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Katerina Lau





Outline principles that define the biological level of analysis. Patterns of behaviour can be inherited; animal research may inform our understanding of human behaviour; cognitions, emotions and behaviours are products of the anatomy and physiology of our nervous and endocrine systems. Explain how principles that define the biological level of analysis may be demonstrated in research. Martinez & Kesner (1991) Bouchard et al (1990) - Minnesota Twin Studies Discuss how and why particular research methods are used at the biological level of analysis. Experiment: Martinez & Kesner (1991) Case Study: Harlow - Phineas Gage Correlational Study: Bouchard et al. (1990) Minnesota Twin Studies Discuss ethical considerations related to research studies at the biological level of analysis. Martinez & Kesner (1991) Bouchard et al (1990) Explain one study related to localisation of function in the brain. Harlow Phineas Gage Using one or more examples, explain effects of neurotransmission on human behaviour. Martinez & Kesner - Acetycholine Katsumatsu & Hirai - Seratonin Janowsky et al (1972) - Dopamine Using one or more examples, explain functions of two hormones in human behaviour. Cortisol: Fernald and Gunner Poverty/Depression Hans Seyle GAS Fessler Disgust/Immunity

Melatonin: Regulation of Sleep Rosenthal (1987) higher levels of melatonin contribute to SAD Discuss two effects of the environment on physiological processes. Hans Seyle GAS (stress) Effects of jet lag on bodily rhythms Examine one interaction between cognition and physiology in terms of behaviour. Amnesia: HM Clive Wearing Discuss the use of brain imaging technologies in investigating the relationship between biological factors and behaviour. Kilts (2003) MRI Schlaug et al. (1995) MRI Brefczynski-Lewis (2007) fMRI Rain et al (1997) PET With reference to relevant research studies, to what extent does genetic inheritance influence behaviour? Bouchard et al. (1990) Minnesota Twin Studies (intelligence) Schlaug et al. (1995) Absolute Pitch Examine one evolutionary explanation of behaviour. Darwins theory of evolution/natural selection. Fessler (2006) Discuss ethical considerations in research into genetic influences on behaviour. Bouchard et al. (1990) Nurnberger & Gershon Depression Stunkard et al. Obesity


Outline principles that define the cognitive level of analysis. Metal representations guide behaviour; Mental processes can be scientifically investigated; Cognitive processes are influenced by social and cultural factors. Explain how principles that define the cognitive level of analysis may be demonstrated in research. Bartlett (1932) War of the Ghosts Schlaug (1932) Absolute Pitch HM - Amnesia Discuss how and why particular research methods are used at the cognitive level of analysis. HM Case Study Loftus & Palmer (1974) Experiment Discuss ethical considerations related to research studies at the cognitive level of analysis. HM Loftus & Palmer (1974) Evaluate schema theory with reference to research studies. Bartlett (1932) Anderson & Pichert (1978) Brewer & Trans (1981) Evaluate two models or theories of one cognitive process with reference to research studies. Atkinson & Shiffrin Baddeley & Hitch (1974) Explain how biological factors may affect one cognitive process. Amnesia: HM Clive Wearing Martinez & Kesner (1991)

Discuss how social or cultural factors affect one cognitive process. Cole & Scribner (1974) Bartlett (1932) With reference to relevant research studies, to what extent is one cognitive process reliable? Loftus & Palmer (1974) Brewer & Trans (1981) Yulle & Kutshall (1986) Brown & Kulik (1977) Discuss the use of technology in investigating cognitive processes. Mosconi (2005) PET Alzheimers Kilts (2003) MRI Products To what extent do cognitive and biological factors interact in emotion? Two factor theory Speisman et al. (1964) Ledoux (1999) mapping emotion Lazarus theory of appraisal Evaluate one theory of how emotion may affect one cognitive process. Flashbulb memory: Brown & Kulik (1977) Nisser & Harsch (1982)


Outline principles that define the sociocultural level of analysis. The social and cultural environment influences individual behaviour; we want connectedness with, and a sense of belonging to, others; we construct our conceptions of the individual and social self. Explain how principles that define the sociocultural level of analysis may be demonstrated in research. Kashima & Triandis (1986) Asch Tajfel Discuss how and why particular research methods are used at the sociocultural level of analysis. Lee et al. (1977) Experiment Sheriff Field experiment Discuss ethical considerations related to research studies at the sociocultural level of analysis. Bandura (1981) Zimbardo simulation Describe the role of situational and dispositional factors in explaining behaviour. Lau & Russel (1986) Lee et al. (1977) Discuss two errors in attributions. Fundamental Attribution Error: Lee et al. (1977) Self-Serving Bias/Modesty Bias: Kashima & Triandis (1986) Lau & Russel (1986)

