatmfvdkufaom
toHukdem;rvnfyg// toHrSmvnf; armifwifhtoHr
[kwfI tHhjopdwf^zifhta^y;0ifvmcJhonf//
tcef;xJwGif
oHrHwvif;ay:Y
av;zuf
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rsufvSnfhq7mukd^rifvdkuf7onfhtcg AmoD;thHjooGm;
avonf//
AmoD;u ukvm;vkda^ymvdkufonf//
rif;7efolvm^yD/ rif;7efolvm^yD/ ukduf/
ukduf/ ckeftkyf^yD;udkufowf
bvSarmfu toHuek [
f pfItrdehf ay;vdu
k fonf//
armifwifonf av;zufaxmuf7ufrS AmoD;
zufokdhvSnfhvdkufum AmoD;ukd,fay:okdhckeftkyfvdkufav
onf//
AmoD;onf ckeftkyfvdkufaomarmifwif.t7Sdef
ajumifh yufvufvefvJusoGm;onf//
udkuf / udkuf / vnfrsdKukdukduf
armifwifonf wu,fhusm;ozG,f AmoD;.
7ifywfrsm;ukdvufonf;ESifhukwf^cpfI zdEdSyfxm;vdkufum
AmoD;.vnfyif;ukd yg;pyf^zifhukdufvdkufonf//
AmoD;u ukvm;vkdqJqkda7@Gwfum ckcHonf//
ukdbvSarmf.tm;wif;xm;rSKrsm;onf wif;rcH
Ekdifawmh// a^yavsmhoGm;cJh^yD// olha7ShrSm^rifae7aom
armifwifESifhAmoD;wkdh. vkH;axG;owfykwfrSKonf wpp
a00g;vmonf//
olodvdkufyg^yD//
vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

204

a qm if ; vk v if
ol.0dnmOfESifhcE<mukd,fonf b,fvdkrSwGJzuf
xm;vdkhr7Ekdifawmh// '%f7m'%fcsuft^ynfh^zifh aovk
arsmyg;^zpfaeaomcE<mukd,fonf 0dnmOfukdvufcHEkdifpGrf;
r7SdyJ wppz,fxkwfaeav^yD//
ol.touf"mwfESifh0dnmOfonf cE<mukd,frSuGJ
uGmoGm;ayawmhrnf//
'DrSmuG/ awGh^yD
[kwfw,f/ 'DtdrfyJq7m
[m- vlESpfa,mufowfykwfaeygvm;
[if- rsufvSnfhq7mukd,frSmvJ aoG;awGyg
vm;
bvSarmf / bvSarmf / oli,fcsif;
aersdK;aZmftoH / t^cm;olpdrf;rsm;toH / wkduf
xJokdh0ifvmaoma^coHrsm; //
olhukdayGh,lvdkufaom aersdK;aZmf/ pdk;7drfpdwf^zifh
junhfaeaom a0^zdK;aomfrsufESmrsm;ukd a00g;pGm^rif7
onf//
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cGifh
v$wf
olonf
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vdu
k Ef kdiyf g//
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bvSarmf/ bvSarmf/ ^zpf7avoli,fcsif;
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wJhae7mrSmtokH;csvdkufwmukdoli,fcsif;7,f/ ^zpf7av
uGm


vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

205

a qm if ; vk v if

g
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aemufESpf7uftjumwGif
arrsdK;armfwkdhvifr,m;
rdwWDvmrSa7mufvmum
a0^zdK;aomfESifhy,if;wkdhaphpyfyGJ ^yKvkyfEkdifcJh.//
vufxyf7ef7ufowfrSwfjuonf//
cspfolESpfOD;wkdh.cspfc7D;vrf;um; a^zmifh^zL;oGm;
av^yDwnf;//

vdyf_ymayGvD ESifh tdyfruf{u7D

206

a qm if ; vk v if

g
narSmif7D0,f aumif;uifwpfckvkH; junfvif
^ymvJhaeayonf//
v^ynfhn^zpfum wdrfrsm;vnf;uif;pifaeay
.//
ju,fuav;rsm;u [kd;ta0;rkd;aumif;uif0,f
wzswfzswfvif;vufaejuonf//
om,mvSyaom rkd;aumif;uif.ncsrf;0,f
vdyf^ymcspfolESpfOD;wkdhqkHrdjuonf//
'Daeh rry,if;wkdh aphpyfajumif;vrf;ju
w,farmifarmif
aumif;wmayghovif;av;7,f/ cspfolcsif;
tqifa^ya^yaygif;7wm[m r*Fvmwpfyg;ygyJ
olrsm;twGuf odyf0rf;omay;raeeJhOD;armif
armif/ rrwkdhu vufxyfzkdh7ufowfrSwf^yD;^yDqkdawmh
wpfeSpfxJrSm r*FvmaqmifESpfcgrvkyfaumif;vdkh ovif;
wkdhvufxyfr,fhudpPu
aemufqkwfay;7awmhr,f
armifarmif7Jh
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210