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ii

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Preface .
Division 1, General Information
Chapler I, Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Pipe 1
Chapter II, Material Properties 7
PVC Pipe Compounds 8
El:lstomcric Seal Compounds 15
Chapler III, Resistance [0 Aggressive Environments 17
Corrosion Rcsistanl.:C I g
Chemic:!l Resistanl.:e 22
Therll1:11 Effects , , 49
l3iological At tal.:k , , ' ' 50
Weathering , , , , 51
AbrasIOn .. , , . , , 52
Tuberl.:ulat[on , , , .. , , , 54
Chapler IV, I've Pipe Jnu Testing , 59
M:lIllJ f;" turlll); Processes. . .. . ,............... . 60
Standards for PI:lstH;s Piping. . 67
PVC; Pipe Tes! ing , 79
Quali fil.:a tion Tcsls , , 80
Quality Control Tests and IllSpe...:t1on 85
Quality ,\ssurancc Tests S8
Test Certification and Warranty 88
Packaging anu Shipping 90
Division 2, Design
Chapler V, Design 95
Published Design Guides and Recommendations 96
Static and Dynamic Loadings 99
Internal Hydrostatic Pressure 99
Surge Pressures 112
Superimposed Loads 119
Flexible PIpe Theories ................................... 136
Longitudinal Bending 165
Support Spacing 181
iii
TABLE OF CONTENTS - Continued
Chapter V, Design (Continued)
Expansion and Contraction 185
Hydraulics 188
Application Precautions 214
Division 3."Construction
Chapter VI, Construction 232
Receiving, Storage and H1ndling :232
Joint Assembly 236
23t)
Appurtenances 25..J.
Casings 207
St:rvkc Connections 2(jt)
Tcs.ting antllnspcction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272
ArpcmHx 1- Typical Properties of Elastotllcri..: Compollnd:-- . . . . ...
2. Maximum Usc Temperature for PVC Pipe. . .. 2S(1
.3 Support for Suspcnded Horizont:tl PVC PIpe
Fi1Icd with Water ..... _. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2:)7
4 - Effects of Cold \Veather on PVC Pipe 2t:B
5 . PVC PIpe Dimensions _ 2lJ 1
Index 297
GENERAL INFORMATION
SUlllmary of Historical and Background Inform:ltion,
Raw "Iaterial Properties and Characteristics.
Resistance to Aggressive Exposures. and
Description of Manufacturing and Testing Procedures.
HANDBOOK OF PVC PIPE
CHAPTER I
POLYVINYL CHLORIDE (PVC) PIPE
PVC pipe provides today's advanced world many significant benefits
developed through modern technology. Polyvinyl chloride material is
truly one of mankind's substantial achievements, a man-made thermoplastic
construction material which, in a practical sense, can be considered nearly
inert when exposed to a vast array of chemical agents including most acids,
alkalies, fuel's, and corrosives. With further consideration of PVC's light
weight, high strength-to-weight ratio, exceptional durability, great resili-
ency and other unique thermoplastic properties, the great benefits afforded
by PVC pipe are casily appreciated. Modern technology has provided our
world with PVC pipe. a product based on reliability ond durabJiny.
;,\ ,\, ,
,. .. OTO COU1'T[:" ... 0"-
Cr:t1TAI""Tl:l:O cO...O"ATIO...
The history or PVC pipe is varied and colorrul. Although accepted
today as a mature product based on pro\'en technology, in its early years
PVC pipe was more commonl,. considered a "child prodigy" in the piping
industry.
Polyvinyl chloride was discovered in the waning years or the nine-
teenth century. Its birth was not particularly glamorous. Scientists ob-
serving a newly created organic chemical gas, vinyl chloride (C
2
H
3
Cl),
discovered that when exposed to sunlight this gaseous material reacted
strangely. The chemical reaction which ensued resulted in the creation of
an off-white accumulation or solid material in the bottom of their lest
tubes. The scientists had observed simple polymerization or the basic
creation of a new plastic material, polyvinyl chloridc. Subsequcnt investi-
gation of the new polymer at first created great excitement and, somewhat
later, great disappointment. The scientists were astonished by the incredi-
CHAITER 1- POLYVINYL CHLORIDE (pVC) PIPE
ble new plastic matenal which seemed nearly inert to most chemicals and,
in fact. virtually indestructible. However, they soon found the material
so resistant to change that they were forced to concede that it couid not
be easily formed or processed into useable applications. Soon thereafter,
PVC was termed another of science's great discoveries without an apparent
application, and the world forgot about the unique new plastic.
Not until the 1920's did curiosity again bring polyvinyl chloride
into the limelight. Scientists in Europe and America launched into ex-
tended efforts which eventually brought PVC plastics to the modern world.
Technology, world wide but particularly in Germany, slowly evolved for
the use of PVC in its un plasticized, rigid form which today is used in thc
vast production of extruded and molded rigid profiles. In the middle
1930s. C;;'rman scit:ntisb and cllgilh:t:r::. dcvdoped and produced lirnited
quantitIes of PVC pIpe. Some of the PVC pip, lines insLdkd at that rime
continul' today to pro\'ilk SlfVicc.
III ;1 s",'!1sI'. tll!'" PV'C piJK' industry C:lll b,,' ,:onsidl..'fCd ;1 "\v:n 'o':'1:b).',"
III till' \\;lllltlg years or World \Var II. lIll' :\\1:\ pOWl'rs led by lIiller\., Third
Rl'icl1 hl'g:lll to lalll'l :lllli Llij :IS tlie :llf suprl'm:l-:Y or llll' :\!ill't! pCFWt:l":-;
S:IPIWd .-\\.1:-" sln:ngllJ. 'I he pain 01 del'cat was kit c:J.rly in
C;\.'rlll;lllY;" citll'S Whh:ll 1I;u.1 bCl'1l bOlllhL:d ThL'lr people \VCl't.'
ahlt,: to survivl..' in and fubbh:. but they cuuld nol
till' par:l!ysis wllich sL'l ill WilL'!l tilL' bombing dcstroyL'd JJ1Udl 01 their \vatcr
and SL'\\'\.:r systems. TilL' crisis \Vas further comj1ounc.kd by till'
done by tile AI!ies to the Rullr and Sa,,,. Germany's sources of iron and
mincrals vital to the manufacturc of conventional piping products.
In this chaos. tllc German scientists and engineers turned to poly-
vinyl chloride. In response to their crisis. the Germans mobilized G new
industry. The PVC pipe industry was born.
Today, PVC pipe has become a signilicant factor in piping markets
throughout the world. Over the years. tile PVC pipe industry in North
America has grown and matured. By 1976, manufacturers of PVC pipe in
the United States were able to provide a production capacity in excess of
1.5 billion pounds per year of PVC pipe.
Although today many organizations have recognized the benefits
of PVC pipe and have written standards for the product, the foundation
for North America's plastics standards was established and built since the
1940's by ASTM, the American Society for Testing and Materials. ASTM
is an organization of concerned producers. and individuals
with general interest who work together to develop consensus standards
HANDBOOK OF PVC PIPE
PVC PIPE INDUSTRY GROWTH
CHAJ:TER I - POL\''VINYL CHLORiDE (>vq PIPE
nicipal water main. The American Public Works Association (AP'VWA) has
developed a series of regional standards for the proper use ofP\lC pipe.
In an ever increasing number of plumbing and building code organizations,
PVC pipe has been accepted as a viable piping product. The "{Jni-Bell
Plastic Pipe Association was formed in 1971 and has provided tS':cnnical
service, research and development, and support in standards development.
(See Uni-Bell Recommended Standards.) Many other associatiQ:ffis and
organizations have written excellent standards for PVC pipe. (See Chapter
IV - Product Specifications.)
The PVC pipe ind ustry has
been nurtured, trained, disciplined.
and guided by a host of fine organi-
zations, agencks and
individuals as it has grown and
matured. With the invaluabk
opportunity to karn frOIll the mis-
lakes of its predecessors, the PVC
pipe industry has bl:t:n able to as-
sume a rl:spomibk. nwturt: position in North All1erica. orrcring rdiabik and
durable pipe products to owners. l:ngineers, contractors. operator>. a:nd
great consumer public ... PVC pipl', a tried and proVt:n. en::::. iml:cr-

ing material.
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for a vast varidy of industry products. :\s the members of r\ST,\l worked
to devC'1op !lood standards for PVC observed closely tlledlorts
of ISO, the III tc rn;lt ional Standards 0 rgan \VII ich prcparl'S rna Ill' of
tile standards in Europe and Asia.
[n thl' years since the !:til' 1950's wht:l1 ('ommitlt:e D20 all
Plastics commenced standards for PVC pipe, much Jws occurred
as tile in dust ry mat urecl. Till' llydrost at ic Design Stress Commi ttee 0 f the
Plastics Pipe Institute (1'1'1) developed a reliable mt:ans of determining the
long-term strength of PVC pressure pipe. At tile request of the thermo-
plastic pipe industry, the National Sanitation Foundation (NSF) in 1951
began developing a listing and testing service :1S an independent laboratory
certifying that various plastic pipe products are properly manufactured to
meet acceptable standards. NSF initially began by testing and certifying
plastic pipe for potable water service in 1959. Significant in the accept.mce
of PVC pipe was the publishing of standards in the years from the late
1950's to the early 1970's by the U.S. Department of Commerce (Com-
mercial Standards and Public Standards) and by the U.S. Department of
Housing and Urban Development. ASTi\I Committee F17 on Thermo-
plastic Piping Systems grew out of ASTM Subcommittee D20.17 and was
formed to concentrate specifically on standards development for the plastic
pipe industry. The American Water Works Association (AWWA) estab-
lished a Standards Committee on Thermoplastic Pipe in 1968 which after
seven vears of hard work succp.p.rlp.c1 in rlpvplr"lnina " C"t.,,,rl,,,rrl fA" pur
HANDBOOK OF PVC PIPE
CHAPTER [
BIBLIOGRAPHY
I. "AIVIVA Standard for Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Pressure Pipe, 4 inch Through
12 inch for Water AWWA C900." American Water Works Association, Denver,
Colordo (I975).
2. Bulkey, Charles W., Robert G. Morin, and Alan J. Stockwell. "Vinyl Polymers and
Copolymers." Modern Plastics Encyclopedia 1968, v. 45: No. 14A (Oct. 1968)
p.336.
3. Henson, J. H. L. and A. Whelan. DCI'clopmel/ls il/ PVC Techl/%gy, National
College of Rubber Technology, London (February 1973).
4. W. D, "PVC Pipe in WJtCf 1J1::>[ribulion: RdiJbility :mtl Durability."
Amcrit:aIl WJtcr Works Assocbtion JourI1:d, Y. 67, no. 10 (ItJ75l p. 576,
5. PenH, W. S. PVC TccJll/ulugy. Wiley IrltCl::',:ICIll.:C, :\ DiVJ::,lutl of John Wiley ;llIJ
Sons. Inc., \cw York (jtJ{)7).
(1. "Poly (VlIlyl Chloridt:) (PVC) Plplll!' Lksign ;!lld II1\[all:l[lOll:' PPI'I t.'ch
IIkal Report. PPI . TRI3. Pb:>.IIC:- PlJll' Nrw York. New '/ork
1'J73 ).
7. Til:dclll;lIl. W:l!lcr D. ":\ Study or Plastic Pipe rOf Pot;lhk \bll:] N;IIJollal
S;lIlitalion Fnullt!atioll. Ann /\11>01. i\llclll).::IlJ (1955).
CHAPTER 1I
ATE R I A L I' R 0 PER TIE S
The Buildiug Blocks of Unilkll Joint PVC Pipe
arc PVC alld Elastolllcric Compounds
CHAPTER If - MATERIAL PROPERTIES
of footwear. Flexibles may be used
in production of hose. Rigids are
used in the production of PVC pipe.
Rigid PVC compounds are
combinations of PVC resin, stabilizer,
lubrican ts and extenders with modi-
fiers added for special property re-
sponse. Rigid compounds prepared
for PVC pipe extrusion are carefully
PHOYQ COURTz;.SY OF
CERTAIN'THO CORPORATION. designed and developed to provide
specific properties required In a PVC piping
product, It should be noted tbat relatively high
tensik sIre ngt h and a high strength-to-wcigh t
r:.ltio are needed for PVC and sewer
pipe; conseq Uc ntly. the compo und docs not
contain plasticizLTs as llsed in the l11anUfaLlurc
of marL' fkxibk products.
Rigid I've compounds for
Iransport of pUI:lbk w:Iler must mccl crileri:l
bas\,.'d on toxicological and (taste
and odOr) propcrlks monitored by the 1\ation:Ji
S:mit:ilion Foundation (NSF) :Illd mllst illl.'t:!
desiSIl Sll\'SS properties as deillunstrated by long-
IeI'm uIHlt:r ilydroslati.: lIydrostatic Stress ratings
are established after 10.000 hours of hydrost:ltic testing.
To de fille the basic prope rt ies 0 I' PVC compounds. tilL' American
Socit.:' ty for TL'5t ing and tvl ate rials (ASTI\1) establishl.'d st:llld ard spL'cifiL'atio n
D178..1-. tlw "Standard Specification for Rig.id Poly (Vin)'l Chloride) and
Chlorinated Poly (Vinyl Chloride) Compounds'" This specification makes
possible a five-digit cell class designation system which describes minimum
characteristic physical properties for a particular compound . .-\ letter suffix
is used to designate chemical resistance,
CHAPTER II
MATERIAL PROPERTIES
PVC pipe with Uni-Bell joints derives properties and characteristics
as a modem piping prod uet from the basic properties of its raw material
components. Essentially, PVC pipe with gasketed joints is manufactured
from two basic polymeric materials - PVC extrusion compounds and
elastomeric seal compounds. A brief summary of the material properties
for these"compound s provides solid fou ndation for good understand ing
and appreciation of PVC pipe properties, its capabilities :.md limitations.
HANDBOOK OF PVC PIPE
PVC PIPE COi\IPOUNDS
of PVC pipe in produc-
tion of thl' pipe in OIlL' or two forms. call PVC \..'xtrusion
compound pre-hkntkd COlllllll'fcially in 1'01' plpl.' l':\!rLlsion. or
they can purcllasl' PVC resin alld prepare I own hklllkd
L'olllpounds for PVC pip\..' l'\;.trusion. 11l:ljor 1l1:llllILldurcl's pun:lt:lsl'
PVC r\..'sin and COml1lellCl' thcir lllalllll"adurillg prou:sses wlll1 lilc
tion or PVC pipe ext rusion compounds.
PVC n:sin, thl..' basic huilding block or PVC pipe. is derIVed esscntially
from natural gas or petrokulll, salt W:ltel'. and air. [11 its fin:d form. pre-
pared ror processing into PVC pipe compound. it resembles granulated
sugar in appearance and tex ture. PVC resin offc rs excl'11c nt physica I.
chemical. mechanical. and electrical properties for PVC pipe: ]lOwcver.
wi thou t add )tional processi ng into extrusion
compound, it cannot be extruded successfully'
into finished PVC pipe. PVC resin. produced by
any of the COlllmon processes -
bulk, suspension, or emulsion processes - is
useless until compounded, that is, combined
with heat stabilizers, lubricants, and otber
ingredients.
In general, compounds made from PVC
resins comprise three types ... plastisols, f1exi-
bles, and rigids. Each compound type is used in
the manufacture of different types of PVC
products. Plastisols may be used in production
CHAPTER H - MATERIAL PROl'EEUIES
AST,',! DI711-1, American Sueicll' for and .\l;llcrials. I'JI!, Race ::'1" l'hli;ldcJphl".. I'A
19103
B 4 5
.
..
The manner in which selected materials are identified by this classification system IS iJIus-
trated by a Class 12454B rigid PVC compound ha\'ing the following requirement:;'. (see
Tables I and 2):
TABLE 2 - SUFFIX DESIGNATION FOR CHEMICAL RESISTA[\;CE
Solution ABC D
FIGURE 1
EXAMPLE - CLASS REQUIREMENTS
Class I 2
Idelltificatioll:
Poly(vinyl chloride) homopolymer
Properly and Minimum Valuc:
Impact strength (fzod) {34.7 JIm (0.65 ft. - Ibflin
Tensile strength (48.3 MPa (7000 psi-------- ----l
Modulus of elasticity in tension (2758 MPa (400,000 psi)-------_-1
Deflection temperature under load (70 C (158 F- --'
Chemical resistance (meets the requirements of SulJix B
in Table 2) -------------------- --.J
Non: The cell'lype format the for idenliJication ;,nJ cJo,e .
lion and specification of maleri;,1 alone or in combln;ltltln, fur a hroad ranG.'': of
m:Herials. 'Jhis type furm;ll. wbjecl 10 /ll1,,,pplic"IHH'I ,mCt unobtaInable
properly cO/llbinatlon, can be ii u'el is Illli brnil!;l! wlth CUIl\ll1crcially avadabk
matcriah. The manufacturer should be
Table 2 tkfirws IllJl1JIllUrn chelllkaJ resistance n:quin':ll1ents for
compounds, The ktter suffix, In gC1H:r;tl. describes various levels of rC'"sist-
ance to oil and to sulfuric acid in weak or strong concl;ntr:ltions.
(93 pcrccnt)-14 tbys immersion at 55 2 C:
Ch,lnge in weight:
NA' Increase. max, percent 1.0' 5.0' 25.0
Decrease. max, percent 0.1' 0.1' 0.1 "NA
Change in flexural yield strength:
Increase. max, percent 5.0' 5.0' 5.0 ;NA
Decrease, max. percent 5.0' 25.0' 50.0 NA
(80 percent)-30 days immersion at 60 2 C:
Change in weight:
Increase, max, percent NA NA 5.0 115.0
Decrease. max. percent NA NA 5.0 0.1
Change in flexural yield strength:
Increase, max, percent NA NA 15.0 25.0
Decrease, max. percent NA NA 15.0 25.0
ASTM Oil No.3-3D days immersion at 23 C:
Change in weight:
Increase, max, percent 0.5 1.0 1.0
Decrease. max, percent 0.5 1.0 1.0 0.1
< Specimens washed in running water and dried by an air blost or other mechanical
shall show no sweating within 2 h after removal from the acid oath.
> NA = not applicable.
ASTM D1784, American Society for Tesling and Materials, 191(\ Race SI., Philadelphia, PA
19103
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HANDBOOK OF PVC PIPE


HANDBOOK OF PVC PIPE
TABLE 3 - PVC PIPE i\IATERIAL CODES
FIGURE 2 _ EXAMPLE - PVC PIPE l\lATERIAL CODE
]2454B
I2454C
11443ll
1-1333D
132.13
23417Jj
1522311
Class [rom
Table ]
Type r. Grade ]
Type I. Gr:Jde 2
Type 1, Grade _,
Type 1J. Grade I
T)pe JlJ. Gr:llk I
'f HC JV, Gr;,dc I
'f ype V. Grade I
TABLE 4 - COMPARISON OF FORMER AND NEW DESIGNAT10NS
Former Commercial Type and
Grade from Former Specification
D 1784 - 65 T
AS'!.\l DJ71\l, :\Jllcric;1ll SUCIeIY for 'J l;o,ling and \hlcri',h 1'II (, J,"'I:" SI I'II'J 1 I ". f' \
!':I103 " '"' . - .. 1 ,IlCprJJa. I
CHAPTER 11 - MATERIAL PRO';1'ERTIES
Comparison of \hc PVC Pipe Material Codes with the current cell
classification system as defined in ASTjI,l D1784 is presented in Tflble 4.
PVC compounds can be produced in vast variety: however, the
properties afforded by specific compounds may be easily identifi-ed and
compared with standard requirements by defining the appropriate cell
classifications for the compounds.
,\llllOllgh may proridl' sublk rariatiuns ill PV( pipe
C01ll p,oUJlds willlill tilL' limits of st,lIld;ml l"l'<juin:llll'llls, PVC
used In thL' m,llluJ"acllln: or PVC pipc genn,lIly 1;1I11nlo threL'
fiL-atiolls. Table S describes typical average propntks or three compuunds
l"Olllfllonly tlsl'd in the PVC pipL' industry, Tlll'sl.: <:Dmpollnds
as; (I) normal impact compounds blended with minimum k\'cJs 0(- addi-
tives. (2) high impact compounds. and (3) high modulus compounds.
o 2
(I) PVC Type I, Grade I. with a hydrostatic design stress of 2,000 psi for \V,lter at 23 DC
(73.4 OF), designated as PVC! 120.
(2) PVC Type 1. Grade 2, with a hydrostatic design stress of 2.000 psi for water at 23 DC
(73.4 oF), tksignated as PVCI220,
(3) PVC Type II. Gr,lde I. with a hydrostatic dcsign stress of 1.000 psi for wiltCr at 23C
(73.4 OF), designated as PVC21 10.
C4) PVC Type II, Grade 1, with a hydrostatic design stress of 1.250 psi for waler al 23 DC
(73.4 OF), designated as PVC2112.
(5) PVC Typc II, Grade L with a hydrostatic design stress of 1,600 psi for water at 23 DC
(73.4 OF), designated as PVC2I 16.
(6) PVC Type II, Grade I, with a hydroslatic design stress of 2,000 psi for water at 23 DC
(73.4 OF), designated as PVC2120,
(7) CPVC Type IV, Grade 1. with a hrdrostatic design strcss of 1.600 psi for warer al
23 'c (73.4 OF), designated as CI'VC4116.
(8) CPVC Type IV, Grade I, with a hydrostatic design slress of 2,000 psi for Water al
23 'C (73.4 OF), designated as CPVC4120.
As shown in 2. tilt: pbs lic pi pc Il1:1tl'ria I code C)scn (ia II)' dc-
lIncd threc or a designatcd PVC compound: (J} i1llP:1Cl slrength.
(2} chemical rcsistance, and l3} hydrostatic lksigll stress. ill units or 100
psi, Pigure 2 shows IJ OW till' Ill:! t eria I cotk descri hed till' spel-i fic properl il:s
for a g,iwll PVC pipe compoulld.
(0111111On plastic pipe material codes used prior to th:..' rl'vision 01'
ASTi\! D1784 to permit specificatioll of PVC compound propnlics by cell
classification arc listed in Table 3 - PVC Pipe }.1ater'lal Codc:'>. It I11mt bl:
emphasized t ilat spcci rica ti on 0 f PVC COIll POtill cls by rna terial codes was
rendered obsolete when the presellt cell classificalion system was developed.
The manner in which selected materials are identified by this materi.i1 code is illustrated by a
PVC 1120 compound having the following requirements:
Material Code PVC I
IDENTIFICATION I I
Polyvinyl Chloride homopolymer----------
Type I - impact strength (1200) {3.J.7 Inl
(0.65 ft. Ibc!in)) minimuml--------------
Grade 1 _ chemical resistance - as defined under
Suffix B in Table 2 ---------------------'
Hydrostatic units of JUU psi--------------------'
A51:-'1, r\merlc:m fur '['estin); and :-'laleri.l!s, ICI<:e St.. I'hil.,ddphi;t, l'r\
Prior to the development of the cell classification system PVC
compounds defined in ASTfvl D1784, PVC pipe compounds were spccil1ed
by means of a four-digit plastic pipe material code.
Hij:h Head
Application
50 f1. head
and above
8
5
No cracks
15
20
15
20
13.11 (2000)
400
40-60
Low Head
Appliculion
below
SO (I. head
8
5
4060
15
25
No cracks
15
20
8.3 (1200)
325
CHArTER Il - MATERIAL PROPERTIES
TABLE 6 - PHYSICAL REQUfREMEl\TS FOR ELASTOMERIC
SEALS FOR PLASTIC PIPE
(as defined in ASTM
Decrease in tensile stn:ngth,
max. percent of original
Decrease in elongation, max.
percent of original
Hardness, type A Durometer, max.
increase, points
Change in volume, percent, max.
NOTE: . Elastomericcompowrds must flot react with or display deleterious eoects 011 PVC
pipe, Elastomeric compoIlnds in corl/act with PVC pipe must flat promote or contribute to
crazing, cracking, pifling, or blistering in the PVC pipe wall. Staining of the PVC ill the area
of gasket corHacr is acceptable.
Elastomeric compounds for gaskets should nor promote (]T sustain microbiological growth.
ASTM F477, American Society for Testing and Materials, 1916 Race St., Philadelphia, PA
19103
LASTO},fERIC
Elastomeric compounds used In manufacture of gaskets for gasketed
PVC pipe should comply in all respects with the physical requirements
specified in ASTM F477. "Standard Specification for Elastomeric Seals
(Gaskets) for Joining Plastic Pipe."
ASTM F477 specifies elastomeric seals used to seal joints of plastic
used for gravity or low pressure and high pressure applications. Table
defines physical requirements for elastomeric seals for plastic pipe.
Elastomeric materials with more specific properties are generally
used by each pipe manufacturer. (See Appendix 1 - Typical Properties of
.. Elastomeric Compounds).
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HASDllOOK OF PVC PIPE
CHAPTER II
BIBLIOGRAPHY
l. "PVC, Plastics Engineering Primer," Plastics Engineering, v. 29, No. 12 (December
1973) p. 25.
2. "PVC Resins and Compounds." Allied Chemical Technical Bulletin. Allied Chemi
cal Corporation (October 1972).
3. "Standard Specification for Elastomeric Seals (Gaskets) for Joining Plastic Pipe.
ASTM F471." American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, Po. (1977).
4. "St:wd:lrd Specification for Poly (Vinyl Chloride) Resins. ASTi\1 DI756." American
SUL:iely for Testing :lnd 1\lalcri:.Jb, Phiiadclphi:L P;l.
5. "SI:llld:irJ Specification fur Puly (Vlllyl Chl\lridc) ('tlmpuund" ;llld
1\11)' (VIllyl Cldullde) Compuund:... AST.\! Dj7S-L" Stl,,'lt'ty lor Te;.,uug
:!lld PhibJdphi:l. b. (I tJ7S).
b. }'carbo!I}; ilnd Dm:cfO/T. 'flit Lo;, All}!t:lt';" Rubhcl Ill\.:, Lu:. Alll.'t'lc:... CJ!IL
I I 'noI. .
CHAPTER HI
RESISTA"CE TO
AGGRES S I VEE" VI RON EN'I' S
Analysis of PVC Pipe Response to
Aggressive Exposures An t icipa ted
in Application of the Product
HANDBOOK OF PVC PIPE
CHAPTER III
RESISTANCE TO AGGRESSIVE ENVIRONMENTS
The cost of piping systems is evaluated on the basis of cost for initial
materials, installation, operation, and repair or replacement over the system
life. PVC pipe, in comparison with traditional piping products, excels when
long-tenn durability and reliability are evaluated. However, as with all
designed products, successful long-term performance of PVC pipe depends
upon system design, installation, and application. Although the
pipe displays exceptional resistance to aggressive environments which
frequently limit the operating life of other piping products, it is important
that the of PVC pipe to aggressive environments be understood
by owners, engineers: contractors, and operators.
Analysis of aggressive c:nvironments inherent in nature's as wdl as
man's industrial environment can involve a broad scope. In this chapter,
resistance to aggressive environments for PVC piping prouucts have been
summarized in general categories:
I. Corrosion Resistance
2. Chemical Resislancc
3. Thcrmal ElTecb
4. Rcsistance to Attack
5. Weathering Resistance
6. Abrasion Rcsistance
7. Tuberculation Resistance
CORROSION RESISTANCE
The cost of maintenance, repair, and replacement of underground
pipelines damaged by corrosion is estimated in the hundrcds of millions of
dollars expense incurred annually. The National Association of Corrosion
Engineers and others have published many articles describing the types
and causes of corrosion with various recommended methods for prevention
and cure. Much time and effort are expended in the design of metallic
piping systems to minimize the never ending attack by corrosion. During
the many years of system operation and maintenance, substantial cost is
incurred and effort is expended to prevent or diminish loss of system
service - gradual or catastrophic.
PVC pipe is immune to nearly all types of corrosion experienced in
underground piping systems whether the corrosion is chemical or eleetro-
CHAPTER !II - RESISTANCE TO AGGRESSIVE ENVIRO>IMENTS
chemIcal in nature.::' polyvinyl chloride is a nonconductor, g:alvanic
and electrochemical effects are non-existent in PVC piping systems. PVC
pipe suffers no damage caused by attack from norma! or corrosive soils. In
consequence, no linings, coatings, or cathodic protection is required when
PVC pipe is used.
Proper evaluation of the non-eorrosive properties of PVC pipe can
best be accomplished after a brief summary of corrosion fundamentals.
It must be noted that some pipes may suffer corrosion calL5ed by
attack from the outside as well as the inside. In evaluation of corrosive
attack from the outside environment of a pipe, the three general types of
electrochemical corrosion experienced by metallic pipes should be defined:
I. Corrosion caused by stray currenl electrolysis,
) corrosion by dissimilar metal conveners,
and
3. Galvanic corrosion cltlsed by differential electrolysis.
Tiles'.: types 01' corrosion an; characterized by the formation of
ekclro!ytic cells. i\reas of differing ekctrical potential develop un tile
sur!':lc\.' or the pipe due to chemic:11 and/or physical dirkn..:nces in or all
the JnL'tal. ('.g.. variation in composition within till' metal. IJirren..:r:H":cs ill
the surface film and/or difkrences from point to point in the conosive
medium arc also related to the development of anodic .1Ild cathodic ."."".
These areas may be microscopic and in very close proximity, or they may
be and somewhat rcmote from onc another. !lowever, establishmcnt
of anodic and cathodic areas contributes directly to the creation of dectro-
lytic cells which providc the necessary electro-ehemical reaction causing
corrosion through various forms of clectrolysis.
At the anode, positively charged metal ions go into solution. The
electrons liberated through release of the ions 110w through the metal to
the cathode area. At the cathode, a reduction reaction takes plClce in-
volving release of hydrogen ions. The circuit is completed as current 110ws
through the electrolyte from the cathode to the anode. The rate of corro-
sion is dependent upon the quantity of current 110wing, a condition which
is determined by the resistance of the electrolytic cell and the difference
in electrical potential. The resistance may increase due to accumulation of
corrosion products at the anode or deposition of hydrogen at the callhode.
The degree to which the cell is polarized, contributing to development of
electrical potential. depends upon the soil chemistry, i.e., the relative solu-
bility of corrosion products and/or the presence of dissolved oxygen.
Current density, as determined by the ratio of anode area tfJ that
HANDBOOK OF PVC PIPE
of the cathode. also has an important intluence on the corrosion process.
A small anode, e.g., a hole or holiday in a pipe coating, and a large cathode
tend to result in an increase in current density with a subsequent increase
in corrosion in the small anode area.
There are other ways in wh.ich corrosion may attack the outside of
pipes without electrolysis. Acidic water within the soil environment may
contribute to the external corrosion of both metallic and cementitious
pipes. Industry has found it necessary to develop guidelines for such
service in an acidic environment when cement-based pipe products are
used. GUidelines have been established by the American Water Works
Association (AWWA) for selection of asbestos-cement pressure pipe to be
in ::m acidic (S('(':-\ \\'W:\ Standard C400 Forward.)
The AWWA Standards Committee 1'01' Cas I Iron Pipe has established
"uiddinGs 1'01' Soil-Test Evalu:Jlion 1'01' C:ht :IIHI ductile iron pll,e. It shuuld
l)t.' Ilolt:d plastic skcyt..':-. have bt'L'll rCl:OI11JllL'l1lkd ror el1casemL'nt or
cast and ducrik iron pipL'S 1'01' protection III currosivL' t.:nvirOlltlll..'llb.
\\'lwrl: tilt: soils an; witll extrL'ml'i)' high sulralL' contL'llb.
COIH.:rt..'tL' pipe should ill' madt..' with sulfate CL'lllcnts of Type II
or '[ype V Portland Celllen!. Where' th,' I'll uf the soil is less than 5.5.
both cOllcn:k and steel pipes should h.' prokd\:d frolll ;lllack hy cO;ltin!!s
or sacrifici:J1thickness.
In consideration of tlll' large costs 01" extcrnal corrosioJl of pipes.
much work !l;JS been done to estimate cllL'clivc pipe service lik in corrosive
soils. The service lives of metal pipes and culverts have been established
for various common soil conditions by the State of California. Division of
Highways. In this study, charts and graphs arc provided to permit esti-
mation of service life prior to metal perforation witll consideration given to
soil resistivity and water environment.
Corrosion may also occur on the inside of some pipes conveying
aggressive waters and low hardness waters. Internal pipe corrosion affects
pipe strength and hydraulic !low characteristics. The Langelier Index or
Ryznar Index, which can be applied to the various waters. defines the
degree of aggressiveness or tendency of the water to corrode or encrust
ferrous pipes. Low hardness waters also attack non-ferrous metal pipes.
Various modified indexes are also used in assessing the corrosive effects of
different waters on different materials. Some municipalities have found
it necessary to treat their potable water supplies by adding polyphosphates,
adjusting the pH or increasing hardness to provide protection against
internal corrosion in water mains, service connections and home plumbing.
CIIAPTER III - RESISTANCE TO AGGRESSIVE E:-iVIRO:-i.IIENT'
Internal corrosion may also be minimized in some piping products
by use of protective liners. Cement lining is commonly required in steel,
cast and ductile iron pipe. Prestressed and reinforced concrete pipes
depend on the concrete encasement to protect the steel cylinder and/or
reinforcement bars. Coal tar enamels and various other coatings are com-
monly used as liners in metal pipes.
In sewage collection lines, the internal corrosion of piping can be a
serious problem. Vitrified clay sewer pipe displays good resistance to
corrosion from sanitary sewage. In the same manner. PVC sewer pipe,
due to the high degree of resistance to most chemical attack afforded b)'
polyvinyl chloride. also displays good resistance to corrosion from sanitar)'
scwagl...'.
Insioe corrosion or those SL'Wl..'r pipin1! in
part, from portland cement is c:lused by from sullurl,": acid formed
as a n:sult of the hydrogen sulfide cyck. Sk:.Im curing 0i' cL'mentitious
products :ll1d thL' tis\.' of special aggregates Gill improvL' \:orrusiull re-
sistancl'. PVC and L'POXY Illlcrs arc av:libbk for solllL' oj products tu
protL'ct :Igaillst inlLTllal corrosion. Ilowl'\'l'r. in gcneral. plpL':-' or asbl'stos-
ccmellt, concrete and Illcta! pipes with lilll'rS an.: not rl ...-\.lnlllll'IHkd for
SlTVicl' whcn.: the ratl' or sulfilk gl'lll'ratiol1 is ilh:rc:lsl'd In' ltnv SI..'W:lgl' flow
vl'locities, high amhicllt :Jnd high sulri(!l' \:OlltCllt ill the
:-;e\\':lgC. PVC sewer pipcs ;\re not affected by sulfuric ;\cid III till' COllCl:Il-
trations attaincd in sanitary st..'wcr systems, and thl:rcrore, the gCllcration
of hydrogen sulfide does not contribute to corrosion problems when PVC
sewer pipe is llsed.
I-laving summarized the fundamentals of corrosion effect and con-
trol. if should be emphasized that different water and sewer pipe products
provide corrosion resistance in varying degrees depending on application
and environment. Care must be exercised when selecting piping products
for service applications to insure that corrosion is considered. When sub-
stantial corrosive attack can be anticipated in an underground system,
PVC pipe can prol'idc substantial advantage in long-term system life and
operating cost. PVC pipe is considered immune to all forms of metallic
corrosion common to metallic pipe, to corrosion effected by aggressive
soils and waters, and to corrosion caused by chemical attack in common
sanitary sewer systems. PVC pipe can also be considered resistant to a
broad range of industrial chemicals and wastes which could damage or
destroy other piping products.

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TABLE 7 - GENERAL CHEMICAL RESISTANCE OF VARIOUS ELASTOMERS
Source: Th. los Angeles Group, 1970 Ye3rNx>1. .nJ
The: rollowing are olTercJ :15 a gentfJ! F:uiJ=- "nJ ir,.Ji;::;:tlicn (If f'''e- vf \-:Hiou," tb\10mtr, in too:J.)' for :LCf"cce in Ihese
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C
C
Il
Il
(2)
SOR
BR
:\
A
A
:\
A
U
A
B
A
A
A
A
It
U
B
C
C
C
n
II
Il
(t)
Nit
IR
Acetone
Acetophenone
Acetyl Chloride
Acetylc nc
Acrylonitrile
Amlllonia G;JS (Cold)
Ammonia Gas (HoI)
AlllIllonium Carbonate
Ammonium Chloride
Ammonium Hydroxide
Aluminum Fluoride
Aluminum Nitrale
1\IUlllilllllll Phosphate
Aluminum Sulfate
Ammonia Anhydrous
Adipic Acid
Alkazene
Alum-Nl !:l-Cr-K
Aluminum Acetate
Aluminum Chloride
Acetaldehyde
Acetamide
Acetic Acid, Glacial
Acctic Acid, 3D';'"
Acetic Anhydride
Fluid lle,i't'tnCC
Key
u
u
U
u
u
u
U
U
A
U
u
u
n
u
(14)
ACM
A
u
u
U
B
A
A
A
( 13)
FPM
U
A
(12)
FSi
v
V
B
A
(11 )
Si
A
U
( 10)
T
11
u
(9)
AU
EU
c C tJ C C C
B BUB n 13
t; t; li BUll n
B B :\ unA A
u unA U C U
ti l: U U
:\ :\ lJ 13
:\:\ A
II 11 li C U n
I' L1 U C U A
13 A
..\ :\
:\ ;\
:\ :\
:\ A
(7) (K)
Cft CSM
.\
l'
.\
{(o)
co
EtO
F
I'
:\ :\ A U \
t.
' I A A
\. U U U C U A A
A :\ n A-
II U U U U U U
:\ B B A
U
l.'
13
:\
C
l'
C
B
.\
:\
:\
I'
A
:\
I
:-;UR
A
13
:\
U
c
C
A
B
B
II
B
C
A
.\
.\
:\
:\
:\
.\
If
U
U
(4)
EP:-'l

A
U
A
B
tJ
C
:\
A
A
:\
A
;\
01
OR
:\
.\
li
U
U
Il
B
IJ
n
C
A
U
U
l!
U
:\
[J
B
C
U
U
A
:\
U
A
B
(1.
SllR
llR
c
n
II
If
U
A
U
A (: U B U
A :\ .. A A A A C
U U LJ U B l.' U U U U 13
II
lJ
Il
C
A
A
Il
:\
lJ
B
B
II
U
{I)
Nit
lR
B
n
u
u
u
Beet Sugar Liquors
Benzene
Benzencsulfonic Acid
Benzaldehyde
Benzyl Alcohol
Asph:dt (J I_f _--.:1_
1
__ __ __.._C__ _H A I_I__I_3__ __
Barium Chloride A:\.-\ -
Barium Hydroxide A A :\.\.\:\:\ A :\ A A
Barilllll Sui rate :\ A .\ ;\ :\ :\ A A A A A
A A A -\ A ..\ \ A A U
Barium Sulfide A B ;\ . ._\ : .. \ A A- A A A
Beer A:\:\ :\ :\ A- B A
A A A :\ A A
:\ ;\:\ U A A A
Aqua Reg.ia
Arochlor(s)
Arsenic Acid
Arscnic Trichloride
Askarcl
Amyl Alcohol
Amyl Borate
Amyl Chlol'Onapthalcnc
Amyl Naplhalene
Aniline
Aniline Dyes
Aniline Hydrochloride
Anirnnl Fats
Ansul Ether
Ammonium Nitrite
Ammonium Persulfate
Ammonium Phosphate
Ammonium Sulfate
Amyl Acet\lle
Pluid Hco.,i ... t:Hll':C
Key
Ammonium Nitratc
( 13) (14)
::t:
(1) (3) (4) (S I (6f (7} (S) (9) ( (0) (11 ) ( 12)
;I>-
(1)
FSi FPM ACM Z
NR SIJR IIR EPM :-;IJR CO CR CSM AU T Si F[uid Re,istance
lOU
0
Key IR IJR EPDM ECO
c:l
A A
0
B n
0
Be1l7.yl Bcnzoa[e
Li II A A
r.
Bellzyl Chloride
n n A 0 Benzoic Aciu
A B A
"l'l
Blast Furnace Gas LI U U U
"I:l
A C A n n A -:: Bleach Solutions U U A
n
B B A B
::s
n B A A n A A A
rti
Borax
:\ :\ B B A Bordeaux !\'lixture B n A A
A A U Boric Acid A A A A A :\ :\ A A U A
Brine A A A A A
U U B C B A Bromine - AnhydrOllS
U U U U U L' L: U U U U U U U Bromine Trifluoride
B :\ B B A Bromine Water
IT
U
t
L' V U C U A A U U U U Bramobe ozene
A B A B A A A Bunker Oil
C U I' Il n U B B Ihlladicnc If tJ C
U U U U A :\ A :\ A A A A A Butane
B A :\ A n B A U A A A A U U BUller
l' tI U C U U U U B B Butyl Acetate
B B B A 13utyl Acetyl Ricinolcate A A
U B U Butyl Acrylate U U
A :\ B B A A A_ U Il 13 A A U Butyl Alcohol
U C
(1 Ii \1
U II U U U BUlyl Amine U U U
II L1 A A llutylllcnzoale A A
A :\ B B A Butyl Carbitol A
A C B B U U Butyl Ccl1osolve A
U U Il Il
( ,
li H A BUlylOleate
U U II B II A n A Butyl Stcarale
U U B C C D n A Butylcnc U U
C 13 D C C C n C u U U
Butyraluchyde C
(I) (2) (3) (-\) (S) (6) 0) (8) (91 (10) (11 ) ( 12) (13) (14) Fluid
NR SIJR I1R :-;BR CO CR AU T Si FSi FPM ACM
Key
IR DR
FCO
EU
Calciunl Acetate
:\
:\ A B B n
U U
Calcium Bisulfite
LJ U lJ U :\ .. \ ;\
:\ U A A A
Calcium Chloride
A A :\ A ;\ ;\ .\ A A A A A A A
Calcium Hydroxide
A :\ :\ :\ :\ :\ .\ .\ A II A A A U
Calcium Hypochlorite
lJ U A A C B C :\
B A A
Calcium Nitrate
:\ :\ :\ A :\ .\ .\ ..\ :\ :\ B A A A
Calcium Sulfide
B B A A B B .-\ .\ :\ II B A A U
Cane Sugar Liquors
A A A A A ..\ ..\ .\ U U A A A U 'J Carbamale
U 1I B B C B II U B A A U :.: ...
Carbitol
B B B n n H B U n Il n B U

Carbolic Al;id
U U B B U C C U U A A ::e
Carbon Bisulfide
II U C C r t' C A A
-
Carbon Dioxide
B B 13 B A A B A :\ A A A A n
Carbonic Acid
A B A A :\ :\ .\ :\ ..\ A A A A A
::e
Carbon1\lonoxidc
B Il :\ .\ :\ .\ .\ :\ :\ U A B A
r;;
Vi
__.._...__._o
-;
CarboJl Tetrachloride
LJ l! II U C H I'
I' C C lJ A A
::.- Castor Oil
A A B !l :\ :\ :\ :\ A C A A A
E-
n
CcLJosolve
U U B B
B n
C r:-:
CelJosolvc Acetate
LJ lJ B B U
U B U U
'-1
0 Celllliubc
A A l' t' t:
B A LJ ::.-
CJ Chlorine (Dry)
U lJ
B C n C
A A
C1
::e
Chlorinc (Wet)
tJ lJ C C B t
C li C
B A lJ

Vl Chlorine Dioxide
C C !' I-
e
n A
Vl
Chlorine Trilluoride
II Ii U tJ I: t' t'
L' U U U II U
-<
r.1 Chloro'":CWIlC
B
B A C Jl 11
U U r.1
Z
Chloroacclic Acid
n 13
<
::e
Chlorobenzcne
lJ U U U l! C t' U e U U H A U 0
Chlorobromomcth,lllC
II U B
H
r r
u n
l,

1,';
1)
;::: CblOloblitadiellc
U LJ U l' U t
n A
Chlorododccane
U lJ
lJ U F r
A A
7,
"4
en
(2) (3) (5)
SDR IIR EP:-Ol "'DR
BR
U Ii U t'
U If 1I t!
1I (f II U
II If {) If
I: lJ U F
U U U U
lJ C C tt
A :\ :\ :\
A A :\ .\
lJ ;\ ;\ :\
U
A
(13) (14)
FI'M ACM
>
Z
o
c::l
o
o
;r:
o
"TI
'"'j
-<
("J
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
:\
A
A
A
C U
C U
A B
B
B
A
A
B
C
A
A
A
A
n
(12)
FSi
A
A
13
C
A
A
A
B
B
u
U
lJ
(11 )
Si
:\
:\
19) (10)
AU T
I'll
B
B
.-\
,\
B
(1
l1
(I
C
n
.\