Evaluate social identity theory, making reference to relevant studies. Tajfel (1971) Cialdini Explain the formation of stereotypes and their effect on behaviour. Steele & Aronson Barlett (1932) Campbell (1967) Hamilton and Giffords (1976) grain of truth hypothesis Explain social learning theory, making reference to two relevant studies. Bandura Charlton et al (2000) Discuss the use of compliance techniques. Dickerson et al (1992) foot in the door Cialdini (1974) low balling Evaluate research on conformity to group norms. Asch (1951) Discuss factors influencing conformity. Asch (1955) Group Size Asch (1956) - Unanimity Perrin and Spencer (1988) - Confidence Stang (1973) Self-esteem Moscovici and Lage (1976) Minority influence Berry (1967) Culture Friend et al. (1990) argue that there is a bias in the interpretation of the findings. Claims that it should be striking to us that in the face of unanimity so many people did not conform. Perhaps the question should be which factors allow people to dissent, rather than which factors influence conformity. Define the terms culture and cultural norms. Culture is a set of attitudes, behaviours and symbols shared by a large group of people usually communicated from one generation to the next. Cultural norms are the norms of an established group, which are transmitted across generations and regulate behaviour in accordance

with the groups beliefs about acceptable and unacceptable ways of thinking, feeling and behaving. Examine the role of two cultural dimensions on behaviour. Individualism/collectivism Bond & Smith (1996) Masculinity/femininity Mead Using one or more examples, explain emic and etic concepts. Kleinman (1984) Mead Depression in China

To what extent do biological, cognitive and sociocultural factors influence abnormal behaviour? Evaluate psychological research (that is, theories and/or studies) relevant to the study of abnormal behaviour. Examine the concepts of normality and abnormality. Great Ormond Childrens Hospital in London Rosenhan (1973) Rack (1982) Discuss validity and reliability of diagnosis. Great Ormond Childrens Hospital in London Rosenhan (1973) Rack (1982) Discuss cultural and ethical considerations in diagnosis. Great Ormond Childrens Hospital in London Rosenhan (1973) Rack (1982) Describe symptoms and prevalence of one disorder from two of the following groups: (anxiety, affective, or eating disorders). Affective: Major Depressive Disorder Affects around 15% of people at some time in their life (Charney and Weismann 1988) 2 3 times more common in women than in men.

Occurs frequently among members of lower socio-economic groups. Recurrent disorder, with about 80% experiencing a subsequent episode, with an episode typically lasting for three to four months. The average number of episodes is four. In approximately 12% of cases, depression becomes a chronic disorder with a duration of about two years. Anxiety: Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Prevelence rate of 1 3%. Estimated life time prevalence of 5% in men and 10% in women. There is a positive correlation between the site of attack and level of PTSD. Lasts more than 30 days and develops in response to a specific stressor. ABCS Affective: anhedonia (inability to form positive emotions) Behaviour: Hypervigilence. Cognitive: Intrusive memories Somatic: headache, stomach ache.

Analyse etiologies (in terms of biological, cognitive and/or sociocultural factors) of one disorder from two of the following groups (anxiety, affective, or eating disorders). Depression: Biological: Genetics and biochemical factors. Nurnberger and Gershon (1982) reviewed the results of seven twin studies and found that the concordance rate for depression was consistently higher for MZ than for DZ twins. Across the seven studies, reviewed, the average concordance rate for MZ was 65%, while for DZ twins it was 14%. Long term stress may result into depression. Duenwald (2003) have shown a short variant of the 5-HTT gene may be associated with a higher risk of depression. This gene plays a role in the serotonin pathways which scientists think are involved in controlling mood, emotions, aggression, sleep and anxiety. Janowsky et al. (1972) catecholamine/seratonin hypothesis