CSM
B
.-\
.\
B
l'
( r
('
II
11
11
1
.-\ :\
:\
B
[(.1 [7)
CO (R
F(O
.\
B
:\
.\
.-\
:\
:\
..\
A
A
II
U
A
A
u
u
11
II
Ii
(j
U
11
U
A
A
(I
(I)
Nit
lR
Fluid
Key
Cod Liver Oil
Coke O\'cn Gus
Copper Acctate
Coppcr Chloridc
Copper Cyanide
Chloroform
OChlorollaplhalcllc
I-Chloro I-Nitro Ethane
Chlorosulfonic Aeid
Chlorotolucnc
Chrome Plating Solutions
Chromic Acid
Citric Acid
Cobalt Chloride
Coconut Oil
Copper Sui fatc
Corn Oil
Cot!ollseed Oil


B
lJ
Ii
(I
If
B
Ii
(I
l!
If
:\
B
C
l'
p
:\
C
.\
C'
II
:\
.\
.\
B
('
.\
\
I'
.\
B
B
C
(
:\
B
B
C-
C
.-\
:\
:\
n
(1
II
II
U
C
A
A
A
U
A
A
A
A
II
A
A
A
A
J\
U
A
A
A
Cresylic Acid
Cumcnc
Cyc!ohexanc
CI'clohcxanol
( 'yc!nhcxanonc
U
(I
II
lJ
\I
I'
Ii
11
B
u
If
Ci
B
C
,\
Il
[.
I'
C
l'
( :
.\
I'
C
(I
(1
.\
I'
u
p,
n
A
B
B
IJ
13
n
:\
'A
lJ
A
A
A
A
U
13
pCymcllC l' 1
13 B A
Dccalin
Dccanc
Dcnalll)'cd Alcohol
Dctergcnt Solutions
Dcvcloping Fluitls
Ii
lJ
:\
I3
:\
li
U
:\
B
n
.. \
.-\
13
II
:\ ,\
A .\
B ,\
r
( ,
.\ .\
:\ ;\
,\
(1
(1
:\
.\
:\
B
n
C A
U
A
B
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A A
A U
A lJ
A
F!uid Roe. ... j .. t:lnl;c-
Kl'Y
el)
Nit
III
(2)
snR
Bit
(3)
lIlt
(4) (5)
F1'\l NBIl

(C'l (7)
CO (It
!(O
('J) (Ill)
,HI T
ru
(II)
Si
( 12)
FSI
(13) (1,\)
Fl'M ACM
Diacclonc
Diacctollc Alcohol
Dibcnzyl Ether
Dibcnzyl SebccalC
Di butyl Ami nc
(1
(i
Ii
(i
Ii
t!
A
A
B
II
F
A
:\
!l
B
t"
t"
\'
t
\'
I'
:\
Il
('
('
t'
n
n
II
n
n
n
A
c
C
lJ
C
U
u
n
lJ

Dihlllyl Ether
Diblll>'1 Phthalate
Dibutyl Sebecalc
ODichlorobcnzcne
Dichloro-Isopropyl Ether
Didilclohe:xylaminc
Diesel Oil
Dicthlaminc
Diethvl Bcnezcnc
Dicthyl Ether
Dicthylenc Glycol
Dicihyl Schceiltc
Diisobulylcne
Bcnzenc
oJ1yl Ketone
Dimethyl Anilinc
Dimethyl Formarnidc
Dimelhyl Phthalate
Dinilrololucnc
Dioctyl Phthalatc
Dioctyl Schec;Jte
Dioxanc
Oip>;0hlf"l0
Dipcntcne
Diphenyl
u
C
1I
(i
II
(I
U
B
Ii
U
:\
u
U
U
u
1I
(i
U
[I
(t
II
11
B
U
U
u
li
II
!J
c:
II
B
1:
C
t'
B
li
U
A
Il
\'
.\
B
Ii
B
B
B
C
C
:\
B
F
C
IT
B
U
F
:\
n
('
,\
B
B
(t
B
B
B
Il
C
1i
I'
F
I'
c-
.\
C
F
I'
.\
('
II
('
('
B
l'
I'
H
,\
,\
B
c
C
1
( ,
I:
I'
B
C
I;
C
I'
C
P
\'
('
C
Ii
1'
(,
(1
B
C
1i
C
A
(I
C
t:
(1
C
( ,
Ii
II
( ,
B
C
( ,
Ii
]l
B
C
1I
A
( i
B
A
A
B
A
A
C
A
13
B
A
lJ
U
A
Tl
B
13
13
c
A
B
lJ
B
B
JI
II
t J
n
lJ
tJ
B
II
U
B
c
c
C
B
B
B
C
A
U
A
C
A
1l
C
B
lJ
U
B
1l
c
c
C
J3
e-
n
B
A
C
A
U
A
tJ
A
B
A
A
tJ
u
U
13
C
B
B
A
A
c
u
n
A
U
C
u
u
n
(I) (2) (3 ) (0 (5 )
16 f PI 1(,11 ( 10) (II) (12) ( l3) (14)
rluid Rl ... ht:H1clt,.,
NR snR 1m EI'M :"BH CO CIt ( S'l l' T SI FSi f'I'M heM
;:.
Kl'Y
m BR ll'll'.l I( ()
1\1
Z
0
Djphcl1yl
to
.'\
C B A
0
Do\\t he I'm () il II II l' l' !' l' I'
n B A A
0

Dry Cleaning Fluids


Ii l! II L! C
l;
l'
n A 0
'"<1
Epichloruhyddn
lJ II Il Il
lJ U
"tl
1:lhane LJ 1I li U ..\ B H B U
<
A A A A n
Elhanolam inc B B B B B B Il H C B B U U U
"tl
Ethyl Acctale
LJ U B B L' r C C U B B U U m
Ethyl Acetoacelate C C B B U C B 13 U U
F.lhyl Acrylatc
B 'Il t" B B U U
Elhyl Alcohol A A A .-\ A ,\ ,\
-\ n A A A A U
I:thyl Bcnzene U U li [J
L'
[-
t' l
'
I: C A A
Ethyl Bellwatc
H B
Il A A
I:thyl Ccllmolve
B B
II
U U
[:thyl
n Jl Il Il Il Jl Il U C U U U
I;lhyl Chloride B B ..\ ,\ :\ B B C B U U A A C
Ethyl Chlorocarbonatc 1I U
c: C
B A
Ethyl Chlororormate {j
C C 13 A
::::thyl Elher
C C C B I'
n Il :\ C U U

[:thyl Formate IJ lJ B n l; l' Il H
A A
::lhyl :-'lcn:aptan
U U LI t' t: t'
U A
Ethyl Oxalate A A A A r r c A A A
Ethyl Penlochlorobenzene
U U l' U C C r I' e B B A
,:(hrl Silicatc B B A A .\ ..\ .\ ..\
A A
!:::thylc11l:
A
A A
[:thylcl1c Chloril1c
C C
C A
Ethylenc Chlorohydrin B B t' II B n C n A
r:::thy1cne Diamine B n A A A .\ .. \ .\ A U U
Dichloridc Ii Ii C C l' t'
I- t- t) II
C C A
Ethylenc Glycol A A A .\ .\ .\ .\ .\ B C A A A U
Ethylene Oxhlc
C C t' t' 1
1
C U U
[lhylcne Trkhloride
C C L' I' t
1
C C A
(tl (2) (3) ) 1(.) (,l l I ( 10) (II) (12) (13) (14)
Fluid R",hlancc Nil $nR l1R EP'.1 >:UR co CR (S\l AU T Si FSi FPM heM
Key IR DR EI'D"I Leo ru
Fatty Acids C C l! t
r
B H n L1 C A
Ferric Chloride A A A A .\ .\ .\ ..\ _\ A A
Fcrric Nitratc :\ A :\ A ..\ A :\ :\ A C A A A
Fcrrie SulCate :\ ,\ A :\ :\ .\ .\ .\ A B A A A
Fish Oil .\ A A A
Fluoroboric Acid A :\ .-\ :\ .\ .\ :\
Fluorine (Liquid) C C II U 13
Fluorobenzenc U LJ If L' r I'
\-
U n A
J
Fluorocarbon Oils A A
:;..
Fillorolllbc
[j
A :\ .\ \ .\ A H H
::.1
tTl
Fluorinated Cyclic Ethers A :\
;0
Flllosilicic Acid A .-\ .\
.\
-
Formaldehyde A .-\ B B .\ _\
r A
I
Formic Acid A A A :\ B B .\ .\ II B C C
;C
Freon 11 LJ U lJ L' .-\ H .-\ 11 A U 13 A
f;J
Vi
....,
Freon 12 H A B D A _\ :\ A A A U C B 2:
Frcoll 13 A A A A .-\ ,\ A :\ A A
z
n
Freo\121 lJ 11 Ii l' II H \' 11 IJ 11
tTl
Flcon22 A A A :\ l' .\ \ :\ I: A U U U
....,
0
Freo\1 3 I n 1l A A l' .\ Jl 13 U :;..
C)
A A A A ,.\
.\ :\ A C
Cl
Freon 32
;C
F-reon 112 U U U 13 H H A A

Freon 113 C II U Ii .\ .\ \ \ B A 11 U Jl
VJ
Frcon [14 A A A A ,\ ..\ .\ .\ .-\ A U B B
<
rn
Frcon 115 A A A A :\ ..\ A A 13
rn
Z
Frcon 142b A A :\ :\ :\ .\ A A U
:5
;C
Freon 152a A A A A ,\
.-\ C A U
0
Freon A A A A .\ _\ ;\ A A
:z
?:.
Freon C316 :\ A A :\ .-\ :\ :\
rn
Frcon C318 A A :\ A A .\ A A A
3
tn
Fluid H..: .. hlancc
Key
Freon 13B1
Frcon J 14B2
Freon 502
Frcon TF
Frcoll T-WD602
Frcon Tl\IC
Frcon T-P35
Freon TA
Freon TC
Frcon MF
(1)
NR
IR
A
U
A
C
C
n
A
A
U
U
(2)
SElR
DR
A
C
A
n
B
C
:\
A
B
1l
(J)
IIR
A
U
U
,\
B
A
A
:\
U
(.\) (51
NOR

:\ :\
t! B
B
[I :\
B n
Il H
:\ :\
A :\
B r\
,\
i(,l ("i)
CO (R
ECD
:\
.\
:\
:\ :\
II
B
:\
A
:\
C
A
:\
A
B
Il
A
:\
:\
tl
(9f (10)
All T
EU
A A
A
A A
A :\
B :\
:\ A
A A
:\ A
C A
(II)
5i
lJ
"ll
tl
C
A
A
U
(12) (lJ) (14)
l'S; FPM ACM
'A
B
B
A
A
A
A
C
A
Freoll Ill'
Fuel Oil
Fumaric Acid
FLlran. FLlrfuran
FLlfLlral
Gallic Acid
G:lsoline
Gclatin
Glauber's Salt
GILlCOSC
GILlC
Glycerin
Glycols
Green Sulfate Liquor
Halowax Oil
nllcxaldehydc
Hexane
nllc\Clle- [
Ilexrl Alcohol
Fluid H..... i..
Key
u
U
A
LJ
C
A
lJ
A
A
A
A
A
II
U
II
U
U
A
(I)
NR
m
u
U
A
tJ
C
B
U
A
U
A
A
:\
A
B
U
U
tJ
U
,\
(2)
SBR
HR
u
u
u
c:
Il
B
U
A
Il
:\
:\
;\
:\
:\
Ii
n
u
u
c
(3)
IIR
Il
(j :\
c\
C ['
II l'
B B
[' :\
A A
B
A :\
:\ :\
A :\
.\ ;\
A II
U t"
A l'
{I :\
II B
C .\
(4) (5)
1'1'\1 :-;nR
f: I'D\I
B
:\ H
B
{'
t' H
1l
A B
:\ :\
.\ .\
:\ A
A .\
.\ :\
:\ H
((I) {11
CO (It
FCO
B
n
B
t'
Il
B
B
:\
:\
\
.\
1I
t'
II
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(I) (2) (3) (4) 15) ((,1 ( 7) (9) ( 10) (II ) (11) (13) (14 )
:;:
fluid NR SIlR IIR 1'llR CO CI{ CSM AU T Si FSi FI'M ACM Z
Key JR ElR I'I'DM no I'll 0
C"J
Tributoxy Ethyl Jl n :\ .\ II
t, (I II A Il A
0
0
TrihlJlyl It If
"
.\ l! II C IJ A -, U U U
'"
Tributyl Mcrcapliln If [I If l' F P II A
0
'"rl
TrichlorocthiJne U
(l U F
I;
I' \1 lJ U U B A U

Trichloroacctic Acid C It H II !l II Il C U
n
."
'I'richlorocthylcne U U U li C r 1
1 II
U D B A
"" rr:
Phosphale If U :\ :\ Ii
I' C C C B C B B
Triethanol Amine B B B B C :\ :\ If U U U U
Triethyl Aluminum B
Triethyl Boranc A
Trinitrotoluene U U If U F B Il B n B
Trioctyll'hosphale If If :\ :\ l'
I;
\1 B C 13 B tJ
Trioryl lJ If ,\ .\ t' ( (
II Il C Tl A tJ
TllllgOH II II
(' [I ..\ H Jl !l 13 13 A
Cl
'rurbine Oil U U lJ lJ lJ ..\ H 13 A B A B
Turpentine U U U U ..\ .\ Ii li
{1
B U B A A
Un,ynulletrical Dimethyl
U U IlydJ':lzine (001'.1 Il) :\ .\ B Il :\ U U
Varni,h U U U U B C C A n A
Vegetable Oib U U :\ .\ .\ .\ Il B tJ A A A A
Versillibe A :\ :\ ,\ :\ ..\ ..\ :\ H C A A A
Vinegar B B A .\ B :\ :\ B A A U
Vinyl Chloride 13 V U A
Wagner 21 B Fluid A B :\ C :\ B IJ C U U
\valer :\ :\ :\ :\ ,\ Il :\ :\ A U :\ A A U
Whi'<l;ey, Wines :\ :\ :\ :\ ..\ ..\ :\ A U A A A U
While Pine Oil U U U li B U li B A A
White Oil U U l! U ;\ B B A U A A A
$X
.
(I) (2l (.1) (4) (.\) (,) (7) (111) (11 ) (ll) (13) (14 )
Fluid Hc... i.. lanl;c
NR SOR IJR SUR CO CI{ (SM All T Si FS; FPf\f ACM
Key
IR Bit Eco EV
Wood Oil
U U U U ;\
13 H B !J 13 A A
Xylene
U U tI [j
I"
Ii
l'
11 C n LJ A A
Xylidenes
U U U U C l' V
U U U U
Zeolites A A A A .-\ ..\ :\ A A
Zinc Acetate
A C A :\ II B B
U U U U U
Zinc Chloride A :\ A :\ A :\ A C A A U
Zinc Sulfate
13 B :\ :\ ,\ :\ A
lJ A A A U
Chemical data is proJ'ided as a guide only. lIrj;Jrlllt1(jo/l is b<ncd l'rillllIn}y 0/1 illJ/lwrdO/1 o/lI11stressed strips i/1 c!/('ll1icals
(II/(I to t1 lesser degree 011 jkld e-"pcrh'l/ce.
'-'
"
2] u
:1
u _ ...
......
43
ClIM'fER llJ - H.ESISTASCE TO ,\GGRESSIVE ENVIRON)lENTS
zlzUz uuzzu xzzzz

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HANDBOOK OF I've PIPE
Sown' 1'/'/ I'IOS/l('5 PI/ll' Instlll/te, S"Il' l'",;., S,,\\' York
Response of PVC pipe under nonnal conditions to commonly antici
patt:d chemical exposures is provided in Table 8. Tlw data was partially
obtained from field performance, but is primarily from short-term immer-
sion tests of unstressed samples in the chemicals with observations for
changes in weight, volume or mechanical properties by test methods such
as ASTM D543, Resistance of Plastics to Chemical Reagents. In critical
applications it is suggested that greatt:r reliance be placed on actual field
experience or that testing be perfonned under conditions of stress. expo-
sure, tempepture and duration which can be related to the anticipakcl
application.
The following chemical resistance legend is usee!:
R := generally resistant
C := kss resistant than R but still suitable for SOIl1l: conditions
N := not resistant
TABLE 8 - COTltinued

PVC 1120" PVC 2110'


0
PVC 1120" PVC2110'
;S
CHHlICAL 73F 140F 73F l.l0F CHF\IICt\!. 73F l40F 73F 140F
0
;r.
Butyl phenol R N C
'"
Chromic acid. 50'", N N N N 0
ButyJcne
\{
R
\{ R Citric acid R R R R
":1
Coconut oil R R R R
:<
Butyric acid R N N
'"
Coke (wcn R R R R n
Cakium salls, aq R R R R

Calcium hypochlorite R R R R C. "pper "tlh. aq R R R R


"'"
Calcium hydroxide R R R R Corn oil R R R R
rn
Com syrup R R R R
Cane sugar liquors R R R R
COl[onsced oil R R R R
Carbon bisulfide N N N
;'I;
Carb0l1 dioxide R R R R Crc",1 N N N N
Carbon dioxide, aq R R R R Crc'>}Iii: acid. 5Cl% R R C N
Carbon monoxide R R R R c.-toWn aldchrde N N N N
Crude oil R R R R
Carbon tetrachloride R N N
:-;
Cyclohexane N N N N
R R R R
Castor oil R I{ I{ R ("\<.:[ohexanol N N N N .L.
C:1I1'>tic pOi ash (potassium R R R R (i c[llhe ,anone N N N N ""-
Caustic soda (sodiulll hydroxide) R R R R D-i:llo 5:11ts R It R R
R C C
:-;
Dicsel fuels R R R R
Cellosolve
Dicth}l amine N N N N
Cellosolve acetate R
Chloral hydrate R R '\ '\
Dioctyl phthalatc N N N N
Chloramine R
Disodium phosphate R R R R
Chloric acid, 20% R R R R
Diglycolk acid R R R R
Chlorine, gas, dry C N N N
Dioxanc.I.4 N N N
;'oj
Chlorine, gas, wet N N
:-;
N
Dirncthrbmine R R
Chlorine. liquid N N N
Dirnetl\\ 1 1'1 N N N
Chlorine water R R R It
[)clcq;e'llh, aq R R R R
Chlonlcetic acid R R R
Dil>ut) I phlhal:ltc N N N N
Chlorobenzene N N
;.;
"
Dil>ul)1 C N N N
Chlorobenzyl chloride N :I r'i
"
Dichillrobclllene N N N 1'1
Chloroform N N
"

Dichloroelhylene 1'1 1'1 N N
Chlorosulfonic acid R N
"

Ether; 1'1 N 1'1 1'1
Chromk acid, 10% R R R R
Eth) I 1'1 N 1'1 N
Chromic acid, 30'70 R C R 1Oth\1 halides N 1'1 1'1 N
Chromic acid, 40% R C C
"
Elh}lene halides N N N N
...V'''_ ........... __. __ __ __ __ _____ , _
TA BLE 8 Continued
PVC 1120' PVC 2110'
PVC 1120" PVC 2110"
C1IEl\lICAI.
731' 140F 7:11' I-lOF CI 11'\11C/\1.
73F 140F 73F 1401'
Ethylene glycol
It R It It Il!dwqanic :Icid
R R
Ethylene oxidc
N N l\
R R R It
Fatty acids
11) dro!'cll pcro\idc. 5CV;- R R R C
R R R R JI) dn'!,cll pcw\idc. 90'", R R 1'1 1'1
Fe rric salls
R R R R II} dro!'Cll ,ulfidc. aq
R R R R
Fluorine, dry gas
C N N :-;
Fluorine, weI g:IS
C N N
"
11) drol;ell ,ul/ide. dry R It It R
FJuoboric acid, 25%
R R R R H)droquinonc
R R R R
Q
HyJro\)lamine sulfale R R R R
Fluosilicic acid
R R R R Hydrazine
N 1'1 1'1 N
;;
Formaldehyde
R R R C Hrpochlorous acid R R R R
:1
Formic acid
R N R
r.J
""
Freon - 1'11,1'12,1'113,1'114
R R h,dine. in Kl. 3'",. afl
C N 1'1 N
Freon - 1'21,1'22
N
'"
l\
"
luuine. alc
N 1'1 N 1'1 -
Fruit juices and pulps
ll'dinc. aq. 10'"(-
1'1 N N 1'1 .jo..
R R R R
Jet fucls. and JI'5 R R R
;;::
'-"
Fuel oil
C
R
[;; N C
"
Kerll'ene
R R R R Furfural
1'1 N ;.;
r.'1

Kctlllles
1'1 N N N Gas, coal, manufaclured
N N
"

....,
Gas, natural, methane
R R R R
Kr;lft papcr liquor
R R R R
;:.
z
n
Gasolines
C C C C
l.acquer thinners
C 1'1 C N
C't1
Gclatin
R R R I{
I add.
R R R R
...;
0
(i1r<:crinc (glycerol)
R R R I{ I :lId oil
It R R R ::-
Glycols l{
It R R l:l\lti". ;'cid R R R R
C)
Glue, animal
R R R R
Laur) I chloride R R R
C)
R ;;::
r-1
Glycolic lIcid
R R R R l.auryl sulfate
R
(I)
R R R
Grecn liquor, paper
R R R R
lead ,;,It,
R R R R
....
Gallic acid
R R R R
l i111<: sulfur
R R R R
tr1
Heptane
R R C rn
Hexane R C r\ :-;
linoleic :Icid R R R It
:z
LimecJ oil
R R R R
:s
l-lydrobromk acid, 20%
R R R R
7-l
Liqucurs
C
II rochloric acid R R R R
R R R R
z
Hydronllorie acid, 10%
R C R R
Liquors
R R R R
;:::
Hydronlloric acid, 60%
R C R
:-.; LilhilllH s:llls
R R R R
r-1
z
Hydronlloric acid, 100% R C C
"
oils R R R R
...;
tr.
T:\IlLE S - COl1tinul'd
;;..
Z
PVC I l20' PVC 2110'
PVC 1120" PVC 21 to"
0
(;:::
CHEIIIICAL 73F 140F 73F 140F CHE\IIC:\L
73F 140F 731"
H.Q
0
0
IIlachinc uil R R R R
'"
\'arhtha
R R R N
$. lII;lgllesium salls R R R R \':'rhlhalcnc N N N N
Maleic acid R I{
R R \'id.:el R
R R R
""
...
1'.l:l1ie acid R R R R "icl1tine R R R R n
Manganese sulfale R R R R \ic"tinic aelL! R R R C

:\itric ;lcid. 0 to :,or"
""tl
1'.lerclll'ic salts R I{
e c R C C C
rn
1'.[ercury R R e C
:\itric ;lcid. 61J'", R C C N
1'.[ esityl ox.ide N N \' \'
\'itric aeiL!. 7(Vr
R C N N
Metallic soaps, aq R R R R
:\itric acid. BOrr
C C N N
1'.lelhanc R R R R "itric 'lcid. 90
r
r C N N N
"itric acid. 100',
N N N N
1I1elhyl acetatc N N N :\ "itlie acid. fuming N N N N
Methyl bromide N :\ :-;
:\
:\itrllbenlene
N N N N
i\lclhyl cellosolvc N N
:-;
:\
:\itmchccrillc N N N N
.:.
1'.lclhyl chloride N N :-;
:\
:\ it ac id R C N N
0'>
r-.lelhyl chloroform N N :\ :\
"itrou, ,,,ide. g;" R C N N
fo.lelhyl cyelohexallone N N :\ :\
'\illt'I!lIcol N N N N
Methyl methacryhlte R
'\ i Irt 'PI'PP;] ne
C C N N
Melhyl salicylate R R
I{
R
Oih. \ccelable R R R C
Melhyl sulfate R C R C
Oih anJ
R R R C
Methyl sulfonic acid R R R R
Olcic :lcid
R R R R
Methylcnc bromidc N N N :\
Oleum
N N N N
Illcthylene chloride N N
"
:\
Oll\e oil C
Oxalic acid R R R C
illethylcne iodidc N :"
(hY1=en. R R R R
ill ilk R H-
I{ I{
()'t'ne. R C N N
J\lI11cral oil I{ I{
R C
J\tixed a<.:ids (sllifuri<.: & nilri..:) C :\ C :"
:t"':ld. 10'-; R II. R R
I\lixed acids (sulfuric & phosphoric) H- R C :\
Palmlti,; a,;iJ. 70',
R N e N
Paral1in R R R R
Illolasses H- R R R
I'enl;ule
C C C C
IIlonochlorobel1zene N N N :"
Peracetic ,lciJ, -10 r;
R N N N
l\lonoelhallolamine :\ N :\
"
Per,;hlt>ric adJ. lor;,
R C e N
Motor oil R R R C Perchloric aciJ, 70"r
R N N N
. - ."...._._._-.-'''- ... .."---- _____ .. __
TABLE S - Continued
PVC 1l20' PVC 2110'
PVC 1J20" PVC2110'
CHEMICAL 73F 1401" 73F 1IOF CHF\ll(';\I.
73F 140F 73F 140F
Perchlorocthylcllc e e C C rc,itJcntbl R R R II.
Pctroleum, sour R R
I{
R Silicic acid R R R R
Petroleum, relined R R R II. Silicone oil
R N
Phenol e N
"
Siller S:lil' R R R R
l'henylearbinol I'i N
"
:"

R R R R
Phenylhydrazine N N N :\
Sodium a{1. c,cept It R R R
Phenylhydrazine lIe I C N N :-,'
S"dlllllt R R C C
Q Phosgene, gas R C R C
Sodium chlorate II. C C C
Phosgene, liquid N N N :"
Sodium dichromate. aei{1 II. II. R C
:;
Phosphoric acid R R R C
Sl'tliulll rerbor:lte R R C C

m
Phosphorus, yellow R C C C
Sunnic chl"l ide
;::
Phosphorus, red R H- R C
R R R R
SlanrWU\ chh1ride
R II. R R
"
Phosphorus pentoxide R C C
Starch
R R R II.
,t;,
;::
....,
Phosphorus trichloride N N N :\
Stearic acid
R R R C
Ci-i
Swddanl soh ent N N N N
v;
Photographic chemicals, aq R R R R ...,
Phthalic acid C C C C Stllf1lc liquor R R
;:-
Picric acid N 1'\
"
N Sulfllr
R R R R
:z
n
Plating solutions, metal R e R C
aq
R R R R
1"1
Potassium salts, aq R R R R
Sulfur dic>1;ide. lin'
R R R R
...,
0
pcrmanganatc. 25 % C C C C
SllJrm di,,\idl'.
R C N N ;:-
alkyl x:lnthales R
'"
C1
Sulfur tli,,\ide. dry
C1
Propanc R R R R
R R R C

Propylene dichloridc N N N
:..; Sulfur trio\ide, we! R C N N
t"l
V>
Propylcne glycol R R R R Sulfuric acid. up to 70% II. R It C

Sulfmic acid. 70 tn 9(V;, R C R C
...
Prorylenc ox.ide N N :\ :\
Sulftllic add. YO 10100':'" C N C N
m
Pyridine N N N i\
r:l
Sulfuwu' ;,rid
C N C N
'/,
Pyrogallic aeid C C C c
:::
Rayon coagulating bath R It R C
Tall 011
R R R R
;0
Tannic acid
Q
Sea water R R R R
R R R R :z
Salicylic acid R R
'I anning liquors
R R It R
2::
t"l
Salicylaldehyde C C C C
Tarwric acid R R R R :z
Selenic acid R R R C Tetrachluroelhane C C C C

(r.
f 1
It);
RESISTANCE TO AGGRESSIVE ENVIRO:-:MNTS CHAPTER
49
THERJ'lIAL EFFECTS
An understanding oi the effects of temperature variation on PVC
pipe is important to engineers, installers, and users. The performance of
PVC pipe is significantly related to its operating temperature. Being a
thermoplastic material, PVC will display variation in its physical proper-
ties as temperature changes. PVC pipe can be installed properly over an
ambient temperature range in which construction crews can normally
work. Although the user must realize that PVC pipe in a particular specifi-
cation is rated for performance properties at a temperature of 73.4 F
(23 C), it is recognized that operating temperatures of 33 F to 90 F (I C to
3::! C) do exist in water systems. As the operating temperature falls, the
p1!)e's stiffness and tensile: strength inereJses, thereby increasing the pipe's
pressll re capaci ty :1m! it$ :1 hili ty to resist e:lrt h-Ioading de rJection. Converse-
ly. with the drop in temperature. PVC pipe lkcreases in impact strength
becomes less ductile. As the operating temperature rises, the impact
strength :llld fkxibility or PVC pipe increases. Ilo\'icver, with the increase
in t":llljlL'rature, PVC pipe decre:lses in tensile strt:ngth and stiffness; eonse-
tly, tilt: prcssurt: cap;lci ty 0 l' til..: pi will ht: red llccd ami mort: care
must hI: takcn during instalLltion tu avoid exccssiw deflection. (Set:
Chapli.:r V. Iksign Static and ])yn:ll11ic Loading!.
Many new users :lnd instalkrs of PVC: pipt: may bt: surprised by the
expansion and contraction of the pipe in response to variations in tempera-
ture. The coefficient of thermal expansion is roughly rive times higher for
PVC than the normal value for cast iron or steeL Provisions lllUSt be made
in design and installation to accommodate expansion and contraction if
the pipe line is intended to provide service over a broad range of operating
temperatures. Gasketed joints provide excellent allowance for thermal
expansion and contraction of PVC pipelines. A good general rule is that
allowance must be mad;;:.Jg!:l.!.Jm;Jlof expansion or contraction for every
100 foot of pipe for each 10 F change in temperature. (See Chapter V -
Expansion and Contraction).
As a final comment on the thermal properties of PVC pipe, it should
be emphasized that the average municipal water system operates at tem-
peratures at or below 73.4 F (23 C). Therefore, in the majority of common
operating conditions, the actual pressure capacity of PVC pipe would be as
good or better than the manufacturer's rated pressure.. The average munic-
ipal sewer system operates at temperatures at or below 73.4 F (23 C).
Therefore, in a similar manner, the actual pipe stiffness provided by the
PVC sewer pipe would be as good or berter than the manufacturer's rated
.:::
48
I z.o::z. uuur:
I z;.:z VUUU
't:)
...
::=.cu
c.
E


:-: :-.:. ,"';

I ur:;.-.;'-.
IUUzz
IVzzz

v ::):J
Uzz
:.to I 00
N.,.
- -
v
> l:..l ,...
- ....
HANDBOOK or PVC PIPE
HANDBOOK OF PVC PIPE
pipe stiffness. (See Appendix 2-'Ilaximum Use Temperature for PVC Pipe).
RESISTANCE TO BIOLOGICAL ATTACK
In nature's endless cycle of creation. growth, decay, nne! re-creation
(rendered somc\vhat more complicated by the: int1uencc of m:.tn and his
technology), it hns been established through experience and observation
that nearly all of man's creations and products are eventually reclaimed by
nature. 'Iletallic products are slowly destroyed and reclaimed through
chemical reo.ction or oxidation. Inorganic non-metallic products nre
tuully rec1:.timed by nature through chemical reaction and various forms or
erosion. Organic or organocl1emkal producls are normally subjL'cled to
dl'tt:riur:Jtiull through variou:-. forms of WL\lthl'l"lll1! and biolog:il':tl :lttal.:k
or tkgr;ll.L!lioll. !\'ot:lbk :1!1 eXcL-ptlOll tu normal SYStLill of
recbm:ltion ;lnd rL'cuvL'ry b ;1 uniquL' ul polYll1erit.:. sYlltIlL'lh.: COll-
slrtH..:liull 1ll:J!L'ri;lls gL'nL'rally l:.'rlllL'd pl;btics wllh.:h displ:ly negligible or no
suv...lplibdlly 10 hiologic;d atLl..:k. Alillull).!h !lut all pl:l',III,:" dispLty
;IIlCc to lllOloglct! SUllll' pbsllL\ lI;l\l' prt1\'\.'1l to b\.' virtll;dly Intl\.,
\truL"liblc through biologi(;d dqlr;HbtlUll. l'nlynll)'1 (lllnritk pip\.' i:-. SlH.:ll ;l
p1a\til' product providing Ilcarl) total n.:sist:lllLl" to hiological ;lttad,. OncL'
Instllkd. tllllkrgrotlnd in norll1al W:ltl'l' ;lnll :-'L'\\l,:r S)-'stL'lllS. with its I".'\('l'pv
lion:d rl".'sisl:tllCL' to corrosion. L' I11.: 111 iL'al and hiologiL,:t1 alt:lcK, PVC
pipL' call be considered :1 pL'rll1:l11L'nt cn'::ltioll or lll:lll 110t SllSCL'plibk 10 tltL'
nonllal proccsses or deterioration common in ll;lturL.'.
Biologic::!l attack call bL' dcscribL'd :IS :.IndioI' dell...'riora-
tioll caused by the action of living micro or macro-organisms. t\lino-
organisms which attack organic materials an: normally classed <.IS fungi
and bacteria. Macro-org:..l\lisJ11s which can affect organic materials located
underground can include an extremely broad category of living org:anisll1s
from grass roots to termites to rodents. The performance of PVC pipe in
environments providing severe exposure to biological attack in its various
anticipated forms lias been studied and evaluated since the birth or the
industry in the 1930's.
Not only has PVC pipe been evaluated. but also many other PVC
products such as household implements. containers. and bottles have been
carefully studied in their relationship with nature's cycle. Perhaps with
some justification, environJ11entalists have severely criticized the fact that
discarded PVC products are not reclaimed by nature through chemical,
electrochL'mical. and biological processes. Such exceptional durability can
only be considered an advantage in underground PVC piping systems.
CHAPTER tt REStSTANCE TO AGGRESStVE ENVIRONMENTS
PVC pipe will not deteriorate or break down under attack from
bacteria or other micro-organisms. PVC will not serve as a nutrient to
micro-organisms, macro-organisms, or fungi. Investigation has documented
no case where buried PVC pipe products have suffered degradation or
deterioration due to biological attack. The extreme resistance orfered by
PVC to bio-degradation has served to advantage as PVC has been used in
the application of sewage treatment trickling filter media in North America
since 1959. Special engineering or installation procedures are not required
to protect PVC pipe from any known form of biological attack.
Elastomcric seals are also manufactured from organo-chemical
materials. Elastomers are manufactured with a vast variety of properties,
iSL'C Chapter II l:Iastomcric SL'al Compounds). Care must be exerciSed
in the se!t:ction oj' dastoJ11ers to be lbL'd in m:Il111(:lClllre or elastomeric
for piping products to insure: that surficiCllt rcsistancL.' to biologkal
is provided. Various L'l:lslOmers C:lll be susceptible to such attack,
SOIHL' elastomers provide rL.'sisl:lllce to biological attack with
tklt inllL'rl.'nt ill polyvinyl clJlorilk. insure tlt:lt
l.'J;l\tollleril." COlllPOlillds providlllg such high rL'sistance USL'd in tile
pruliuLI ion or !!,askL'ls for piping P:lrticubrly ill potahk W:ltL'l'
systellls, :t makrial that will not support b:lclL'rial !l-J"owtll is (,ollsideJ"etl :1
n.:q uin: lllL:ll t.
In normal practice, wltl.'l1 PVC pipL' witll !l-:lskL:ted joints.
aS5L:lllbly of joints is facilitated by use or a lubricant applil'd in accord
with mnnul"acturer's instructions. Care should be exercised in selection
of lubricants to insun: compatibility with the clastolllcrie seal and the
PVC pipe and to insure that the lubricant will not support the growth
of fungi or bactr:ria. Usc only lubricant recOllll11cnckd by tlh.' pipe manu-
facturer.
\I"EATHERING RESISTANCE
When subjected to long-term exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation
from sunlight, PVC pipe can suffer surface damage. This effect is common-
ly termed ultraviolet (UV) degradation. Unless specially formulated to
provide substantial protection from UV radiation (e.g., PVC house siding),
PVC pipe is not recommended ror use in applications continuously exposed
to direct sunlight.
UV degradation incurred over an extended period of time is a de-
structive process of major significance in nature's on-going process of
breaking-down and reclaiming old materials of organic composition, e.g.,
St
53
both in North America and Europe by manufacturers, independent labor,,-
tories, and universities to define PVC pipe response to abrasion. While the
approaches to the various tests and investigations have varied substantially l
the data developed has been consistent in defining the extent of PVC pipe
resistance to abrasion. The nature and resiliency of PVC pipe cause it to
gradually erode over a broad area and long time. rather than develop the
characteristic localized pitting and more rapid failure of most other piping
materials.
Since the late 1950's, experience has been accumulated on the use of
PVC pipe in the transport of grains and quartz sand in West Germany. PVC
pipe, in both horizontal and vertical positions. was carefully observed in a
specific application OYer u two-year period conveying wheutgrains. It W:l$
established that very little wear occurred in straight pipe sections.
tion did occur in elbows or 5Wt.'epS. An 11l1CXpectcJ observ:ltion establbhcd
that the PVC pipe transportcd so llluch more 11l;ltcrial than
transported by mct:l1lit: Jincs that the equipment rr.:i:civing and procL'ssing
tile material could not process lile increaSed yolUlllL' without rL'l!uction in
llow velocities. PVC pipe has beel1 rn:quL'ntly sj1t'cifiL'd 1'01' ;lppliL'ations
involving conVl.'yance or abrasive particlL' m:Itl.'rial.
Installation ot" PVC pipc and sweeps in Southern ill till.:
late 1960\ replacing rubber lined sled pipl.: uSL'd for sand slurry lransport
significantly redlll.:ed repair and replacement Ih:cessil:lted by Sen'fe abra-
sion. Rubber lined steel pipe had been regularly f1..'pbced about en.:ry six
wl.:eks. PVC pipe consistently provided service in the application in excess
of six months.
Individual tests conducted by major PVC pipe manufacturers to
investigate the resistance of PVC pipe to abrasion caused by mechanical
cknning have displayed insignificant evidence' or wear in a wide assortment
of conditions. Standard commercial cleaning and rodding equipment was
used in these tests operating in wet lines, dry lines. and lines partially filled
with sand and gravel. Request for guidance from manufacturas of cleaning
equipment have confirmed the results of these investigations. ivlany clean-
ing equipment manufacturers indicated that their operating instructions
are no different for the cleaning of PVC pipelines than for other types of
pipel.ines - asbestos cement, cast iron, concrete. steel, or vitrified clay
sewer lines.
A test conducted by the Institute for Hydromechanic and Hydraulic
Structures of the Technical University of Darmstadt in West Germany pro-
vided an interesting comparison of abrasion resistance in several piping
RESISTANCE TO AGGRESSIVE ENVIRONMENTS CHAPTEr HANDBOOK OF PVC PIPE
52
plant waste, animal waste, plant fiber, wood, living animal tissues, plastics,
etc. The weather-beaten appearance of old wooden structures is, in great
measure, caused by ultraviolet radiation. PVC pipe must be considered
susceptible to UV degradation unless shielded from sunlight. UV radiation
will not penetrate even thin shields such as paint coatings, clothing, or
wrapping. Burial of PVC pipe provides totally effective shielding from UV
attack.
UV degradation in PVC ensues when energy from the UV radiation
causes excitation of the molecular bonds in the plastic. The resulting re-
action occurs only on the exposed surface of the PVC pipe and to extreme-
ly shallow depths frequently measured at less than 0.00 I inch. Within the
affected zone of reaction, the structure of tile polyvinyl cilloride molecule
is a.lten:d. converting the molecule into a compkx structure
typifi!;d by polyene formations. The polyene lllokcule contribuks a light
yellow coloration to the PVC pipe and increases knsik strength. The
t:ffecl on the PVC pipe would be considerL'd negligible in m:lllY product
:lpplications if no ctlll:r change occurred: howl'ver, the creation or the thin
film or polyellt..: may contribute to some n,:uuclion ill imp;ld

The follo\ving. eonditions inherent in lhis organo-chemic:ll read ion
must be noted:
UV degradation resulls in color ch:lIlge, slighl increase in tensile
increase in the modulus of tcnsile el"slicity. "nd
decrease in imp"ct strength in PVC pipe.
UV degradation does 110t continue w!ll.:11 exposure to UV radia-
tion is terminated.
UV degradation occurs only in the plastic material directly ex-
posed to UV radiation and to an extremely shallow penetration
depth.
UV degradation of properly formulated PVC pipe materials
normally occurs only after extended exposure.
ABRASION
Investigation and observation through years of experience has estab-
lished that PVC pipe provides exceptional resistance to abrasion. The com-
bination of PVC resin, extenders, and various "dditives in PVC compounds
and the methods of extrusion produce a resilient piping product providing
extremely high abrasion resistance.
Many investigati6ns and tests have been conducted over the years
55
CHAPTER III
RESISTANCE TO AGGRESSIVE ENVIRONMENTS CHAPTER,
7. L. G. 1\onTechnical Oil Corrosioll for W;ller Works
Journ:!l XW\V1\ (Julle 1956) p. 71 t).
5. j-lendrit:ks, J. C., "Weathering Properties of Vinyl Plastics," Plastics Technology
,\larch 1955 p. 81.
3. Babbitt, H. E. (et aI). Water Supply Engineering. Sixth Edition p. 574.
4. Chemical Resistance Handbook. Plastiline Inc. Cat. PGF 0970 - 1, Pompano Beach,
Florida (1970).
Mail/wi {ill .'ililfilh's in Sell'ers. U. S. Environmcntall'rolcction !\i,:cncy.
II. Reedy, D. R. "Corrosion in the \Vater Works Industry." Ivhlterials Protection.
(Sept. 1966) p. 55.
L Abrasion Rr:siswllce. Das Kunststoffrohr V. 13 (25) (July 1969).
BIBLIOGRAPHY
(). I'Mkcr. C. D. "Mechanics of" Corrosion of Cement Sewcrs by lIydrogen Sulfide."
Sew;!!'e amI Industrial Wastt.:s (Ikc. I [)SI) p. 1477.
2. Arnold, G. E. "Experience with Main Breaks in Four Large Cities." journal AWWA
(August 1960).
6. lJendricks, J. C. & E. L. White, Weathering ClWI"UClcristics of Polyl'inyl Chlvride
Type Plastics, National Lead Company Rese:Hch Llboratorics, Brooklyn. :\.Y.
Wire antl Wire Products, (1952).
10. /'Illsties Piping MailCial. VOIUllll.' I. Plastics 1'11'1.' IllStitult.:. New York. New York
( j97(1).
13. "Resist<ince of Thermoplastic Piping Ivlaterials to Micro- and
Attack, PPI Technical Report, PPI-TRI1." Plastics Pipe Inslitute, New York,
N. Y. (Feb. J969).
12. "Rel<itive Abrasion Resist<incc of Ring-Tite@ PVC Pipe." Johns-,\:bnville Sales
Corporation, Long l3each, Californi:J (April 1(72).
16. "Standard for Asbestos Cement Pressure Pipe. AWWA C400." American Water
Works Association, Denver, Colorado (Jan. 1975). .
14. Romanoff, Melvin "External Corrosion of Cast Iron Pipe." Journal AWWA (Sept.
1964) p. 1124.
15. ROlllcraz, Richard "Generation and Content of Sulfide in Filled Pipes." Sewage
& Industrial Wastes, (Sept. ] 954) p. J082.
17. "Standard for Cement-Mortar Lining for Cast-Iron and Ductile-Iron Pipe and
Fittings for Water. AWWA CI04." American Water Works Association, Denver,
Colorado (1974).
OF PVC PIPE
54
products.. Abrasion evaluation lIsing river sand and gravel was performed
with unlined concrete pipe, lined concrete pipe, glazed vitrified clay pipe,
and PVC pipe producing the following results:
Concrete (without lining) - measurable wear at 150,000 cycles
Concrete (with lining) - measurable but displaying less wear
at 150,000 cycles
Vitrified Clay (glazed lining) - minimal wear at 260,000 cycles,
(accelerated wear after glazing wore
off at 260,000 cycles)
PVC pipe - minimal wear at 260,000 cycles
(abollt equal to glazed vitrified clay,
less accelerated than vitrified clay
after 260,000 cydesl
PVC pipe is well suited ro applications where abrasive conditions arc
anticipated. In extremely abrasive exposurcs, wear must be anticipated:
however, in Illany conditions PVC pipe can significantly reduce mainte-
nance cost incurred duc to extreme abrasion.
TUBERCULATION RESISTANCE
Soil! ble encrust ants such as calci 11111 carbona in SOIllC waleI' slIPpl ics
do not onto llw smooth or PVC pipes as they do with
other materials. Since PVC pipe docs not corrode, there is no tubercula-
tion caused by corrosion by-products as inside some pipes.
CHAPTER III
57
RESI$TA,.... CE TO AGGRESSIVE ENVIRON.\IENTS CHAPTER
BIBLIOGRAPHY - Continued
36. Yearbook (/1/(/ DircCfO/)'. Thc Lo:. Angelc:. Rubber Group, Los Angeles. (Jhf.
(1970).
35. Wolter, F. "Effect of Outdoor Weathering on the Performance of Some Selected
Plastic Piping Materials," Presented by Battelle at the American Gas Association
Fifth Plastic Pipe Symposium, Houston, Texas (Nov, t974).
33. "Wear Data of Different Pipe Materials at Sewer Pipelines." The Institute for
Hydromechanic and Hydraulic Structures, Technical University of Darmstadt,
Darmstadt, W. Germany (May 7, 1973).
34. Weisfeld, L. B., G. A. Thacker, L. l. Nass, "Photodegradation of Rigid Polyvinyl
Chloride," SPE Journal Vo121, No.7 (Jul. 1965) p. 649.
" Sudr:Jbill, L. P. "Pruted frum External COl05IOn." The American lily and
Coullty. (!\lay 1(56) p. 65.
21. "Stantbrd Specificatioll for E]astomeric Seals for Joining Plastic Pipe.
1\51;\1 F477." American Sudety for Testing anJ Pa.
l1977}.
25. "Tcst to ])C[Crlllllle Efrect of an UnderSlzcd (Slllallcl dlalllclt:r thall inside dWllclcr
or pipe anti flttinp) Electrical Sewer I'ipe Auger on Schedule 40 PVC - I Drain,
Wastc, and Vent Pipe and Fittings:' Report from Rcsearch LJbor:rllHY, Cldoll.
Aurora, Ohio. 1%3).
24. "Tcsl ,\1ct1Jud \0. Calif'. 643 C" ;lIld Rcsearch l)ep;irllllclIl, lJl\'lSHllI
or Ilrghways. Statc of Cal iforni;J (Oclober 2, 1(172).
18. "Standard for Cement - Mortar Protective Lining and Coating for Steel Water
Pipe, 4 Inch and Larger-Shop Applied-AWWA COS." American Water Works
Association, Dem'er, Colorado (J971).
23. Sw;!I), 8. II. "Effecls of J SulfiJe 011 COIH.:TClC Slructures." Juurll;ll uf
S;lIlit;lfY Ellpnccring, ASCl: (Sept. IWd ) p. 1.
19, "Standard for Polyethylene Encasement for Cast Iron and Ductile Iron
AWWA Cl05," American Water Works Association, Denver, Colorado (1972).
20. "Standard Reinforced Concrete Pressure Pipe - Steel Cylinder Type. AWWA
C300," American Water Works Association. Denver, Colorado (1974).
CHAPTER II[
BIBLIOGRAPHY - Continued
56
HANDBOOK OF PYC PIPE
26. "Thermal Expansion and CtHltraction of Plastic Pipe. I'PI Ted1l1it:al Report,
PPI - TR21." Plastics Pipe Institute, 1\cw York, N.Y. (Sept. 1(73).
27. "Thermoplastic PIping for the Transport of Chemicals. PI'I Technical Report,
pPI - TR19." Plastics Pipe Institute, New York, N. Y. (Aug. 1973).
28. Tiedeman, Walter D. "A Study of Plastic Pipe for Potable Water Supplies:' Nation-
al Sanitation Foundation, Ann Arbor. Michigan (June 1955).
29. Tipps, C. W., "Underground Corrosion." 1'>laterials Protection. (Sept. J966) p. 9.
30. Tobin, W. W. "Stabilization of Rigid Polyvinyl Chloride Against Ultraviolet Radia-
tion," Presented at Society of Plastic Engineers 21 st Annual Technical ConL
Boston, Mass, (\Iarch 1965).
31. "Transport fester Stoffe durch PVC - harl - Rohre (Transport of Solid Substances
Through Hard - PVC Pipes." Code: 237-4032-1, German.
32. Wagner, E. F. "Loose Plastic Film Wrap as Cast Iron Pipe Protection." Journal
AWWA. (March 1964) p. 361.
National Electrical rvianufacturers
Assocl:ttion
155 East 44th Street
New York, New l'ork 10017
(212) 682-1500
National Sanitation Foundation
P.O. Box 1468
NSF Building
Ann Arbor, 1\1 ichigan 48106
(313) 76980 I 0
Plastic UtilitIes Fillings ror Undergrllund Inslallatioll
Plast ic Conlinunlcations [)ud alll] Fit ltngs fur Underground
Install:! tioll
*PolyvinylChloride Plastic Drainage, Waste and Vent Pipe and
Fittings
*PVC Plastic Drainage and Vent Pipe and Fittings
*A[3S and PVC Plastic Drainage and Vent Pipe and Fittings
FHA 4550.49
Ex t rast Tel1)11 h 1'1:lst ie Utilities for Undcle:roulHl
Electricall'Jastic Tubing (EPT). ('<muult (EPC--W and
and
"'PVC Piasti;; Pipe and Fittings for Domestic W:ller Service
NSF
'1 (' X
TC 2
TC \)
TC 10
73
FHA UM49
TC 3 PVC for Use Wilh Rif(id I've Conduit ,llId lublll)1
TC () ;\llS :tnd PVC Plastic Utiltlh:s Duct for Undcrplllllld lnsl;lllallon
fHA UM-41
FHA U1\I-53a
FHA tI!R-563
FHA - ConCd.
FHA Minimum Property Stundards Interim Revision No_ 3J
NSF Standard No.24: Plumbing System Components for Mobile Homes and
Recreation Vehicles
i\'SF Standard No.14: Thermoplastic Materials, Pipe, Fittings, Valves. and
Joining l'.bterials
*Standards marked with an asterisk have been acccpted as American National Standards.
Department of the Army
Corps of Engineers
Office of the Chief of Engineers
Washington, D.C.
(202) 6936456
Department of the N:lVY
Naval Facilities Enginl.:l.:ring Commanu
W:Jshington, D.C.
(202) 545-6700
Architectural Standards Division
Federal Housing Aclministration
Washington, D.C. 20412
(202) 755-5995
Insulation Tubing, Electrical, Non-Rigid, Vinyi, LuI,
Temperature Grade
Guide Specific:ltion for Military :Inti Civil Works Construction
*Plastic Drain and Sewer Pipe and Fittings
DEPARTMENT

ARMY
DEPARTMENT
OFTHE
Ji:m
CE501
FHA
MIL-I-22076B
STANDARDS FOR PYC PIPING - Continued
DIIUD U. S. Dcpartmcnt or IloliSillg and Urban
Devclopmcnt
Washington, D.C. 20410
(202) 655-4000
DHUD 4940.3 Minimum Design Standards for Community Sewage Systcms
D1-IUD 4940.2 Minimum Design Standards for COlllmunity Watcr Supply
Systcms
MIL-P-22011A Pipe Fittings, Plastic, Rigid, High Impact, Polyvinyl Chloride,
(PVC) and Poly 1, 2 Dichloroethylene
?l'lIL-P-82056(1) Pipe and Pipe Fittings, Plastic, for Drain, Waste and Vent Service
FHA UM-26b
MIl.,.C-2357IA(YD) Supersaded by Federal Specification W-C-I094A
N;\VFACTSIS271 W;lter D1Wibuti(ltl Syw:1l1
N;\ Vf' AC TSl 5301 Sanitary Sewer and PlPlIll:
HANDBOOK OF PVC PIPE
*Standards marked with an asteriSk have been accepted as Amcrican National Standards_
HANDBOOK OF PVC PIPE
58
CHAPTER IV
PVC PIP E ;\1 ANUFA CT UIU NG AN [) T EST I NG
An Introduction to Standard Specifications,
l\bnufacturing Processes. Quality Control and
Test Rcquiremcnts, Packaging and Shipping.
/
59
HANDBOOK OF PVC PIPE
CHAPTER IV
PVC PIPE MANUFACTURING AND TESTING
PVC pipe and its many applications can be better evaluated and
appreciated with an understanding of the technology behind the product.
Through research, development, and experience, the technology in the PVC
pipe industry .has advanced and matured. It has been emphasized that PVC
pipe must exert a continuing effort to insure complete
understanding of the product by owners, engineers, contractors, operators,
and users - an understanding of advantages and limitations. In this inh:rest,
manufacturing processes, standard specifications, quality control antI test
requirements, packaging and shipping arc reviewed.
MANUFACTURING PROCESSES
The technology of PVC pipe m:1JllIfaLtlIring processes is extensive
:l!ld involved. It may be traced from oil or gas wdls through pdro-c1H.:mical
plants to the PVC compounding operations and finally to the autom;llt:d
extrusion, mold ing, and r:lbrica lion operat ions be fore a fin ishnl PVC
product is ready for tl;sting, i1l$peLtion, and ddivcry.
As tkfincd in Chapter II. PVC pipe
is produced from a blend of materials
whose major ingred icn t is polyvi ny I
chloride. Other ingredients which are
compounded with the PVC resin include
sta bilizers, pigrnen ts, lubricants, process-
ing nids. and fillers. The proportions of
these minor ingredien ts will vary from
compound to compound. The formu-
lations which stipulate the proportions
and actual ingredients used in given PVC
pipe compounds are developed to provide
specific properties required for specific
types of PVC pipe. As defined in Chapter
II, properties for PVC compounds are
established in ASTlvl D1784. It 111USt be
emphasized that the critical physical requirements of the end product are
obtained from the properties of the PVC resin, the major compound in-
ingredient. Minor ingredients are present in the PVC compound to aid in
r
t
CHAPTt,,': tV - pvc PIPE MA1'iUFACfURING AND TESTING
processing and to enhance particular properties of the PVC resin.
In the plastics industry, the word "resin" usually refers to the plastic
binder material in extrusion or molding compounds which softens and flows
under heat and pressure and is the structural material tying the chemicals
together developing the finished plastic product. Polyvinyl chloride resin
is a thermoplastic polymer produced by the polymerization of vinyl chlo-
ride monomer. The vinyl chloride is a colorless, sweet-smelling, volatile gas
which is produced from chlorine and ethylene. (Acetylene may be substi-
tuted for ethylene in some older production processes.) Of course, the
basic building blocks used in the manufacture of the components of vinyl
chloride monomer are pdroleum or natural gas, salt water, and air.
The terms thermoplastic, polymer. polymerization. and monomer
can bt:st bt:' explained in layman's terms:
Thermoplastic rckrs to the property that enables a material to be
repeatedly softened by an increase or tcmperature and hardened by a
decrease in tempera t mc.
Polymers are organic materials lhat contain a large number or the
same chemical conrigurations attached to each other like links in a
chain. The long chains rt:stJ1t in a high molecular weight.
Monomer is thc silnplc. small mokcuk from which the chain is
mad!.:.
Polymerization is the reaction which bonds the rnononH:rs into
the large structure known as the polymer.
Polymers are not confined to the man-made world of chemistry but
are found also in a large variety of natural materials such as protein, cellu-
lose, starch. and rubbers.
There are many polymerization processes used to convert the vinyl
chloride monomer into polyvinyl chloride resin (polymer). Two methods
have been found to be well suited for polymerization to produce the type
of PVC resin best suited for pipe. "Suspension" polymerization and "mass"
(sometimes termed "bulk") polymerization are the two processes used in
the prod uction of virtually all PVC pipe grade resins today. These processes
yield high quality pipe-grade resin produced at economical cost for PVC
pipe manufacturing.
After appropriate quality control testing and inspection, the resin
manufacturers ship the PVC resin in powder form to the pipe producers.
Large 200,000 pound bulk railcars or 40,000 pound bulk trucks are nor-
mally used. Upon arrival, the resin is pneumatically conveyed from the
bulk transporters into the pipe production plant and is stored in silos.
I
J
TOP VIEW
63
,..""..., 'C....
Rotaly JOin!
SIDE VIEW
ESSENTIAL COMPONENTS Of /\ MULTI SCREW EXTRUDER
IV - PVC PIPE MANUFACTUIUNG AND TESTING
w
Gear
I reducer
water mlet tor
screw coohng '--__....J
ESSENTIAL COMPONENTS OF A SINGLE SCREW EXTRUDER
- From compo:7 un;;-;d7"s;:-u;;:;p;;-pi"::ly:-;:::::LL..,
artificial wood molding, and of course, pipe. Most of the pipe made from
thermoplastic materials other than PVC, such as acrylonitrile butadiene
styrene CABS), styrene, polybutylene (PB), and polyethylene (PE), is
produced on single screw extruders. The bulk of PVC pipe produced in
the world today is manufactured on multi-screw extruders.
rlr-rUltiTl:;U Uy rrc:UMI'rl'lHOti ot' t-lIl\c.At.lNr.;. McGnAw.HlLi. . r.. c:.
62
HANDllOOK OF PVC PIPE
Incoming shipments of PVC resin at the pipe plant are again sub-
jected to quality control. In the plant laboratory, samples of resin are
analyzed to verify correct properties in a number of parameters such as
moisture content, bulk density, flow property, particle size, and molecular
weight. Minor compound ingredients are also analyzed to verify correct
properties. After approval, raw materials are conveyed to the compounding
operation where ingredients are combined in accurately weighed propor-
tions and blended into a homogeneous mixture,
The process used to mix intimately the PVC resin with tIle minor
ingredients producing the PVC pipe extrusion compound is correctly
termed dry-blend compounding. Dry blending or dry-blend compounding
is performed in a high speed. intensive mixer. III the process, fridion cre-
atl.'d by high speed rotation of the mixer blades :]])(1 intense movement of
marerial particles genaatt:s substanti:tl heat raising the or
bknding materials. As the PVC are Ill::Jfed, they expand. devel-
oping a porous. irregular appearann: similar to that or pDJH:orn. In the
"popcorn" conllt!u ra tion. p:J rtides beco mL: ulli formly CO;] [cd wit h minor
ingred iL:n [s j n corrL:c! proportions t!L:( alll inL:d by thL: compound 1'0
lion. SOIllL: ini'fl'diL:nts, such as lubric:ll1ls, melt at till' ckvakd !cmpL:ra-
tun;s, penni!!int! thorough dispersion and providing :Idded honlOgeneily (lJ
the blend. t\l'i,:r intensive mixing at L:kvalL'd klll!)L'raturL:s for sL:VL:rallllil1-
utes, prL:paration or a balch or I've compound is compkte. Tile b:llch is
tllL:n c;ookd to foam temperature and ill powder rorm trallsporlL'd to com-
pound siJos I'or storage and USc.
Upon oema nd, the ex trusion compOUIl d is pneumat icaJly conVL: yed
to the pipe extrusion oper-
ation. Air moving al con-
trolled velocities transports
the PVC compound through
ducts to the pipe extruders
where it is dropped through
screens into feed hoppers.
The compound is then
metered into the extruders
and pipe production com-
mences.
Almost all extruded plastic products are produced on two classes of
extruders - single screw extruders and multi-screw extruders. Products
made on single screw extruders include garden hose, fishing line filament,
'"

0"
w
1

65
IV - PVC PIPE MANUFACfUIUNG AND TESTING CHAP'


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The popularity of the multi-screw extruder for the production of


PVC pipe can be attributed to the additional processing flexibility offered
by the multi-screw extruder. The same toughness and strength that makes
PVC such an excellent pipe material also renders it a relatively difficult
material to process. The multi-screw extruder's versatility allows process-
ing at lower temperatures, with excellent dimensional control, and with
smaller quantities of necessary compounding ingredients providing PVC
its full potential strength.
Multi-shew extruders are available in various configurations. They
may have two long parallel screws, two pairs of short parallel screws, two
conical shaped screws, or one large screw with two or more small planetary
screws. Screw rotation in multi-screw machines can either be in the same
direction or in opposite directions. In most l11ulti-scn:\V extruders used in
PVC pipe production, screwS rotate in opposite directions or are counter-
rotating. Screws in all of the various extruders rotate within heakd mdal-
lit: cylinders or "barrels" machined to provitk close tolerances between
moving screw nights and cylinder walls.
PVC compound, in its powder I"orm, !lows from tl\(; kt.:d hopper
through the feed throat into thl.: t.:xtrutkr barn:l where it is received by
rOlating scn':W$. The is then t:Ol1vcyed with a pumping action by
the inll:r-mcshing screw flights through the extnllkr. As the mali:rial passl.:s
through the extruder and is l.:xposed to carefully controlled Ileat and pn':$-
SUfe, it is converted from the dry powder into viscous plastic mass rcscm-
bling hot taffy. To provide required properties ill the finishl.:d pipe prod-
uct, the process is carefully monitored and accurately controlled.
When the plasticating (softening) process is complete and volatiles
have been removed from the molten plastic, the material is properly pre-
pared for final forming. The viscous, elastic mass of is extruded into
the pipe forming die under high pressure (2000-5000 psi). In the pipe
extrusion die, the hot plastic material is molded in to cylindrical shape.
The material, as it leaves the extrusion die at the exit orifice, is
extremely hot (about 400F), flexible, and pliable. In this state, the hot
plastic is formed with accuracy into a finished product with required dimen-
sions and then cooled into a solid state. Outside diameter dimensional
cantrol is established by forcing the hot plastic against a sizing sleeve as
it is drawn away from the extruder by a piece of equipment commonly
called a haul-off. Wall thickness control is established through proper
synchronizing of haul-off and extruder speeds. Wall thickness is normally
adjusted by varying the speed of operation of the haul-off. Generally,
HANDBOOK OF PVC PIPE
CHAP1\.lV - PVC PIPE M,\:-.iUFACTURING A;'iD TESTING
67
When the bell joint is properly formed to required dimensions. the plastic is
cooled to a solid state and the tooling is removed.
Integral bell gasketed joints manufactured for non-pressure applica-
tions such as sewer pipe may be formed on PVC pipe without special
provisions to provide added wall thickness in the bell joints. Intcgral bell
gasketed joints manufactured for pressure piping applications III ust be
formed with process controls which provide increased wall thickness in the
bell joint. Join ts prod uced on PVC pressure pipe must provide <l critical
ratio of wall thickness to bell diameter necessary to provide proper join t
pressure rating. (See Uni-Bell Rccommended Standard UNI-B-I, Thermo-
plastic Pipe Joints, Pressure and Non-Pressure Applications.)
Integral bell joints manufactured for pressure applications
are normally formed in one of three common processes providing il1L:reased
bdl wall thickness. In one process, thl;' bdl w:lIl tl1i..:h:ning is obtained by
inl'l'easing pipe wall thickness Lluring extrusion on thaI ponion of the pipl;'
to be bL'liL-d over a forming mandrel. In another procl;'SS, an extra iL-ngth or
heated alld wftened Ill;lll'l'ial is upset or l'on;l;'d wilh pressure into
;1 dosl'd forming mold I'illinF thl' Illold Ch;IlUbl'r alld dl'vdoping desired
shape alld dimcnsions in lhe rilli:-.hed bdl joint. In anolhl'r proce:-.s.
is oblaiJll'd with a instalkd durin!! forlll-
ing or lhe joint o\'n fonning mandrel.
It should be noted tll;lt another system for manufacture of j!;lskekd
joints in\'olvcs lhe extrusioll 01' pipe alld scparak coupling stock from
which dual gasket couplers ;If\;' machined. Couplings may bl;' assembled
onto pipc during manufacturing or
laler at til.... job site.
UpOIl completion or the manu-
factu rill g operation. tllc fj 11 ished
'. PVC pipe is transferred to a holding
sta tion where the prod L1ct is subjected
to thorough quality control inspcc-
"HOYO coU"TESY CC"T"''''H"o CORPO""TION tion and quali ty assurance testing.
STANDARD SPECIFICAnONS
The following list of standard specifications is submitted as a partial
summary of standard documents applicable to PVC pipe products. Specifi-
cations listed include: product specifications, test methods, join t specifica-
tions. system standards. recommended practices, terminology, plumbing
codes, and design guides.
+
I
I
I
i
I
66
CROSS-SECTION OF TYPICAL PIPE EXTRUSION HEAD
HANDBOOK or PVC J'JPE
reduction of haul-off speed inneases wall thickness: in haul-orf
speed fed uCeS walt thit.:kness. W!Jen i;d changes in w;tll til ickness
;lfl' required. changes in tile extrusion t(loling dllllensions arl' reqlllrnl.
Upon colllpletion of rinal 1't>fJning, till' e\tl'uded I've pipl' is drawn ;l\vay
frolll the extruder into l.:ooling tanks wilL'1"l' it is cookd by chilled watl'r. By
thl' timl' the pipc Cllll'rgcs from till' end of the cooling tanks, it ilas cooled
to a tCJl1pcratt1re when.: it call be handit'd withollt distortion.
Aftn leaving the coolin;g station and passing througil tile haul-oIT,
tile pipe travt.:1s through a printing station. Pertint.:nt product and process
information is printed on the PVC pipe. Beyond the printer, the pipe is
automaticalty CLlt to correct length with chamfered ends. This process is
accomplished with a planetary saW which cuts and chamfers as it travels
with the moving pipe.
At this point the finished PVC pipe is transferred to a belling station
where an integral bell is formed on
the end of the pipe. In this process,
the portion of the pipe to be formed
into a bell is re-heated to a pliable
state which permits mechanical mold-
ing. The integral bell is formed by
means of precision belling tooling
which may include an internal
mandrel and variolls external dies.
0": c.THV L.
68
HANDBOOK OF PVC PIPE
Group E: i\lcthuds of Test
*Solvent Cements for Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Pipe
and Fittings
Determining Dimensions of Thermoplastic Pipe and Fillings
Solvent Cements for Joining Acrylonitrile-Butadienc-Styrene
(ABS) Pipe and Fittings to Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Pipe
and Fit tings for Non-Pressure Applications.
Joints for Plastic Pressure Pipes Using Flexible ElastOlTIcric Seals
Joints for Drain and Sewer Plastic Pipes Using Flexible Hmo-
meric Seals
Elastollleric Seals (Gaskets) For Joining Plastic Pipe
"'ShollTime Rupture Pipe, Tubing anu
hllings
"'TullcTo-Failure of PIpe undl:[

*Longi luumal Tensile Proper tills of Reinfurced Thermosetting
Plastic Pipe and Tube
*impact Resistance of Thermoplastic Pipe and Fittings by
Means of a Tup (Falling Weight)
*Quality of Extruded Poly (Vinyl Chloride) Pipe by Acetone
Immersion
*External Loading Properties of Plastic Pipe by Parallel-Plate
Loading
*Apparent Tensile Strength of Ring or Tubular Plastics by Split
Disk Method .
*Obtaining Hydrostatic Design Basis for Thermoplastic Pipe
Materials
External Pressure Resistance of Plastic Pipe
D3139
Fol77
D3138
03212
02564
69
D2105
D2122
STANDARDS FOR PVC PIPING - Continued
ClfA!"'\ IV - PVC PIPE MANUFACTURING AND TESTING
D2152
]) 1599
D2412
D2837
02444
02290
D2924
ASTM - Cont'd.
Group D: Plastic Piping Joints and Solvent Cements
marked with an asterisk havc bccn accepted as Amcrican National Standards.
Drain, Waste and Vent (DWV) Plastic Fittings Patterns
Group A: Systems
Type I'SM Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Sewer Pipe and Hlllnp
Three.lnch TlLin Wall Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) I'laslk Drain
Waste and Vent Pipe and Fi!!ings
*Po]y (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Drain, Waste, and Vent
Pipe and Fittings
*Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Sewer Pipe :llllJ Fi!!ings
Type PSI' Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Sewer Pipe ami FI!!lJlgS
Thermoplastic Gas Pressure Pipe, Tubing, and Fittings
Group B: Plastic Pipe Specifications
03311
Group C: Plastic Pipe Fittings Specifications
D2466 *SocketType Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Pipe Fittings,
Schedule 40
American Society for Testing and Materials
1916 Race Street
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19103
(215) 569-4200
02464 *Threaded Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Pipe Fittings,
Schedule 80
D2467 *Socket-Type Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Pipe Fittings,
Schedule 80
STANDARDS FOR PVC PIPING
02241 "'Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastk Pipe, (SORPR)
02672 *13cllEml Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Pipe
D2740 *Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Tubing
D303-1
[) 1785 *I'oly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Pipe, Schcduks 40, BO,
120
02lJ-I9
03033
02729
D2513
02665
The ASTM Standards are divided into groups as foHows:
*Standards marked with an asterisk have been accepted as American Nalional Standards.
HANDBOOK OF PVC PIPE
U. S. Drpartlllcnt 01" Agricultl1n:
Soil Conservation Service
Washington, D.C. 20250
(202) 447-4543
Specifications Activity
Prin ted IVfatcrials Supply Division
Build ing 197
Naval Weapons Plant
WaShington. D.C. 20407
545-6700
Commanding Officer
Naval Publications and Forms Center
5801 Tabor Avenue
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19120
(215) 697-2000
Department of Transportation, Hazardous Materials
Regulation Board, Office of Pipeline Safety, Title 49,
Part 192. Transporta tion of Natural Gas and Other
Gas by Pipeline: Minimum Federal Safety Standards,
FEDERAL REGISTER, Vol. 35, No. 161, Wednesday,
August 19,1970, and amendments.
"'High Pressure Underground Plastic Irrigation Pipelincs
'" Low (lead Underground Plastic Irrigation Pipelines
Rod. SoJiu: I'l:tst ie Tubes :lIlU Tubinl;., Ilcilvy Walled:
l'olYVJllyJ Chloride, Rigid
Cunduit and Flltings,l\"onj\ktaJlic. Rigid (Plastics)
1'1!1l' ;uJd Plastic (PVC, [)r;Jin, \\'a\lc and Vellt)
"\Veil
Tubing, TlJer1Jlopla\tic (Laboratory and Medical)
FEDERAL
SPECIFl-
CATIOr\S
DEPARTMENT
OF
DEFENSE

STANDARDS
DEPARHIE0:T
OF
AGRICULTURE
STANDARDS FOR PVC PIPING - Continued
CHAPTER IV - PVC PIPE MANUFACTURING AND TESTING
LP 320 II
\\'C-10LJ-!
1.'17\101\
LI'I tJ3bA
DOT-OPS
SCS 6-1-2
scs-nO-DD
SCS 430EE
tlllL-A-220 IOA(l) A,dhesive, Solvent-Type, Polyvinyl Chloride
SCS National Engineering Handbook. Section 2, Part I, Engineering Practice Standards
*Standards marked with an aSterisk haye been accepted as American National Standards.
American Nation:.!l Standards Institute. Inc.
1430 Broadway
New York, New York 10018
(212) 868-1220
Installation of Gas Appliances and Gas Piping
Standard for Mobile Homes, NFPA No. 501 B
Plumbing, Heating and Electrical Systems for Travel Trailers
Standard Code for Pressure Piping, Gas Transmission and
Distribution Piping Systems and Supplement ANS B31.8b-I969
Rigid Non-Metallic Conduit, Underwriters Laboratory Standard
UL651
Group G: Terminology
*DdiniliollS uf TCflm Rclating 10 ]'la\lic Sys[clm
*Slandard Dcfinil ions 01 Tenm Rcl:ll ing It} l'b\t1c\
S:lfe llandlll1\.t of Solvent llsed Illr Jllllling Thermo-
Plastic Pipe Fillings
Underground Installation of Thermoplastic Pressure Piping
*I\laking Solvent Cemented Joints with Poly (Vinyl Chloride)
(PVC) Pipe and Fluings
Z21.30
C33.91
F..\12
F402
A119.1
A119.2
B31.8
DHH3
STANDARDS FOR PVC PIPING - Continued
Group F: Recommended Practices
GrOllp II: 1\1 alerials Refcrcllced in Plastic Pipe,
Fitting uno Solvent Cemcnt Standards
D1704 *Rigid Pol'y (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Compounds and Chlorinated
Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (CPVC) Compounds
D2749
D2321 *Underground Installation of Flexible Thermoplastic Sewer Pipe
02657 *Heat Joining of Thermoplastic Pipe and Fittings
<
02774
02855
ASTM - Cont'd.
marked with an astcrisk hayc been accepted as American National Standards.
HANDBOOK OF PVC PIPE
Ulllkrwritcrs 1m:.
207 I'.ast Ohio Slreet
Illinois ClOG I I
(312} (J-i26()(J9
American Water Works Association
6666 West Quincy Avenue
Denver, Colorado 80235
(303) 794-7711
Building Officials and Code Administrators
International, Inc.
13 I 3 East 60th Street
Chicago, llIinois 60637
(3 12) 947-2580
American Petroleulll Institute
300 Corrigan Tower Building
Dallas, Texas 75201
(214) 741 -679 1
75
National Association of Plumbin" Ht:atincr
Cooling Controctors 0' ::>,
1016 20th Strt:et, N.W.
Washington. D.C. 20036
(202) 33J-7675
CH,\!'TFR 1\' - PVC PIPE MANUFACTURING AND TESTlNG
Rigid NlJIlInct:illie Conduit; ANSI CJ3,l) I
Ou tlct Buxes :Ind Fittings
Thermoplastic Line Pipe (PVC and CPVC) and Appcxtlix A
Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Pressure PilJe 4-in through 12.in
for Water
B:lsic Plumbing Code
:\alion:11 St;Jnd:lflJ Plumbing Code
STANDARDS F9R PVC PIPING - Continued
UL65]
UL 5[4
AWWA
BOCA
API Spec 5LP
AWWA C900
NAP! ICC
NAPHCC
74
Southern Building Code Congress
3617 8th Avenue, South
Birmingham, Alabama 35222
(205) 252-8930
In ternatio Ilal Con rcrcncc of Building
Officials
5360 South Workman r.liJI Road
Whittier. California 9060 I
(816) 741-2241
International Association of Plumbing and
Mechanical Officials
5032 Alhambra Avenue
Los Angeles, California 90032
(213) 223-1471
Uniform Building Code
Poly (Vinyl Chlmide) (PVC) Natural Gas Yard Piping
Non-Metallic Building Sewers
PVC Drain, Wasle and Venl Pipe and
Uniform Plumbing (odc
Standard Plumbing Code
PVC Pipe and FJttings with Rubber G;tsketed ror ('old
Watcr Service allli Yard Piping
Solvcnt Cementcd PVC Pipe for Waler Semee and Yard Piping
Supplcmcntal Standard to AST:-'1 D2(lS 5: Poly (VUiyl Chlmidc)
(PVC) Plastic Drain, W;IStc .Illd Vcnl Pipc and hllings
ICBO
SBCC
ICBO
IAMPO IS 1}
IAPI\IO
IS 9
IAPMO IS I
STANDARDS FOR PVC PIPING -- Continued
1AP1\1O
IAP;"10 IS 10
IS 14
IAPMO I'S 27
NSF - Cont'd.
NSF Seal of Approval Listing of Plastic Materials, Pipe, Fittings ,111d Appurtenances for
Potable Water and Waste Water (NSF Testing l.<lboratory) (Issued in March each year)
(Nute: IS"" lm-Iallatiol/ SUi/1c!ard: PS "" ProPCfty Standard)
HANDUOOK OF PVC PiPE
77
CHAPTER IV - PVC PIPE MANUFACrURING AND TESTiNG
Pipes of plastics m:lterbls for the transpon of Ouids (outside
Jiamet0rs and nominal pressure) - Part I: I\ldrk series
Pipes :lnu fillings of plastics materials - Socket filtings for pipes
under pressure - Bask Dimcnsiolls -. Metric series
International Standards Organization
Secretariat: Nederlands
Normal.isitic-instituut (NNI)
Polakweg 5
Rijswijk (ZH) 2106
Netherlands
USA CONTACT: American National
Standards Institute
1430 Broadway
New York, New York 10018
(212) 868-1220
Pipes of Plastics materials for I he: t rallspolt 01" Iluids (olltsiJc
di;lIneten; :lIld nominal pressure Part II Incl! series
Pipes :lIlll lilt ings of plastics malcrials - Socket flltings with
Spiliut cnds lor domestic and indust rial W;lStc pipes .. Basic
dlLllcnsiom I\h:trit.: series
filtings in unp!;lstieized polyvinyl chloride: (PVC) for
usc under pressure - Oven test
Socket fillings for pipes under pressure - Unpl:lsticized poly-
vinyl chloride (PYC) nttings with plain sockets - l\lelric series
Plastics pipes for the transport of Ouids - Unplasticized poly-
vinyl chloride (PYC) pipes - Tolerances on wall thicknesses up
to 6 rnm.
Plastics pipes for the transport of Ouids - Determination of the
resistance to internal pressure
Plastics pipes for the transport of fluids - Unplasticized
vinyl chloride (PVC) pipes - Tolerances 011 outside diameters
Unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (P.YC) moulded fittings for
elastic sealing ring type joints for use under pressure - Oven test
Unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (PYC) moulded filtin"s for
elastic sealing ring type joints for use under pressure -
resistance test
ST/\.NDARDS F ....... {(, PVC PIPING - Continued
727
580
R 265
R 330
1167 e
2035
2043
Rl165
RI330
**R 161
Recommended Practice for the InstallatIon of Thermoplast ic
Piping for Gas Service
Canadian St:mdards Assodalioll
178 Rl'xdah: 130ukvard
Rexdale, Ontario, Can:lLla M9W 1R3
(41 (1) 7435200
Design. :lllU l'.:rformancc of Underground Thermo-
plastic Pipelines
Plastic Underground Power Cable Dueling
76
Rigid PVC (Unplaslicized) Conduit
Rigilll'oly (Yinyl Chloride) (PVC) Pipe for PreSSIJrl' i\pplK;'liol1s
American Association of State Highway
and Transportation Officials
Room 341 National Press Building
Washington, D.C. 20045
(202) 624-5800
Rigid PVC Boxes and Fittings
Standard Specifications for l-lighway Bridges
American Society of Agricultural Engineers
2950 Niles Road
St. Joseph, ?\1ichigan 49085
(616) 429-0300
Poly (Vinyl Chloride) Drain. Wasle and Yent Pipe ;llld Pipe
Fittings
Recommended Practice for the Installation of PYC Drain, Waste
and Yent Pipe and Pipe Fillings.
Plastic Drain and Sewer Pipe and Pipe Fittings for Use
Underground
Recommended Practice for the Installation of Plastic Drain and
Sewer Pipe and Pipe Fittings
Thermoplastic Piping. Systems for Gas Service
STANDARDS FOR PVC -
B 181.2
B 137.4
B 196.1
B 137.3
B 182.1
B 181.12
B 137,14
AASHTO
B182.11
A5AE 5376
C22.2 No. 85
C22.2 No. 136
HANDBOOK OF PVC PIPE
National Fire Protection Association
470 Atlantic Avenue
Boston, 02210
(617) 482-8755
JnstalIation of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) sewer pipe
Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Plastic Gravity Sewer Pipe and Filtings
(Nominal Diameter 18 - 27")
UNI-B-5
UNI-B-]
NFPA
C! fER [V - PYC PIPE MANUFACTURING """D TESTING
79
UNI-BELL - Cont'd.
NFPA St:lIldard No. 24 - Outside Protection
STANDARDS FOR PVC PIPING -
TESTING
The high kvd of In:hnology inhl'f<.:nl in lhe manufacture of PVC
pi pe is clcarly displayed iii lile ex tcnsive and sopll ist kaled sl:lt istica I sam-
pling :ll1d t<.:sting requirements imposed by lhe PVC piping industry on its
constitu..:nt manuracturing members. The lklllands or fluid distri-
bution and colkctioll piping systems Illel not only by adv;1I1Cl;d
malluracturing speciric:lliorls and ll'chnology but also by critic:dly important
advanced testing requin;I1H;nts :11ld technology the final insur:lllce to the
consumer th:lt PVC pipe will consistently ;lI1d reli:lbly serve his long-term
Il<.:eds.
Testing in the PVC pipe industry may generally be divided into three
categories: qualification testing, quality control testing_ and assurance
testing. Each testing category is a signincant and vital part of the final
insurance that PVC pipe will serve with reliability antl durability through
the life of its intended applications.
Frequently, the purpose and value of the different categories of
testing are misinterpreted and confused. This chapter is offered to define
simply the purpose and value of testing requirements as established by
engineers, specifiers, and owners and as implemented by PVC pipe manu-
facturers_
General definitions and description of the testing categories pre-
sented in a desired specification are:
Qualification Testing. Qualification Testing is performed on piping
products and the materials from which they are produced to insure that the
finished products can conform, without exception, to requirements of
applicable specifications. Qualification Testing must demonstrate that the
78
Uni-Bcll Plastic Pipe Association
2655 Villa Creek Drive, Suite 164
Dallas, Texas 75234
(214) 243-3902
Unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC) injection-moulded
solvent-welded socket fittings for use with pressure pipe -
Hydraulic international pressure test
Double socket fittings for unplasticizcd polyvinyl chloride (PVC)
pressure pipes with elastic sealing ring type joints -
depths 0 f engagcmcnt
Single sockets for unplastici7.ed polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pres-
sure pipes with elastic sealing type joints - Minimum depths of
engagcment
Unplasticized polyvinyl (PVC) -- DelCfrlHlwlion
of longiltJdinal . Uquiu bdlh lrlllller,ion me thou
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic gravity sewer pipe and fittings
(Rev) Cancelled - See AWWA Standard C900
Thermoplastic pipe joints, Prcssure and Non-Pressure Application
Installation of Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Pressure Pipe (Comply-
ing with AWWA Standard C900)
2048 "
2045
2505
3460 Unplastici/ed polyvillyl chloride (PVC) prcssure pipcs ric
series - Dilllensioll5 of adapter for backing llange
253(, Ullpbsliclled polyvmyl diloridc (PVC) ]'ICS\lJrC pipes :lIld fit
lings, Illctric scries Dlll1Cnsiolls uf !lange,
3126 Plastic pLJles- 01 dlillellsiom
STANDARDS FOR PVC PIPING - Continued
2500 Unplasticil.eu polyvlllyl chloride (PVC) pIpes - Dctef!mn:llioll
of water absorption
2703 !luried pplyvillyl chloride (PVC) pipes lor the
supply of gascous fUl'b ic series Spc'(lf!c':11 iun
3472 Unplastici/cd polyvinyl l;hloriJc (PVC) pipcs -- SpcciflC;Jtion
and determination of resistancc to acctonc
UNI-B-2
UNI-B-J
UNI-B-3
UNIB4
UNI-BELL
ISO - Cont'd.
2044
RECOMMENDED
STANDARDS
8t
IV - PVC PIPE :\IANUFA("TLJRING AND TESTING CfL\'
Toxicological Testing - performed to verify the absence of chemicals
in quantities \\thich cal1 be reasonably termed toxic, carcinogenic, or
mutagenic to an extent which can be expected to produce adverse physio-
logical effect to man when ingesting materials which are to be conveyed by
the piping product. This qualification test must be required for all PVC
potable water distribution piping products.
Organoleptic Testing - performed to evaluate the taste and odor
producing properties of PVC materials and piping products which are
designed for conveyance of materials to be ingested by man. This quali-
fication test is commonly required for all PVC potable water distribution
piping products,
L(Jug-term IlydrU5!lllic Design Slress Tes/ing - performed to estab-
Iisit till' maximum allowable tensile stress ill tite wall of PVC pipe in a
cin:umrt:rcntial oricntation (hoop stress) duc to internal pressure applied
continuously with a high level or L'crtainty that failure or the pipe cannot
occur. This qualification lest must be- relJuin:d for all PVC prcssurc pipe
t:.\ lrusion compounds.
Joining S',J'SICIll P('}jUJ'lllilllCt' Tesling is pcrrol'llll:d undn bbor-
:1{Ory conditions to verify :1 kak rret: design or spccil'it:d pipl' joint whicll
will Illaintain a proper connection and seal in a required application. The
applicahk tests reCOlllJ1lCIH.lcd hy tile Uni-Bell Plastic Pipe
:\ssociatioll for both pressure and non-pressure applications for PVC piping
products.
Cell Classification Testing. ASnl D1784.
Standard Specirication ror Rigid Poly (Vinyl
Chloride) Compounds provides a nationally
accepted standard means for selecting and
identirying rigid PVC compounds ror manu-
facture of specified PVC piping products. Cell
classification provides " standard means of
categorizing PVC piping production materials
to establish identification of the PVC materials
and their minimum property values. (See
Chapter II - PVC Pipe Compounds.)
Qualification testing for cell classification
of a PVC extrusion compound is essential to
insure that a finished PVC piping product can provide required mechanical
and chemical properties in any specified application. This qualification
testing Illllst be performed in accordance with requirements and procedures