Participants who were given a drug called physostigmine became profoundly depressed and experienced feelings of self-hate and suicidal wishes within minutes of having taken the drug. Disturbance in neurotransmission -> depression. Drugs that increase the available moradrenaline tend to be effective in reducing the symptoms of depression. Burns (2003) says that although although he has spent many years of his career researching brain serotonin metabolism, he has never seen any convincing evidence that depression results from a deficiency of brain serotonin. Since it is not possible to measure brain serotonin levels in living humans, there is no way to test the theory. Fernald and Gunner (2008) Cognitive: Ellis (1962) proposed the cognitive style theory, suggesting that psychological disturbances often come from irration and illogical thinking. Beck (1976) suggested a theory of depression based on cognitive distortions and biases in information processing. Theory: based on schema processing where stored schemas about the self interfere woith information processing. Schemas are known to influence the way people make sense of experiences. He observed that depressive patients exhibited a negative cognitive triad characterized by: overgeneralization based on negative events. Non-logical inference about the self Dichotomous thinking that is black and white thinking and selective recall of negative consequences. Alloy et al. (1999) followed a sample of young Americans in their twenties for six years. Their thinking style was tested and they were placed in either the positive thinking group or the negative thinking group. After 6 years, the researchers found that only 1% of those in the positive thinking group had developed depression compared to 17% in the negative thinking group. CBT tries to correct the thinking. Sociocultural:

Brown and Harris (1978) carried out a study concerning the social origins of depression in women. The researchers found that 29 out of 32 women who became depressed had experienced a severe life event, but 78 per cent of those who did experience a severe life event did not become depressed. They discovered that life events, which resembled previous experiences, were more likely to lead to depression, they suggested a vulnerability model of depression, based on a number of factors that could increase the likelihood of depression. One out of 5 women reported that a similar severe life event had previously resulted in depression. Countries Prince (1968) claimed that there was no depression in Africa an various regions of Asia, but found that rates of reported depression rose with westernization in the former colonial countries. However, modern researchers argue that depression in non-modernized settings tend to be expressed differently and may escape the attention of a person from another culture. Kleinman (1982) Chinese rarely complain of feeling sad or depressed ut instead, they refer these feelings to the body as the medium of their distress. PTSD: Biological: High levels of noradrenaline cause people to express emotions more openly than is normal. (Geracioti, 2001) Geracioti (2001) found that PTSD patients had higher levels of noradrenaline than the average. In addition, stimulating the adrenal system in PTSD patients induced a panic attack in 70% of patients, and flashbacks in 40% of patients. No control group members experienced these symptoms. Finally, there is evidence for increased sensitivity of noradrenaline receptors in patients with PTSD. Cognitive: Intrusive memories are memories that come to consciousness seemingly at random. They often appear to be triggered by sounds, sights, or smells related to the traumatic event. Brewin et al. (1996) argue that these flashbacks occur as a result of cue-dependent memory, where stimuli similar to the original traumatic event may trigger sensory and emotional aspects of the memory, causing panic.

Rizzo developed a therapeutic tool using virtual reality to treat PTSD in veterans based on the concept of flooding (over exposure to stressful events) because it is well-known that the stress reaction will eventually fade out due to habituation. Sociocultural: Experiences with racism and oppression are predisposing factors for PTSD. Roysircar (2000) cites research that among Vietnam War veterans, 20% of black and 27% of Hispanic veterans met the criteria for a current diagnosis of PTSD compared to 13% of white veterans. 1988 in Bosnia, 73% of girls and 35% of boys in Sarajevo suffered from symptoms of PTSD. Kaminer et al. (2000) credited the higher rate of PTSD in girls to fear of rape. Social learning theory may play a role in PTSD. Silva (2000) have indicated that children may develop PTSD by observing domestic violence. Discuss cultural and gender variations in prevalence of disorders Depression: Prince (1968) Kleinman (1982) Women are two to three times more likely to become clinically depressed than men. Brown and Harris (1978) Aim: to examine the relationship between social factors and depression in a group of women from Camberwell in London. (refer to p.156) PTSD: Roysircar (2000) Breslau et al. 1991) did a longitudinal study of 1007 young adults who had been exposed to community violence and found a prevalence rate of 11.3% in women and 6% in men. Horowitx et al. (1995) reviewed a number of studies and found that women have a