QUALIFICATION TESTS
Qualification Tests will vary in accord with tin: spt.:ciried n:quirements
for finished PVC piping products.
Qualification tests \vill vary 1'01' pressure and nUll-pressure piping
products, just as th\!ir relative design properties vary. Toxicological testing,
although critical to the qualification of raw materials for manufacture 01'
potable water distribution pipe. is meaningless in the qualification for
manufacture of sanitary sewer pipe. In general, these tests evaluate the
properties of raw materials and finished products to establish that specified
design properties required in the finished product can be consistently and
reliably attained.
Qualification tests commonly used in the manufacture of PVC pipe
are performed to evaluate the following design properties:
PVC Extrusion Compound Cell Classification Testing - as defined in
ASTM D1784 performed to establish primary mechanical and chemical
properties of the PVC material from which the finished product is pro-
duced. This qualification test is typically required for all PVC plplllg
products.
materials, process equipments, and manufacturing technology, when used
in the production of a specifIed product, can consistently yield, through
proper production procedures and controls, finished products which
comply with applicable specifications.
Quality Control Testing. Quality Control Testing is routinely per-
formed on a statistical sampling as PVC piping products are manufactured
to insure that proper production procedures and controls are consistently
implemented as required to yield quality products which comply with
applicable specifications. Quality Control Testing includes but is not
limited to insp'ection and testing to define proper dimensional, physical,
mechanical, electrical, and chemical properties. Frequently, Quality
Control Tests are required which may not dcfine a desired finished product
property but do rerify the use of proper procedureS and controls in the
manufaduring process,
Assurance Testing, Assurance Testing is performed :It thL'
pletion or manufacturing proL'CSS on a statistical sampling to inSlll\: that
properties and qu:.llilit.:s lkfined in finished products consistently
fL'liably satisfy the n:quireml'nts or applicabh: :\ssur:lJ1Ce
Testing is the final illsur:Jnct.: orfered till' l11:IIlUf:ll.:tlln:r to till' user that :1
1!iven sjH.:cinl.,'l! product will l'ntirl'ly satisfy lIlL' user's !leeds.
80
HANDBOOK OF PVC PIPE
82
HANDBOOK Or: PVC PIP
83
CIlIER IV - PVC PIPE MANUFACTURING A;'\D TESTING
In addition to evaluation of extractant water. PVC piping products
are analyzed by name-ionization gas chromatography to insure th:lt a maxi-
mum limit of 10 parts per million (PPM) residual vinyl chloride monomer
(RVCM) is not exceeded. The maintenance of this RVCr.llimit in piping
walls insures that there is no reasonable expectation that RYC!'>l can migrate
into potable water. Sophisticated test equipment sensitive to 2.0 parts per
billion (PPB) will consistently be unable to detect RYCl\I in potable water
conveyed by PVC piping which contains less than 10 PPM RYCM in pipe
walls.
Toxicological testing mllst be considered a required qualification test
for all PVC materials and piping products specified for potabk water appli-
cation.
Organolep!ic IT:lstc and Odor) Testing. Org:lno!cpliL' l"v:iluation of
PVC piping materi:ds is conducted in accort!:JJKe with procedllf\.:'s scI forth
in ApPl"ndix A of :\SF S[:IJHlanJ 14. PVC piping proJudS an: t:\'ailialcd
through [esling of L'xtract:mt aggressivL' water to whit:h the products arL'
exposed lo insurt: thal maximum pL'frnissibk lastL' :lnd udor limlls I..'slab-
lisl1L'd by the Nation:1! San i[al ion r:OllJH!:llion are nul t: xCt:L'lkd.
An:dysis performed by the i'-:ational S;1I1il:ltion Foundation or ap-
proved t'q uiva knt test il1g Iabor:ltory mllst L'st ahlish [hat ex lr;lcta nt \Va leI'
L'\ poscd lo PVC pi ping prod uds spcci fit:d for potable r ap plica lion
doL'S !lol exceL'd acct:plabk limits of taste :l11d odor. This evalU:llion is
conducted in accordancc wilh the Standard 1\lclhods for thc Examinalion
of Watcr and Wastcwa lc r. All1crican PubJic lIealt h Associa lion. :\WW1\
and WpeF. Results art: dctcrmincd based on thc 1l10difiL'd paired sample
dilution tL'chniquc. TIle l\'SF thrcshold limit of acccplancc shall not cx-
cccd a geometric mean of 40.
Plastic piping manufacturers offer
the only piping material in potable water
use routinely tested to provide consumers
with additional assurance of
able taste and odor properties.
Long-Term Hydrostatic Design Stress
Testing. Long-term hydrostatic design
stress testing is conducted in accordance
with Plastics Pipe Institute (1'1'1) Technical
Report PPI-TR3, Policies and Procedures
for Developing Recommended Hydrostatic
Design Stress for Thernloplastic Pipe ivlate-
0.05
0.05
1.00
0.01
0.05
0.05
0.002
om
0.05
[70 Variation}
Maximum Limit (mgfl)
Antimony*
Arsenic
Barium
Cadmium
Chromium (hexavalent)
Lead
i\lercury
Selenium
Tin*
Total Dissolved Solids*
Contaminant
*NSF esrablis!u:d limits 0/ acceptance not defined ill US PHS Drinking Water
Standards.
TABLE 9 - MAXIMUM CONTAMINANT LIMITS
Toxicological Testing. Toxicological evaluation of PYC piping mate-
rials is conducted in accordance with procedures set forth in Appendix A
of National Sanitation Foundation (NSF) Standard No. 14. PVC piping
prod Llets :Ind fll:.lterials arc evaluated through testing 0f ex tractan t
sive water to which the products or materials arc exposed to insure lhat
max imum aCCL' jHabk concentralions of harmful subsl:lIH:CS do no l exceed
limits established ill the U. S. 1:llvi rOlllllen tal Protection :\gcncy National
In1l:rim Drinking Water Regul:ltiolls, 1975 edition. and additional
limits established hy the NSF Industry Advisory Committee on Thermo-
plastic Pipe.
Chl:lllical :lnt! physic;d analysis Ih:rformcd hy tile Natiollal Sanita-
tion F(lund ation or :lpproWt! eq uivalcn t tcst iIll-: lahor;l! ory mllst cstablisll
that ex tractan t \Va tn ex posed to I've piping prod L1cls and ma le rials
specified for potable water application docs nol contain contaminanls
in I,:'xcess of thc followi Ilg limi ls:
defined in ASTM D1784.
Specified requirements include tests to determine:
Impact Strength (lzod)
Tensile Strength
Modulus of Tensile Elasticity
Deflection Temperature under Load
Chemical Resistance
HANDBOOK OF PVC PIPE
TABLE 10 - HYDROSTATIC DESIGN STRESS
EQUATION I
CHA""'R IV - PVC PIPE MANUFACnJRING AND TESTING
Joining System Performance Testing. PVC pipe joint performance
testing is recommei1ded to insure proper joint design which will yield re-
quired long term perfonnance of PVC pipe joints in both pressure and non-
pressure applications. Joining systems commonly used in the installation
of PVC pipe are:
Integral bell gasketed joints
Integral bell solvent cemented joints
Gasketed Couplings
Solvent Cemented Couplings
Gasketed Fittings
Solvent Cemented Fittings
Qualification tests should be performed by manufacturers to estab-
lish that the joining system offered will insure that the joint or coupling
design will seal in the specified application.
The Uni-Bell Plastic Pipe Association recommends the use of Uni-Bdl
Gaskekd Joints in direct connedion of pipe in continuous PVC pipe lines.
Qualification testing or UnilklI joints should be performL'd in accordance
with Section 4, Laboratory Performance Requireml:nts, as defined in Uni-
Bell l{eCO!t1l1len tied Sta ntLtrd. UNI-B-l , Tile rmoplastic Pi pe Join ts, Pressure
:lJltl NOll"IHcssure Applications. Performance testing of Uni"lklI joints in
accordance with tllis recoml1lL'nded stand;ml subjects specific joint designs
to laboratory test for rL'sponse to both intL'rnal hydrostatic pressurL' and to
inkrnal vacuum or external pressure. Tht.: joint design is evaluakd through
testing of a represt.:lltative series of sample joints under the con-
ditions:
Assembled joint in straight alignment
Assembled joint in angular deflection
Assembled joint in offset deflection
Joining systems represen t the single largest source of problems and
failures in the use of any piping material: plastic, iron, clay, concrete,
asbestos cement, or copper. The consumer and engineer should be familiar
with qualification testing requirements for all piping products and should
insist on verification of results.
QUALITY CONTROL TESTS AND INSPECTION
Quality Control Tests are defined for a given PVC pipe in the appIi"
cable product specification. quality control tests and procedures are
common to all PVC pipe products. Others apply only to certain products.
A universal requirement in the manufacture of all pipe products is
85
2000 psi
1600 psi
1300 psi
Hydrostatic Design Stress*
84
5 = HDB
F
Hydrostatic Design Stress, psi
Hydrostatic Design Basis, psi
Selected Safety Factor
Where:
5 4
HDB=
F =
Safety Factor
2: I
2.5: I
3: I
*S mlues rounded all to nearest 100 psi
rials. The basic test method for obtaining long-term pipe test data is de-
fined in ASTM Standard D2837, Standard Method for Obtaining Hydro-
static Design Basis for Thermoplastic Pipe Materials.
The Hydrostatic Design Stress (5) for PVC pipe is established as
follows:
The Hydrost:ltic Design l3asis (HDD) for a given PVC pipe extrusion
compound is established through long term hydrostatic pressure testing of
PVC pipe extruded from that compound. The qualification test for one
givcn PVC pipe extrusion compound is conducted in accordance with
ASTivl Standard and involves testing of one lot of pipe for 10.000
hours and two additional Jots of pipe from the same compound for 2.000
hours to establish the stress regression line from which the I!DB is c;l1"
culateJ in accordance with PP['-TR 3. Tilt.: Ilydrostatic Dcsign Stress for
the given PVC pipe compound is then calculated by dividing the est;Jhlished
IIDB by the desired safety factor (F) defined in the speeirication for the
specific preSSllft.: piping application.
The response of PVC pipe to hoop stress caused by internal pressure
is timc dependent. Therefore, the qualification test to derine long term S
for extrusion compounds is critical to insure proper long term performance
of PVC pressure pipe. (See Chapter V - Static and Dynamic Loadings).
The HDB for PVC 1120 must be established at a level equal to or
greater than 4000 psi. The HDB is derived for constant hydrostatic stress
loading for 100,000 hours at 73.4 F 03 C). The S ratings required for
PVC 1120 Pressure Pipe defined for commonly used safety factors are as
follows:
87
ProducE Packaging. 'The finished package of PVC pipe prqxned
for shipmen t to the customer should be inspected to insure correct
pipe quantity and adequate protection of the pipe. (Sec Chapter
IV - Packaging.)
Quality Control Tests,
Quick Burst Test. The
PVC pipe sample is pressurized
to burst the sample within a
test time period of 60-70
seconds. Burst pressure mea-
sured must L'xct.:'L'd minimum
burst pressure rcq uiremen ts in
tll,; applicable product sp:.:cifi
catIon. Quick burst
",.OTO COhiI/Tt:'.;,y 0., (OI,"L,UATHd4
conducted 111 accordance with
DISq,),
FlOf[('/1IIh: '{'('.Il, TlIl' PVC .-,.l>'lj'''_''''''''''''
pip,' i" lbllt:llnl l)L'
tWl','I) IllO\'Jng par:tlkl plaks.
WIl,'!l till' PII'l' s;JJllpk is Ihi-
tl'nl'd by (>0' I Ulltil till' point
w!ll're Ih,; disi;lllCl' bl'tWL'l'l1
tlIl' paralkl platl's equals 40';
or till' ori).'inal outside dia ".. <,TO "<,,,"n-.v '"
!.AI.r,,,"
meter tlIl' s;lInpk siiouid dis
play no l'vidt:l1ce of splitting, cracking or
!:'.Y(l'lIsi{))1 (}lIa!ir.1' Test. Thl' I've pipe sampk I:; inlln0rsed in
anlIydrous (dry) acetonl' for a speciried duration. WlIen removd
from tl1L' aCt.'tollt: batii at the speciCied tiIl1L', tlJe pipL' sampk should
no t display evidence 0 r !laking or disin kgration. Ex trusiol1 q llali ty
testing is conducted in accord-
ance with :\STi\! 02152. This
test only distinguishes between
un fused and properly fused
PVC pipe,
Pi/)(! Ill/pac! Test. The
PVC pipe samples aw placed
on a specified holder arc
subjected to 1i11pact by a 111ctnl t'.H>l"'O C':OUR"rT::SV
86
HANDBOOK OF pVC PWE
that the manufacturt;r must take adequate measures to insure fuli compli-
ance with applicable product standard. This is through
quality control inspection and testing.
Quality Control Inspection.
Proper Workmanship. Inspection is conducted to assure that the
PVC pipe is homogeneous throughout free from voids. cracks,
inclusions Jnd other defects - and reasonably uniform in color.
density, and other physical properties. Pipe surfaces are inspected
to insure that they are free from nicks, gouges, severe scratches. and
other suh blemishes. Joining surfaces of pipe spigots and integral
belt gaskett.'d joints are inspected to insure freedom from damage
:ll1d imperfections.
Dili/e!l:>i. il/.I', l\kasun::ment 0 ( cri tical dimensions on a rt:g.ular
systematk Failure to meet critical dimL'mional re
quin: Illen b rcntk rs the prod uct unsa tisfactory reg:lrdkss of success
achieved In other and tesh, All dill1ellSlon:l! llleaSlll\>
lllcnts are made in accorl!:ll1ce with AST.\[ ])2122. Dinh:nsion;l!
measun:Il1L';\h comnlOnly n:quired include:
hi': UiallletL'l'
j'q':.: Wall Tllid,nt.:ss
(h {y (() 1I [-(1 t'- Round ness)
lkll Joint Dilllcnsions

Dime n:qu irt.: ments an; de fi ncd in prud 1I t:l speci rica tions. AII
dime nsion:ll Illeasun::meil ts liskd above may no t bc rct] ui rcd ill so Ille
product sp\.'j fica tions,
Product ,l[arking. Inspection should verify proper marking of the
pipe as required in the applicable product specification. of
PVC pipe commonly includes:
i\bnufacturer's Name or Trademark
l\ominal Pipe Size and Size Base
P\"( Cell Classification or ivlaterial Code
Dimension Ratio or Standard Dimension Ratio Number
Product Type, Pressure Class, or Pressure Rating
Standard Specification Designation
Production Record Code
Certification Seales) (if required)
Inspection should also \'erify that identification markings will remain
legible during normal handling, storage, and installation.
HANDBOOK OF PVC PIPE
ttlp of the defined tup geometry and weight falling from a specified
height. Impact resistance by PVC pipe is n::portcd in foot-poUJllls
(Joules) of impact. Impact resistance testing is conducted in accord-
ance with ASTM D2444. Impact resistance testing is conducted as a
quality control procedure; it should not be considered a field accept-
ance test.
Pipe Sriffness Test. The PVC pipe sample is tlattened berween
parallel plares to 5 percent datum del1ection at which point the force
required to achieve deflection is accurately mC3sured. This force, per
unit divided by the vertical deflection, is expressed in units of
pounds per lineal inch per inch (lbfjin.in) (kPal and is termed the pipe
stilTness at SSt deflecrion uall1m. Defknion r,:IS6 Olller ti!;I!1
Y; may be for some products. Pip\.' Stiffncs, rcsllng is
COIH.I uckd in accordance \\'ith proceLl ur\.'\ definL'd ill :\S'I\1 J 2,
The rneasurel11L'nt used in 1'1PL' Stillness lL:'S[1I1g shollld not Ix
interprett:U as a neld lllnit or dt'sig.n allow:lncL',
Quality control must not bl: confust'd witi! f!L'ld ;ICCL'pi;lllCL"
testing. Various quality control procedures call be properly conduded
only during the manufacturing process.
QUALITY ASSURANCE TESTIr-;G
Quali ty Assurance Tests may be defined 1'0 r PVC pi pc in prod ud
specifications. Quality Assurance Tests may be derined and l'L'(lllin:d In the
terms of purchase agreements. Quality Assurance Testing. nlusl be con-
sidered final insurance of product quality.
Sustained Pressure Test. The PVC pipe samples are subJected to
sustained hydrostatic pressure for 1000 hours, At tlle sustained pressure
88
I
I
,
1
i
,
i
[
"
t
I
elL /ER!V - PVC PIPE .... lANLiFACTURING Al\'D TESTING
specified in the applicable product standard. the SJmDle should not fail,
balioon, burst, or weep. Sustained pressure testing is in accord-
ance with ASTM D1598 and D2241.
Hydrostatic Proof Test. The Hydrostatic Proof-Test is required in
the manufacture of PVC municipal water main in accordance with A \VWA
Standard C900. In this test, every piccr:: of PVC water main is proof-tested
at four times its rated class pressure through application of hydrostatic
pressure for a minimum dwell time of 5 seconds.
TEST CERTIFICATION AND WARRAl'\TY
Qualification tests, quality control tests and inspection, and assur-
teSb. as required, :Jrc essenti;l! to the fll:.ll1uf:.ldure or quality !'VC
pipe, Propn pcrlorm wi th n:slllts nol al ways read ily
est blisheJ through cursory visual eX;lfllina tion of a finish L'd prod LILt. or
course, lllLlt'h of a purchaser's assuran<:L' of proper prodlld oualitv is rdated
to his st'kction of a reputabk, reJiabk m;lnLifacltJrt'r. ntllliber
or forms of rL'cognizl:d assurances ;Ivailabk to a reco!.:nl/.ed
;IPPI'O\";]1 ;lJld listing, Jllallufactun:r's warranty, InsPccllo'n, ,tnd
1ll:lllllf:lclllrL'r's compliallcl: sl;llclllenb.
\.
. Recognized Approv;J! and Listing, The of ;Ippw\";d and lisling by
lIldcpcnden t lest laborat ories is COllllllO11 for I've pip': ma ll11faclurers.
Many PVC pipe products are marked with the seal of approval frolll various
independe nt, 1hird -parly ce rli fica lion bboratorks. Potable wa ter pipe and
drain-waste-and-vent (DWVl piping is routinely inspectt:d. lested. and
cerlif"ied for lise in the United States by lhe National Sanitation FOllnda-
tion (NSF). i\lunicipal W:ltcr and fire main as well as electrical conduit
are commonly certifit'd by Underwriter's Laboratories (ULJ, Potable water
pipe and various other piping products are routinely certified for use in
Canada by Canadian Standards Association (CSA). The Plastics Pipe
Institute (PP1) lists Recommended Hydrostatic Design Stress Ratings for
many plastic pipe compounds, Factory Iviutual pro:icles listing fa; PVC
water pipe. Other testing l:lboratories and organizations offer listing service
for various PVC pipe compounds and products.
i\lanufacturer's Warranty, l\lanufaclurer's warranty is a condition of
sak specific to the agreement estab.lished between a manufacturer and
customer regarding quality and performance of pipe products purchased. A
standard warranty for PVC pipe products does not exist althou"h many are
similar. Terms of warranty shoulcl not be assumed and should ""be obt;ined
from the manufacturer.
5. ,\jerilOJs ji)/' tilL' FXaJlill!iJ!lOIl of ll
'
atCT allJ ill:.lS!('lI';J{CI'. '\11lCrlC,1l1 PubiJc
Ik:J11I t\\\lICl:J\IUI1. Amcrk:ln \"akr Work allJ W:lkr l'uJlulIull C.Ulltr,,)
h:,krat lUll. 14th Edilll)1l Il LJ 75 I.
4. Sarvctniek. Harold A. }'ujYl'ilJ)'1 Cfrloride. Vim .'\ostrand Reinhold Co.. Ncw 'r'ork.
?\.Y. (1%'1\,
') "Policics <lnd for Rccommended llydrostatic Design Strcsses
for tlbtena1s. PPl Technical Report, PP!TR3." Pla5tics Pipe
[nstltutc, l'cw York, i\'.Y. (June 1975). .
3. ".Recol11mcnded Specification for Thermoplastic PIpe Joints, Pressure and
J':i0n.prcssurc Apphc.1tIOI1S, Ul\!Bl." UniBell Piastic Pipe Associ:nion Dallas
1 CX;lS (19771. ' ,
I. Heilmayr, Petcr F. "PVC Pipc Kecps Rolling .!dong." Plastics EngHlcering (Jan.
lC)76), p. 26.
91
CHAPTER IV
BiBUOGRAPHY
l) "Standard I"o.r Impact or PlpC and ht .
. by of a ! up (hi lhni' Weight). ASDI Amcrican Sodc ly for
r cstlng aild ,\bleriab. l'hilaJelphi:l. 1';1. ( r 970 J.
10. "Standard of for Quahty of Extruded Poly (Vinyl ChloriJ..:l Pipe by
Ac.etOllc ImmcrSlon. 82152," American Society ror ,IlIJ
Plllladclplll:I. Pa. (1967). .
11. of Test ShortTimc Rupturc Strength of Plastic Pipe.
and tlng,. AS 1 DISl)[), Amcrican SocIety for Testirw and I\latcrials. Pbi\J....
delphw. P;L ( 1974). -
12. "Standard Method of Test for TimetoFailure of Plastic Pipe Under Constant
P:cssure. ASHl D1598." American Society for Testin" and l\laterbls
Pllliadelplm. Pa. (1976). ".
13. "S.tandanl ;''';0: for Materials. Pipe, Fillings, Valves, Traps. and
JOlnll1g Matenals. Nahonal S311l(ation Foundation Ann Arbor (D"
1973). '. . .. .l:.
HANDBOOK OF PVC P[!'E
Independent Inspection. Various governmental agencies conduc(ll1-
dependent inspection and testing of PVC pipe used within their jurisdiction.
A number of independent laboratories offer their services to engineers,
contractors, and owners who wish third-party inspection and testing of
PVC pipe.
Manufacturer's Statement. Statements of Compliance
are recognized as an acceptable term of purchase. V3.riOllS PVC pipe
standards require that the manufacturer shall, if required by the purchaser,
furnish a statement that all delivered materials comply with requirements
of applicabk" standards and of the purchaser. Compliance statements may
be in the form of a compliance certificate, a compliance affidavit, test
results. or a copy of test rcports for the pipe.
Members of the Uni-Bell Plastic Pipe Association place -.:ontinuing
cmphasis on q u:dity products and
90
PACKAGI?\G Ai\D SHIPPING
At the l:ondusion of productioll
processes, inspection, and It'sting, the
PVC pipL' products are pn:pared for ship-
ment to the cuslolllt:r;-,. Various acc-.:pt-
able lllL'thods 01' product packaging an:
commOl] in the PVC pipe induslry. PVC
pipe is properly packagt:d for shiplllt:llt
when it can be delivered to the project
site witholll dam;Jgc when llsing equipment and handling procedures
C01llmon to the industry. Proper shipping and h:llldling procedures should
be provided by the manUf'lclllI'cr.
The manufacturer will routinely instruct tbe carrier on proper hand-
ling and tie-down proct.::dures. Upon acceptance of PYC pipe by a commer-
cial carrier with agrccmcn t to deliver to an established dt:stin:ltion, the
responsibility for the prodnct is assumed by the carrier. (Sce Chapter VI -
Receiving, Storage, and Handling.)
14.
HANDBOOK OF PVC PIPE
CHAPTER IV
BmLIOGRAPHY - Continued
"Standard Specification for Rigid Poly (Vinyl Chloride) Compounds and
Poly (Vinyl Chloride) Compounds. ASTi\'l D1784." American Society lor festlllg
and Malerials, Philadelphia, Pa. (1975).
15. Winding, Charles C. and Gordon D. Hiatt, Polymeric Malcrials, i\1cGraw-HiH, New
York. New York (1961).
16. "United States Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards." U.S. PHS Pub!.
No. 956 (1964).
92
CHAPTER V
DESIGN
TL'chnic:ll design d:lta and rdationships are dcllned and ft:bted to
propt:r feCOllllllL'lH.lations I'Of USt.: of PVC pipt.'. Dt.'sign tbuJ and
n:collllllcndatiolls aft.' sep;lrated into the following categories:
Static alld Dyllamic Loadillgs
Bcnding, Ikllection. and Support
l:xpansion and Contraction
llydralilics
Application Precautions
Design recommendations arc grouped herein by specific design para-
meters and are not grouped by individual pip!..: applications, since most
design parameters must be considered in the same manner regardless of
pipt' applications. The organization of this chapter. as described. eliminates
much repetition.
93
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H/u"4DBOOK OF PVC PIPE
CHAPTER V
DESIGN
Design practices common to the effective application of all piping
products are, in gn::at measure, applicable to the design of PVC piping
systems. 1\1ore specifically, design practices related to the use of flexible
conduits are applied when designing PVC piping systems, Various design
procedures, relatively few in number, apply specifically to the Ilcxibility
<
and hydraulic characteristics of PVC pipe and must be properly understood
for optimum performance of the product.
Design and rt:collllllendation:.; offered in thb cklp!cr
a or :lcc;:pkd and provell practict:s. TlIt' aCClllllubtloll or
It:dgc on enginet.'ring (ksign or PVC pipl' Sy'stl'lll::; I'efk\.'h tilL' l'flOrts oj'
scientbb. and operators over a IkTiud of time dating b;It.J. to
the mid 1930's. It also renects the of mmkrn tl't.'illlUlu!!y.
As a product of modern !echnology, PVC pip:: is, IJ1dL'L'lI, \vt.'ll
suitl.'d to st:rvt: in properly designed ;lpplicatiolls.
I'UBLiSIlED DESIGN GUIDi:S AND RECOiII,\IENDATIONS
In suppknH:nl to design (bta :Jnd n..'colllIlH.:ndatiolls olll'fl'd III this
chapter, other applIcable tlt:sign guicks. and n,:colllll1l'IHbtions publislll'd
by various organi;.atlons and agencies should be cOllsidL'red. i\ lisl
of publicatiolls applicable to. design of PVC piping SystclllS is submitted
for n:fl'rl'ilcc:
General Applicltions
AI'Il'A - /1 CC Slalldard S{!ec(licaI iOIl j(;r Public Works
COllslmelioll (Creell Book)
Amcrican Public Works Association
1313 E, 60th Street
Chkago, Illinois 60637
Associated General Contractors
:551 Bevcrly Boulev;'lTd
Los Angeles, California 90057
Available from:
Building News, Inc.
3055 Overland Avenue
Los Angeles, California 90034
96
CHA!'TER V - DESIC's
Pipe/iuc Design for IVaiCr and Wastewater
American Society of Civil Engineers
Published by:
Amerkan Society of Civil Engineers
345 East 47th Street
i\ew York, New ''{ork JOOI7
Great Lakes - Uppert\lississippi River Board or State Sanitary
Enginct.'rs Rt'commended Standards for Scwage Works (for
Water Works) (Two Doculllents) (10 SC..lIHJaru::.)
Publls.hed by:
fle:!!!!l Edu,:':llion
P. 0, 2,\3
Alb:lllY, \C\\ l\lfk 1.22.::'-i
J'/asrics Pi/ling .1l1/J/uul :Jlld Book of Tee/ullcal Rlpon.\, .\urcs.
/{CCnJlllllC}I<}i/fioIlS alld .S'!l/fellli'lIfS I'b;-.tics Pipt.' In':.tititc
[1'1' II
Pla:->tlt'\ PIp:" ImllllJte
!)j\'l\IOIl ollhl' Sonet)' of tile PI:1:-.tlt'S Illdu<;try
35) AVl'lllll'
i'l'W York. ;\t'w York 10017
Prl'SSllIT Pipl' Applicltions
",\WII'A Design Requirelilents and Criteria ror PVC
Waler Pipe. Appendi, A. AII'II'I\ Standard C900"
American Water Works Association
666() West QUilll:Y Avcnuc
Denver. Color:Hlo 00:235
or Practice No.2, Water Systems - Pipe and Piping"
Water and Wastes Engineering, George E. SymQns
Published by:
DunDonne[Jcy Publishing Corporation
666 Fifth Avcnue
New York. New York 10019
Irrigalioll Halldbook amI Directory
North Plains Press
Aderbeen, North Dakota
97
HANDBOOK OF PVC PIPE
Sprinkler Irrigation Handbook
The Irrigation Associati?n
13975 Connecticut Avenue, Suite 310
Silver Spring, Maryland 20906
published by:
Brantwood Publications, Inc.
Book Division
P. O. Drawer 77
Elm Grove, Wisconsin 53122
N
'atu<.li Gas Distribution and Transmission .
I 0
t b tlon Piping
"ASME Guide for G:1S Transmission alll IS n Ll
Systems" - 1973 _ .
The American Sudety of Mechanical
United Engineering Cenler
345 East 47th Street
New York, New York 10017
"AGA Plastic Pipe Manual for Gas Servicc" April 1971,
Catalog No. X50%7
I\meric:1ll G;IS I\ssllcial lOll
1515 Wllsoll Bou!cV,lrd
Arlington, Virginia 22209
. fC' - S ,-t 'I11S" November 1970,
"i\laintenance and Operation 0 dS) S . -;., AFi\1 91-6
Army Ti\15.654, NAVFAC-MO 120, Air lor,,\; . 1
Superintcndcnt of Documents
U. S. Govcrnmcnt Printing Office
Washington, D. C. 20402
Sewer Pipe Applications . - F 1 I
. \' 3/ (WPC' 1\ 011110
ASCE Mantlal of Engineering Practice, o. . .
of Practice No.9) Design and Cons{l'1Ictiol1 of Sall/fary alld
Storm Sewers
American Society of Civil Enginecrs
345 East 47th Street
Ncw York, New York 10017
Water Pollution Control Federation
2626 Pennsylvania Avenue N.W.
Washington, D. C. 20037
CHAPTER V - DS':i!G'-<
"Manual of PracLice No.3, Wastewater Systems - Pipes a"d
Piping" Water and Wastes Engineering, George E. Symons
Published by:
Dun-Donnelley Publishing Corporation
666 Fifth Avenue
New York, New York 10019
STATIC AND DYNAMIC LOADINGS
In the design of PVC piping systems, consideration must be given 10
stress applications common to all piping systems. Stress loading can he
incurred due to hydrostatic pressure, surge pressure, earth or dead 10M.
and various Hve loads. PVC pipe displ(lys unique responSt' to comIliEl
stress loadings when compared with various tradition:!] rigid pipe products.
PVC pipe, a llexible thermoplastic conduit, will respond to stress wiJh
dependence upon common variable conditions: temperature and tim,-,
duration of stress application. 11owcvl:r, PVC pipe responsl: to common
stress applications under varying ambient conditions is significantly dil-
I wlJL:1l compa red wi I h non-plastic pi pe responsc. Design considCfj-
tions must. of COllfS!.:. rerled the specif'ic properties of PVC pipe.
INTERNAL HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE
PVC pipe. when manufactured for prl:ssurc applications, is rakd
for pressure capacity in accord with applicable pressure pipe standards.
In North America, PVC pipe is rated for pressure capacity at 73.4 F (23 CI.
The pressure capacity of PVC pipe is significantly related to its operatirrg
temperature (See Chapter III Aggressive Environments - Thermal). As
operating temperature falls below 73.4 F (23 C), the pressure capacity oj
PVC pipe increases to a level higher than its pressure rating or class. On tbe
other hand, as operating temperature rises above 73.4 F (23 C), the pres-
sure capacity of PVC pipe decreases to a level below its pressure rating or
class. Figure 7 and Table 13 display the response 0 f PVC pressure pipe 10
change in operating temperature. Anticipated operating temperature is a
critical factor which must be considered in the proper design of a PVC
pressure piping system. The hydrostatic pressure capacity of PVC pipe is
tern perature dependent.
The hydrostatic pressure capacity of PVC pil?e is also time dependent.
The time duration of a given hydrostatic pressure applic<ltion must be
considered in the design of a PVC pressure piping system. PVC
because of its inherent nature, can withstand short-term pressure surgeS
substantially higher than those permittee! by its long-term strength. Tradi-
101
(6.79 )
(5.21)
(3.6()
9.'15
755
535
BURST PltE.. SSURE FOR
WATER AT 73,.\ F (23 C), psi
l.:l
1E
2S
DR
200
150
100
PRESSURE
CLASS
TABLE 12
QUICK BURSTPRESSURE REQUIREMENTS fOR AWWA C900 PVC PIPE
(at 60 to 70 secs.l
By comparison with ,.,;" deSign pressure capacity of' PVC pressure
pipe, a 1000 hour pressure capacity is considered short-term. In Tabk 12.
quick burst-pressure requirements are given. When satisfying the require-
ments of this table, a sample of C900 PVC pipe must not burst at a pressure
application less than that required for a test-time of 6070 seconds (e.g.,
755 psi (5.21 MPa) for Pressure Class 150]. Again, it must be emphasized
that the design strength to withstand hydrostatic pressure is based on long-
term data. Short-term hydrostatic pressure testing is conducted in manu-
facturing quality control. Pressure surges of infrequent short duration can
be withstood on a long term basis. PVC piping system design should be
based on the pressure class or pressure rating, not short-term test resu Its.
TIlt..: time dl:pendclll:c or PVC pipc response to ;lpplicd illtern;d
hydrostatic pressure can bl.; belta understood with considcration of the
creep property co111111 on to all thermopJastic products. PVC pipe. as a
thermoplastic product. responds to internal hydrostatic pressure in a
manner that is substantially affected by plastic now or crecp. The creep
property of PVC pipe is unfortunately misunderstood by many users and
enginecrs. It is not a destructive force, relentlessly unde rmining the service
life of a properly designed system. Creep occurs as the PVC pipe responds
to an applied stress, such as hydrostatic pressure, with gradual plastic flow
or movement. In other words, in response to an applied stress such as
internal pressure, the PVC pipe will gradually yield to a point and at a [;lte
that depends on the level and duration of applied stress. The rate of creep
in response to a given stress application decreases with the passage of time.
In analysis of compound cell classification 124548 PVC 1120 pressur-e
pipe, based extensive and well substantiated data, it is established th:11
the creep rate after 100,000 hours (11.4 yearsY of continuous, constant
application 0 f rated hydrostatic pressure has declined to an insignificant
PRESSURE
DR
PRESSURE REQUIRED FOR HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE
CLASS TEST WITH WATER AT 7304 F (23 C), psi (M!'a)
200 14 650 (4.48)
ISO 18 500 (3.45)
100 25 350 (2.41 )
100
HANDBOOK OF PVC rfl'E
TABLE 11
SUSTAINED PRESSURE REQUIREMENTS FOR
AWWA C900 PVC PIPE (ut 1000 hours)
tional non-plastic pressure pipes display insignillcant difference between
short-term and long-term design strength. A rating for non-plastic
pipe based on quick burst testing is satisfactory. However, the hydrostatic
pressure capacity of PVC pipe, as defined by its pressure rating or pressure
class, is derived through long-term hydrostatic pressure testing conducted
to establish long-term strength. A pressure rating for PVC pipe based on
short-term strength is not satisfactory.
Design based 011 short-term strength of PVC pipe would be, indeed,
deceptive. jFor example, Pressure Class 150 PVC Pipe (AWWA C900) will
easily a short-term application of 755 psi (5.21 l'v1Pa) hydrostatic
pressure for 1 minute. However, applic3tion of the same pressure for 5
minmes could result in pipe burst. 111 a fUrl he r example. Pressure Class 150
PVC Pipe (AWWA C900) theoretically will withstand constunt :lpplicatioll
of i 50 psi ( I .03 MPa) hye! rostatic pressure for in exeess of 1000 years. The
class 01" the product ll1ust be based on long-term strength. The
pipe's capacity to withstand short-term applications of substantially higher
hydrostatic pressure applications ll1ust be considered a bonus property not
defined in the PVC pipe's pressure rating or pressure class.
The dirren..:nCt: between long.-term tsustained) and short-term (quick
burst) hydrostatic pn:ssme capacity of PVC pipe is ckarly illustratLd in the
hydrostatic pressure l",'st ret] uin:mcn ts defined in the st;lnt!art! specil"ica tion
for PVC l11unicipul water main, AWW:\ Standard (900. ThL: standard
requires that the l11anufadurer 01' C900 PVC pipt..: wndud both sustained
pressure and quick burst. testing. Both tt:sts :m..: rdated to the hydrostatic
pressure capacity of the product. In Tabh: \1, wSlaint..:d pressure require-
ments for the product arc given. When satisfying the rcquiremcnts of this
table, a s:lmplc of the C900 PVC pipe must withstand the required pressure
(e.g., 500 psi (3.45 i\1Pa) for Pressure Class 150) for 1000 hours without
failure - ballooning. bursting or weeping.
CHAPTER \. - DESIGN
'-L-'
I i
1.14
1\.' 11.10
PVC 1120 Plre
Plot oi
1 yplcal Stress Re9re,slon
Datill
FIGURE 5
STRESS REGRESSION CURVE
PVC 1120 Pipe
4 I-
J
I
..,,-
-I
I -
SEeS, ----l_I-..l--l
HRS, 001 01 I 10 100 10000
.:..l:.::00:(:..-) _
10' VFlS.
'i
'0

6
til
'"
0
5

103
Time of AppllC.1110n
"pun 1;"-. W';"'l.jAM P f ... 'P-
';"0 r.. ... I1 .. utn'lJr
CAN WA.Tt>:'l "', J'Y JOUHNAL IQN, .. Coer.c. w. aUUfCV flo rot:(Jt:1 .... TION. cnr'vu,,,.uT ;.,Mrn:cr..r. WATr:::n
"J-I. . .,l\.vr:ro.,It. Ur;UVf;lf, CO"'OI-tI'lE:) r:(l. ... flY 'tHJ:..... ",rrn
I{" pr ' . '. I " '0.,
CSSlll e c aSs 0 r pressure ra ti n!! for'i1 I PVC' .
fadurt'd in North Americ '. l' ., - .. ' pressure pIpe manu-
d IS ),lSl.:d on a rdllled 1)1 t t'
commonly termed the St .. ' R ' , 0 0 stress regression
S1
. . n:55 egressIon LlIlc (SR L' '
L111C Jar PVC 11'0 )'), ,_ > " 111e). Sec Figure 6
_ ) Ilt:. rhe SR Line IS 'I plot ftl .
on the SR Curve: howey'r II ' 1 ,. 0 1C same data plotted
t d
. t:, 11; lOOp stress on the v' t" I .'
e With logarithmic scale J .' n Ica aXIS IS also plot-
fl' w,en prepann
u
the SR L' T
o ong-term stress response data for PVC0 " lne. h.e log-log plot
of the SR Line, with const. t I PI,PC plots as a str;lIgllt line. Use
, , <HI S ope, permIts aCeLlf' t
JcctlOn of long-term response ' a e mathematical pro-
All PVC pre . .'
ssure pIpe manufactured' N I '
extruded from PVC COmI)O d f ' In ort 1 Amenca must be
b
un s or which Stress R '
een established. PVC 11
7
0" egressIon Lines have
. _ pipe deSIgned and ma f" '
water apphcations must ha LI ' ,nu .tdured tor pressure
, ve a 1. ydrostatlc Desio B . (I
or greater than 4000 psi C'7 58 ). " on .asls -IDB) eq ual to
St' d -. J a If it IS to meet
.In arc! procedure defines the I-IDB '. . J' standards.
on the SR line at 100000 l' as the hoop stress ratmg established
, 101ll s.
When submitting a PVC pressure pipe extruSIOl1 compound for
:::iounGr;:: WH..
D. pfl:CSI'"
ol1rtT U rH-U lo:.L.L.",
nr::;f"nutli'I:O vnaM
JOURNAL
AM:.flICAH WATt';R
wonKS A"350CIA-
Tlor. G1
ov
or"" Tt-tt:.
TION. CO:PVHjGH"I'C:O
$'1:10 uy AMg:FH-
CA'" WOU1'O'i/:
-I.Nc.,
(,oliU W. QVIUCY
A pC:: N II.
COL.OHAOO AQ';:'l':i.
50 80 100 120 '\0 160
CREEP RESPONSE
Response of PVC 1120 pipe to Creep
Stress application-2000 psi (13.79 MPa)
[at 73.4 F (23 ell
FiGURE 4
02

0.6

I
I
I
__-,--_-'--_J..---'L----,---,_-l
o 20 40
value. Figurt: 4 displays the w;cp response of PVC 1120 pressure pipe to
applied stn.:ss,
II'lving reviewed the reSponse or PVC pipe to thl' neep phenomenon,
the cfkct or creep on the perrormance or PVC pipe in a prcssuri/.ed water
distribution system must be defined. The response of I've pipe to applied
stress is displayed in Figure 5, The curve in Figure 5 is known as the Stress
Rq;.ression Curve (SR Curve) for pVC 1120 pipe. The curve. as shown. has
been plotted with the horizontal axis n.:prescnting th:: logarithm of time to
permit plotting a g.reat .passage of tim:: - froll1 10 second to 1.1 nlil1ion
years, If the time axis were plotted on a linear scale (Cartesian coordinates).
the variation in hooP stresS. which relates directly to applied hydrostatic
internal pressure. would appear insignificant rrom 100,000 hours to 500
years, In a practical sense, a long-term response to applied hydrostatic
pressure can be based on the hooP stress rating at 100,000 hours in that:
The response of the PVC pipe to applied internal hydrostatic pres-
sure or applied hooP stress has essentially stabiliz.ed at 100,000
hours when considering the design life of piping systems at 50 to
100 years,
The response of PVC pipe to applied hoop stress after 100,000 .
hours can be accurately determined through testing performed in
accordance with A5T11 D1598, Standard Method of Test for
Time-to-Failure of Plastic Pipe Under Long-Term Hydrostatic Pres':
sure, and through analysis pc rformed as rcquired in ASTM D283
7
,
Standard Method for Obtaining Hydrostatic Design Basis for
Thermoplastic Materials.
HANDBOOK OF PVC PIPE
CflAVl'ER v - OESIGi\
:::: dt::sign stress, psi
:::: preSsure raring, psi
:::: ;wcrage ou[skk dialllL't\::f. ill,
:::: minimulll w;dl thickness j'll
OD ' ..
'" t . 5[;1 nd\lrd dimcllsion r;l! 10
2S OD
P == -t- - 1 :::: SDR - 1
s
P
OD
t
SDR
Where:
Where:
S "" design stress, psi
HDB == hYdrostatic design busis, psi
F :: [<Jetor of safety
. The Design Stress (S) serves as the .. '
m calculation of PVC 'Jip, , max1l11llm hoop stress value used
I
. I e pressure ratma PVC '
Cll ated 111 accord with st I 'd ,0' pIpe preSSure rating is cal-
St 1 <Inc ill practice defi 'd b 1
ane ards Organization (ISO)' I ,ne y t lC International
Jll tlC ISO EqUatlOn RI61-1960;
EQUATION 2
EQUATION 3
Tlle ISO r . t'
AIU,l IOn call be lo d .f' . '... .
e Inc Pll;SSlIft: fatJllg:
105
aD "= 8 6?5 . ,
t
- 0' - (8 ll1ch nominal Iron Pipe Size (IPS)
- Alim.
HDB ::= 4000 psi
F ::: 2,0/]
SDR '= 2!

SDR - 1
To del1lonstrak the c'IJcuht" /'
I
Jip" tl ' ' 'JOn 0 pressure ruti "f i)V
C. 1C I ollowi ng exam!)), If' .. , .' no or C pressure
r t' f . e s lOllS cu!cuhtJOns to .. t bl' )
a Ing 0 PVC pipe IlJ"ocJ Llc'd t . < . . es J IS 1 till: pressure
S . (; 0 mee t the f' .
. tandard Specification for P 1 (V' ,eqUJrements of ASTM D2241
o Y my1Chlonde) (PVC) Plastic Pipe: '
Pipe Dimcllsions and Properties
lHH':, hl".t 10
5
, irf}
" IH.CtYi,r
STRESS REGRESSION LINE
HANDBOOK OF PVC PIPE
HDB
S =: ---
F
FIGURE 6
(EQUATlON 1)
approval. Cl I11ClI111factllfcr mllst establish the Sl\ Line and HDB for the PVC
material through long-term hydrostatic pressure tt::sting in accordance wllb
ASTi\l D1598 llnd ASTM 02837, Having established !b,l! a PVC 1120
extrusion compound provides HDB equal to or greater than 4000 psi
(2758 ,\fPa), the compound can then be assigned a Hydrostatk Design
Stress R:Hing and is qualified in long-term stress rating for the
of PVC pressure pipe,
In the definition of PVC pipe's pressure rating, the Hydrostatic
Design Stress (5) r<lther than the Hydrost<Jtic Design Basis is used in cal-
culations. The Design Stress 1S simply the V411uc obtained when HDB is
divided by a desired factor of safety (F).
_ .. L ..
PVC PIDe Prrs,'Surc Rolling-pSI
107
FIGURE i
PVC PIPE PRESSURE
CAPACITY 'IS. OPERATING TEMPERA.TURE
o 80 12" 150 200 ;'250 ;-;". 315
(PVC Ino PRESSURE PIPE PRODUCED WITH 1245413 PVC MATERIALS)
:!J:OURCE:: D. f"n''G;p:NT UHI-Of:t.l.. 'FHOM JOURNAL WJ\Tfin-
WORKS vOt.VM:r. 67 uY P'C::rlMISS10N Of/' THt: COl"'YftIOHTII::D 111\1- lilY 1\,..U:::tll
C ..... N WATI!H WQAJ<,$ "t>5i-OCI ... .,.lOH. INC GcoliG W. QUINCY AVI!Mut;; I DEN .... eR.
2(2000)
21-1 :: 200 psi
Calculation vISDR
8.625
;: -- ;: 21
0.411
Calculation of Design Stress (S)
OD
t
SDR ;:
p ::: ;:
SDR -1
106
Pressure Rating ;: 200 psi
Calc[/latiol/ of Pressure Raring (P)
HDB 4000
S::: -F- ;: ::: 2,000 psi
HANDBOOK Of PVC PIPE
The calculations show the design of PVC 1120 pressun: pipe ratL:d to
operale under 200 psi long-term hydro:;lalic pressure. It should be empha-
sized that this product is pressure rated for an operating lell1peratun.: of
73.4 F (23 C). When PVC pressure pipe operates al lemperatures other
than 73.4 F (23 C), pressure capacity should be established based on
thermal design factors. Figure 7 and Table 13.
TABLE 13
STANDARD DIMENSION RATIO PRESSUR.E CAPACITY AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURE
for PVC 1120 Pipe
PRESSURE CAPACITY. psi ( M P ~ )
\
56 (0.39)
36 (0.25)
45 (0.31)
27 (0.19)
36 (0.25)
18 (0.12)
28 (0.19)
22 (0.15)
18 (0.12)
J 1 (0.08)
140 F 130 F
97 (0.67)
62 (0,43)
77 (0.53)
45 (O.3J)
62 (0,43)
31 (0.21)
49 (0.34)
38 (0.26)
31 (0"21)
19 (0.13)
120 F
-----
126 (0.87)
SO (0.55)
100 (0.69)
60 (0.41)
80 (0.55)
40 (0"28)
64 (0.44)
50 (0.34)
40 (0.28)
25 (0.17)
110 F
J60 (1.10)
102 (0.70)
1?7 (0.88)
76 (0.52)
102 (0.70)
51 (0.35)
81 (0.56)
63 (0,43)
51 (0.35)
3 ~ (0.21)
1001"
201 (1.39)
128 (0.S8)
160 (1.10)
9G (0.66)
128 (0.88)
(,4 (0.-14)
102 (0.70)
80 (0.55)
64 (OA-1)
"10 (O.IS}
239 (1.65)
152 (l.05)
190 (1.31)
114 (0.79)
152 (1.05)
76 (0.52)
121 (0.83)
95 (0.65)
76 (0.52)
47 (0.32)
90 F 80 F
283 (1.95)
180 (1.24)
225 (1.55)
135 (0.93)
180 (1.24)
<)0 (0.62)
144 (0.99)
112 (0.77)
90 (0.62)
56 (0.39)
315 (2.17)
200 (1.38)
250 (1.72)
150 (1.03)
200 (1.38)
100 (0.69)
160 (1.10)
125 (0.86)
] 00 (0.69)
63 (0,43)
73 F
13.5
*14
17
*18
21
*25
26
32.5
41
64
SDR
o
=
*AWWA Standard C900 PVC municipal water main.
II
IN
1 .....
.....
I
o
OJ
N
m
-0
(J
+
-0
V>
c
-'
II II II
I
00
Ow'"
c
c C7
r.
~
"J: -
r.
,.. ~
c; 0 >-
o t..l
<: ~ 0
co
r. ;:;
~ .
-'
o
3
o
:0
II
II
~ ! ~ 010
orn
wo
II
;:c
'T10 0
to 0
II II II II
110
Cllid'TER V - DESiGN
111
TABLE 14
PRESSURE RATING "S. SDR - ASTM 02241
PRESSURE CLASS "s. DR - AWWA C900
TABLElS
ratios, are based on a preferred series of numuers (Renard). Since c1imcn-
sion ratios maintain a constant mtio between outer diameter nnd Wlll1
thickness, they provide a simple means of defining product dimensions to
maintain constant mechanical properties regardless of size. For a given
dimension ratio, it is commonly accepted that such properties as pressure
capacity and pipe stiffness remain constant independent of pipe size. Table
14 presents commonly used SDR values with corresponding pressure ratings
at varying factors of safety for PVC 1120 pipe. Pipe manufactured to
comply with ASTIvI D2241 is available in the listed SDR's. Table 15 pre-
sents DR values with corresponding pressure classes as defined in AWWA
C900.
SDR
PRESSURE RATI:'\G PER FACTOR OF SAFETY. p.li (MPJ)
1.0 1.5 1.0 2.5 3.0 4.0
13.5 630 (4.3-1) 420 (2.S
t
315 (2.! 7) 252 (1.74 ) 210 (1,.15) 158 (1.00)
17.0 500 (3.-15) 333 (2.2<) 250 ( 1.72) 200 ( 1.38) I()7 ( 1.15) 125 (U.06)
21.0 400 (2.76) 267 ( I.S4) 200 (US) 160 (1.10) l33 (O.t)::'.) 100 (0.69)
26.0 320 213 (1.47) lW(1.I0) 128 (0.88) 107 (0.73) 80 (0.55)
32.5 250 (1.7 2) 167 (1.15) 125 (0.86) 100 (0.6<) 83 (0.57) (,3 (0.43)
41.0 200 (1.38 ) 133 (0.<)2) 100 (0.69) 80 (0.55) 67 (0.46) 50 (OJ5)
51.0 160 (1.1 0) 106 (0.73) SO (0.55) 6'1 (0.44) 53 (0.37) 40 (0.28)
64.0 126 (0.86) 84 (0.57) 63 (0.43) 50 (0.34) 42 (0.29)
'''l
(0.22) ,) -
DR
PRESSURE CLASS AT FACTOR OF ADDITlQNALSURGE ALLOWANCE
SAFETY =1.5, psi (Ml'a) FOR 2 ps FLOW VELOCITY, psi (Ml'a)
14 200 ( 1.38) 40 (0.28)
]8 150 (1.03) 35 (0.24)
25 100 (0.69) 30 (0.20)
In summary, the hydrostatic pressure capacity of PVC pipe is related
to the following variables:
Operating temperature under pressure.
- Duration of stress application affected by internal hydro-
153 psi
PC ;: - 35 ""
18 -1
Pn.:SSlin.: Class;: 150 psi ;Il 73.4 F (23 C)
EQUATION 5
HOB 4000
S = -- ::: --= 1600 psi
F 2.5
Calculation of Design Su'ess (S)
*mudified form of ISO i-.qU:lllOll where 1\ '" pressure
allow:lflcC lor Instantaneous now vdodty change o( lps, (fur Pres-
sure Cl:tss 150, I's := 35 psi). (Sec ('h;ljllCf V-Surge
2S
PC ::: DR -1 - Ps
Calculation of Pressure Class (PC;"
In lilt: design of a spt:cific PVC pressure pipc. tilL' process of testing.
analysis, alld evaluation Illust follow establisilL'd procL'JuJ't:s. Calculatioll of
actual pressure rating or 'pressun: class mllst also comply with standard
practicc. The s::(]ucnce of requirements call be summariz.:d:
I. Establish tile Stress Regression Line thro ugillong-term hydro-
static pressure testing at 73.4 F (23 C).
, Determine tht: Hydrostatic Design Basis (HDB) at 100,000
hours from the SR Line.
3. Select the desired factor of safety (F).
4. Establish the Hydrostatic Design Stress (5) by dividing the
HDB by F.
5. Select the desired dimension ratio (SDR or DR).
6. Select the surge allowance CPs) if desired.
7. Calculate pressure rating or pressure class.
Dimension ratios and standard dimension ratios have been estab-
lished to simplify standardization in the specification of plastic pipe on an
international basis. Standard dimension ratios, as opposed to dimension
UAI-iDlJOOK OF PVC PIPE
static pressure.
The Hydrostatic Design Stress for the PVC pipe m:ltcrial.
The ratio between outer diameter and waH thickness (SDR or
DR).
The pressure rating of PVC pipe is established by dividing the maxi-
mum long-term pressure capacity of the pipe by the desired factor of safe-
ty. The pressure class is derived in a similar manner but also has a desired
surge aHowance deducted from the pressure rating. Although PVC pipe
CUn withstand short-term hydrostatic pressure applications at levels sub-
stantiaUy higher than pressure rating Or class, the performance of PVC pipe
in response to applied internal hydrostatic pressure is properly based on
the product's long-term strength. Research and investigation, through the
years, have vast quantities or data ckariy substantiating the
reliability of PVC pipe pressure r;lting and pressure dass values. In PVC
preSSllre piping systems, design of hydrostatic pre:,Sllfe capacity can be
bast'd with confidence onthc pn,;ssure rating or pressurt' class at the desirl'd
factor of saf.: t y,
su rZ(;E PRESSU RES
[n ;1 1!cneral scnse, sur);C pressurcs are deviation from the nonllal
sleady S!atL hydrostatic preSSlll"e in a piping. sysll'm. Normally, positive
,\rt.: considered: however. nt.:galive Surgl'S do occur and art.: potcntially
qui\\: damaging, A dclaikd study of hydraulic tr'll1sit.:nls is an undertaking.
worthy of at least a one semester college coursc. There arc. however, l:cr-
tain key concepts which should be l"al1liliar to thos,; who design. install
and tl.:sL allll opGratc piping systems,
Surge pressures cOlllmonly termcd "water-hamt1lt:r" arc g\:ncratcd in
any piping system when a flowing liquid changes v\.'lo<.:ity, To conserve
momentum within the system, part or all of the kinetic energy of the fluid
must be converted to poten tial (stored) energy and ultimately dissipated
througll frictional losses in the lluid or pipe wall if the fluid is to return to
its original pressure. Some of the mOre common causes of hydraulic
transients are (1) the opening and closing (full or partial) of valves; (2)
starting and stopping of pumps; (3) changes in turbine speeds: (4) changes
in reservoir elev.ation and (5) reservoir wave action; (6) liquid column
separation; and (7) entrapped air.
The types of surges may generally be divided into two categories:
"true" transients and oscillatory, Transients may best be described as the
intermediate conditions which exist in a system as it moves from one
112
steady state condition to anufher. The dosillL': of J vdve wc,uld bc: :..t
typical example, Oscillatory surging is a condition which recurs reguiariy
in time. Surging of this type is often associated with the action of equip-
ment such as reciprocating pumps and pressure reducing valves. Small
oscillatory surges can grow rapidly in magnitude and can become extreme-
ly damaging if the frequency is at or near the natural resonant frequency
(harmonic) of the piping system.
Elastic wave theory of surge analysis has been developed by various
investigators over a number of years, and the technique will Y'ield satis-
factory answers when correctly applied. The pipeline designer should be
aware that the geometry and boundary conditions of many systems arc
complicated and require tile use of refined techniques similar to those
given in texts such :ls1fydraulic TmllSiell!s by Streeter and Wylie.
A common example which is easily handled is ltl..: calculation oj' the
pressure rise in a pipc line due to tile rapid dosing ot ;l Yah'e. The pipeline
is supported against longitudinal movement and is equipped with expan-
sion joints, The maximum surgt: pressure is related to the maXIlllum ratt:
of change of the rIow. while the rate of travel of the pressure wave is fe-
lated to the spet:d ot' sound in tile nuid (modil"it:d by tile piping malt:rialL
Thc W:1W wlocity is t:iven by till' following l'qU:JtlOll.
EQUATION (,
4660
a ==
kd
Et
Where:
a = wave velocity, ft/sec
k = fluid bulk modUlus, 300,000 psi for \vater
d = pipe 10, in.
E = Modulus of elasticity of the pipe, 400.000 psi for PVC
t = wall thickness, in.
li3
6.22
0.34
== 35 psi
aV
2.31 9
3.0 X 10
5
+ 2.4 X 107 X
(4204) (2)
== 113 psi
(2.31) (32.2)
a =: 4204 ft/sec
p =:
(1292) (2)
(2.31) (32.2)
p
a =:
4660
115
CIL\FTER V - DESIGN
Calculate the surge pressure:
E =: 24.000.000 psi for ductile iron
OD == 6.900 in.
ID '" 6.:?20 in.
It is important to notice in the preceding examples that for the same
flow stopped, the pressure surges generated in pipe with high tensile moduli
(ductile iron) will be greater than the surges in low moduli (PVC) pipe of
similar dimensions.
As the modulus of tensile elasticity for a piping material increases,
the resultant pressure surge ("water hammer") caused by a change in flow
velocity increases. For example, an instantaneous 2 fps (0.6 m) flow velo-
city change in an 8 in. water main will create surge pressures as defined in
Table 16 fOf different pipe products.
Pressure surges in PVC pipe (12454B) of different dimension ratios
in response to a 1.0 fps (0.3 m) instantaneous flow velocity change are de-
fined in Table 17.
Example. Calculate the surge pressure when a 2 ft!sec flow is
stopped in a 6 in. ductile iron pipe with a 0.34 in. wall.
== 1292 ft/sec
114
4660
4660
k{DR - 2)
+
E
(3.0 X 10
5
) (18 - 2)
4.0 X 10
5
jHL:SSUH.: surge, pSi
V1 + ~ ( D R - 2 )
4660
1 +
Where: DR = pipe OD/t
v '" maximum vt:1ocity change ft!sL:c
'" accL:kration 01" gravity, 32.2 n!sec;
aV
p =: 2.3
1
9
EQUATION 8
EQUATION 7
9
P
First, calculate the wave velocity.
a ==
a =:
Reformulating using dimensional ratios (DR)
a ==
Tilt; maximum pressure surge may then be calculated,
Example: A flow '01' 2 rtlsec is suddenly stopped in a 6 in. Pressure
Class 150 (DR 18) PVC pipe. Calculate the expected maximulll surge pres-
sure:
HANDBOOK OF PYC PIPE
116
HANDBOOK OF PVC PIPE
::; 1069 ft/sec
;;: 86 psi surge
4660
(1069) (6)
(2.31) (32.2)
V
1
+[3.0 x 10
5
] (26 - 2)
4.0 X 105 X
p ::;
a ::;
117
CHAPTER v - DES1G:-;
sure) should not exceed the pipe prcssure rating.
Surges in Sewage Force Mains. The flow is intermittent in most sew-
age force mains under i 2 inch (300 mm) size. Sewo.ge gasses are generated
or released during periods of both turbulent flow and non-flow. These
trapped gasses wiH amplify any surges which may exist. Therefore, sewage
force main design should either vent gas accumulations at all high points
or pipe should be sloped continuously uphill to the discharge to prevent
<tas accumulations. Air vents and relief valves should be of the type which
'"
are designed for sewage service and should be frequently maintained and
flushed.
Most sewage pumps are generally non-clog centrifugal or axial-flow
types. Performance curves for these type pumps in singk-stage have a
characteristic maxilllum discharge head at pump shut-orr of less than 100
feet of head (30 tn) or 43 psi (296 kP:J). Therefore, hydrost:Hic pressures
in sewage force mains are low.
HowevCf, sewage force main nows have relatively high operating
velocities which can contribute to hiJ,:h prcssures. The most econOIll-
ical force main designs usu;111y have now of 4 Lo 6 fed (1.:2 to
1.8 m) p.... r second. i.,lini1l111m flow v.... required to n,:sllspL'nd s lthl
solids arc normally cOllsiden.:d to be at least 2.5 feet (0.8 m) per s cond.
Example: Calculate the expec!l:d maximum sur!;e pressure whcn a
6 ft/scc force main now is stopped in a (1 ill. ]lIZ 160 (SDR 2(1) PVC pip:.:.
Surges in Water Service Lines. The velocity of flow in water service
lines may be as high as 15 feet (4.6 m) per second which is the maximum
velocity recommended by AWWA Manual M 22, SiZing Water Service Lines
and Meters. Under dynamic conditions, the hydrostatic pressure down-
stre<lm of the watcr meters may be reduced because of meter
losses. Ho\vcver, the surge pressure resulting from 11igh velocities may be
significant.
106,1 (731)
79.1 (545)
34.8 (240)
Pressure Surge. psi (kP;1)
20.2 i i.N f
(13 7 )
17.\) (123)
17..+ (120)
I(J.O (110)
1-1.7 II U1)
1,\.4 (qq)
12.0 (SSt
ItA (7
'
)
1::;
21
:5

32.5
:1
Dimmsion Ratio
Cbs> 50 Dl Pipe
Class 150 AC Pipe
Class (PC) 150 PVC Pipe
PRESSURE SURGES IN 8 IN ''lATER MAL'"
(In Response to 2 fps (0,6 m/s) Instantaneous Flow Velocity Change)
Pipe Product Pressure Surge, psi (!cPa)
TABLE!7
DESIGN TA.BLE FOR PVC PIPE - PRESSURE SURGE VS. DIMENSION RATIO
(In Response to I fps (0.3 m/s) Instant:meous Flow Velocity Change)
TABLE 16
Surge,', in l\lunici]l:l1 W;ller ,\lain:--. Flow vdocitiL's in lllunit:ipal watcr
11l:1im r:lfcly c'\(l.'cd :2.0 rt. (0.6 11l} per Iksi1!l1 or such syslcllls to
provide large \olullle water distribution throu1!h piping grid systcms at rela-
tively low pft:'ssures [generally under SO psi (550 kb)j normally prevents
high llow vdo-:ities even 'linder fire flow conditions. If unusual desig.n
considera tions req uire abnormally high flow veloei ti::s ill municipal water
mains. special design precautions are rccommemkd ir now velocities
exceed :2 ft. (0.6 m) per second.
Surges in General Application Water Distribution Systems. Flow
velocities in many irrigation systems and some potable water distribution
systems not for fire prevention may exceed 2 n, {0.6 111) per
second. In such systems. maximum flow vdocities must be defined with
careful of specific design details and operating conditions.
In common practice, maximum flow velocity in PVC piping systems is
limited to 5 11. (1.5 m) per second. When higher flow velocities are antici-
pated, specific consideration should be given to design ancl operation of
control valves. safety valves, and pumps. In generaL in the desisrn of water
distribution systems using pressure rated PVC pipe (e.g.. :'l.ST\l D 2241 or
CSA B U 7.31. system operating pressure t working prcssu re plus surge pres-
118
SUPERIMPOSED LOADS
Supcrimposed loads on buricd PVC pipe fall into two calegories
earth loads and live loads. In the design of any buried piping system, both
categories of superimposed loads must be considered. In accordancc with
common clesign practice, treatment of the subjcct of superimposecl loads
will deal with carth loads and live loads as separate design parameters.
Earth Loads. The first solution to the problem of soil induced loads
on buried pipe was published by Professor Anson r.larston at Iowa State
University in 1913. Since then the Marston Theory of Loads on Under-
ground Conduits have been considered the "state of the art" in determina-
tion of loading on buried pipe. ivluch of the work done on earth loading
technology for buried conduits throughout the world is related, in part.
to Marston's Load Theory.
The basic concept of the theory is that the load due to the weight
of the column of soil above a buried pipe is modified by the response of
the conduit. Additional research and investigation indicates that in some
cases the arch action in the soil transfers some of the weight of the column
to the adjacent side prisms. In other cases the modification results in some
ditions possibic positive G> [cgative pressures, transient or oscillatory -
there is no general solution applicable to the control of surge conditions.
However, certain techniques have been found useful in a variety of cases:
Surge Tank or Device - A closed unit containing air and water
usually separated by a diaphragm or a bladder. The air is under
pressure allowing control of both positive and negative surges in high
pressure systems by allowing Oow both into and out of the unit.
Standpipe - A tank open to the atmosphere. It functions in a
manner similar to a surge tank for low pressures.
Surge Tank with One Way Outlet - A surge tank which allows
water to enter the line during negative surges and allows no return
on positive surges. Useful for negative surges only. A reservoir is
similar in function to a one-way surge tank.
Pump Flywheds - Pumps which stop slowly do not produce
large surges.
Slow Closing, Mechanically Oper:necl and Adjustabk Valves -
Valves which do not permit abrupt variation in now velocity to
reduce surge.
Pressure Relief or By Pass Valves -- Spring loaded valves which
release and vent pressurt;s in excess of a presct value.
119
;;: 1069 ft/sec.
;;: 216 psi
1069 x 15
2.31 x 32.2
4660
216 + 35 = 251 psi
1 + (3.0 X 10
5
) (26 - 2)
4.0 X 10
5
TOTAL PRESSURE = SURGE + STATIC
2V
p =-- =
2.31 9
a ==
Example: Calculate the expected maximum [otai prcssurt:: .. ooth
hydrostatic and surge) in a 2 inch PR 160 (SDR 26) PVC pipe with 15 feet
per second flow and hydrostatic pressure or 35 psi downstream of the
meter.
OF PVC PIPE
The Resistal1l:e of PVC to Surge Pressures. It is well known that
tratl itionai pi ping, 111:1 tt;rials (slL:t.:1, iron. asbes los cem<:rH) havc a wc11 de-
fined breaking strength. Prcsstlres below the breaking point can. in princi-
ple, be Idel in the pipe for an indefinik pL:riod of time.
With uniform hydrostatic pressure applied, the expected lift.:: of PVC
pipe is quite predictable. The nature of PVC pipe's "stress-life" curve is
well known, and it has been used to determine the l.ksign b'lsis and safety
factors for PVC pipe. (See Chapter V - Internal Hydrostatic Pressure.)
PVC pipe will withstand enormous numbers of low pressure surges;
however, as the magnitude of the surges approaches the quick burst strength
a f the pipe a smaller number of surges can be sustained. Typically, PVC
pipe would be ex pected to hand Ie ave r 4000 constantly cycling surges
producing a peak hoop stress of 5000 psi (34.47 illPa). The same pipe
would handle more than 1.5 million cycles producing a peak hoop stress
of 1500 psi (10.34 MPa). The AWWAconsidered this point when it adopted
the C900 specification for PVC pipe. AWWA C900 uses a reasonable surge
allowance for municipal water distribution mains based on a 2ft/sec
(0.6 m/sec) instantaneous flow velocity change in addition to a safety
factor of 2.5. Appendix A3.3 in AWWA C900 discusses design for surge
pressure.
Common Control Techniques. Due to the wide variety of surge con-
CdW Sd X Sd
C w B x B
d d c
EQUATION 11
{1f\J } Rioid
c
e is the natl1l'allogaritlll11 base
k = Rankine's ratio of lateral to vertical pressure
p' = the coefficient of friction between backfill material
and sides of trench
EQUATION 12
(W ) Flexible
c
Where:
Arranging the two equations in a ratio form
reveals that the ratio of the load on a flexible conduit to the load on a
rigid conduit is equal to the ratio of diameter of the pipe to the width of
the trench, for identical installation of rigid and flexible conduits.
Therefore. if t ite trench is twice as \V ide as the cond uit being buried.
the load impos-:d on a rigid conduit will be twice the imposed on a
flexible conduit. as indicated by the i\!arston equations.
In actual calculation of the loads, the term Cd must be determined
for particubr installation conditions. Cd is a function or the ratio of [ill
height (11) to trench width (B
d
) and of the friction coefl1cknt or the back-
fill and tIll: sides or the trench. Cd is computed as I"ollow$:
121
Fortunately, a diagram has been developed for various values of kil'
and ratios H/B
d
that eliminates the need for computation of Cd in most
instances. See Figure 8, Values of Coefficient Cd'
According to Marston's equation, the width of the trench directly
affects the loads imposed on flexible and rigid conduits. The height of the
backfill material and the trench width again appear in the Cd computations.
An increasing width of trench docs increase t11e load imposed on a
conduit. but the load does not continue to increase ad infinitum. There is
a trench width for a given depth and size of conduit beyond which no
120
Flexible
EQUATION 10
load on conduit, lbs!linear ft.
unit weight of back fill, lbs/cu. ft.
horizontal width of conduit, ft.
horizontal width of trench at top of
conduit, ft.
load coefficient for conduits installed
in trenches
Rigid
EQUATION 9
Where: W =
c
W =
8
::::
c
B
d
:::
Cd
of the weight of the adjacent side prisms being transferred to the column
over the pipe. In the first case, the pipe is spared from supporting the total
load of its soil column while in the latter case, the pipe is burdened with its
own soil column plus some of the weight of the side prism of soil. Whether
the pipe is spared some of its burden or is required to support additional
weight depends upon the relative movement between the column of soil
over the pipe and the adjacent side prisms. If the pipe column soil moves
downward or settles more than the side column, rhe weight will be less;
while OTeater movement by the side columns compared. to pipe column
'=' ,
creates an additional load on the pipe.
The magnitude of this modification is determined by the amount of
movemem. the nature of the soiL and the geometry of the instllla
tion, or how wide and how deep are the side prisms that modify tile weight
of column over the pipe.
j\!arswn n:cognized that llexible conduits would come into tllat
category where the load imposed on the pipe is ks:-, than the weight of the
column of soil over tile pipe. The nexibility of the conduit assured that the
rdative movenH:nt of the column oVt:r the pipt: would be greater than the
side column in nearly all cases. Rigid conduits. sudl as clay pipe, fall into
that cate"or\' wht:rc thc column ovt:r tht: pipL: imposes a grL::ltcr load than
c
tilt: weight of the column itself. ThL: lack of lllO\'Cl1l\:nt in a rig.id LOnduit
didates'that the rdative lllovement will be grt:ater on the sides of the pipt:
than over the pipe.
The inherent differt:nees of the two types of conduit arc n:pressed
in the formulas Marston developed for calculating the t:arth loads imposed
on pipe buried in a trench. They arc as follows:
or- PVC PIPE
(lb/Lft)
123
(EQUATION 9)
W := C wB oS
c C C c
C
c
replaces Cd as the load coefficient, and
Be appears twice to replace the Bd
Where:
Rigid Pipe Load
(Trench Condition)
This is commonly known as the prism load and simply stated it is
the weight of the column or soil directly over the pipe for the full height of
the backfill. This is the maximum load that will be imposed by the soil on
a flexible conduit in nearly all cases and is a conservative design approach.
Comparison of the following earth load determination formulas
related to il,larston's theory is appropriate:
W = HwS
c c
EQUATION 14
The load codTtci"nl C in this case depends on a term calkd pro-
c
jection ratio (p} a term calkd settlemcnt ratio (f",) and tIL' ratio of fill
height (1) to conduit width (not trench widtilHB l. c
As in [he case for Cd' a has b<:t:n dcvdopcd for Cc that dillli-
nates the need for the complex computation;, rcquired to gen.;ratc Cc ' SCl'
Fit:ure 9, Valu<:s or Co<:ITtcien! C ,
c
For rlexih1c conduits in lllOst inst;i1lation;" the product. r,jp, is equal
to zero. As t:an be seen on the C g.raph, when r IIi equals
c
zero, the coclTicient C is equal to the ratio or HIs.
c c
Replacing the C
c
in r.1arston's clllhallKnH:nt load forlllula with the
ratio HIS yields:
c -
EQUATION 13
CH/-.F'fEk Y ._.
(beyond rranSlllon wiJth). rhe maximum imposed Oil " condwt
are those obtained in the e111 bankment mode of installation.
Since the width of tlte tn.;l1ch can no longer be used in the calcula
tions, Marston developed the following formula for computing loads on
both flexib Ie and rigid positive projecting cond uits:
i
A
122
10 1.5 2.0 3 0 4 0 0
30
FIGURE 8 - VAWES OF CI
C
;51 I
I I'
[------1---1-1- ,0
I I ' 09
:::t-::, s! 1 ,_ I 08
(; 7l----,
:::i2' i I ! 07
6 ,---.--,--
(; I 1 ' 06 :::!::;""
r. (:. i ' '0
Ii ',
1
---'-- - - ----I 05
"
A i I ;;
;---' --
! !
I I
3
I I
?L' , I -- 0.1924101 Efili"lular mille-u.... ls.
vldth')u: c.ohc
15 I- I L B' 0.165 ma. lor s.nd ono l:rO'lel
;/If----:----L-
1
ma' ler 5.,,,,.lod lop ,ol! - 0.i5
I I e'd"'o,y cl.y
I ,I E=0,110 rna, lor salur.ted
Cd (graph on right) ii'
__ --:L_-.li-1
1
-.3
o!O 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 040 0.50 0.6 07 0809 La l.R
1
of coefficient Cd
3dditional load is imposed on the conduit. This is called the "transition
width" and is a limiting value for calculating loads based all r.larstoll's
trench formulas. At transition width and beyond. the loads can be cal-
culated using Marston's positive projecting conduit or "embankll1cnt"
Embankment installation is realized if the top of the conduit
projects above the natural ground surface or is in a rdatively wide trench
"OU"CC: eel'l""" 8: CON\:T"uCT10N Of' l'A"lT""V 8: sTO" ... scw,,"s, "'''NuAl.l: 8: ",,"onTl' ON
"1'G1NCO::"I"G .. "AcT,cr; NO, 3,,7, "","flIC,..N "Oc,CTY 0,.,. CIVIl. IrNG1Nr:r:,," "Ne " ... ANUAL
0,," ,' .. ,..CT1C!'; NO, p", W"'Tr:II ,'Ol.l.VTION CONTROL l'ceC"ATloN, UU, ", I g ~ .
(nominal aD)
0.33
I 2 in
12 n
3 n
1201b/n
3
0.5
= 2.221
2,398 Ib/Lft or 16.7 Ibs/in
2
(with pipe diameter = 12 in)
1 _ e-2(0.331(0.51112/31
2(0.33)(0.5)
We = 2.221 (120)3
2
c =
d
(Soil Pressure)
p
Where: P =
w
H =
W =
e
B =
e
Flexible Pipe Load (trench condition)
W = 2.221(120)(3)(1) = 800 Ib/Lft or 5.6 Ibs/in
2
e
EQUATION 15
W
:::: wH :::: .......E
Be
pressure due to soil weight at depth H,
Ibs/ft
2
unit weight of soil, Ibs/ft
3
depth at which soil pressure is desired, ft
trench load, Ibs/Ut
pipe outside diameter, ft.
125
Flexible Pipe Load (assume prism condition)
Prism Load may also be expressed in terms of soil pressure as follows:
CHAPTER \ ~ - DESiGN
Rigid Pipe Load (trench condition)
W = 120(12)(1) = 1440 Ib/Lft or 10.0 Ib/in
2
c
Calculation of soil pressure on both rigid and Ilcxiblc pipes of the
same diamcter ill tilL:' same burial (onditions displays the differellcc be-
tween load on ilexibk conduit in tn:ndl :tnd Cl1lballknlt.:nt (onditions and
load on rigid conduit in trench condition,
Example:
Pipe' aD
Burial Depth of Cover
Trcnch Width
Rankine's Ratio (kJ
Soil Density (\I')
Coefficient of Soil Friction (/1')
10 9
(Ibs/Lft)
(Ibs/Lft)
8
,
124
(EQUATION 14)
W = HwB
e e
(EQUATION 10)
Flexible Pipe Load
(Prism Load)
Flexible Pipe Load W = C w B B
..) c d d c
(Trench CondItIOn
oV I I I I I I I I
0123456
Values of coefficIent C(
Diagram for coefficicnt C{" for positivc projecting conduits.
FIGURE 9 - VALUES OF C
c
10
I 9 I I c
I :2
-0
ITJJB
8 z
~ ~ J
'I
I
6
:;:1",'
~ 5
,
;
4
IIA-,"mnOOK OF PVC PlPE
H/':,,\DBOOK OF f ;/C PIi'.E
CHt\lVrER \' - DL51(;:'>;
Recent confirms that in most conditions the lm\d
U3 -- Continued
should. be con.iiJercd when designing PVC piping systems to 3ccommocbte
DEPTH
T'(PE 4" PIPE I
6" PIPE
earth load. 1:-: a trench, friction forces C3.n reduce the load on the pipe OF OF
,.
Width ur Trcllch (fl.)
through arching action of the soli; however, frost and water action may
coVE.R SOIL 0.75 l.00 1.25 1.5 l.0 1.5 2.0 2.5
dissipate these forces, and in the long term the load may approach the
Gralltllar w!o Cohesion 68 91 112 132 136 196 2-+6 288
12 Sand and Soil
87 116 141 164 173 244 303 345
prism load. i: is recommended that the prism load be considered in the
- SaL Top Soil 102 133 162 ISS 199 275 325 388
Dry Clay 121 ISS 190 218 235 325 379 432
design of buried PVC piping systems.
SaL Cl'lY 153 194 228 260 289 383 462 501
The following tables have been developed for use in determining
Granular wlo Cohcsion 68 91 114 134 136 200 '257 307
15 Snnd and Soil
87 116 145 170 173 254 322 378
loads on ASBI D3034 PVC Sewer Pipe. If conditions of installation are
Sat. Top Soil 102 136 167 196 202 292 344 410
Dry Clay 121 161 198 231 240 343 421 474
known to qe 2 "trench" condition, then Table 18 will provide the com-
Sal. Clay 155 203 242 275 303 410 503 578
puted earth loods. For unknown conditions or in trenches beyond transi-
Granular w!a Cohesion 68 91 114 137 136 204 262 320
18 S:lOtI and Soil
87 116 145 174 173 259
...... 1
400 ",
tion width, the more consen'ative prism earth loads are recommended.
Sat. Top Soil 102 136 169 200 I 202
298 385 494
Prism earth lo::Js in !bsjlineal root are Ibted in Table 19. Prism earth loads
Dry ('by J22 162 200 237 242 353 446 518
3;;1. Cby 15& 205 251 291 30G 433 53u 620
in Ibsjin
2
arc in Table 20.
GraJ1ubr w/o Cuhesion 91 114 13'1 I 136 20J 207 327
20 :lnu ?oii
87 116 145 I i..j i 173 259 33'" .;07
Sal. lop 51.)\1 102 136 169 202 202 300 391 159
TABLE IS - EARTH LOADS IN TRENCH CONDlTIO:-;S (Lb'fLin Fl)
Dry Cl:ty J22 162 200 240 242 358 541
W, = CdWS
d
S,
Snt. Clay 156 211H 254 29\ 309 43') 55 I 616
Granular wIn Cohesion 68 91 IIj 13'/ 13G 204
,- ,
333 -,-
I
25 Sand and Soil
87 116 145 174 113 259 345 421
DEfYfll TYPE 4" PIPE 6" PIPE
Sat. Top Soil 102 136 169 203 202 302 401 4l)t;
OF OF
. Wldlh of "I felll.'ll (It.)
..
Dry Cby 122 I(J2 :WO 213 242 362 477 573
COVER $011. 0.75 LOO 1.25 1.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5
S;IL Cl;lr 156 208 260 30H 309 459 5$5 6SS
(;r:lnlliar \\ Cohesion 5' 63 68 71 <)1 110 120 123
Gr:ll\ular win oX 'J! 114 137 136 201 272 3HJ
3
Sand and 65 73 7') Bl 109 12;; 136 t-lf) 30 Sand and Soil
S7 116 145 17' 173 259 345 431
Sat. Top S(,;: 75 81 86 ') I 120 US 149 166
Sal. 'J\}P S,)!l 102 136 169 2U3 202 302 4v3 496
Dr)' CI:l}' 82 86 95 100 132 119 ISS 176
Dry ('klY 122 162 200 243 242 362 477 588
Sal. Cby 95 100 106 112 150 166 177 181
Sat. C];IY 156 2DH 260 311 309 464 60S 722
Gr;lllular w" Cohesion 57 68 75 79 1111 118 131 140
35
70 79 87 93 liS In 150 158
I
Sat. 101'50; 77 89 96 102 132 152 163 181
DEl'fll TYPE 8" PIPE 10" PIPE
Dry Clay S6 97 105 109 144 169 176 19J OF OF .. Width of Trench ([1.) ...
SaL Clay 99 110 119 123 163 18. \96 207 COYER SOIL l.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 I 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5
Gmllular wi; Cohesion 60
"'
81 81 107 129 146 157 Gr;lnllJar wia Cohc:;iolJ 143 156 160 IG7 196 200 209 214
,-
4
Sand and 72 86 95 101 129 151 167 178
3
Sand amI Gravel 163 177 lSI 191 221 227 238 242
Sat. Top S,,:: 81 97 106 112 144 167 181 201 Sat. Top Soil 176 190 196 204 240 244 255 260
Dry Clay 90 105 116 123 156 184 198 217 Dry Clay 193 206 212 220 257 265 275 278
Sat. Clay 106 121 131 137 18! 204 222 231 Sat. Clay 216 230 239 244 287 298 305 309
Granular Wi;) Cohesion 66 82 97 108 123 161 ISS 203 Granular w/o Cohesion 153 170 182 184 213 227 230 244
6
Sand and G:-'::''id 82 102 116 130 151 193 219 234 '1 5Sand and Gr:rvcl 180 194 206 211 243 257 264 278
SaL Top So:: 92 114 131 114 170 216 236 271 J Sal. Top Soil 197 2J3 223 228 266 279 284 297
Dry Clay 109 127 145 158 190 236 252 282
Dry Clay 212 228 241 245 286 301 316 321
Sat. Clay 130 155 168 182 231 271 299 31 J Sat. Clay 239 255 270 278 318 337 348 355
Granular W,) Cohesion 68 88 105 120 131 j 78 214 242 Granular wlo Cohesion 168 190 204 208 238 255 255 262
8
Sand and G:-J:..e! 85 109 130 145 163 216 258 281
4
Sand and Gravel 196 212 232 238 271 290 297 301
Sat. Top Soil 98 123 146 164 184 244 273 323 Sat. Top Soil 217 235 250 258 293 313
-,-
325 ,-,
Dry Clay 117 145 166 183 217 273 314 345 Dry Clay 239 258 269 279 322 337 349 360
Sat. Clay loll 173 200 217 258 323 361 391 Sal. Cluy 265 288 301 310 360 376 385 397
Granular wii) Cohesion 68 90 III 126 133 188 234 268 Granular w/o Cohesion 209 245 264 286 306 329 351 372
10
S:llld and Soil 87 114 137 157 169 234 283 322
6
Sand and Gravel 244 277 295 316 340 364 389 400
Sat. Top SOL 101 131 156 176 195 262 301 362 Sat. Top SoH 274 306 322 338 378 402 426 444
Dry Clay 120 154 182 202 229 301 352 392
Dry Clay 302 334 355 370 404 434 452 478
Sat. Clay 147 183 217 243 273 362 408 452 Sat. Clay 340 386 394 405 455 483 500 553
126
127
or .pvc PIPE
CHid'rEg v - DESIG:\
TABLE 18 - Continued
Ti. IS -- Continu(>d
DEPTH TYPE 8" PIPE I "iO" PIPE DEPTH T\:TE 12" PIPE I 15"PIPE
OF OF .. Width of Trcndt (fLl ... OF OF
.
\Vidth oi Trend: (fl.)
.
COVER SOfL 1.5 2.0 2,5 3.0
I
2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 COVER SOIL 2.0 2.5 3.0 :;.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5
_.. , ... _--
Granl11:lr wlo Cohesion 232 279 315 337 349 393 421 446 GWlIubr wla Cohcsion 306 310 31j 357 383 387 393
8
Sand and Grave! 288 337 370 393 414 455 475 507 4 Sand and 325 348 357 361 407 435 446 452
Sat. Top Soil 322 374 406 430 460 503 533 553 " Sat. Top 5011 352 375 387 390 440 469 484 498
Dry Cby 358 408 443 472 5(;4 552 573 602 Dry Cby 387 404 425 428 483 505 519 536
Sut. Clay 441 461 503 523 572 620 643 677 Sat. Cby U2 451 461 487 540 564 577 609
Grantlbr w/o Cohesion 245 305 349 377 3S1 436 472 515 Granular wio Cohesion 367 395 428 459 494 536 558
10Sand und Soil
314 376 424 460 465 522 572 600 6Sand and Grave! 426 457 488 511 533 572 6lO 638
Sat. Top SoH 350 420 473 504 518 583 630 656 Sat. Top Soil 469 504 528 554 587 630 660 693
Dry Cby 404 440 493 557 572 636 690 722 Dry Cby 514 55! 594 600 643 689 i25 750
S:!.t.Oay 482 542 585 630 612 723 782 800 Sat. Clay 583 6lO 648 659 729 762 811 824
Granular wlo Cohesion 255 320 374 418 400 468 5" 565 Granular w/o Cohl:sion 418 472 50S 536 523 590 612 669
-,
12 <InP
332 405 465 515 505 578 636 676 8$:lnd and Gr:lvcl 503 5-17 589 636 628 684 736 795
Sat. fop Sol! 372 456 516 568 566 640 705 755 Sat Top Soil 561 616 651 698 701 770 814 872
- . Dry eLly 435 512 575 625 635 718 773 820 Dry Clay 612 673 734 i63 765 84:! 895 926
Sat. Clay 518 613 666 708 757 825 872 924 Sat. Clay 705 762 796 819 882 953 995 J062
Gr::nubr w/o Cohesion 260 335 400 457 .;! 499 571 625 Granu!:Jr wio Coht:\lon -157 523 5M, 618 564 65-\ 7013 772
1'" S:lIld :JnJ Soil
349 436 512 572 542 632 7lO 766 10Sand :IIHl Soil
552 6'13 718 ()9() iRS 042 1-;9:-:
5:1 t. Ton Soil 397 492 572 635 DII' 710 790 1163 Sat. Top Soil 61 ? 701 746 :sUI 771 Ii 7(, 933 lOtl!
.l. v Dry 168 571 642 6S4 7Lli.l 797 7t.l() 913 Dry Cby MiS 765 043 857 95il 1020 1002
Sat. Cby 558 683 772 830 820 955 1023 II{lU Sa I. Clay 7% Kg2 927 975 90S 1102 1159 121B
Granllbr w!o 265 3\0 417 479 425 521 599 669 Gr:lIwbr "Jll Cuht:\llln 479 561 627 670 599 701 7bl X-Hi
18 S;lOd :ll1d Soii
3-19 436 520 595 54S 650 ).13 12 :ll\d Su!1
StJo 673 751 73S X-IJ: 1006
S:lt. 'lop Soil 397 500 577 662 626 721 827 913
Sal. 1 up Sell! 6(l2 777 X11 tlU:> K!7 953 lu51 1129
Dry Cby 468 579 673 7,17 )'.
042 933 1017
Ory (by 7J') X42 9-1 I 9b:5 924 IU52 II-IX
I")')
-'
-,-
SaL Cby 564 690 H07 902 IOOg 1127 1199
S;Il, ('by '}()2 97H 10SH 1114 1127 1222
I
1392 ,- .
(;rallubr w/o 265 347 425 490 435 531 612 6
1
J(J (;rallllbr \\'0 (,ulll-',lull 502 59() UX5 750 ()27 71i) :-157 937
?0Sand :l/hl 349 43" 529 6(j{, 56i 622 757 X51 15 S:Hld and Sod
(l2X 73, till'i qPj it;5 922 ]{13:' 1129
Sat, 'I up Stlll 397 SOX 5% 6HO 63:- 7-15 l'SI 951
Sal. 'J up SIll! 70,1 t:27 l)2(, goO 103-1 1152 1217
Dry CLl) 16K .596 7U4 7X) 7,\5- l'HO 979 1057
Dry (,b, H2O 924 1053 1114 IU25 1155 12K:' 1392
S:ll, ('by 57ll 716 Blll 941 I)\)$ 1050 1177 1276
S:lt. ('by 9XI 1127 1193 12'
Ji
.l 1227 1109 14(/2 161 J
Gr:lllubr will 265 35\ ,134 SIO 4-12- 542 638 729
Granular W\l (\lhcsioll 510 625 719 X03 (,JX ?HI
}i!)()
IUDI
25S,lnd ,md Suil 3'19 449 54!} 640 56\ 685 799 900 18 Sand and Soil
()5 I ?HU H0:! 9S2 XI3 975 1115 1227
Sal. '1 up Sod 397 521 635 727 651 791 909 1009
S:lt. "lop SOlJ 751 1'65 992 IUIJ6 938 10S1 I J:.l() 1370
Dry 471 620 745 857 775- I) 31 1071 1107 Dry Cl:.ty 869 1010 1120 1086 1262 1400 1526
S:ll. CI:I} 597 760 895 1021 950 1119 1276 1412 Sat. Clay 1034 1210 1353 1439 1293 1513 1691 1798
Gr;lI1tl!:lr w/o Cohesion 265 354 442 520 44: 553 650 714 Granubr wio Cohl:sioll 520 638 734 K2K 650 797 911) 1035
30Sand :lnd Soil
349 449 561 657 56l 701 823 936 20Sand :llld Soil
657 794 909 102 ! 822 992 1136 1276
Sat. Top Soil 397 524 645 762 655 S07 953 1061 S:lt. Top Soil 762 895 1021 1141 953 1118 1275 1426
Dry Cby 471 620 765 894 775 956 1117 1250 Dry Cby 894 1056 1175 1268 III 7 1320 1469 1585
Sat. CI:IY 603 787 939 1074 983 1J 72 1343 1509 Sat_ Clay lO74 1260 1412 1532 1343 1575 1765 1914
Gr:uHllar wio Cohesion 530 650 765 875 663 813 957 1093
25Sand and Soil
673 822 959 10RO 842 1027 1199 1350
DEPTH TYPE 12" PIPE I
15" PIPE
Sat. Top Soil 781 953 1091 1211 %8 1191 1363 1514
Dry Clay 930 I J 17 1285 1328 IIG3 1396 1607 1660
OF OF
.
Width of Trcnd: 1ft.)
.
Sat_ Clay 1140 1343 1532 1694 1425 1678 1915 2117
COVER SOIL 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5
Granular wlo Cuhcsion 530 663 780 893 663 829 975 1116
Granu!:lr w/o Cohesion 235 240 251 257 293 300 314 321 30Sand and Soil
673 842 986 1123 842 1052
1., ......
1404
-"
3
Sand and Gr;lvc! 272 286 291 331 340 358 363
Sat. Top Soil 786 968 1144 1273 982 1209 1429 1591
Sat. Top Soil 287 293 306 312 361 367 383 390
Dry Clar 930 1148 1340 1499 1163 1434 1675 1874
Dry Clay 308 318 335 338 386 398 409 423
Sat. Clay 1180 1409 1611 1810 1475 1761 2014 2262
Sat. Clay 345 358 366 371 431 448 457 464
Granular wlo Cohcsion 255 273 275 293 319 341 344 366
'.{ 5Sand and Gravel 292 309 316 334 365 386 396 417
oJ SaL Top Soil 319 334 341 357 399 418 427 446 !>ounce, CC"TAIN-TCCo c,:O""OflATIOtl.
Dry Clay 343 361 376 386 428 451 469 482
Sat. Clay 382 404 418 427 477 507 522 534
128 129
iL\ND[;OOK or: PVC PIPE
TABLE 19 - PRISM LOAD (LB/UN HI
W :wHB
, ,
Height Pipe Diameter (Inches) Height Pipe Diameter (Inches)
of Soil ot' Soil
Cover \\'t. Cover Wt.
Feet Ib/ft
l
4 6 8 10 12 15 Feet Ib/ft
l
4 6 8 10 12 15
100 105 157 :no 263 313 383 100 527 785 1,050 1,313 1.563 1,913
3
110 116 173 231 289 343 421
15
110 580 863 1,155 1,444 1,719 :U05
120 126 188 252 315 375 459 120 632 9..; 1 1,260 1,575 1.876 2,275
130 137 204 273 341 406 497 130 684 1,0201,365 1,7062,0322,487
100 141 209 280 350 417 510 100 562 8371,120 1,400 1,667 2,040
4
110 155 308 385 458 561
16
110 618 920 1,232 1,540 1,834 2,245
120 169 251 336 420 500 612 120 674 1,004 1,34'f 1,6802.001 2,448
130 183 272 364 455 5o.l2 663 130 73u 1,088 1.456 1,8202,1672,653
iUU 176 262 350 43g 521 638 100 597 889 1,190 lASS 1.771 2.163
5
110 193 288 3B5 I 573 702
17
110 657 978 1,309 1.636 1.9.11) 2,JH5
12u 211 314 120 525 625 765 120 71{, 1.067 1.428 L7ES 2.126 2,601
131) 228 340 455 569 677 1)29 130 776 USb 1.547 1,934 2.3U3 :2,819
lUO 211 314 120 525 625 765 100 632 9:1 1,2601.575 U;76 2.295
110 232 345 462 57H GEl::
."}
110 6
i
l6 I.U35 1.3i:i6 1,733 2.U63 2,525
6
,,-
I
120 253 377 50: (,)0 750 911:; 120 7S!) 1.13(1 1,512 1,l:i9U 2.251 2,754
130 271 lUK 5t6 6H3 SI J 995 13ll h21 1.2:;.; 1.63tl 2,Ulh 2,.130 2.9l'1.:
l(Hl 216 36t> 4
i
JO 613 729 H93 1{l0 66., 9')1 1.3311 I.M13 l.lISt! 2,423
7
110271 103 53lJ {,7! S02 <;1'\2
1'1
lill 731 I.U
1
}.; 1:163 I,S:.?') 2.ln 2/l(1{1
120 295 131) SoH 735 H75 I,Oil 120 ;.;uo 1596 I/J'}$ 2.376 2.907
IJU 311) 176 637 '/'16 ')IH I,ltd 130 h67 l,l')2 1.72\) 2.1(,\ 2,57.1 3.150
IUn 21\1 ,118 5(,D 700 H31 1.020 100 702 l.iH(, 1,100 1,750 2,00,1 2',550
,
I III }O') 160 616 770 lJl7 1.122
20
110 7731,1501.510 1.925 2.292 2.BO(,
\,;0 337 502 672 H40 1,000 1.221 12l! 1)--12 1.255 \.600 2.IO{) 2,501 3,0('0
130 365 544 728 910 1.0B.:I 1,326 IJU 9131..1(,0 I.H20 2,275 2.70
'
) 3,316
Ion 316 471 630 781\ 938 1.141:\ 100 737 1.090 1,.170 1.038 2,13R 2.678
9
llQ 318 SIB 693 866 1.032 1.263
21
ll(l 812 \.208 1.617 2.021 2.":072.946
120 379 565 756 945 1.125 1,377 J20 HS5 \.311'\ 1.764 2.205 2.626 3.213
130 .:Ill 612 8191.024 1.219 1,492 130 958 1,42S 1.911 2.3H9 2.H45 JA82
100 351 523 700 875 1.012 1.275 100 772 US\ 1.5:0 1.925 2.292 2.805
10
110 J87 575 770 963 1.146 1A03
22
110 S50 t,265 1.694 2.117 2.522 3,087
120 421 628 840 1.050 1.250 1,530 120 927 J.38\ 1.8432,310 2.i51 3.366
IJO 456 680 9101,1381,3551,658 130 1.004 1.496 2.002 2.503 2.98U 3,648
lOa 386 575 770 963 1.146 IA03 100 807 1.203 1.6102.013 2.3972,933
II
110 425 633 847 1.059 1.261 1.543
23
110 889 1.323 1.771 2.214 2.636 3.227
12U 463 690 924 \,155 1.375 120 9691.4441.932 2.4152.8763.519
130 502 748 1.001 1.251 1,490 1.824 130 1.049 1.564 2.093 2.616 3.116 3,813
100 421 628 840 J,050 1.251 1.530 100 812 1.255 1.680 2,100 2.501 3.060
12
110 464 690 924 1.155 1,375 1.684
24
110 927 1.381 1.8482,3102.751 3,367
120 505 753 1.008 1,360 1,500 1,836 120 LOll 1.5062.0162.5203.0013.672
130 548 816 1,092 1,365 1,626 1,990 130 1.095 1.632 2.184 2,730 3,251 3,979
100 456 680 910 1,138 1,355 1,658 100 878 1.308 1.750 2.187 2.605 3,188
13
110 503 748 1,001 1,251 1,490 1,824
35
110 966 1,438 1.925 2,406 2.866 3,508
120 548 816 1,092 1,365 1,626 1,989 120 1.053 1.5692.\002.6253.1263.825
130 593 884 1.183 1,479 1,761 2,155 130 1.141 1,7002,2752,8443.3874,145
100 491 732 9S0 1,225 1.459 1,785 NOTE: Calculations b<lscd on :lctual OD
14
110 541 805 1.078 1,348 1,605 1,964 from TABLE I ASHI D3034.
120 590 879 1.176 1,470 1,751 2,142
130 639 952 1.274 1,593 1.896 2,321
130
V -
TABLE 20 -PRiSM LOAD SOIL PRESSURE (psi)
P : wI-!
Soil Unit Weight (lb/ft
3
)
Height of
Cover (ft) 100 110 120 125 130
2 1.39 1.53 1.67 1.74 1.81
3 2.08 2.29 2.50 2.60 2.71
4
2,78 3,06 3.33 3,47 3,61
5 3.47 3.82 4,17 4.34 4.51
6
4,17 4.58 5,00 5.::'1 5,42
7
4,86 5.35 5.83 6,08 6.32
8
5,56 6,11 6,67 6,94 7.22
10
6,94 7.64 8.33 9.03
12 9,17 10,00 lU..+2 10.33
14 9.72 10,6') 11.67 12.15 ! 2.6+
III I 1.1 I J 2.22 13.22 LU:;9 14..+-+
12.50 13.75 15,00 15.63 16.25
20
13 15.28 16,67 17.3(l 18,06
00
15.2S I t:.33 I<} ,10 19.06