risk up to 5 x greater than males to develop PTSD after a violent or traumatic event. Often, non-western survivors exhibit body memory symptoms. Symptoms differ in gender. Men are more likely to suffer from irritability and impulsiveness whereas women are more likely to have symptoms of numbing and avoidance. Men with PTSD are also more likely to suffer from substance abuse disorders whereas women are more likely to suffer from anxiety and affective disorders. Examine biomedical, individual, and group approaches to treatment. there is now a general belief that a multifaceted approach to treatment is the most efficient. This is called the biopsychosocial approach. Biomedical approach: based on the assumption that biological factors are involved in the psychological disorder Individual therapies are those in which a therapist works one on one with a client, usually including cognitive therapy where a therapist helps to change negative thought patterns. Highly individualised to meet the needs of the client. Generally has a positive effect. Group therapy: a group of clients meet with one or more therapists. Useful for specific groups to come together and share their experiences in group sessions. Allows them to talk about private matters that they have kept secret and this can be a part of the healing process. Opportunity to counsel several clients at the same time. Less expensive than individual therapy. Provides a support group and diminishes the role of the therapist, allowing the client to be less dependent. Helps clients to realise that they are not alone. Allows clients to role-play and develop social skills in a safe, supportive environment. Culture: Mutlaq and Chaleby (1995) have identified several problems with group therapy when applied in Arab cultures. Strict gender roles, deference to members in the group based on age or tribal status, and the misperception that the therapy session is simply another social activity.

Therapists may use indigenous healing practices (encompasses therapeutic beliefs and practices that are rooted within a given culture) In Malaysia, religion is incorporated into psychotherapy. Focuses on verses of the Koran. Research has found that the Chinese Taoist cognitive psychotherapy was more effective in the long term reduction of anxiety disorders than treating the patients with medication. Miller (2000) proposes a community-based treatment to complement traditional therapy. Her ecological model emphasizes the relationships between people and the setting they live in. Evaluate the use of biomedical, individual and group approaches to the treatment of one disorder. Discuss the use of eclectic approaches to treatment. Discuss the relationship between etiology and therapeutic approach in relation to one disorder.

To what extent do biological, cognitive and sociocultural factors influence health-related behavior? Evaluate psychological research (that is, theories and/or studies) relevant to health psychology. Describe stressors Any adverse or challenging event physiological or psychosocial could be labelled as a stressor. Acute stressors: appear suddenly, do not last long, and cal for immediate attention. This is the case with physical injury or the attack of a predator. The body will move into a state of alert and deal with the stress, eventually returning to what is called homeostasis. Chronic stressors: last for a long time and are a constant source of worry. This kind of stress is dangerous because it affects the body in many damaging ways, partly because of a rise in the stress hormone cortisol. In chronic stress, the body does not return to homeostasis because the stressor is constantly present whether real or imagined. Hans Seyle - GAS Discuss physiological, psychological and social aspects of stress. Physiological: Hans Seyle, Kiecolt-Glaser et al. (1984) Psychological: Reed et al. (1999), Kemeny et al. (2005) Social Aspect: Taylor (2002) Evaluate strategies for coping with stress. MBSR Shapiro et al. (1998) Social Support Taylor (2002) Explain factors related to the development of substance abuse or addictive behavior. Biological: Nicotine: it simulates the release of adrenaline, which increases heart rate and blood pressure. It stimulates the release of dopamine in the brains reward circuits, which results in a brief feeling of pleasure. It

acts on acetylcholine receptors in the brain, as if it were the natural neurotransmitter. DiFranza et al. (2006) Cognitive and Sociocultural: Social Learning Theory: Bauman et al. (1990) Unger et al. (2001) Examine prevention strategies and treatments for substance abuse and addictive behavior (for example, alcoholics anonymous, family therapy, drugs and bio psychosocial treatments). Advertising: Charlton et al. (1997) formula one racing Treatments: Nicotine replacement therapy, Zyban, Multifaceted approach: Olsen et al. (2006) Discuss factors related to overeating and the development of obesity Physiological aspect: Genetic predisposition. Stunkard et al. (1990) Sociocultural: Prentice and Jebb (1995) Cognitive: False hope syndrome (Polivy 2001) Discuss prevention strategies and treatments for overeating and obesity CBT:: cognitive behavioural therapy. Beck (2005) Stahre et al. (2007) Diet:: Brownell et al. (1989) Drug Treatments:: Berkowitz et al. (2006) Surgical: Maggard et al. (2005)

Examine models and theories of health promotion (for example, health belief model, stages of change model, theory of reasoned action). Rosenstock (1974) the health belief model Prochaska et al. (1982) stages of change model Discuss the effectiveness of health promotion strategies (for example, measurement of outcomes, cultural blindness, cognitive dissonance).