Il).67 Ig..B 20,00 20.03 21.67
26
1::;,0(, 19.X(l 21.67 22.57 23A7
19At 21.39 23.33 2i.31 25.20
30 20.X3 22.92 25,00 26,04 27.0X
35 2+.31 26.74 29.17 30.3t: 31.U(l
40 27.7'<) 3U.Sb 3333 34.72 3b.ll
Live Loads, Underground PVC pipe is also subjecl to live loads from
traffic running over highways. railways. or airport runways. and from other
superimposed Iivc loads applied to the surface and transmitted through the
soiL Live loads have liltle efl'cd on pipe performance except al shallow
depths,
Calculation of live loads can be accomplished with reasonable accu-
racy using a theoretical approach known as the BOllssinesq solution. This
approach assumcs (inaccurately) that soil is a semi-infinite elastic and iso-
tropic medium and allows loads on the pipe to be determined by the dis-
tribution of stresses present at the surface, Even though soil does not fit
the criteria required by the assumptions, experimental measurements con-
firm that reasonably good results are obtained when the Boussinesq solu-
tion is properly applied,
The distribution of a surface live load to any' horizontal plane in
the subsoil is shown in Figure lO. The graph in Figure 10 compares the
Boussinesq projection or live load distribution with actual measurements
131
132
**
**
li<*
Taxiways, Aprons,
Hardstands, Run-up Pads
1.50
Runways
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
PF'
= C'L
*
*
'"
W,e
Railways
1.75
Installation Surface Condition
Highways
1.50
1.35
1.15
1.00
Where: W =
,e
P =
F' =
L =
C =
,
CIL\F'TU: \" -
133
EQUATION 16
TABLE 2 I . IMPACT FACTOR (F') VS. HEIGHT OF COVER
Height of
Coyer, ft,
oto I
1 to 2
2 to 3
Over 3'
Where the only new term is '"p", which is the intensity or the
distributed load, lb/ft' .
C . the load coefficient is a function of D/(2H) ancI iIl/(2H)
,
where D and ill are the width and length, respectively. of the
area over which the distributed load acts, ft.
the load on the pipe, Ib/unit length
the concentrated load, Ibs
the impact factor (See Table 2 I)
the effective length of the conduit (3' or
less), ft.
load coefficient which is a function of
B)(2H) and L/(21I), where:
H = the height of the fill from the top of
the pipe to ground surf;.H.:e, ft.
B = the diameter of the pipe. ft.
c
EQUATION 17
Wcl=CpFB
, , e
The integration developed by Hoil Cor C
s
is used for ca!cubLing COll-
centrated loads (such as a truck wheel) and is given in the following form:
The intt'gration developed by Newmark 1'01' C
s
is lIsed ror i.:akubting
distributed loads and is lliVl.:n ill the following form:
* Refer to data al'ailablt.' from Amcrican Railway EI/gineering Associatioll (AREA)
Refer to data [JIailable from Federal A I'ialioll AdminiSlralioll (FAA)
1.0

<:Ii 0
0.8
,--_---1---
, . ,
0.6 0,4
\

Fraction of wheel load transmitted
to culvert
DISTRIBUTION OF SURFACE LIVE LOADS
0.2
FIGURE 10
o

6.0 r--a-o,; I
I
I
I Iii>-i
I i
I I i
2.0
, 3.0
_ ..__J._ ..
'
, I I I I .
50 iii i I
\---'---\--i---+--_
I
-----1,---r---j
. ! I
:: 4,0 __..._.._'. __
I
"

"
1.0 I i 1 ! t
Distribution of surface live lauds vs.loads on a plane at depths of cover.
Boussinesq solutions \'$. actualmeasuremcnt.
of live load distribution. The intensity of thG live load on any plane in the
soil is greatest at points directly below the applied surface load and de-
creases radially from that point.
HA;\DBOOK OF f'\C PIPE
"OURC.:: l"IG\JRC ""TATIC WHCtl.. l..OAO::; TRA"::;MITTCO TO ... : FT. x ll"T. G lfl. ,;>,:<,:TION 0'" CUl..VCRT",
". G9: 0" TH-IRO coiTION, "Y M<:Rl..1N G. ,,"AfiGl..CR IINO RIC><ARO l... lJANOY,
CO"YflIG><':" U5t, it! Ino DY INTtRNATlONAI. TXTUOOI< CO. COf"VnlGf<T ,i;., \9n 11 .. I"Tl.:XT PIlC::;".
INC. Rcr;<I"TCo UY f'r.:flMI"",ON or- THOM"" Y. cnOW';l..l...INC.
As in the case of loads resulting from fill material. equations have
been developed for calculation of live loads using the classical Boussinesq
solution, They arc in t\VO forms: one for loads and one for
distributed loads.
CiiAT'TLR \. - DL:S1G>:
and for ruH\vay traffic.
The H20 live load
assumes two 16.000 lb.
concentralecl loads ap-
plied to two ] 8" x 20"
areas
1
one locateu over
the point in question,
and the other located at
a distance 72" away. In
this manner, a truckload
of 20 tons is simulated,
The Cooper E-80
live load assumes 80.000
pounds applieLi to three
2' x 8' on 5' cenkrs
such as might bc C11-
cOll11tL'red through live
loading l"rom locolllo-
1
!7
Cooper E80
Live Load Plus
50% Impact
1000 2000 3000 4000
VERTICAL SOIL PRESSuRE lL8S/FT
z
l
Live Load iloplied lhrougrl
three 2',,,; 8' areas on 5' center I J"-;:;
(Load distributIOn deWrmined
by Boussinesq's FormulllJ
Dead LO<ld
120 lb/cu ft
"DUlle" ""''''',e".. "'0" ..... 0 <i ... ,,", ... 1",,,,,TuT<:.
",,,,,,,,,<"Torl.o.e.
FIGURE 12 - COOPER E-80 LIVE LOADING
135
TABLE 23 - LIVE LOADS ON PVC PIPE
Simulates 20 ton ;ruck traflic + llllpacr 2 Simulates 80,OOO.lb!J't rai!l\'ay load + impact
J 180,000 lbs. dl/altandem gear assembly 26 inch spacing berween tires alld 66 inch ct'lllCrto-
cel/ter spacing between fore and aft rires lIlIdcr a rigid pal'ell/ellt 12 il/ches t!tick + impact
* NCf;/{gible lilc load illjl!/Cllcc
a:
w
>
o
u
u.
o
f-
I
<:J
W
I
tive with three 80.000 poul1d axle loads.
As call be seen ill both or the graphs. as the depth or cover increases,
till: influellce or thL' live diminishes rapidly, especially when (,olllpared
to the earth loading. The il1l1uence 01" live loads 011 PVC pipe as projecled
for highw"y. r"ilro"d. al1d "irport insl"lI"tiol1s is dd'il1ed il1 T"hle c3.
Height Live Load Transferred to Pipe. Ibjin" Ilci&ht Live Load to I'lpc.lh!in"
of
of
Coyer Highway Railway Airport Cover Railway t\irport
(fI) H2O' E80'
,
(ft) H2O' ERO'
,
I 12.50
14
*
4.17 3.06
2 5.56 26.39 13.14 16 *
3.47 2.29
3 4.17 23.61 12.28 18
*
2.78
4 2.78 18040 11.27 :20
*
2.08 1.53
5 1.74 16.67 22
*
I .9 J 1.14
6 1.39 15.63 8.79 24
*
1.74 1.05
7
1 '1'1
12.15 7.85 26
*
1.39 *
1. __
8 0.69 lUI 6.93 28
*
1.04
*
10
*
7.64 6.09 30
'"

*
12
*
5.56 4.76 35
* * *
40
>;:
* *
As l1lcntioned prL'M
viously, the illrJUL'nl.T of
live loads on the perform-
ancc of I've pipe is only
significant in shallow
depths. usually 4 feet
(1.2 Ill) and less for high-
way loads. For railways.
this influence is not im-
Jlortant except for depths
less than 10 feet (3 Ill).
This is graphically demon-
strated by the graphs in
Figure II and Figure 11.
Both show the total load
calculated on a pipe ex-
posed to li"e loads and
earth loads 1'01' highway
2000
To!alload
live + dead
Dead load
120 Ib/c". __
Values of Lond Coefficients, C
s
' for Concentrated and Distributed
Superimposed Loads Vertically Centered Over Conduit*
134
500 1000 1500
VERTICAL SOIL PRESSURE (LBS/FT:)
"",":><IC"" IRON 1',"0 ...
WASHINGTON, D.C.
2
16 O---J-r--j - _._-
" 0-- .L-.L-LAL-
Live load applied on
assumed are.J 01 36 x 40
fl- U L
I 2f-f 2f] or 2i!
or
!!c-
-r
0.1 0.2 0.3 OA 0,5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.2 IS 1 2.0 5.0
2}/ ,
0.1 0.019 0.037; 0.053 0.067 0.079 0.089 0.097 0.103 0.108 0.112 0.117 0.121 0.124 0.128
0.2 0.037 0.072 0.103 0.131 0.155 0.174 0.189 0,202 0.211 0.219 0.229 0.233 0.2.\4 0.248
0.3 0.053 0.103 0.149 0.190 0.224 0.252 0.274 0.292 0.306 0.318 0.333 0,34-5 0,355 0.360
OA 0.067 0.131 0.190 0.241 0.284 0,320 0.349 0,373 0.391 OA05 OA25 0.441 0 .454- OA60
0.5
0.07910.15510.224
0,284 0.336 0.379 0414 0.441 0.163 0.481 0.505 0525!O,S.W 0.543
0.6 (l.U};') 0.174 0.252 U.320 U.379 0,428 OA67 0,490 0.52j 0.54.1\0.572 0.596\U.613 0.624
0.7 O.Ot)7 0,1 }}91 0.27: a.3,1t; OAH 0.467 0.511 0.546 0.5l:i1 0.597IO.62S 0.GSiJiU.f,7-i U.688
0." 0.103 0.2021.292 0.373 UA-II 0.499 0.516 O.5X-l 0.615 IJ .6391 U.674' 0.70)i".725 0.740
0.9 O.iDS 0.211 fU06 0.391 0.j63 0.524 0.57\ 0.615 0.647 0.673 O.71l O.741!O.7{;(J
1.0 U.112 0.219 0.3111 OA05 DAn 1 0.544 0.597 0.639 0.(173 0.7UI
1
0.740 o 77-tliJ.b'[Jo
1.2 0.1170.2290.333 0.-125 a.S05 0,5 72 u.62H U,(l74 0.711 O.7.1U\u.n.) U.l\&h
1.5 (J.l21 O.23S ll.345 O,.i.to 0.5% 0.650 0.7U3 (l.7,1 0.77-1 n.otj;u;(J.! 0.916
2,0 0.1240.21,10.355 0,451 0';;10 U.{d 3 u,(l7.: 0.72:\ {I.7M, o.X(lOIOJ;19 O.b:"-i U.9.Hl 0.9:'&
a: 10
w
>
o
u 6
u.
o
f- 6
I
<:J
w .
I 4
The values ofC
s
can be determined by use of 'I'able 22:
TABLE 22 - VALVES OF C
s
FiGURE II -- 1120 IIIGIIWAY LOADlNG
"ou"C" .. " ""a, h <:O.. "T,,,,<:TlO" ,0>', "1\"IT"" ... t,<, "TO"'" .. "... 'MA""""" n ""rOllT" ,,,
., ;'i<.,'''''' ',.,,',,'(:'1',(:.-:' ',;",' ;;""i', ,;'j<;''' ..- I>OCI" T'v' 6,' 'C'Vl ... " .... I .. "" "" ,,'H> 'M",,,,,,, ...
0 .. ,""eT,C" NO.9", WAT"." ,0...... U... ,0.. (;0""'''01-. "" U.. ""TlON. lU ", '0..
HAj..,'DBOOK OF PVC PiPE
cOl'fficlt'TlH for solulion oj lIo/l's IIlld A'l'Il'Il1r;r/; OJ till' HOIlHII1I'$/f t'tflU/tlOn
for I'cni('1I1
ill 12
w

1l,\:'iDBOOK Of PVC PiPE


FLEXIBLE PiPE THEORIES
Introduction. A flexible pipe may be defined as a conduit that will
detlect at !east 2 percent without any sign of structural distress such as in-
jurious cracking. Although this definition is arbitrary, it is widely used.
A flexible pipe derives its soil load carrying capacity from its flexi-
bility. Under soilload
1
the pipe tends to deflect, thereby developing passive
soil support at the sides of the pipe. At the same time. the ring deflection
relieves the pipe of the major portion of the vertical soil load which is then
carried by th0' surrounding soil through the mechanism of an arching action
over the pipe. The effective strength of the pipe-soil system is remarkably
high. For exampk, tests at Utah Stak University indicate tll:lt a rigid pipe
with a bearing strength or 330U {bjrt (-.to.!5 k?\/lll J buried in
Class C bedding will rail with a ur 5000 Iblft kl\/'m l.
L'ver. under the ith,.'ntical soil conditions and luading, P\'C SeWL'r pipt,; with
minilllum pipc stiffness or -t() psi deflects only Sf,;. dL'1kLtiOIl is far
hl,.'luw tllat whh:ll Lotdd ClllSL' lblllagL' to the PVC Tilus, in this
e:-.:aml)!C tilL' ngid pipe has faik-d but tilL' nexibk- pip,-' h:1S lh:rlorllied StlC-
CL'ssrlllly, providing ;1 factor or sakty t:rL';ltL'r than (d. or L"lwrsl..:. in
pbk or thrl'I..:-L'dg", tll,,' rigid pipe will support lllllL'1! lllor,,' than till
l'kxibk pip..... This tL'IHls to llliskad wOllldhe l"ll'xibk pipl'
users hecatls\,: they rl'bk low Ibt pbte supportil1
b
ror lkxibk pip\.'
to the ill-soil Flat plate or thrl'L'-L'dge is an appropri-
ate l1leasure of load bL'aring slrcngth for rigid pipes but not ror nexibk
pipes. Scc Figure 13 for typical pipe stiffness test results.
The inherent strength or flexible pipe is callL'd pipt: stilTnL'ss whil'h is
measured. according to AST,1 D2412 Standard Test ,kthod for External
Loading Properties of Plastic Pipe b)' Parallel-Plate Loading, at an :lrbitrary
datUIll or dellt:ctioll. Pipe stiffness is definl-'d as:
11<
.,
.'.
35
57
65
71
14-1
161
292
455
546
1.019
1.145
F'" SOD.DOO psi
E
4.47 (DR _1)3
PS =
Min, E :: ,lOO,OOO psi
2(\
2:-1

52
57
115
129
23.:1
364
437

916
DR = Dimension ralio or SDR \\'ht.'r-.: :
35
.'.' .)
325
2h
25
cI
I
,
c
17
14
13.5
"
'r.:.
11
o::T"Vl. co.,'O""T10N
DR or SI)R
137
Because a llexible conduit interacts with the surrounding soil in
supporting the soil load, soil properties are very important. Just as bedding
is important in limiting soil pressure concentrations on rigid pipes, soil com-
paction or soil density is an important parameter in limiting ring deflec-
tion in flexible pipes. Thus, soil and soil placement, as well as pipe proper-
ties, are important in the design of a flexible pipe installation.
The manner in which flexible pipe performance differs from rigid
pipe performance can be understood by visualizing pipe response to applied
earth load. In a rigid pipe system, the applied earth load must be carried
totally by the inherent strength of the unyielding, rigid pipe since the soil
EQUATION 19
r = IvIean radius of pipe, in.
t = Wall thickness. in.
ClL\FrER v - DESIGN
The resulting PS values for various dimension ratio;.; of PVC pipe arc
as shown in Table 24.
TABLE 24 - PVC PIPE STirFNESSES (1',1)
For PVC pipe with outside diameter controlled dimensions (rather
than l.D.) this results in the equation:
0.559E(fl3
6.71 Et
3
=
6.71 EI
r
3
EQUATION 18
Pipe stiffness. Lbs/Lin. or (psi)
Force.lbs./Lin.
Vertical deflection. in
,lodulus of elasticity. psi
i'doment of inertia of the \vall cross-section
per unit length of pipe, in
4
Lin.::= in
3
PS =
F =
ioY =
E =
I =
Where:
EI
PS = F/ioy ;;;, 0.149r3
11;9.
HANDBOOK OF PVC PIPE
= 0.149 Wr
3
EJ
Wr
3
= 0.136 El
EQUATION 20
EQUATION 21
EQUATION 22
flY
flX
Where: flY and flX = the vertical and horizontal deflections
or diameter changes, in. which are de-
rived mathematically for ovalization into
the shape of an ellipse.
W = the load on the pipe per unit Iength_
lb!in
E = Modulus of elasticity of the pipe mate-
rial,lb!in
2
CiL\.t'TLR V - 1>.1:S1(;:'
139
fl X = 0.913flY
mechanism from the combined strength provided by the pipe-soii syslem.
Spangler's Iowa Deflection Formula. M. G. Spangler
l
a student of
Anson Marston, observed that a theory of loads on buried pipe was not
adequate for l1exible pipe design. Spangler noted that f1exibie pipes may
provide little inherent strength in comparison to rigid pipes, yet when
buried, a significant ability to support vertical loads is derived from the
passive pressures induced as the sides of the pipe move outward against the
earth. This fact coupled with the idea that the pipe deflection may also be a
basis for design prompted M. G. Spangler to publish his Iowa Formula in
1941.
Spangler's first step was to define the ability of a flexible pipe to
resist deflection when not buried in the soil.
Applying the elastic theory or Ilexure to thin rings ror uellections
studied which \vcrc in the range of than about he L'st:tblished the
following relationships:
70 60 50 30 40
% PIPE DEFLECTION
20 5 10
FIGURE 13
TYPICAL PIPE STIFFNESS TEST RESULTS
PIPE STIFFNESS VS. PERCENT DEFLECTION
70
60 8
Pipe
PVC Compound: I2454B
at the sides of the pipe tends to compress and deform away from the load.
In a flexible pipe system. the applied earth load is, in large measure,
carried by the earth at the sides of the pipe, since the flexible pipe deflects
away from the load. That portion of the load carried by the flexible pipe,
assumed as a vertical vector of force, is transferred principally through the
deflection mechanism into approximately horizontal force vectors assumed
by the compressed soil at the sides of the pipe. Through the deflection
mechanism, the distribution of earth load is carried principally by the sur-
rounding soil envelope and to a lesser extent by the flexible pipe. The
strength provided by buried l1exible pipe is derived through the del1ection
D
L
I<W,r
3
EI + 0.061er
4
K = Bedding
Constant
D
L
= Deflection
Lag Factor
EI = Stiffness
Factor
(related to
Pipe Stiff-
ness)
21' = D = Pipe
Diameter
e = 2h/6X
(EQUATION 23)
TilE IOWA FOR:\1ULA
6X =
6X
,
KW 1'3
,
DL EI + 0.061 E'r
3
EQUATION 24
A:

.1X
illJ]]J
141
rOTJ\l l()/\D IN
orrmmrnnJ
I
,
,"
2
FIGURE 14 - BASIS OF SPANGLER'S DERIVATION OF THE IOWA FORMULA
FOR DEFLECTION OF BURIED PtPES
CH/;.vn::r:
l
/ - DESIGN
500''':1:' oTAH :l;TATI: urovt:JnaTV
determined theoretically by Spangler and published in 1941. In 1955,
Reynold K. Watkins, a graduate student of Spangler"'s, was investigating the
modulus of passive resistance through model studies and examined the
Iowa Formula dimensionally. The analysis determined that e could not
possibly be a true property of the soil in that its dimensions are not those
of a true modulus. As a result of Watkins' effort, another soil parameter
was defined. This was the modulus of soil reaction, E' = er. Consequently,
a new formula called the Modified Iowa Formula was written:
I<W 1'3
,
Moment of inertia of the wall cross-
section per unit length, in
4
/Lin ;::: in
3
I\'1ean radius, in.
Deflection lag ractor
Bedding Constant
Marston's load per unit length of pipe.
Ib/Lin.
Mean radius of the pipe, in.
Modulus of elasticity of the pipe mate-
rial, psi
Moment of inertia of the pipe wall per
unit length, in
4
/Lin ;::: in
3
MOdulus of passive resistance of the side
fill, Ib/in
2
lin.
Horizontal deflection or change in dia-
meter, in.
EQUATION 23
=
=
=
=
=
DL EI + 0.061er
4
r
I
l'
E
e
I
D =
L
I< =
\IV =
,
.6X =
6X =
Where:
Uj\NDBOOK OF PVC PuYE
Spanglc::r's next step was to incorporate the effects of the surround-
ing soil on the pipe's deflection. This was accomplished by assuming that
Marston's Theory of loads applied and thai this load would be uniformly
distributed at the plane at the top of the pipe. He also assumed a uniform
pressure over part of the bottom, depending upon the bedding angle. On
the sides, he assumed the horizontal pressure on each side would be pro-
portioned to the deflection of the pipe in the soil. The constant of pro-
portionality was defined as shown in Figun: l4 and was calkd the modulus
or passive rc::.istance of the soil. The modulus would preSlllllJbly ht: :J con-
stant for a given soil and could be in a simple bb tesl. Through
he derived the Iowa Formula:
Equation 23 can be used to predict deflections of buried pipe if the
three empirical constants IC D
L
and e are known. Table 25 contains a list
of bedding factors, 1<, dependent upon the beddlng angle. These were
140
142
H:\..'\:DBOOK OF rvc PIPE
:ow 1.il\Xl _\00
Slight, 1 High,
<85% 85%-95%, 'I >95%
Proctor, Proctor, Proctor,
<40% 40%-70% I>70'\b
relotive relative telZltN8
density density denSity
(3) (4) (5)
1110
No data :lvuilablc: consult <l comp<:tenl
,oil, T""'" "'"
,
I JKl\l ,(U)

l.ll\!!.- _.1:.1111\1
;JI\)) 1
.;.:
., p ,
Dumped
12)
'IE' for Degree of Compaclion of Bedding,
1 , In pounds per sQuore inch
5011 typepipe bedding material
(Unified Classification System")
11)
nod.
AC'lIr;lCy III 'Icrm, "I IkllntIlUl"
'ASl!'>1 (),?n0:7, U:-iHI{ IkllFll'lllOl1 r,'i
"1.L '. 1,lqUIJ hnlll
'Or allY huruc,hnc Inll bl'plllllllt: \\l!h une the\e 'yml'uh he, tiM(iC. (iCSCI
dF('r Ir, anu pfCUICICd def!c<:lllln of y;. aclu'll ueflC'ctH'll \\11\,1\1 be l'el'I{'cfl ,Ind
4':; .
NI,tc: Vallie, ;lrrhcablc only for ftlh !c.. \ tlMn SO ft (IS Ill) T;II'!c dtlel 01'1 Include M'\ .."Iel}'
f:lctor. For u..e III lm!i,ll ddlc<:lll'n.. only, arpropfl:llc DdiL'UlUn LIfe I'aewr mu.. l Ix' .. rr
hed
fOf lon!:.term dcf!c.;;lion." If bnlJmg. fillh Illl Ihe (ll'rdcrhne IWI' eomr;lclwn calq::<'[II:_. leiccl
lower E' v;,II1C Qr average the (wo valuc" f'cr<:cnt:lr.e balcll on 1;lborall'ry m:I\HnUl1l uri
from leq ..tandard.. u'iillt: ;lbout I::.SOO f1lb/cll ft i5')l'\.OOO Jim') (,\STM D-6'-K. ,\ASHO
T-99. USBR DCSlt:n:llion E-Il) I p.. i '" 6.9 "Stm:,
-_.. ,..._- -, -_ ....
TABLE 26 -AVER.4GE VALUES OF MODULUS OF SOIL REACTION, E'
(For Initial Flexible Pipe Deflection)
Fine.grnineJ Soils ILL> 5U)b
Soils with medium to high pla'iticity
CH, MH. CH-MH
Finc.gn,incd St,!I\ tLL < 501
Soih to no CL, M1..
:-'l!.-CL, th'H' co"r_c_p,\incl!
p<iftidc, _ i 'iii 1 =(;0 I ";PO 1 ln'
rlllc.gralllcd Stllh (1.L " SIl)
Soil, meJlum to no CL, ..
ML.CL. I1wrc th.m Co"lw'gr'lI11c.l
p.,rlll::1c,
Co;tr\C,;':l'IHlCd S<1lh II llh hnc,
(/\1. (lC, S\L SC' 1,;tlOI.\lI\, 111Orr: t!L,n \---.1
CtMf'iC<gf;IlI1CI! Sl"h "'lh LIllie 1'1 :--;ll hnc'
GW. (iI', SW, S/" <:llnl'lIl\\ ic" Ih"n IIIH.'I
ClL\YTL\< ',' - D[51(;i',
143
The anI)' parameter remaining in the Iowa Formula now needed to
calculate deflections is the dellection lag factor D
L
. Spangler recognized
that in pipe-soil systems, as with all engineering systems involving soil l the
soil consolidation at the sides of the pipe continues witil time after the
maximum load reaches tile top of the pipe. His experience had shown
that deflections could increase by as much as 30 percent over a period of
40 years. For tltis reason he recommended the incorporation of a deflec-
tion lag factor of 1.5 as a conservative design procedure.
Time lag will be discussed in much greater detail in another section
of tltis chapter.
0.110
0.108
0.105
0.102
0.096
0.090
0.083
K
o
30
45
60
90
120
180
BEDDING ANGLE (DEGREES)
Two other observations from Watkins' work arc or particular note:
(1) Thde is liItle point in evaluating E' by':l model tcs.t and then using the
modulus to prcJict ring lkrIection. Tht.' modd gives rin:! din:ctly.
(2) Ring tkll:.:..:rion Jllay not be tile only performance limit.
1'tlany r::::sr:arch r:ITorts have attemptL'd to measure E' without SUCCeSS.
The most lJ:icful method has involved the llleasure or ddkctions
for a pipt.' unJa which utileI' conditions Wt.'rt.: known followed by back
calculation through tlit.' modified Iowa Forllluia to lh:terlllinl' the L'Orl"l..'c
valuL' of E'. This n;quires assulllptions regarding till' bt:dding factor
and tlt.:rJection bg factor to he ust.'d and has led to a wid:.: range: of fl'portL'd
values of E'.
One of the most reccnt atte:mpts to acquire information all valucs of
E' was conducted by Amster K. Howard, of the UniIed States Bureau of
Reelamalion. Howard reviewed both laboratory and !idd dala from many
sources. Using information from over 100 laboratory and neld tests.
Howard compikLl a table of average E' values for various soil types and
densilies (See Table 26). He was able to do lhis by assuming values of E'.
K .clnd Wand then back-(:alculating through the I\loclified Iowa Formula to
,
calculale a theoretical value of deflection. This theordical deflection was
then compared with actual measurements. By assuming the E' values of
Table 26, a bedding constant J( = 0.1, and deflection lag factor D
L
= 1.0,
Howard was able to correlate the theoretieal and empirical resulls to witltin
2 percent deflection if he used the prism soil load. This means that if
theoretical deflections, using Table 26, were approximately 5%, measured
deflection would range between 3 and 7%. Although the vast majority of
data from tltis study was taken from tests on steel and reinforced plastic
mortar pipe with diameters greater than 24 in., it does provide some useful
information to guide designers of all flexible pipe including PVC pipe since
it helps to give an understanding of the Modified Iowa Ddlection Formula.
TABLE 25 - VALUES OF llEDDlNG CONSTA.l'1T, I<
J44
HA:;DLiOOK OF I've PjPE CI1/,J'TEP, \' - DFSl.G;"1
';;;
Co
.:0
,9
6
"

0
'J
"

':;::
"
0

't "

:r.

"

-
'J

"
-:;
" o
"
:;.fj
"
f 0-=
" - -J o :::
" J
"
:=)"::; C

'C 'J 0
"
'J
....J

"1' L,
i!
" "
II
" "
a: -"
0- S 0 w w 0
'0

"



,.' 0
@ji
w

(!)
>,
0
..Q
0
-:;
S +
r-
" C',

-
z
E
+
':?
0 0-

r::::
C

I
-<
-" a:
::>
0 0
cY
"
'"
E?
"0 w
"
N
C
" 0
I
<11
0
- 7) rr, \!)
qoqq'r:
"T f'1 <"I
'Ii r- -t

rl - - 0
0' r') r') cr,

'n P') f'l f'1

_ - ...::; I-
r-..: v1 M <",i
r-O'r-o

'-.D '" rf) ('I
-,.......,./"
c; q r'1
'" "'7 r') "I
01 ('.1 c.. co

>n ,.." ,,1 01

"'1
000
rooooo
>,l-;tr-O
W
145
-0 .-, 0'1 10 'n -r ..rr
.:) - f- ....... '':
, ..., ... ; r I '..0 -r ,r, "1
:;>,:=-C\(;'.
::.q tr: f'! q
ltl .... Xl

,,' f'1 .-
.... rl '..0 'V
:;- 'l) ,.:;, 'r,

r-.-:j---t l

(") M 01-
'" ('1 ("'I
0000
0000
01 -;t I- 0
'"
" -
:::::: r-;
r')"'lrl- >Q tn r') 01
:,0""'''''''
-0''$

o "1' C' r-
0000 ri""': 0 0
v;.-7 t-- 'n
01 'Ii 0' 7 o -;t 'n ltl
-t r..) 0j r,;
rl -:T rf') t--
-O'I-'-.D r')"':::;-o-
-ciao ri - ci
7,nltl-



::.q ,..-! c: ;,.,q
('1 01 .- ....
('1 ('1 V

:iri rl -
I r", 'f, '''''1 -r
rr!
1_ .-.,,..., n rl
_ ,r'il.,;ll_ 'l:J r')
:;. "'"j ...... 'r. ("I 0

--l <':)
,.-, .,
:t;' -ra'"
,.-.,,-)1 r; r i .

o 01
r- "'I:"
w
51
I I


('! -:j
1- _ ....... -,
1
.:;>, "T r"', I'
"7 ('1 - c
I
....:....: ....: "":1
"'"1"--
I
,..,! -: q C'; ___ 0
I:;; ;::; ::1'
I"": ....: ....: ....:
Ix., ':> ,r'l
1; 6 ;.
1__
i:::::=1
I
r, t-- "1'1
-:- -r r') rr,
:=560 OJ
i r') 01 71

I
' . . '
1
_, - : ;;;1

- C\ c-
-: c: X;i
-00
...:;;...:::;!;;'
Y:l1-'C
;; ;; d
- a 010 rl - - -\0 ., rr, rl_
-
:; i :; 1
,.. _ -.=, .. ..:) rl _'r, -t
.::: "": q :.(; 1-: '::'. q
::::: 0 0 0 C:i- - 0 a 0: rl_ --
"i (", 0' 'f. 1- -r .r, LOj_ 0 f.! ,,.,
-.=,rICN,r,Nr-.._JJrl
_'-:"":0(.. -
() I
'r. :J 'I", :::
'r_ 'r: -t: "i.
:0 :0 0:0 f-I--c--c-::-I
o

N
;,.
"'
i
I
I
;: g 21':0 0
o-lI"::8'O
... -:> > "'1 .,t
-= .:::
l::n..J ill
'(;) j
::: I
I
1---1=
o
f8
o

1---1=
o
i3
u
>
""
'"
''0
0"
0 0
",-'
Uo

;3:"
-<3

"
='" :::::-0
::>=
'" "
o
tz.. r-I
0:::
U)>,

0::

u::r::
'" .
-'0
",,,,

0'"
oS
",.

-<""
-'=
;:) ,8
u-
-'u
-<2!

1
t--
C',
'" -'
'" ;:;
1.9 percent
1 ft2
144 in2 ; 8.33 psi
D
l
K1' (100)
--
[2E/3(DR - 1)3J + 0.061E'
EQUATION 26
I'> D
l
K1'(100)
%0 ; [2E/3 (DR - 1)3] + 0.061 E'
2(400,000) ; 54.28 psi
3(18-1)3
t>
% i);
x 10ft x
1.5(0.1)(8.33)( 100)
54.28 + 0.061 (200)
2E
3(DR - 1)3
% Ll _
D -
1'; wH
Ib
l' ; 120 ft3
Where: 1'; Prism Load (Soil Pressure). psi
EQUATiON 25
D
l
K1'(100)
0.149 / + O.OGiE'
< uY

D -
Under most soil conditions, flexible PVC pipe tends to deflect into
an elliptical shape and the horizontal and vertical deflectIOns may be
considered equal for smaH deflections (1'. Since most PVC pipe is de-
scribed by either pipe stiffness (F/I'>Y) or outside diameter to thickness
ratio (DR), the lowa Equation (24) can be transposed and rewritten as
foHows:
The above equations lllay be used in conjunction \vith the v;dut.'s for
the empirical E', D
L
and K. The roJlc)\ving cX:lIllpk illustr:ltes
their tlst.'.
Example: What is the dcllection of a DR 10 PVC pipe ii' buried on a
flat bottolll trench in ;1 rille gr:lined soil with unit weight or 120 Ibs per fl
3
:Illd with liquid limit k'ss than 50'/; if the depth or buri:li is 10 ker.
l
From Table 2(l, E' :;; 200 p:d and :1 (OIl:<'{;II1L
I< 0.1, and the prism load ;IS :1.<;sUIlll'd in tilL' ol'T:d11c 27 :I!Ollp
witll a deflection f:lctor or 0 :::: 1.5, tilL' results :lre tkrived:
..... L . ,
For the general case, live loads should be added to the earth load to
determine the total load at the depth being considered.
In Table 27, results of calculations of deflections or buried A\V\VA
C900 DR 14. 18. and 25 PVC pipe are presented for cases where either
highway or railway loads an: present.
SOU"':;,,, UY"" "TAY" UN'V""",TV
(houl:s)
1
(hou,r.j
10
Load as;1 function of time for a constant ring deflection of 20 percell!.

I
I I I'!
I I' I !
1-------
;--..
!-u. I
12in.di.
I
I1
I
1
0
' I
,
r I I I I , ' , I
I I
00 I I t-e111i
0
I
I III!
J
!
I I II! i
I II i
In I I II

'--.a. n
J lJ ill. ditl. II1I
1
fT
-rTF!
I 0 I Ii
"
"
70
8
H
5
" w
60

FIGURE 16 - PVC 1'11'1' CREEI' RESPONSE


eo.
;;-
"'
10 100
Time VS, vertical ring deflection for three soil densities,
as %of Standard Proctor Oensi ty.
90
147
CH\FrER - DESiG:';
FIGUH.E 15 - STRESS RELAXATION CURVES
SOUfH:r:;: UTAH STII,T<;; VNIV<;f<SITY
--1--1I
7.0 I IJ I 1
1
.:L
i
I,,_,IJJ[I[-o
;;::to= I"L'U_IJ J_ I ._-j I Illtj,
Y l---l - I 1I rI I ' .-"-1 '
! d I -- 11--- -1,- -UlJ , L
: J- I f 1_--__-1- ! I I I w ys; '/'
E --'I' ''-L
I
' eo, n I
6.0 _ , I I " _ ,
! TI1tJ::11 j 1+
1
I !
" i
> I I
5.0 I :
HA..E\;D8(}OK OF PVC FiPE
146
DeflectIon Lag and Creep. The length of time that a buried ncxible
pipe will continue to deflect after the maximum imposed load is realized is
limited and is a function of soil deilsity in the plpe zone. As soil density at
the sides of the pipe increases, the time during which the pIpe will continue
to deflect decreoses, and the total deflection in response to load decreases.
In fact, afwr the trench load reaches a maximum, the pipe-soil system
continues to dellect only as long as the soil is in the process of consolida-
tion. Once the soil has reached the density required to support the load, the
pipe will not continue to deflect.
. The full load on any buried pipe is not reached immediately after
installation unless the final backfill is compacted to a high density. For a
llexible pipe, the long-term load will not exceed the prism load. The increase
111 load with is the largest contribution to incrcasing lkilcction. It
should be consiJ-.:rcd as load lag, and should not be includt.:u in the de-
flection lag fadar. Therefore, for dt:sign. the prism load should be Llsed.
thus effectively compensating for the incn::ased trench consolidation load
Wilh time and r::suiting increased defkclion.
Creep is normally associated with tht: pipe malL-rial and is lh.'fined as
continuing deformation with lil1le when thL' m;lterial is subjecled to;1 COll-
stant load. plastics exhibit creep. As lemperature increas::s. the cn.::ep
rate under a J;iy;,;n load increases, Also. as slress increas:.:s, tilL' cr:.:ep f'ltt.:: for
n gin:n telllpefolture increases, I\s PVC cret:ps. it also n:bxes with time.
Stress relaxation is defined as the decrease in stress. with time. in'l material
held in constant deformation.
Figure 15 shows stressTelaxation curves for PVC pipe samples held in
a constant dell,ction condition. It is evident that PVC pipe does relax
stresses with tim>::.
Figure 16 shows long-term data for buried PVC pipe. Long-term
dellectioll tests were rLln at Utah SUIte University by imposing a gi.ven soil
load which was held constant throughout the duration of the test. PVC
pipe material properties have little influence on dellection lag, but
soil properties such as density exhibit great inl1uencc.
The theorolical strength properties of PVC pipe vary with tempera-
ture, (see Chapter III - Thermal Effects, and Chapter V - Hydrostatic
Pressures). For nexible pipe considerations, the approximate relationships
of pipe strength properties vs. temperature are shown by curves in Figure 17.
Temperature controlled tests of buried PVC pipe were run to deter-
mine the temperature effect on the long-term behavior. Data from these
tests are given in graphical form in Figure 18. The following procedures
SOUllct;: !':1'HV<. COIlI'ORATION
148
IL,J'{DBOOK OF l'VCPIPE

- l.) .;,iU.,
'00
OFd'l
'" '"
ISO 200 250
Lh?SI:P (hour,,)
'00
"
Time deflection cunres for buried PVC pipe (temperature controlled)
for three soil densities, as %of Standard Proctor Density
',0 y,c::=1 1
j
\ !

I .."
"t===j 1 :
t m, ",', o.
- 1m, '"' I
;; ,,' -- 'I
6

50\ '-:::::::::r-

149
DEFLECTION CURVES
TEMPERATURE CONTROLLED SOIL CELL TEST
,;ounct:: UTAH ,;TATC U'''''CR5,TV
FIGURE 18
reached. At this point the low., Well as the tempemiHl\:; \V:1:; hdd con-
stant, ancl the resulting time deptmdent deflection was determined. The
starting deflections are somewhat arbitrary. Four of these tests were
begun at about 4.75(% deflection and two \vere begun between 9 and 9.5%
deflection. The loads required to produce these deflections were different
in each case. It should be noted thut for the temperature fUnge tested, an
equilibrium state is reuched, and the pipe does not deflect beyond that
point. The limiting deflection and the time required to reach it ure brgely
controlled by the soil density. However, it is interesting to note Figure 18
for tests at different temperatures with the same soil density:
_ The equilibrium deflection is slightly larger for higher temperatures
because the effective pipe stiffness is lower.
_ The time for equilibrium to be reached is sharrer for higher temper-
atures since the system can interact at a faster rate in achieving
cquili bri tllll.
20
/
,
,
,
__ L l
.,-
40
l-
J
I
60 80 100
I I r---11
I UPPER RECOMMENDED UNliT
j - I - 1- :1- ,-
GO
20 [ I I I I I i I
120 I I I I I
!l r- 1 I /
'! I I l/ I vOl i """ / I
I
I V/ , i
I .,."' I
0 ,0' "."
I It ..... / '<."':3 "
I I. 0 "
I I I!Jr-jf" ,1",'''-. I
-..J'j 1 ,'V I'
I b0 I i 0:,....0 ,," I
100-1, ..:r j I I
I J '
I
; "."
/ '
__,2 L_ . i
I .' /' '-1' ,
, ;r" ' 1.' i
no ! i ,\ "I, / / I I
, \ 1/' 'I' ' I
,,,' ill
,[. - I I_-t
i / / /'A I
. \C:c I
I I
1 -c' .0 '
I 1 \:/','-t" '7 !
. //'/,0 ' I
' -------';-7.-.. t I , I \. /. ;>- , -_.. -- ---j--
/(.... /'.\ I
40 I I \,"'j>;;:; I
I
, \J >;'/" ','..- DUE TO CO":OU"D'''O I I
I i
\ /" I
140-1 _
% OF 73.4'F PIPE STRENGTH PROPERTY
FIGURE 17
APPROXIMATE RELATIONSHIP FOR 12454B PVC
FOR FLEXIBLE PIPE STRENGTH PROPERTiES VS. TEMPERATURE
:;-
w
IT:
:>
...
"IT:
73<1

...
were used in conducting these tests, The pipe to be tested was placed in
the load cell, It was then embedded in soil which was compacted to the
specified percentage of Proctor density_The load on the soil was then
increased until the desired starting vertical clel1ection of the pipe was
PIPE 51::(
TESTED
2":" NOM.
01';'.1[1E H
t51
Load
Pipe Stiffness + (Constant) (Soil Stiffness)
Deflection =
sou"C<:' uT"" ".,. ... T.: u""v.: .. ,,'TV
EQUATION 28
CHAPTER V - DESIGN
CELL CROSS SECTION
''1- U \.\
1/ 0)
.\ lin I
I$i _.-.. -- Ii DIAMETER
--l.J'U i 2 FT. OPENING
1
'- SEALED
I
,,,. ---- I
\_.- c,
(i)j'"
Extensive research has established that any buried llexiblc pipe, (c. g.
steel. fiber glass, plastic) will continue to delleet as long as the soil consoli-
dates. Thus, as previously stated. the creep properties of pipe materials have
little effect on the long-term delleetion behavior of llexible pipe when
buried in soil.
Watkins Soil Strain Theory. A number of variations of Spangler and
Watkins' Modified Iowa Formula have been proposed. All of them can be
represented in the simple terms:
,....,
?\\ r,oHO< N'-'"
%\ rr":to< o,n,HY
!'<n":i
8'\ r ..:pr
1<<: 0/ <O\H t
\ .... "." . , n .. i'
fit)' H ""
fl'.' -"
!, ",;
,:
'-'c, __--,'-__ __-'__ __ __--,'-__-'__
o lrn r,O" '0" ,;<'" i'." 1<
1 (ll"",,)
TIME DEFLECTION CURVES
EMBANKMENT TEST
$OU"Cr., UT" .. I'T"'TI: u""vrarr.lTV
FIGURE 19
The above described'iong-term tests were carried out in a soil cell.
The imposed load on a pipe in a soil cell is almost instantaneous due to the
fact that the loading plane is only about 30 in. (760 mm) above the pipe.
This provides a significant advantage over tests in either trench or embank-
ment conditions. In both the trench and the embankment, it takes sub-
stantial time for the full load to reach the pipe - as much as months and
years have been reported. When long-term tests are carried out in trenches
and embankments, the change in denections with time is due to increasing
loads and soil consolidation. Figure 19 shows long-term dellection curves
for PVC pipe buried in an embankment. The change in denection with res-
pect to time in this condition is greater than that measured in soil cell tests.
Again, this is due to the increasing load with time in the embankment,
whereas the soil cell tests are constant load tests. The equilibrium denec-
tions being approached by the curves in Figure 19 :ire the same as those
which would be obtained with much less time delay for the same pipes sub-
jected to the same loads in a soil cell.
HA... "iDBOOK OF PVC PIPE
0
DcOcction as a function of time for PVC pipe buried in an embankment.
ilA..NDHOOK OF PVC PIPE
Through transposition, equation 29 can be restated:
300 250 200
SOURCl'i:: UT...... 5T.... TE: UN1Vl::IVl>I'TY
I
iii! !
O
TT:;;-r-r..
I
.
"

t
,f>II[S$U.'l(
('!.Ifill'
fl.'SnFFNQ.SRU10' ...l.::-
El/0
1

E I/D1"lII'lG STIFFNESS
150
!
100
R
s
Stiffness Ratio (Dimensionless)
50
.. --
I
I I i/ J
.... I
o
1.0
0.8
04
06

C
.2

E
i5
o
<;
g

o
"E
';;
o

o
C'
el
w
0.2
C{-IAPrER \/ - DESte;>:
153
FIGURE 20
RlNG DEFLECTION FACTOR
AS A FUNCTION OF STIFFNESS RATIO
In tiils form l the above equation represents :1 simple relationship
between two dimensionless variables: ring deflection ratio and stiff-
ness ratio R
s
- Figure 20 represents the design curve which can be used tor
predicting ring deflection. It is based on current theoretical as well as
empirical data generated in Europe and America.
In most flexible pipe installations, the pipes are relatively flexible
compared to recommended sidefill. Thus, the pipe follows the soil down
and the deflection ratio approaches unity. The stiffness ratio, R" is usually
greater than 300 which is to the right of the plot of Figure 20. Even if R
,
is usually greater than 300, it is eonservative to assume YjDe = I. So the
PR,
EAR + B
, ,
Pie
Vertical soil strain
Empirical constants which include such
terms as D
L
and K of the Iowa Formula
EQUATION 29
=
R = 12 E, (D)3
, E (t)
:!... = R,
De AR + B
,
EQUATION 30
EQUATION 31
152
= Vertical nominal pressure at the level of
the top of the pipe, psi
= Stiffness ratio. This is the ratio of soil
stillness E
s
to pipe ring stiffness EI/D
3
.
This quantity includes all properties of
materials, soil as \,,'ell:.I$ pipe.
y
D
R,
E =
,
e =
A,B =
Where: E equals slope of the stress-strain curve for t1Je soil
,
at the load in question in a olll'-<.Iimcnsional consoli-
dation test.
i Where: P
Since for a solid wall pipe or constant cross-section, I = (3/12. then
Upon analyzing data from many tests. \Vatkins. ;''/fote the 10\va For-
mula in terms of dimensionless ratios as follows:
1 <4
HI... OF PVC PIPE
EQUATlON32
155
Empirical Method. Each of the methods discussed so far for deter-
mining load and deflection has a theoretical and, except for the prism
load theory I all require experimental investigation to determine the un-
known constants, In the past few years, techniques have evoived whereby
a model or prototype pipe is tested until failure occurs, and the total per-
formance of the pipe is studied. Suppose a pipe is to be designed with a
certain earth cover in an embankment. Without a pipe in ploee, no arching
oceurs, and the soil pressure at any height is easily calculated (the prism
theory load at that depth). When a flexible pipe is in place, the static pres-
sure cannot be greater than the prism load pressure applied. Trying to cal-
culate this actual pressure has frustrated researchers for years. If a pipe is
installed in a prism loaded condition (e. g. soil cell). resulting deformation
can be monitortd \vithout the need to calculate actu8.! static pr('ssure,
This procedun.: has been llsed with success at Utah State
University under the direction of Reynold K. Watkins and at the United
States Bureau of Recl:Jlllation under the direction or Amster K. Ho\vard
as well as atllt;r places, Data obtained in this manner can be used Jirectly
in the design of systems and in the pn:diclion of perform
M
ancc. The possibility of buckling. over-ddkction. and wall crushing are all
evaluated simultaneously by actual tests. No at tempt to expbin the pipt.:-
soil interaction pht:llomcnon is necessary in the use of this method. and the
end results leave nothing to be estimated 011 the basis of judgml'nt.
For example. if tests show that for a given soil compaction at 25 feet
(7.6 m) of cover. a Ocxible pipe deOects 3%, and in every other way per-
forms well, the actual load on the pipe and the soil modulus are academic.
Thus, a pipe installation can be designed with a known factor 01' safety
provided that enough empirical test data is available. In collection of this
data, pipe was installed in a manner similar to that used in actual practice
and the height of cover increased until performance levels were exceeded.
The procedure was repeated many times and a reliable empirical curve of
pipe performance vs. height of fill was plotted. The use of these empirical
curves or data eliminates the need to determine the actual soil pressure,
since the pipe performance as a function of height of cover is determined
directly. Equally good empirical approaches to study of the deflection
mechanism are
- the study of actual field installations, or
CHAl'TER \' - DESIGN
- the simulation of a large enough earth cover in a soil test box to exceed
the performance limits of the pipe.
SQURce: UTAH STATE UN,vttl'$ITY
A"oreo : __ IP

.. ;;.': 'f> .',.,
/ :...
-J,.-
I
=L\L/L
-!l-A-'
...J I
<J !
<:- i
J
1...J' // E'=soil sliffness
b' / / =slope of seconi eriE
_
FIGURE 21
CONCEPT FOR PREDICTING SETTLEMENT OF SOIL
BY MEANS OF STRESS STRAIN COMPRESSION DATA
FROM FIELD OR LABORATORY
P
I
. -- I "
r-l-
-----r:
: I
n "H
I ;'::;''17/'$;

..
WI'"'
[S.-
VI;
"
Y/D = e
To use soil strain to predict pipe deflection then becomes a simple
exercise. The ratio of pipe deflection to soil strain can be determined from
Figure 21. This value will usually be unity for most flexible pipe installa-
tions. The load on the pipe is then calculated using the prism (embank-
ment) load theory, and the soil strain can be determined from Figure 22.
A series of simple laboratory tests can be made, for the soil to be
used as embedment, to generate curves similar to those of Figure 22. How-
ever experience has shown that data defined in Figure 22 is representative
of most soils, and can be used for design. Thus, it is evident that soil den-
sity is the most important parameter in limiting pipe deflection.
This demonstrates that flexible pipe is deflected down about as much
as the sidefill settles.
The vertical soil strain in the side fill depends upon the soil compressi-
bility and the nominal load. From the soil mechanics laboratory come
cun:es such as Figurc 21 which relates the strain to the soil pressure.
ring deflection becomes:
156
Substantial data is available for PVC sewer pipe made in accordance
with ASTM D3034 with minimum pipe stiffness of 46 psi and has been
compiled by re>":lrchers at the Buried Structures Laboratory. Utah State
University, Tbe f';SUltS of many are categorized in Table 28
according to soil type. soil density. anti height of Cover. Ddlt:i..'tiollS pre-
sented in Table: .:'8 n:prL'scnt the largest ddlt::ctiol1s cncounkn:d under the
conditions sp::dfied, D:lt:l presented in this manner is to provide
a great dL':.d of il.:xibilily to cngillet::rs, lls lise in most caSes will show th:lt
several 1'Ilginccnng solutions may bt: availablL'. and L'conomic inputs ma)'
suggest ':1 prop-.=r solution.
For example, SUppose PVC Sewer pipe (i\STM D3034 DR 35) with
a minimum pip-: stiffness or 4() psi is to be installed where till' n'.Ilivc 50]1
is a Class iV cl:1y, Ninety percent or tile line will be at depths as great as
20 feet. i\ccording to Table 28 the n:ltivc Class IV material could be used
for that portion of the pipeline with less than 14 feet of COVer if mmpaeted
to 75W or Proctor thereby insuring maximum deflection less than
7.5%, ground water conditions may make compaction difficult.
even or may result in subsequt:nt reduction in soil strength,
If this is the cuse, Class 1. II or 1lI material may be imported and useel with
appropriate procedures to limit maximum clerkctiOll to 7.5%.
The choice will be based on convenience and eOllsequently on
cost. For the deep portion of the line, Class III material compacted to
85%, Class II material compacted to 80%, or Class I material without com-
paction could be used successfully.
157
CHAPTErt v - DCS1G:\
Asbestos-Cement Pipe (AC)
Corrugated Steel Pipe
Ductile Iron Pipe
Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic Pipe (FRP)
Polyethylene Pipe (PE)
Polyvinyl Chloride Pipe (PVC)
Reinforced Plastic Mortar Pipe (RPM)
Steel Pipe (CMC-eML)
6 5 4
Note: Probable error is about
half the distance between
ndpcent lines.
3 2
Vertical Soil Strain (Percent)
co"'!> I'
/ SOil if l .
o
o
e:
::>

'"
'!: 2000
o
C"
N
.-
u..
--
:3 3000 1-1---'
';OU"<:u UTAH lIT"T'"
"
<.>
..,
1000
4000 I I 'I i I
FiGURE 22
PLOT OF VERTiCAL STRESS STRAIN DATA FOR T'{PICAL TRENCH
BACKFILL (EXCEPT CLAY) FROM ACTUAL TESTS
"
0..
HA..;\DBOOK OF rvc PIPE
To avoid the proble11l of having to establish design data for the
infinite variety of installations and bedding conditions that are found in
the field, the following design bases have been chosen:
- The embankment condition is selected as critical. (The results are con-
servative for other than embankment conditions.)
-- Time lag or settlement of the embankment is included by designing for
ultimate values of deflection.
An added advantage of tllis system is that performance limits, such
as ring crushing, strain and wall buckling, can be analy'zed, as well as ring
deflection, by means of a single test. Dni-Bell manufacturers have generated
such data for their pipe products. The use of such data may be considered
the most reliable method of design and is recommended when available.
Some of the pipe products for which empirical test data have been deter-
mined are as follows:
HA!'iDBOOK OF PVC PIPE
Where:
E = Modulus of Elasticity, pSI
a = Wall stress, psi
e = Strain, ill/ill
Performance Lilnits. Performance limits are established to prevent
those conditions which may jeopardize the effective operation of a pipe,
line. For PVC pipe responding to external loads these may be enumerated
as:
1<0
CHAPTER V - DESiGN
The fatigUe! performance limit is also described under a previous
heading. It refers to the fact that most material call fail at stresses lower
than the strength of the material if a cyclic stress application Occurs at a
sufficiently high frequency and magnitude on a continuous basis over a
period of time. This phenomenon is illustrated by taking a paper clip and
bending it back and forth several times until a fracture of the material
occurs. Only under extreme live loading conditions at very shallow burial
depths is consideration of this performance limit meaningful for buried
PVC pipe.
A deflectioll performance limit for flexible pipes was established
shortly after publication of the Iowa Formula. It was determined that
Corrugated steel pipe would begin to reverse curvature at a det1ection of
about 20%. Design at that time called for a limit of 5% deflection, thus
providing a safety factor of 4.0. From tillS early design consideration.
years of engineering practice have lecl to the arbitrary design limit of 5.0%
det1ection. TOday this level is readily accepted by most designers of
EQUATION 33
a = eE
Stress
Fatigue
Deflection
Buckling
Wall Crushing
Longitudinal Bending
Strain
The slress performance limit describes any internal pressure applica-
tion in which the hoop stresses in the pipe due to applied pressure
exceed the design strength of the pipe. This is described in a previous chap-
ter and can be expressed as:
,
" ,
,
g
>
>
,
,
,
,
,
,

,
>
",
;
,



:::..;

..,), 0
,2 l-o

'5
o


-g

o
=
.g
..s
3

"
,-,
-,
;:>
6

:e
r-:
2
2:'
"
:5
r,
r;
" :z
'x
.:e
c..
2
2=
"
E

'-
'-
c

"
" c
"

"
.g

.5
"
"" '0.

=
-5

.:e

:S

o
%
Vl
Vl
-::
-'
u
-'
(3
Vl
Vl

o
u
0'"
'"
Cl
t::l
Cl
Z
'"
I-
"6
,.-,1
I
...,. 1;;;1' ",1 "'[0:
1
;;:'1 '" [,,; I'd
("'I r...: .-:
01 "" 0=co "'I;'}; "'161
M ....: N10) "j -.0 ..?,::C ..0 r....: 0
, .' -:":'" -:"jJ;'"
00 i V') 00 N ('I 0 V;'{M 0 M 0
Nl""; "":??"i0;r;ir--:...o"ci";
!, .. ,:'
"" I ": '"' :r-: ..., I"< :-:l C! 'c: C! IC!
1"'1 I .... .- f' ('1 If) If)


"3-5
.:.:; ::

5)
.;;;
'- -
] ;
.::; 1- ;:
" Vl

';;;-:;
::7,,\ I 1"! > ....... -:;0<:.) 0
0.... :: ",.... ::: '"
t:: .... :-, =>.
"'zu;:::; OOO'r"llf)lf)lf)'r"l'r"l ;.;.::J>,,,,:::.!:.)
-'0-
1
0\ 00 G'. oot.-\O cot.->,,:) ""' .... ::: ..... -
:::: Z .3';:; 0 ";::: ""=I
1
00...)1 '" ,,'=
'-"... ::;::5"OiJ
I
"" '"'" .J <:.) ...... -
-' _ == > > U.2C t!
- _ _ '.' -:::'w ..2 0
t.I) CIJ V'l CIJ CI) ::::;';';::0'0 ..o"'=':
t.I) tI)' CIJ -v:,.., --'
f-< Z I < < CIJ tI) .... :::;;:)- .;.;:: <:.)
Z < < .....
0 cj -1 ....J ....J
U U U U
0;$< :.;; :::...3..:2:.:=,3 (3
Z '-
;:;1==]
.=EE;:i'E . ....
:.J;:l;:l tI):1 r.J;- >. a 2 :n:.J:} ...... ::: U) ...... "0
f-< ,..; c o::.ll =.. :::..:3 ._:::., ;.;J::::::: "0 :.>::;
tI) U ::::lee r:r.J .::: .... U ;.,.. :=.Q;:jU'-0""=1
< S::..?< "'3 :n Ul""'....... 0";:: -;;,=.3
.;.:: u .... r::::l 0::: ::: ":J.::;
r.r. 0 WZ ::;:.us.::J,.....l
....: N
:2
;:0
:;
X
<
;;:

c..
'"
'"
"'
...l
'" <
I-
o
Vl
Z
o
;::
u
"'
...l
u..
"'
Cl
;;:
:>:
"' l-
v
Z
o
...l
u
>
c..
u..
p
Z
"'
u

"'

'" "',
:>:
::::
:s
H/iNDIHJOK Of PVC l)IPE
EQUATION 34
Where: r :::: rvkan pipe radius. in
190.2 psi
2 (400,000)
[1-(0,38)'] (18-1)3
EQUATION 37
E I t \3
; 0 (-,)
P"
CHAPIER V
P
. , . unit lateral contraction
Olsson s RatiO :::
lInit axial elongation
2E
(1 - v
2
)(DR - 1)3
Where: v
Pc,
EQUATION 38
Ph = 1.15 vP:"E'
161
Since the mean pipe radius (r) is equal to D
m
/2, Equation 36 can also be
expressed as:
; 0.38 for PVC pipe
OD ; outside pipe diameter, in.
D = OD- t ::: mean pipe diameter, in.
m
Where. E' = "Iodulus ol"soil rcaction, psi
Pb :::: buckling pressure in a given soil, psi
When pipes art buried or an: installed in such a manner tht' sailor sur-
rounding IlH:'dium provides some resistance buckling or deflection.
the buckling pressure (pb) ill tilL' soil has bcen found by the Scandinavians
to be:
Example:
lf a DR 35 PVC sewer pipe with a 400,000 psi modulus of elasticity
was confined in " saturated soil providing E' ; 200 psi, what height (H) of
the saturated soil which weighs 120 Ibs/ft
l
(w) wouid cause buckling')
Example:
A DR 18 PVC pipe with a 400,000 psi modulus 01" elasticity is to be
installed as a well casing ill which the confining medium will ofTa no shear
resistance. What is the critical buckling pressure (P
cr
) if ol1ly atmospheric
pressure were to exist on the inside of the pipe'?
2E
2E ( t )3
(1 - v
2
) OD-t
(DR - 1)3
160
(1 _ v
2
)(!}-)3
EQUATION 36
2E
EQUATION 35
2E
(0o;t)
;
(1 - v
2
)(DR _1)3 -
2E
P"
P
ec
P ; 3EI
"
,3
Where: E ; Modulus of elasticity (400,000 psi for PVC 1120)
DR ::: dimension ratio
With tlll' Moment or Inertia (I) defined as t
3
j12. 1.qU:ltioll 34 lK'COIllL'S:
flexible steel pipe systems. PVC pipe, having a DR of 35, reverses curvature
at a deflection not less than 30%. Application of a simiiar rationale results
in a safety factor of at least 6.0 for the 5% deflection limit. At 7.5% de-
flection limit, the safety factor is 4.0. In system design, the 7.5% deflec-
tion limit for PVC pipes with DR's greater than 14 may be used with sub-
stantial safety, when considering that most soil or structural designs are
developed with safety factors of about 1.5 to 2.0.
The buckling performance limit may govern design of flexible pipes
under condiliQns of internal vacuum, sub-aqueous installations. or loose
soil burial, if the external load exceeds the compressive strength of the
pipe material. For a circular ring subjected to a uniform external pres-
sure or internal vacuum, the critical buckiing pressure (P
cr
) is tkfinL'd by'
Timosllr.::nko as:
For long tubes, such as pipelines under combined stress. E is replaced by
E/(l - v
2
) and the critical buckling pressure is:
1<"
x 144 = 274ft
P
y
= wI-! = u
c
2A
D
228 Ib/in
2
120 Ib/tt
3
U
c
= hydrostatic design basis or hoop tensile
=
I'
I-! = ..Y.
w
P D
- .....y..-
Uc - 2A
Conservatively assume
stress = 4.000 psi
The previous example easily illustrates that ring compression is not
a governing factor in design of either sewer or water PVC ripe systems.
Longitudinal bellding of a pipeline is usually indicative of less than
satisfactory installation conditions. Unlike "Rigid I'ipcs," PVC pipe will
not brcak in nexure but will dellect out of round circumferentially and
possibly buckle if the pipe is bent longitudinally to a very short radius.
(See Chapter V - Longitudinal Bending, Joint Dcllection, and Support
Spacing.)
Strain limit may be considered a performance limit in isolated
circumstances where extensive strain in the pipe wall can be anticipated.
However, research completcd and reported substantiates that buried PVC
pipe is not limited in usc by definablc strain limits. Essentially, field expe-
rience has demonstrated. for buried PVC pipe, that the strain condition is
infinitely less critical than other performance limits.
Within the last decade, methods for strain limit design of buried PVC
pipe systems have been proposed in the effort to permit design based on
conservative parameters derived through short term testing. In such short
term t e s t i n ~ , the attempt is made to determine critical strain which can be
defined as the maximum possible completely reversible elastic strain. This
4000 (2) (0.240) = 2281b/in2
P = 84
y
CHAPTER V - DESIGN
163
For this case the performance limit in ring compression may be calculated
as follows:
Example: A PVC Pipe (0. D. = 8.4 in, t = 0.240 in.) is concrete
At what vertical soil pressure or depth of cover could one expect
failure by ring compression?
23.8 psi
2(400,000)
= [1 - (0.38)2] (35 - 1)3 =
P
or
White and Layer assumed the vertical soil pressure (I' y) to be simply
the prism load or the unit weight of the soil times the height of fill plus
the influence of surface loads at the level of the top of the pipe.
Tests conducted by several researchers have confirmed the validity
of the Ring Compression Theory as applied to flexible steel pipe when the
soil can be assumed to be rigid. These assumptions apply reasonably to
PVC pipe when held rigidly, as in cases where the pipe is concrete cradled.
EQUATION 39
PyD Yield Stren"th
0=--= .
c 2A Safety Factor
i
Therefore, the safety factor for the critical failure mode by buckling of
DR 35 PVC pipe is ample since sewer pipes are rarely buried in trenches
deeper than 50 feet.
Research has eSlablished that flexible steel pipe walls can buckle at
deflections considerably less than 20
1
,: if the load is large and the soil
surrounding the pipe is extremdy compacted. Based on these observ:ltions,
H. L. While and J. P. Layer proposed the "Ring Compression Theory" for
the design of buried llexible pipes. This theory assllmed thal the backlill
was highly compacted. that dellection would be negligible, and that the
performance limit was wall crushing. The design c01H.:epl is expressed by:
Where: a = Compressive Stress, psi
c
P
y
= Vertical soil pressure on the crown of the
conduit, psi
D = pipc diameter, in.
A = Cross-sectional area of conduit wall per unit
length, Unit length x t, in"
t = Wall t11ickness, in.
Ph = 1.15yz3.8(200) = 79.34 psi = 11,425 psf
H = P/w = 11,425/120 = 95.2 feet
H:\.i"\DilOOK OF PVC PIPE

HANDBOOK or: pvc 1'l1'E


strain limit is typically determined through uniaxial tensile creep testing.
Strain iimit design involves tile effort to prevent strain in the wall of
pipe which exceeds the defined critical strain limit. This design
method is invalid for design of buried PVC water and sewer pipe systems.
Tests conducted on PVC pipe demonstrate no significant variation in im-
pact strength. long-term hydrostatic strength. cyclical pressure resistance,
and pipe stiffness after the pipe was subjected to stmins in excess of de-
fined critical strain limits,
Research on strain limit design for buried non-pressure PVC pipe
(e.g.. PVC sewer pipe) has demonstrated that:
u ThL' tensile creep tests upon \vhich strain limits
in the: past have beCll based. bear link rdl'vancc to tilt:
relaxation condition encotillterL'd by burk'd nun-pressurL'
I)llk'.
J)cJlL'(liol1 limits which would rt.'blL' to limits dcterrllilll'd
more L'otlstanl str;lin ksb would far L'xcced
current indtl:-.lry aCL'l..'plt.'d kvds of perlllissibk ddkctioJl.
CHAPTER V - DESIGN
Note: Equations 40, 41, and 42 have been eliminated in revision to
Handbook First Edition, Third Printing.
LONGITUDI1\AL BENDING
The response of PVC pipe to longitudinal bending is considered a
significant aclv;.mtage of PVC pipe in buried ;Ipplic<ltions. Longitudinal
bending may be clone deliberately in PVC pipe instal1:.Jtions to makL.. changes
in alignment to ;l\'oid obstructions. or it m:1Y also occur in rL"SpOIlSe (0
various ullplannt.'d L"olHlitiollS or unforescen changes in conditions in the
pipc soil systclll stich as:
- Differential settkllH.:nt of a valve, or structun: to which
the pipe is rig.idly connected.
- Uneven sctUelllent of tile pipe bedding.
- Ground movement associated with tidal orground water conditions.
- Erosion of bedding or foundation material clue to pipeline leakage.
- Seasonal variation in soil conditions due to changes in moisture
content (limited to expansive or organic soils).
- Improper installation procedures, c. g., non-uniform foundation,
unstable bedding, inadequate embedment consolidation.
Through longitudinal bending, PVC pipe provides the ability to
deform or bend and move away from external pressure concentrations.
The lise of flexible joints also enhances a pipe's ability to yield to these
forces, thereby reducing risk of damage or failure. Good engineering design
and proper installation will eliminate longitudinal bending of PVC pipe
from being a critical design consideration.
Allowable Longitudinal Bending. When installing PVC pipe, some
changes in direction may be necessalY which can be accomplished without
the use of elbows, sweeps, or other direction-change fittings. Controlled
longitudinal bending within acceptable limits can be properly accommo-
dated by PVC pipe. Longitudinal bending of the product is accommodated
through a combination of joint deflection and axial flexure of the pipe.
TABLE 29
GL\J'TER .-
EQUATION 44
800 psi ( 5,5eMPa)
1000 psi ( 6,89 MPa)
2000 psi (13,79 MPa)
=
167
M = Sol
c
= bending moment, in, Ibs,
= allowable bending stress, psi
= OD/2 = distance from extreme fiber to nelltwl axis, in,
Where: M
Sb
C
Prcssure Class Pipe =[4000 _ 4000]!.J! =
:2 2.5
f ' 1
400
4000] 1.0
Pressure Rated 'Ij)e = . 0 - "'2 2,0 =
Non-Pressure Pi pc = [4000 - a ]
ALLOWABLE BENDING STRESSES AT 73.4 F
Note: D1/Je
r
t"!1cc be/wee/1 allowable bending stresses [or Pressure Class Gild l'rcswrc
Rated Pipe !cfatcs fo difference itt selectcd factors alsafcty.
T = temperatme rating factor (see Chapter V _ Hydro-
static Pressure Capacity vs. Operating Temperature)
St = HDB/2 = tensile stress from longitUdinal thrust,
psi
Note: The longitudinal stress from thermal expansion and con-
traction can be ignored in buried gasketed joint piping because of
relaxation of the soil restraint over the length between joints.
Longitudinal thermal stresses should be considered in restrained
pipes such as lines with solvent cemented joints and restrained and
supported piping, (See Chapter V - Allowance for Thermal
Expansion and Contraction),
Using Equation 43, the maximum allowable bending stresses (Sb) for
pipes made or PVC 1120 pipe at 73,4 F (23 C) arc given in Table 29.
The mathematical relationship between stress and moment induced
by longitudinal bending of pipes is:
166
EQUATlON 43
T
Sb = (HDB - StlT
H/\.... t\DUOOK OF .PVC PIPE
Where: HBD = hydrostatic design basis of PVC pipe, psi (4,000 for
PVC 1120)
F = safety factor (2,0 for pressure rated pipe, 2,5 for
pressure class pipe, and 2.0 is suggested for 110n-
pressure pipe)
Permissable joint deflection may be significant when g:1sketed joints
which are designed for that purpose are provided on the PVC pipe Solvent
cement joints provide no llexibility, Depending upon pipe size and joint
design, the deflection per joint for gasketed PVC pipe joints in the un-
stressed condition varies from about one-third degree to 5 degrees, Joint
detlection limits should be obtained from the manufacturer for unstressed
joints and for joints which are stressed to the permissible amount without
leakage.
Mathematical relationships for the longitudinal bending of pres-
surized tubes have been derived by Reissner. These relationships compare
favorably to those of Timoshenko and others, One critical limit to bending
of PVC pipe is long-term nexural stress. Howeverl axial hendll1g causes a
very smal1 amount of ovalization or diametric deflection of the pipe.
PVC 11 eO pipe has short-term strengths on,000 to 8,000 psi (48 ,e6
to 55,16 MPa) in tension and 11,000 to 15,000 psi (75,84 to 103,42 MPa)
in llexure. The long-term strength of PVC 11 pipe in eithl:r tClIsion,
compression, or flexure can conservatively he assumed :IS l.:qual to the
hydrostatic design basis (I!I)B) 01' 4,000 psi <:7.58 Applying a e: I
safety fador results in an allowable long-tnll1 tensilt: or l"JcxlIr:d stress equal
to the recommended hydrostatic stress (S) e,OOO psi (13,7') Ml'a)
for PVC 1120 pipe at 73,4 10 (23 C), Tilis e,OOO psi (13,79 allowable
long-term nexlIral stress TllJy be llsed for gaskcted joint pipe which is frL'c
of longitudinal stress from internal pressure longitudinal thrust. llowever,
when the joints arc restrained such as in solvent cementing without snaking
the pipe in the trench. the end thrust from internal pressure imposes a
longitudinal tensile stress equal to one-half of the hoop stress, Thcrcl'ore,
the available conscrvativc tensile stress for bending is 2,000 - (e,000/2) =
1,000 psi (6,89 MPa),
From this rationale the equation I'or allowable bending stress (Sb) is:
EQUATION 46
HANDBOOK OF pvC niL
Combining Equations 44 and 46 gives:
Assuming that during the pipt: is kmporarily fixed at one
end and as a c:Intikvcrt:J beam, Iht:n the lateral force n:quirt.'t.I at tilt'
free end to :Ichicvt: the affset (A) Illay be determined by tht: equation:
EQUATION 49
EQUATION 50
a = {3/2, degrees
Longitudinal bending of PVC pipe without allowance far joint de-
fiection should not exceed limits given in Tables 30 tllrough 33. In the
tables, limits of longitudinal bending are expressed for appropriate pipe
lengths as follows:
- Maximum bend allowable defined in terms of minimum bending
radius, (R
b
)
- Maximum pipe end offset from the tangent to the circle (A)
- Angle of longitudinal deflection from a circular tangent by pIpe
bending (a)
- Lateral offset force to effect bending (P).
The mathematical relationship between the bending deflection angle
Cal, the offset (A), the lateral offset force CP), and the minimum bending
169
Where: L =:; pipe length, in.
A = offset at the end of the pipe from the tangent to
the circle =
EQUATION 51
P = 3EIA
L
3
Wilere: P lateral offset force, Ibs
E modulus of tensile elasticity, psi
I = moment of inertia, in."
A = offset at free end, in.
L = pipe length. in.
CIL\FTER V -
A = 2R
b
(sin {3/2)2 = 2R
b
(sin a)2
168
EQUATION 48
360 L 57.30 L
27TR
b
R
b
average outside diameter, in.
average inside diameter. in.
aD - 2t nom., where:
t
nom
. == t
min
. + 6% tmin. =:; nominal wall thickness,
in.
t. =:; minimum wall thickness, in.
mm.
Land R
b
are both in the same units, and the angle of
lateral deflection (a) of the curved pipe from a tangent
to the circle is:
EQUATION 45
(OD4 _ D;4) 0.049087 (OD
4
- D;4)
:= moment of inertia, in
4
EI .
- In.
R
b
M'
"EQUATION 47
R EOD
b 2 S
b
I
Where:
Where: OD
D.
,
The central angle (JJ) subtended by the length of pipe is:
Assuming that the bent length or pipe conforms to:.J circular arc after
backfilling and inSlJlIation. the minimum radius of tilt: bt:nding circle (Rb )
can be found by Tirnoshenko's equation:
tj IJ
o gs

....,

N i...J t.J
Vl:t:38
I..) _1
10 W
",en'"
W..JOo. CO QO 0-.0
W tJ W b

t-J t-":'
b ;:;
v.
w w
NW'o.t:.
--.l a '...J ...,..
J"-V10\DVlt...JO ....'
tv bov,t.J
g;g;g
TAIlLE 31
ALLOWABLE LONGITUDINAL BENDING
FOR PRESSURE RATED PIPE (A51M D2241,SDR.PR)
IN 20 FOOT LENGTHS
(Cell Classific:1tion 12454B, PVC 1120.Sb :: 1000 psi. E= 400.000 psi
NominJI Size, Ill.
SOR 21
00, Ill.
t
ncm
' in.
Dpin.
I, in:'
M. in.lbs.
R
b
, in. (min)
R
b
ft. (min)
(3 ucgrccs
ur.kgrccs
A,ill.
P,lbs.
[brio RbfOD
SDR 26
OD,in.
t
nom
' in.
O;,ln.
1,11l4.
M. in.lbs.
R
b
, in. (Illin)
R
h
, ft. (mill)
(1 degrees
Cl dCl',ll:CS
A,ill.
P,lll\,
ItHin Rl/OD
a.H'W
0,064
0.712
0.012
28
171
14.3
80.0
40.0
141
I
100
1.050
0.067
0,916

46
217
IB.1
61.0
32.0
[ 22
I
200
1.050
0.064
0.922
0,02\
44
21H
[8.2
(d.D
.12.0
122
zoo
IV:
l.'){){)
0.0:15
1.710
lU2U
230

J 1.9
.'16.0

73
200
I,YOO
0.077
1.746
O.PU
1\)2
JKI
.lUI
J(d)
]1'10
73
2
200,0
2

0.12:0


-156
-175
J'r6

110
56
3
.::'00
2..3i5
0.096
2.1 S3
l}t,\ 7
3'1,7
()
l'I.U
St,
o IIS
12 U
0.117
26-1.1
575
>1, ,'I
(J
1'1)
3
._ Ilt>
<;'\
,.It,D
lu tl
Iv
_'5\'i.1
lU4:-
32l-l
.::' 1

4
15()il
0.::'.::'7
lO,11l
.UUU
900
75.0
7,b
31
20
.::'00
';.500
OJ 83
-l,D-l
.::' .57,1
')tlD
750
I".'
6
0.335
5.955

\),910

IlO.O
lOA
5,2
22
60
200
6.625
0.270
6085


1,325
110.0
10,.1
(,0
s

0.435
7.755
().I. I I
21,lL!2
1,725
144.0
S.o
4.0
17
140
200
8.625
0.352
7.921
7S.42
18,184
1,725
[";,0
8.0
-l.U
17
120
20()
10
10.750
0.512
(].660
};;KI
42,436
2,150
179.0
6,.1
3,2
13
260
200
10.750
0.-1]8
9.874
lSS,()
35,1,1.1
2,150
179.0
6 ..1

13
220
20U
12
11.75U
O.M2
11,.166
1'18.1'\
7U,'!OO
2,550
213.0
5.'1
2.7
II
430
200
12.75(,
0.519
11.712
373.6
58,602
2,550
213.0
SA
2,7
II
36()
200
I ! I
o
CH..\.!"TER V - OESIG;.;
TABLE 32
ALLOWABLE LONGITUDINAL BENDL"JG FOR DR35 SEWER PIPE
IN 12,5 and 20 FOOT LENGTHS
(Cell Classification 12454, Sb =2000 psi, E =400,000 psi)
Nominal Size, In. 4
I
6 8 10 12 IS
12.5' lengths
00, in, 4.215 6.275 8.400 10,500 12,500 15.300
t
norn
' lD. 0,133 0,191 0.254 0.318 0.382 0.463
D
i
, in.
3.
949
1
5.893 7.892 9,864 11.736 14.374
I, in
4
3.555, !6.91 53.97 132.0
I
267.2 594,4
M. ill. Ii);, /3,371
I
1155.3%
I IU,776 25,700 50,284
I 85,504
R
b
,lIl.(nlllll 422
i
621)
84U 1,05U 1.250 1,530
R
b
, ft. (!llllll 35.2
1
52.3 70.0 87.5 104.0 128.0
ucgrc(':, 2004
I
! 3.6 10.2 8.2 6.8 5.6
a 10.2
I
6.g 5,1 4.1 ]A
2.8
A.in. 27 18 13 II 9 7
P, ih" 40 110 250 520 860 1ABO
R:lIIO Rb/OD 100
I
100 IOU too IOU IOU
20' length:.;
i
00. ill. 4.2151 6.275 8AOU 10.5UO 12.500 15.300
i
t
nom' ill. Q,133! 0.191 0.254 0.318 0.382 0.463
D
i
lI1 3.949
1
5.093 7.892 9.864 11.736 14.374
I. in:'
3.5551 16.91 53.97 132.0 267.2 594.4
M, in.lbs. 3.372
I 10.776 25,700 50.204 85,504 155,396
R
b
in. (Illlll} 422 628 840 1,050 1,250 1,530
R
b
, ft. (ll1ill) 35.2 52.3 70.0 87.5 104,0 128.0
f3 degrees 32.0
22.0 16.4 13.0 11.0 9,0
a degrees 16,0 11.0 8.2 6,5 5.5 4.5
A,in.
64 46 34 27 23 19
P, ibs. 20 70 160 310 540 980
ROlio Rb/OD 100 100 100 100 100 100
SOURCE' "'''''''v, .. .. ___ "
00
00
ff', ,..,
"'j- I"-
00 ...-i""; I"j
-
_ 'n 1;'1
t;;1J' ri

::. .-!
v, _ r,
'"
",=,-.-t
? ;::;
;;
o 00
- -
r; <'f. :::; C':
('10 _
o
'0
o _ 00
.,.., \t". --r
r; ''1 "'1 C; ""1", I"!
000""'..,.0"'':;;<'""l,...-.,00
'n I"- <I) r- - :.0 :;:)
- -
_ r,
eO I"i
"
,.., - ("'",
1"1 :.0 ::(l
r! q -: q q c;
00 00 ..,. 1"1 .,.., 00 :;:) 0
..ooorl<T - 0 .;::l
00. 1'-. - - "
-
"
.= ,..,.,
r, _ :::- :;;
c-rr,
..:;, :::
:; S; or. ;: ,7 ;:'
r--. _ r',
o _
:; '.I: or.
::> -r :::. ".
0 _ r o
"'T 6 f -, ':" 'r,
;;, i,
-
-
::. " -
<
'6
i
i
"'

r<
"

;,;1

r<

I I I;
I,
<
<
,
,
H g
- - "

.0 .......... <.> OJ .ll II
g i . .5:0 t .s. g.
....-0 ...:::2: a: a: <:::l.. Ij c.. ::::
;;;
I I I
I

o
23
""

g
-
::::: n

;::'- .:;:
"0 z;:;
eJ ;.:,,; ,..,
::l '::::::::'</1
2
g U).ll 1_+
1
_
u 5:30 I I
I :::: .... :::':
....
M 0;;<\.1..>
I I I
;.!
r: 3:5 ;:;


EA:1DnOOK OF PVC PIPE
EQUATION S2
L
- R
b
7T
- - a
90
EQUATION 55
c 2R
b
sin
EQUATION 53
d R
b
cos p/2
(EQUATION 48)
180L
-
1iR
b
EQUATION 54
Y R
b
- d
(EQUATION 50)
A 2R
b
(sin P/2)2 c sin p/2
CALCULATIONS MADE AT 73.4 F (23 C)
- DF:S1C>;
FIGURE 23 - PVC PIPE ALLOWABLE BEND
175
I OD P
, I I ,
I
t ------. - I ---- - - - r s -;- in, f------- __ - 0 0 ,
j
. _ a "M
--... ,:}
- -...........:: I'
! _--...1 --.........- _, '-.. ': P A
R --......... - "/ I
h r------ c --- - '::>' ,,' I
f j
'------fIJ .
(EQUATION 49)
a /
radius (Rb ) are defined in I 23. Longitudinal bending limits given in
30 through 33 are calculated without allowance for joint deflection
and without consideration of the stresses irnpuseu upon the joint. Because
of the characteristics of a particular joint design, it is possible that a manu-
facturer's recommended bending radius may be greater or l:::sser than those
tabulated. Several manufacturers currently recommend a bending radius
for pressure rated pipe and non-pressure rated pipe of abollt R
b
300 D to
avoid joint leakage from stressing and distortion of the bell joint.
174
TABLE 33
ALLOWABLE LONGiTUDINAL BENDING FOR DR 35 SEWER PIPE
IN 12.5 AND 20 FOOT LENGTHS
(Cell Classification 13364 with E 500,000 psi and
consen'atively assuming Sb ;:::;:;: 1,600 psi, since no RHDS is available,
but short term tensile strength is about 15% lower than
Cell Classification 12454)
l':T.. VI.. COflPO'l
01; PVC PIPE
Nominal 4 6 8 10 12 15
12.5' lengths
00. in. 4.215 6.275 8AOO 10,500 12.500 15,)00
t
nom
' in. 0.133 0.19\ 0.25\ (! "i 8 ' 0.332, 0.463

I
Dj,in. 3.').l9 5.843 7.392 Il.i36 1\,374
L 1ll.
4
3555 16.91 53.97 132.u
I
267.2 591.4
M. ill.lll:-. 2.69H B,62\ 20,56(1 4U,227 6:-i.4U3 124,317
R
lI
, It). (llUIl) 659 9So 1.31; 1.(l41 1.95.3 2,391
R
b
, flo (llllll) $\.9 1.6 IO'J.U 137 -11 1(,3.0 199.tl
13.0 H.l:i 6.(, 5.2 4.1 3.6
(L (l.5 i,.l 3.3 2.&
' , !,n
A,ill. 17 12 9 7 (, ;
P,II". :10 IO{l 22u -l2(l 72u 1,330
Ralio Rb/OD 156 156 156 156 156 156
:;0' lengths
00, in. 4.215 6.275 SAoO 10.500 12.500 15.300
t
nom
' in. 0.133 0.191 0.254 0.3\8 0.302 OA63
OJ,ln.
3.949 5.893 7.892 9.861 11.736 14.374
L ill.
4
3555 16.91 53.97 132.0 267.2 594.4
M, ill.lbs. 2,698 8.621 20,560 40,227 68":03 12UI7
R
b
, in. (min) 659 980 1.313 1,641 1.953 2.391
I
R
b
, ft. (mill) 54.9 8t.6 109.0 137.0 163.0 199.0
degrees 20.8 11.0 IDA 8A 7.0 5.8
a degrees lOA 7.0 5.2 4.2 3.5 2.9
A, in. 43 29 22 18 15 12
P,lbs. 20 60 130 260 HO 780
Ratio Rb/OD 156 156 156 156 156 156
._...
Load appJjcation at 73.4 F (23 C) required to efrect maximum allow-
able longitudinal bending in PVC pipe is given in Tab!cs 30 through 33. It
must be emphasized that longitudinal bending of PVC pipe effected through
mechanical means must be considered bad practice and cannot be recom-
mended.
176
177
E = Sb IE = OD/2R
b
EQUATION 61
- Rcsuh:lllt toral oJ'C"el Cor till' pipeline OVL'I" pipe kngths:
A - '(). 'S"I '(' ,-)1 '(' 'S"PI' 'S"j x - - (SI1l . Sill _ X _ . .:-. . SUI,) X _.. .\I!I ' X _ ..
= 2010.0431>'" 0.OB72 ... 0.1 305 .. 0.17.1(,j
= 2010.-1340)
= 8.7 kd
When desired change of direction in a PVC pipeline exceeds the per-
missible bending deflection angle (a) for a given length of pipe. the longitu-
dinal bending required should be distributed through a number of pipe
lengths. (See Figure 24 - iVlultiple Pipe Bending.) Calcubtion of required
distribution of longirudinaI bending in PVC pipe is demonstrated in the
following example.
Example:
- Pipeline using AWWA C900 8" PVC DR 18 pipe in 20 ft.lengths
- Desired change of direction is 10
- End deflection of one 20 ft. length
CHAPTER V
See Figure 23 Table 30
a::: 3.0
0
pL'r pip... length. maximum end ddlccrion
R
b
= 2.263 in. or 180 ft.
:.4 each S" x knglhs 2.5
0
arc l'I:quircd
C '" 20 n.
Performance Limits in Longitudinal Uencling. The pcrfornLlllce limits
for permanent longitudinal bending in a buriL'd PVC pipe application must
not be confused with the coiling limits cstablished for temporary coiled
storage where the bending stress approaches the short term tensile stress.
(See Table 34 - Longitudinal Bending Stress and Strain.) Coiling of unplas-
!idzed PVC pipe is not a common practice, but may be permissible for small
diameters where the minimum bending radius ratio (Rb/OD) is not less
than 25 and tile bending strain (E) is not greater than 0.020 inches per inch.
Bending Srrain. Longitudinal bending strain (E ) and longitudinal
bending stress (Sb) for PVC pipe at c1ifferent c1egrees of axial tlexure are
tabulated in Table 34 from the equation:
sin ned
EQUXfIO:-I59
EQU,\ TIO:-l 60
A, = Csina
EQUATION 58
EQUATION 57
EQUATION 56
C(sin (L +SII1 2a +sin 3a)
C(si,1CL +sin 2a" ...
A
2
= C(sina + sli] 2al
A
3
An
/
"
"
"
"
At; ::: C(SiOCL +sin 2a +sin 3a +SIlJ 4a)

,\
1 ,'\c.
\
I ,()..
__1 __ ..\-
A, \
1\
I ,"'..v
1 ,
_____ 1 ,'Y'
A,- --,
\
,
c
,
I
1-- -
1
I
1
1
1
I
,
,
,
I
1
,
I
I
I\C
la
I
I
I
J-
A
--,
I 1]\
I 'I
1 , \ \c.
1 I
I 1 \ 0-
J ,\
I _1_.1._
:- A, \
I \
,
1
I
1<
FIGURE 24 - MULTIPLE PIPE BENDING
HAI-;J)BOOK OF PVC PiPE
178
il,',.I<PHOOK OF l>VC l';i'L
o 4
__m_
R2
t
2
12 (1_v
2
) PD
m
3
8 Et
3
EQUATION 66
EQUATION 6S
:; -'!.- f 18 (1 _V
2
))
16 l 12 + 4>'
179
[18 (1 _638
2
)]
16 12 + 4>' g2
t
2
1 [18 ] (15.3 -0.463)4
- - x 0.8556
16 12 (1530)2 (0.463)2
>.
=
CH.\fTER V - DESIGN
=
= 0.00775
0.080212 (48,460)
= 2,340,200 (0.214369)
(A, a
2
)
(A
j
a
2
)
Where:
Om = mean pipe diameter, in.
v = Poisson's Ratio (0.38 for PVC)
P = internal pipe pressun:, psig
E = modulus of elasticity, psi
t = pipe thickness in (use t = 1.06 x t)
,. nom.
R = bending radius of pipe, in.
with>' and (A, a
Z
) defined as:
Since P = 0, >. = 0 for sewer pipe and:
Example: Calculate the percent ring deflection which results from
bending a 15" DR 35 PVC sewer pipe with a 400,000 psi modulus of
elasticity to a minimum bending r"dius of 100 times the pipe diameter,
as shown in Table 32.
Bending Stress,
Sb (psi)
8,000
4,000
2,000
1,600
1,000
800
667
400
or
Bending Strain.
E (in!in)
0.0200
O.OJQO
0.0050
0.0032
0.0025
0.0020
0.0017
0.0010
EQUATION 62
Deflection =/5 =-"
o
Elastic
Modulus, E (psi)
400,000
400 .000
400.000
500.000
400,000
400.000
400,000
400,000
EQUATION 63
%Dellection =100/5 =I 00
EQUATION 64
\Vherc: D. = the reduction in diameter. in.
0= diameter, in.
_ LI _ 2) [2 71 + 4>' 2 ]
8 - D - - (A, a '3 + 135 + 9>' (A, a )
Bending R2dius
Ratio, Rb!OD
25
50
lOa
156
200
25Q
300
500
LONGITUDINAL BENDING STRESS AND STRAIN IN PVC PIPE
TABLE
The mathematical relationships for thin pressurized tubes between
ring del1ection and axial bending have been derived by E. Reissncr as follows:
Bending Ol'a!i:a!io!l (dia!ilL'[ric or ring dc/h'uiul/J. As thin tube is
bent longituJl!1:J.lly, it will OV:J.!ize into an :lppro\!Ill:lrdy' shape.
Th'LS efft:ct lus been ignored as insignificallt in previous L:akulations 011
longitlldin:.Ii b::nding. Ring dL:rJection is L:xpressl.'d
Ji;L;Ckt0W:""Z. ,,; ,hGW,"
From an analysis of the above examples it is obvious that at the
Ii<! to 2 (0.46 to 0.61)
I to Ii<! (0.30 to 0.46)
i<!tol (0.15to0.30)
Support Distance from Joint, ft. (01)
(1 _V
2
)O 4
= _ m
16 R
2
t
2
EQUATlON 67
2
- 3" (A, (t2)
3
2
any number
Supports per Length
L:.
Om
Ii =
12i<! (3.8)
12i<! (3.8)
20 (6.1)
Pipe Length. ft. (01)
TABLE 35 - PYC PIPE SUPPORT SPACING AT JOINTS
SUPPORT SI',\('INC
PVC pipe. When installed without uniform long.ituJina! support as
provided in :l properly bedded underground applic;ltioll. rL'quires supports
with proper spacing. 111 v;lriolls above-ground applications. PVC pipe is
suspended on "hangers" or "brackets". Proper bearing. and sp:.IL'ing of' pipe
supports in such an appliL'ation is required to prevent excessin: stress con-
centration due to load bcuring. to prevent excessive bending stress. to
limit pipe displacement or "sag" between supports to acceptable tolerances.
Recommended support spacing or length of pipe spanning between sup-
ports for PVC pipe in above-ground applications is shown in Table 36.
In common practice, a support is securee! to the PVC pipe on both
sides of pipe joints with interval between support and joint not exceeding
limits shown in Table 35.
recommended maximum bending (minimum bending radius) for 4
1r
to 15"
PVC pressure pipes and non-pressure pipes, a close approximation of de-
can be calwlated from the equation:
GU,-FTER V - DESIGN
Also obvious from the examples is that the amount of deflection
resulting from bending is negligible in the case of pn:ssure pipes, and the
amount has ,'cry little in case of llOll-pressur'': pipt.'s. G;:J1-
erally, at bending r3dii of 300 times the diameter, the percent diametric
ring dcflt::ction from bending will be less than O.O[{; for PVC pipes
marketed [Quay' in North AmeriL'a.
Pipe supports should provide a smooth bearing surface conforming
Closely to the bottom half of the pipe. Bearing surface in contact with the
x 0.0000181 + +
b5 + 9(0.)81)
-0.000018 t; + 0.0000091
0.0000 I0
I r IS(I-v
2
) ](4.000-0.364)'1
16 ll2 + 4 (0.501) (3.300)2 (0.3M)2
I r IS x 0.05561 387.2275
16 1.12 + 2.324 (IO,S90.000)(0.1325)
= -0.001%
= -0.000012
0.5%

O0
_. I 2 ( 71 + 0 ) 0 00 .1
-. 07/)l3 +\135 + 0 I.. 77)1
-0.00775 [0.667 + 0.004] = -0.005
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
Ii
12 (I _ 0]"8
2
) 100 H.SOO - 0.3(4)3
A = S (400,000) (0.364)3
1200 (O.S556) (S7.2
9
2) = O,SI
3,200,000 (O.o-rS23) ..
Ii
f.)c 0
(A
l
(t'l
Example: Calculate the percent ring deflection after pressurization
to 100 psi which results from bending a 4" DR 14 PVC pressure pipe to a
minimum bc'ncling radius of 250 times the diameter. as shown in Table 30.
UF PVC PIPE
180
H..\:NDBOOK OF pVC PIPE
EQUATION 68
EQUATION 71
0.0065 wL
4
= -
EI
Y
z
Y
3
183
Y
4
EQUATfONn
0.01135 (3.500
2
_ 0;2)
= Average outside diameter, in.
= Average inside diameter, in.
= l\.loment of inertia, in
4
w
(EQUATfON 45)
7T(004 - = 0.049087 (004 _ 0;4)
64
00
0;
I
I
Where:
CHA.PTER V - DESIGN'
Three supports per continuous length of pipe - (two span)
EQUATION 69
= 0.0054 wL
4
EI
Four supports per continuous length of pipe - (three span)
EQUATION 70
= 0.0069 wi 4
EI
Five or more supports per continuous length of pipe (11 span)
WllerL': y .:;: i\fid-span displacelllent (sag), ill.
L = Support spacing or span length. ill.
E = Modulus orelaS1icity. psi
[ = Momen( of inertia. ill
4
w = Weight of pipe filled with water. Ibs/Lin.
Moment of inertia for pipe is calculated as rollows:
Weight of PVC pipe filled with water is calculated as follows:
Support Spacing, ft. (Ill)
(O}())
2.5 (O.7bl
3.0 (0.<>1)
,15 (1.371
,\.5 (1..17)
45 (1..171
5.0 (1.52)
6.0 (Ui3)
(,.5 (1.98)
7.5 12.29)
8.0 (2.44)
8.0 (2.44)
8.5 (2.59)
182
0.0130 wL
4
EI
Y,
v

IVI
1y,
2
:<
4
6
8
\0
12
15
Nominal Pipe Size
;,;
Sore: Recommendations OTC COI/SCTmlil'C /0 accommodalc IIl/knoWIi l'aT/ables possible il1 jmlusrrial
or plumbillg applica(iollS. Sec Appendix 3 for specific rccommcndar;olls applicable to wafer
alld sewer pip/lit: systems.
pipe should be at least 2 inches (50 mm) wide. Supports shouid permit
longitudinal pipe movement in expansion and contraction without abrasion,
cutting, or restriction. Supports should be mounted rigidly to prevent
lateral or vertical pipe movement perpendicular to the longitudinal axis
in response to thrust from internal pressure. Changts in pipe line size and
direction should be adequately anchored.
Support spacing recommendations shown in Table 36 are based on
the following design limitations:
I. Pipe "ertical displacement (sag) should not exceed 0.2% of span
lenglh.
2. Pipe bending stress should not exceed vnlues defmed in Table 29.
3. S3fety' factor of 2.0 is llsL'd in of PVC pipe support
ft:qulrements,
TABLE 36 _ GENERAL SUPPORT SPACING
FOR SUSPENDED HORIZONTAL PYC PIPE
PVC pipe conveying fluids while suspended in horizontal configura-
tion by rigid supports displays response to load which conforms to design
theory for suspended beams. Maximum span vertical displacement (sag)
may be calculated as follows:
Two supports per continuous length of pipe - (one span)
184
EQUATION i3

0.36
O.{)6
OJ)()
om
0016
O.Oi
om
O.OS
0.04
OoOi
0.12
!':'p:llISiUll In/iOO rt.lHH"
{herm:!! L'xp:lllsio!l ror diCJ'crl'llt pipL'
.1,0 X 1()"5
, Ilr'
5.5 X 10',$
4.5 X 10-
6
1.3 X 10.
5
5.0 X 10.
6
(1.2 X 10-
6
6.5, 106
3A X 10-
6
5.5, 106
9.Sx 10.
6
(olrriril'nl illiin/-F Piping ,\lall'rial
PVC

AilS
ASBESTOS CE1\IENT
ALUMINU,I
CAST IRON
OUCTI LE IRON
STEEL
CL,\Y
CONCRETE
COPPER
TABLE 37 000 COEFFICIENTS OF T11E101AL EXPANSION
CIL;F'TER \- -
Where: Sb ::::: Bt:'nding stress, psi
w Load.lb/Lin.
L = Support spacing or span length, in.
00 = Average outside diameter, in,
OJ = Average inside diameter, ill.
EXPANSION AND CONTRACTION
All pipe products expand and contract with changes in tempanturc.
Linear expansion anci contraction of any pipe on the longitudinal axis
relates to the cOefficient or thermal expansion for the specific material
used in the manufacture of the product. Variation in pipe length due to
thermal exp:1/lsion or cOlltr:lctiol1 i.h:pL'nds on thL' cod'neit'llt of
expansion tlh:variatioll ill tl.'mpt,.T:duft: {LlTl. 11 should bl' lluti.:d that
change in pipl' dl:lmdl'r or wall tlJieknt,.'ss with pipl' material propcrtil.'s
remaining const:llll dot,.'s not l'rtl.'ct ;1 L'!lan1:!.L' in r:IIL'S or ihL'rm:ll L'xP::I.llSiOll
or contraction.
Approxilll:!tl' COL'rnCiL'nls or
materials art' \Hl'St,.'lItl'd in Tabk 37.
185
Expansion and contraction of PVC pipe in response to chang.e in
temperature will vary slightly with changes in PVC compounds. However,
the coefficients defined in Table 37 can be considered reasonably accurate.
Table 38 displays Iypical length variation of PVC pipe' due to thermal
expansion anel contraction. (See Figure 25 - Thermal Expansion of PVC
Pipe.) PVC pipe length variation due to temperature change is shown
graphically in Figure 25.
MOD
21
M wL
2
8
5
b
EQUATION is
1.273 wL
2
OD
OD
4
_ D4
,
EQUATION i4
Weight of pipe filled with Wetter. Its/Lin.
5
b
:::; lllOlllCll1, ill, lh.
= i\lolllL'nt (JI" illLTlb, Ill,l (Sl't,.'
:;:; ;\vcragt,.' outsit!t,.' diameter, in.
;::;; Bcnding. slrcss, psi
Where: w
Normally, specific gravity of se\\:lee can be "ssumeo to be 1.0.
If higher specific gravities are anticipated, equation 72 should
be factored by the specific fluid
SG
pve
lAO
SG
ll
0 1.00
2
00 = Average outside di:wleter. in.
01 = Average inside diameter, in.
Note: Derivation of Equation 72 is on the foHowing
specific gravities:
WhL'rl.... : M
I
OD
5"
Where. M = Bending moment. in, Ib,
w Load.lb/Lin.
L ;::;; Support spacing or span length, in.
Note: Equation 74 derives moment for an enJ-supported silllple
beam \vith single spall.
,\laXillllllll bending strL'SS in the pil)'" \\':tll nw)- be- L':dcublL'd as 1'01-
OF I've Pll'E
I-1Ai'l.iDBOOK OF PVC PIPE
PVC PIPE LENGTH VARIATION DUE TO CHANGE
FIGURE 25
0.072 (1.83)
0.047 (1.l9)
0.Q45 (1.l4)
0.036 (0.91)
LENGTH CI-IA.NGE, in. (mm)
20 (6.1)
13 (4.0)
12.5 (3.8)
10 (3.0)
PIPE LENGTH. ft. (m)
';
CHAPTER V - DESIGN
A good of thumb in design of PVC piping systems is to allow 1/3
inch (8 mm) of length vuiation for every 100 feet (30 meters) of pipe for
each 10 f' (5.6 C) change in temperature.
AlhHV:lllce for Thermal Exp:lIlsioll :lIld Contr:lction. PVC pipe with
gasketcu joints. if properly instalku (i.e., with pipe spigot ill$erted into bell
joints up to manuLh:tufL'r's inscrtion mark), will accolllJ1lodak sllbs{;lIlti:Jl
therJ1l:1! cxpansion :lIld cOlltractioll. If gasketL'd joints are uSL'd, within the
acccptl'd r;nlg.e of operating for PVC pipe. thermal expansion
amI contraction is not :1 signiriC:lnt faelor in system deSign. (Sec Chapter
III TI,,:rl11,,1 Ukcts.)
Wilen PVC pipl' with solvent cemented joints is used. thcrlll;ll move-
ment cannot hL' accommodated in thL' pipt.: joints: consequently the
ing consilkrations art.: required in the install:llion of the product:
,Ymall Diameter Pi/J('s incll to incll 1lomina! diameter). Wht.:n
instalJation kmpl'raturc is lower than opcr:lting
the pipl' should if possible be installed with straight alignment and brought
up to oper3ting after joints ;jfe properly cured. but before
backfilling. This procedure wm permit expansion of the pipe to be accom-
modated by "snaking" action. When installation temperature is substantially
above operating temperature, tbe pipe sbould be installed by "snaking" in
the trench.
Large Diameter Pipes (} inch ami larger nominal diameler). Pipe
should be installed in str:Jlght :J.J.ignment. Before backfill to the extent thaI
restricts longitudinal the product temperature should be
justed to within 15 F (8 C) of operating temperature, jf possible. Stresses
induced in the product due to thermal expansion or contraction for a tem-
perature vari:Hion of 15 F (8 C) may be considered acceptable in system
design. Ho\,,'cver, wher..: the operating temperature cQnnot be COil-
trolled, SlItSses fronl extreme ten:j)eratufe ch"1l112cS
TABLE 38
LENGTH VARIATION PER 10 F (5.6 C) L;T
PVC (12454B) PIPE
0.09 0.10 0.07 0.08 0.05 O.OG o.o?,
__ __ fI;i!.'. for every .
: i ternpNiltur'! change or 10 F ::J
i, : (5.6 Cl PVC pip" will expand
i---;--- DC conle", 1(3'" pee 100' 18 mOl
I I, pw 30 mi. ,

'," .;- I
; ': ,
'! ,
!; \
-'--,' .
J
I I
I I ,,"" __,
0.02
LENGTH VARIATION, INCHES PF.R UN. !-T. OF ?!?E
0.01
/
/
I / ! I

I .
1_1_ 1 1/
1
i !
! I -r------+r--
I
.
J
- i I
, I ; I ; ";- -I"
, ; I'
! ! i I_l__-.i
i
\ I
I r-.,I .'. /"'.--'--"
, I' i i '. ,---'--'
'-'.'I,_L-f-.' !
! I 'I ,-----'
,! l I
, 'I' ;
.......-,- --'---r ..- -'- '
: I I I I --,--- I i j' ----------'-
--11---
1
-,..--1-
,7
'
,--:--'
I i I iJJ I ! ;
I I Q,,! i I
0:1-
1
- ;
1 c' '-"--'--
-if!. _.,-, .-._,' .- --"--'-'-
1 Q, I 1--- .- , _.
_____ .1_/ '
I ._-- . - -
, '
_____ .!..J :
_.,---_._. '---'
'/
--r----;---'---'--- .-.--",-.-.
I I: .-- .-----;------ -------.-"
L. / i
-'-/-i-,_.
150
140
130
120
110
I
L

100
w
<:J
Z
'"
90
U
w
S 80
I-

a:
w
70
'"
.,
w
I-
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
iLL\'Df\(FJi<. j'F PVC Pil'L
188
76
01.85
d. 4.87
,
""
.. "
,<
189
EQUATION 80
,<,'

, ..
...
,0
0'<:-
OJ"
,s:-
O<-'
0,2083 f
c
<i':

o = 0.442, "'0
'1",

\Vhere: 0 = flow rate,",_


d
,
= pipe internaL. "\
_ p -11. '.
r'" 2:::: gaug...' pressures,. 0> '-..
L = pipe lenuth ft '"<r " , . \
C fl IT" . = O\V cae iClent }..
i"
v:
EQUATIOi'179
0
'.r-
'J,;
0.006756 Ccl
2
.
63
HO.s.j
'<'s-
O = ';J-:)
,
'<'u
,
\\hnc: 0 =
flow rate, GI'M
\
d =
pip... inlernal diamder, in.
,
H =
head loss, rtf I 000 rt.
C = rIow COl: ITicicn t
Wh-::fe: V
Equ3lion 77 provides the solution ror now velocity in a pipe line.
Equation 78 permits calculation of rIow volume in gallons per minute.
When using 79 flow volume is again derived, but pressure drop is
more expressed in terms of feet per 1000 feet. Friction loss
in hydraulic now may be derived through the following expression of the
Hazen-Williams equation:
S' = EC (t - t j
T, 0
:;;:; stress, psi
;;;:: rviodulus of tensile el:J.stidty, psi
= Coefficient of thermal expansion, in/in! f
:;;:; highest temperature, F
:;:; lowest temperature, F
\Vhere: Sf
E
C
T
t,
ta
EQUATION 77
V = 1.318C(R
H
)o.63(Sj0.5.j
considt.:rcd u:;ing the following equation'
EX3mpk: Calculate the stress resulting from a tl.'mp:::raturc change
(rom 1.?0 F [0 30 F in a restrained PVC pipe.
S' = (400,000)(3.0, IO's 1(120 - 3UI
S' = 10SOpsi
HYDRAULICS
Flow Tllcoric...; and Equatiolls.\I;lllY clllpirh.::d l'onHtlbs Il;lVt' bl:l'll
L!cvc1opl..d to provide solutioll to the probklll of now ill pJpt:s. l:qualioJlS
devciopl'd by hydr;Jll1ic enginel:rs arc tbily in thc solUllllll or prohkl11S
Cllcountl'fl..d by water alld Sl'WCI' works Rl..'lalivl'ly kw spl'cil'ic
prob!L'llls in pipe hydraulics, such as l;lI11in;lr rio\\'. (;ill hl' solved l'lIlirL'ly by
rational Ilwthcmatical means. Till' 11l:1jority of !low probkl11s n:quire
means of solution which depend to some tlt.'1!n:l 011 l'XPl'l'illlL:llt;t1ly dl'lLT-
mined coefficients. used now formulas haYl' bccn developed
through r:::search by Fanning, Darcy'. Chezy. Kutter. Sl..:ob...,y, Mnnning,
Weisback. Hazcn and Williams.
flow of Water in PVC Pressure Pipes. Hydraulic flow research and
analysis haw established that flow conditions in PVC pressure piping sys-
tems can be designed conservatively using the HJzen-WiHiams cquntioll.
Flow conditions may also be designed with marc detailed analysis using
the Darcy-Weisback equation.
Ha:ell-Williallls - The Hazen-Williams flow formula is most widely
accepted and used in the calculation of pressure pipe !low conditions. The
formula is used in various forms:
EQUATION 83
EQUATION 81
Q = 1.0134d2.63Ho.5.1
,
EQUATION 85
L V z
h = f- ..:...L
I 0 29
head loss, ft of 1120
friction factor
pipe length. ft.
pipe inside diallH.:kr, ft.
mean !low velocity, ft/scc.
acceleration of gravity, 32.2 ft/scc/sec.
=
=
=
=
=
=
= friction factor
= Reynolds Number
1
\iT = 2log to (R,yffl - 0.8
Where: hI
f
L
o
VI
9
Where: f
R,
L = pipe length, ft.
H = head loss, HI I 000 1'1.
CIIAVfl3. V - DESiGN
191
EQUATION 86
For convenience in clesign
l
tables 39 and 40 have been developed,
on the Hazen-Williams formula with C factor at ISO, to provide now
capacity (GPM), friction loss (ft/ I 000 ft), and flow velocity (ft/sec) for
PVC pressure pipe products. Nomographs for solving now characteristics
are provided in Figures 26 and 27.
Darcy-Weisback - When, in the hydraulic design of PVC pressure
water pipe, conditions are defined related to relative pipe roughness (olD)
and Reynolds number (R, = VD/v) the Darcy-Wcisback formula provides
sound deSign basis. The commonly used form of the:
formula is:
Investigation and analysis by Ncale and Jeppson established that the
friction factor (f) for PVC pipe may be dcfined in the following cquation
for hydraulically smooth flow.
The calculations for the friction factor (f) are obviously tedious. In
common practice, the factor IS established by using the 1>loody Diagram as
shawn in Figure 28. Relative roughness (olD) is related to friction factor
flow velocity, ft/sec.
now ra te, GPM
friction loss, H ofH
2
0/l00 ft.
hydraulic radius, ft.
hydraulic slope. ftfft.
pipe internal diameter. in.
gauge pressures. psi
EQUATION 84
QI.85
f = 0.0984 d.4.87
,
friction loss, ft of H, 0/ 100ft
flow rate, GPM
pipe intenlal diameter. in.
flow coefficient
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
= f
Q
d,
C
Where: V
Q
f
R =
H
S
d,
1'" Pz
EQUATION 82
Q = 66.3d 2.6) (1'1 - I' )0.5.1 , __
L
v = 197.7R
H
0.6) (Sj,S1
Where:
PVC pipe flow coefficients have been derived through research and
analysis by various researchers including Ncak, Price. Jeppson. and Bishop.
Resean;h has established that the Hazen-Williams now coefficient or C
Factor is commonly defined in a range of values from ISS to 165 for both
neW and used PVC pipe. The Hazen-Williams C Factor, Iherel'ore, has been
conservatively at C :::: 150 for the design or P\'C piping. systems.
lbving established C at ISO for PVC pipe. equations 77 through DO
can ot: simplified ror the design of PVC piping systt:ms:
HANDBOOK OF PVC PIPE
, ,
CV WATER FLOW IN GALLONS PER MINUTE
fiGURE 26 c' FRICTION LOSS CIIARACTERISTICS OF WATER FLOW TIl ROUGH PVC rIPE
\
SPECIFIC INSIDE PIPE OIA. IN / '
I
I .,
CD INSIDE DIAMETER OF PIPE IN INCHES
\
HEAD LOSS IN P.S.1. " y :: .... @..
PER 100 FT. OF PIPE g 1 ," ,I .. e:: ?;

HEAD LOSS IN FEET
PER 100 r-T. OF PIPE
J!
'J' , jr>T1T"""""1'TI'rT'!'T'l'rl'fTrTT'lTl'T""rrT'T'j" ""! r,"'""r,"'r, 'TI T,
:; :: ':' :: :::;;::
WATER VELOCITY IN FEET PER SECOND
HOW TO USE THIS GRAPH:
1. Seloct the dosired pip.) SlZIl {inside
di3rnctcrl.
2. Determine the amount of Willer lO
flow through the pipe.
3. Place a straight-edge on these two
points.
4. The point :n which the str;ligln (Jd<Je
intefSects the head loss lino 1HHI tllll
velocity line give these twO V:llucs
under the given conditions.
EXAi':lPLE-
10-,' A ll.D 1
40 por ,",,,,t<1 $(0". 0
1. Line UP tt1<!SC pou'tS ...,,1\ .1 $:r"'9h\
edge G)
2. RC,Jd 2.6 psi (or 6 h_) iro,n the hend
10551inc@
3. Read 5,33 It p(lr S(lco"d !'o'''' th(l
velocity itne@
THE VALUES ON THIS GRAPH ARE BASED
ON THE WILLIAMS AND HAZEN FORMULA:
(FQUATlON 80) t"' .2083
\"niERE:
f "'friction hend in fcct 01 water pM
100 feet 01 pipe
dj"-lns\de diameter 01 pipe in inches
Q ,- Flow in g'liions pI:( rninlltc
C ",. Conswrlt for lns!tlc rO\luIHWr,:, o{
pipo (150 lor PVC)
o
I
I
:0;
i
I
'0
"
,
2 2
.
"

'" ,
" !
,
[
I
--,
'S
eo
CO

-,
Z
,.
'"
0
'0

-,
:0:
;0 0-
r:.
'0
en
C
V;
n
:::i
c e'
C
Z

C
n
'-
rn
0
5
r.
"0
C'
<: c
0
5'
n ;:;:..
c.
'" "
'"

t':, "
"
!;
c,
en



6

r.
5'
0
Wi
'.

:j
" "1
<
C'
::.> ,.... 2
c::;5
C)
c;
V;
.
''1

0
C
"r;
,-J
C r-
;;'
'"
c.
"'.
;::
()
..
(2
'":'j
.-
F-
'"'1
I-
S
'.,;
""
;-.:
<.-G
:.<
195
EQUATION 87
PIPE OllJ.'nm IN FECT. D
.
-"'>".>0:.. ,.. I dr;:;,
... 5
"
ti

if;
G
i'

e
<,..
I

"'000
PI?E DIAMETER IN INCHES, 0"
w
<
C!lAf'TLR \-' - IH:S
l.. - 1 <" 2' (--,,- + 9.35 )
yT - .h- ,0glO 0 R,V
f
wlo

Where: f =
friction factor
R =
Reynolds Number c
E =
0.000005 ft, PVC Pipe
0 =
pipe inside diameter, ft.
FIGURE 29 - MOODY DIAGRAM-RELATIVE ROUGHNESS
Moody dingram for relative roughness ns a function of dimneter
for pipes constructed of various materials,
(f) as follows;
Figure .29 provides valut's ror relative roughness (e/D) for various
pipe producis.
,"Ounce:: A"ICHICA" ::;OCICTY OF Ml;CHAN1CA1. l:NGINCCR::;, YOnK, N.Y.
TRANSACTION';. A::;M I': , VOl.. GG 1.. F. MOODY.
194
FRICTiON FACTOR f-
(1) 2g
FIGURE 28 - MOODY DlAGRAMFRICTlO:' FACTOR
RELATIVE ROUGHNESS ..
o ,{)-8
"'<0'" N _ 0. 0. 0
to 2; N egg g g g 8 g g
8 q oq 0 q q q q q",
R ,--:.----- =-: :rrt == :- =1 t
g
Hu.rr.'f: 1.1= ,-1= .LttL..J j =1--1 -'-1- 'TI- I O'
I I I TJ -I-! _. L - L..Ll =1:--- -- "'! Q
Ig r-..........- =t--. - -;--1--1 1 -...... -1-.
1
-- ._, _.__ :..:r -I - - - -;-c=' -. I 0
r 1 .:=t -r I"': .CL .. .-' .... ..L .l.nl,Tc'f../
I
.r:, , I "I' I II , I' I, "'" "1"" ;--'''1111 I :.' in "
:-1 ] m #= J J1wr: I E
-- .__.._.t - -=1.... -.. -... , -- '.. .
. ..- ...1.-. ---"1 ,.
:=- _: : +=1- .:- . -, 1 .+J.:= -=t--=:
:n------. ,,,,, ,I I ..1-,." . - ....,.-.
. -:;: .. --.
__ .. . ... - 't+. --.- 1/ .. "f " 1
, ! ..- .. ... l' -i'" .il "'i"
- :'... . .,. 'L,
,J . .., Q -
;:\ ";:::C:C::': /:t:/ 1
0
t
, ....-- - ... ., , , I' ..
"I.. Q:... .. ..,, ... I I" '.
ill I t,_ ,-), ,.',.> 0
R"....... , ,t::. ' , I
. . . . -- .. ... I '0 ,,,>. '"
I ...... '''' I"
,d' ':.::. . I / -<' ','"' t: l.K
Wi,,',. . : :9.' :1>: .... :: I ..
.:.. . w , fi' '// " I '"
" _.<.>.. , , ".,., ,.!
,2;'<--, ;:J I J i I
8 '''';.: , >-' I I "r>
.---'. ' .-< 0 0
'. I" ... ..w. .. .. " III'" . ,- >1;>
u , _. .. . v .,. , '0
E-! : :. , : /:1;:;;: " ". ;-;
_. . ' . _l .,., ,,-". w
" I_ '_.... , . y,"" %J ' . . - , " ro
... i- -, " 'I:' ."... . ., ,_1
1
-1'"' ;E
- .. ", .. .. :::>
.. I P I / j' ' I \ ) I I '':? Z
;,.: I r ,I {11/ i;' i '-i i 1--0;
.. --;n . i-' .' :.1;.;:: i i'; ,,; .;- " ", i il"
I " - I 11::J2 Z
;. __ j .: , ... i:i
.,,1 1'_1........... _, +---l __ _ 1_r:::L.J", a:
0........... I I' & L' , , ,-, I " j 1 I
I .... :'1' ,.. " - - .-,<>
r.,;:,. ..
; L..:;-, I i.. . -_. - --. _.- --- -u..L.'-'j-'"
W
-' 'il-iTti Tl'; -.----\
.-,--'i-+l1i1JI[I'IQ,"--;-' I' 7ilTH-t-j"---. i-- ;+t++
g -1-' hTI-II' :i'Q:Ii' ---iITGTi-i1-' ":1"'-[ ';"i-i";Tn
li
, _e LII_ ." J:L' =:::::-U=LJJ, .... -j'Q
,-
a .. " , t-tL.i i l-JijH rcili " ; ;
(J>C) .... <DtO <:" Nit) -(J>tO
oqqqqq q qq q q q&S
11 01: PVC PlPF
';OUflca;;: J"'_l"'n<:"''' "OCIETY 01' C"Clflt;E"ll. New ".Y.
TRA""ACTloNs -AsMC. VOL. cc 1..,1". MOOOV.
or pvc PIPE
\' - DESIGN
oS \-"",. \- "900 PIPE
TABLE 39 FL01V LOSS, A C900 rvc .PIPE
E 39 O\V FitICfiON LO,:J l j n}u...... 'It '-' '
.... L ;;...; " '-
Continued
4" CI (AWWA C900) DR 25
4" C! (AWWA C900) DR IS
Acllltli 0.0. 4.S00 Tn. Press. CllIss 100
Ac!t1al O.D. 4.800 In., Press. C!:Iss 150
Flow Vclndty tt>,s of
Flow Vc!ocity Los, of Press.
Hzad nnp
G:ll./mln. Ft,/scc. Head Drop GaL/min.
Fl.iHiO PI. p,j,'!UO Ft. 6" CI (AWWA C900) DR ]S
6" CI (AWWA C900) DR 14 Ft'/IOU Flo p<,iilOOFt
0.019 0.008 20.000 OA5G 0.023 0.010
Actual 0.0. 6.900 in.. Press. Clas" 150
Actual O.D. 6.900 in., Pres-so Class 200 20.000 0.423
25.000 0.570 0.034 0.015
25.000 0.529 0.028 0.012
0.021 Flow Velocity lo,'. of I-'fL"" Flow V::Jocity I.o'S of l'rc;s.
30.000 0.635 0.040 0.017 30.000 OJ;f\.+ 0.048
Gut/min. Fl.(se<:. Hc;\d Drop Gal./min. I;:./,cc. He;\o Drrof\
35.000 0.798 0.063 0.027
Fe/lOO FI. p,inpo FI.
FCi IUO Ft. psiil(1O Flo
35.000 0.741 0.053 0.023
0.081 0,035
0.847 0.068 0.029 40.000 0.912
40.000
45.000 1.025 0.101 0044 50.000 0.551 0.021 0.009 50.000 0.596 0.025 0.011 45.000 0.953 0.085 0.037
0.123 0.053 60.000 0.661 0.029 0.013 60.000 0.715 0.036 0.015
50.0nO 1.139
50.000 1.053 0.103 0.044
0,172 0.075 70.000 0.772 0.039 0.017 70.000 0.834 o,on 0.020 60.000 .{ 1.270 0.144 0.062 60.000 1.367
0.099 75.000 O,S27 OJJ44 0.019 75.000 (1.8-94 0,054 0.023
70.000 1.595 0.129
70.000 1,482 0.192 0.083
0.113 80.000 0.832 0050 0.022 80.000 0.953 0.061 0.026
75.000 1.709 0.260
75.000 1.588 0.118 0.094
0,127 90.000 0.992 0.062 0,027 90,000 j(J73 0,075 0,(>3 ]
g(LOOn 1.g23 112\j\
80.000 1.694 0.245 0,106 -_...
100.000 j,102 0076 OJHJ JOO,OOO 1.192
o.nHI (10.000 0305 (l.ln qO,OOO 2.051 O.:;h'i O.15X
125.000 J.37S ll,J IS 0050 125.000 1..:1/0 IU}9 0.060
0.371 0.161 loo.oon 2,279 tJ\\l 0192
150.000 1.6'\1- 0,161 O.fl70 J5U,(WO 1.7;';:; o !(I-l
OJli'4
I no.ooo 2.117
0,2(1(j
2.646 0.%1 0.243 125,UOO 2.S19 0(,71
175.000 1.929 0.214 (l.Ot!)
12).000
0107 175.000 2.(1;\'; 0.112 O.n6 0,:\\0 IS0JllHl 3lJ R
(l(J1O
1 3.175
J.l}XH 1 0..';12 200.000 0,271 0.1 Ii' 200.(lOC) 2.31"3 0.331 0.1l.1 17S.000 3.705 1.015 0,.\53 175,OO{j
0. (,(/"I 250.000 1,756 0.-:1-1 0.179 :?50.000 2.979 0.5(10 0.217
'200.000 1.()(12
200.nOn 4.2"1t I.:L\lJ O.5HO
300.000 3.107 0.500 0.251 :wo,ono ).575 0,701 0':;01
5.6(J7
... ,..,..,
l,(j.\i'
2:'iO,lIOO 5,2!);, 2.(124 O.R76 250.000 _."-"
350.000 3.S'ig 0.771 o.n1 350.000 U7 I (}!I,I.' O.W-I :WO.OOO (I,H0I7 'YJl
1.1(,1/
'()(1.0{)() (1.351 2.X37 1,22:-:
1.955 400.000 41Ot) 0,()1\l-\
0.121\ .100.(1)0 l.7(,7 I.IIJ.: D.517
35().OO{j 7.
1
)1fl UJ(I
:;<;OOO!J 7.lOt) :1.771 1.6.11
'.7S1 2.5in 450.000 1.%0 1.229 0.5.,2 450000 ;\.31>.1 1.1,'.;(, O.f,L\ moono X,j(,R Un3 2.()1J2 100.0(1() (I. I IS
1-.111 500.000 5.511 1.1'],1 0.(,17 .'ilHIOOO 5.950 J,:-Ol; IJ.li'2 2.60'2 10.2".'\ 7. jl12
(U2(1 (dll I
,I.n\ 600.000 (IJ,13 20'1."1 O.IIO(} (,OO.OO(J 7.1.<;f) '2.5.H J.()IJfJ :'i(lO.(I(lO J 7.:\06 3.1(1"1 5(J(!.OOO 1I,\!)l
5.101 700.000 7.7 H, 2,7}\'i 1.20(1 700.{JOO }; .. .:2 J, )(,7 IA<;X 12.7nl 10.211 .1,.l.n WO(l(JO 1.1.(,7.1 122')1
800.000
{,{){).11(J0
1/,102 7.0'i7 KSIR 3."fJ(. I.<;.jl HOO.OOD IISI.: 1.312 1.1'(17 7(J(1.00n 1l.S IS 13.625 5.XlJS 700,DOO 15.11';2
1000.000 11.022 5.VII 2."1.1: IOOU,OO(J 1L
I
ll7 6.:'i19 2.1122
4" Ci (A\V\VA C900] DR i4
f," Ci (j\W\V:\ C9(0) DR 25
Actual O.D. ,UWO In.. Pre"". Cia"" :::00
Actual D.D. 6,900 In .. Prc"", Cl:l"" 100
8" CI (AWIVA C9(0) DR 25
W' CI (AIVIVA C9(0) DR IX
11"" n[ I'n'" Flnw
I'H". Gal./mill. It./se!;', Ikad Pfl1\,
FlflW Vdodl)" 1 n,S of
Actual G.D. 9.050 In.. Pre"". CIa'" 100
FUlon Fe Ihi'llll) 1'1.
(;:II.:fllltl. H./sec !)rl'l'
AC!Il,d a.D. 9.050 Ill .. Pre"". Cia"" 150
Ft IOlln. p,ifl{lll Ft.
0.027 0,(112 Flow VelOCIty I. o[ l'n\\. Flpw Vel,.,,!, l.P" pr I'll'''.
20.000 0.493
CUll R O.OOS GUI./min. I:L:'e<;'. Head Dn'l' G;ll./min. n",,;C. Ilt:.ld
nu'"
'25.0nO 0.616 0.041 o.rm 50.00n n.512
Fl. I'"i Flo
FLill" Fl i'" lOll Ft. (1.0'25 0.615 n.u:!.'> (Ulil
30.000 0.739 0,058 (,0.000
0.014
35.000 O.S()2 0.077 0.033 70.000 0.717 0,033
100.000 0.595 0.017 o.or)7 100.000 0,641 0.0:0 0.00')
40,OOD 0.9B5 o.on 0.013 75.000 0.768 0.037 0.016
125.000 0.744 0.0'2() 0.0 II 125.000 (unl ll.O3 I 0.013
45.000 1.108 0.122 0.053 gO.OOO 0.820 0012 o.on:
150.000 0.893 (),036 0.016 150.000 0.961 0.013 OJ1l9
50.000 1.231 0.148 0.064 90.000 0.922 0.052 0.023
175.000 1.042 0.02l 175.000 1.122 0.057 0.025
60.000 1.478 0.208 0.090 100.000 1.024 0.063 n.027
200.000
1.191 0.0(>1 0.026 200.000 n.m.3 0.032
70.000 1.724 0.277 0.120 125.000 1.231 0.096 0.042
250.000
L4S9 0.092 0.040 250.000 1.(,02 0.111 0.0-18
75.000 I 0.315 0.136 150.000 1.537 0.134 0.058 _300.000
1.7S6 0.130 0.056 300.000 1.923 0.155 0.067
80.000 1.970 0.354 0.153 175.000 1.79} 0.179 0.077
350.000
2.084 0.172 0.075 350.000 O.2U6
.., ...
0.OR9 0.099
90.000 2.216 0,441 0.191 200.000 2.049 0.229 400.000
2.382 0.'221 0.096 400.000 '2.564 0.264 0.114
100.000 2,463 0.536 0.232 250.000 2.561 0.3-16 0.150
450.000
2,6S0 0.275 0.119 450.000 2.884 0.329 0.142
125.000 3.078 0.810 0.351 300.000 3.073 OAS5 0.210
500.000
2.977 0.33-1 0.145 500.000 3.20-1 0.399 0.173
150.000 3.694 1.135 OAn 350.000 3.585 0.646 0.279
600.000 3_573 0,468 0.203 600.000 3.S-l5 0.560 0.242
175.000 4.310 1.511 0.654 400.000 4.098 0.S27 0.358
700.000
4.168 0.623 0.270 700.000 4AS6 0.745 0.322
200.000 4.925 1.934 0.837 450.000 4.610 1.028 0.445
800.000
4.764 0.797 0.345 800.000 5.127 0.954- 0.413
250.000 6.156 2.924 1.266 500.000 5.122 1.250 0.541
1000.000
5.954 1.205 0,522 1000.000 6,0409 1.411 0.624
300.000 7.388 4.099 1.774 600.000 6.146 1.752 0.758 1200.000
7.145 1.690 0.731 1200.000 7.691 2.020 0.875
350.000 8.619 5,453 2.361 700.000 7.171 2.331 1.009 1400.000
8.336 2.248 0.973 1400.000 &.972 2.688 1.164
400.000 9.850 6.983 3.023 800.000 8.195 2.985 1.292
1600.000
9.527 2.878 1,246 1600.000 10.25.j: 3.442 1.490
450.000 11.082 8,685 3.760 1000.000 10.244 4.512 1.953
':000.000
11.909 4351 Ui84 2000.000 12)'1 5.20-l 2.253
500.000 12.313 10.557 4.570
NOTE: Table i5 on Equations,
600.000 14.775 14.797 6.405
700.000 17.238 19.686 8.522 77, i'J anti Hl. ('=150
19G
197
10" CI (A\\'WA C9(0) DR 1R 10" Cl (AWWA CCJOO) DR 14
Actual O.D. 1l.l00 In.. Press. Cia"''> 150 Actual 0.0. 11.100 In., Pre",s. CIa"", 2nO
J:!r>w Vc\"eiW l(w,of T'rc\". Flow Vth'cil) 1.,'" III
Gill./l1lin. FL '<.ce. Hc;\11 DH'p }k:ul I1r"p
FI./lhtl Fl. Fl ft. Illl FI. 1"1.
175.000 0.746 0.021 0.009 175.000 O.BOo 0.02(1 0.011
200.000 0.1\52 0.027 0.012 200.000 O.nI 0033 0.014
250.000 1.065 0.041 O.OIR 2S0.000 1.151 0,049 0.021
JOO.OOO L27f. 0.057 0.025 JOO.OOO 1.381 0.069 0.030
350.000 1.491 0.076 0.033 350.000 1.612 0.092 0.010
400.000 1.704 0.098 0.042 400.000 I.B-12 0,118 0.051
,150.000 1.917 0.122 0.053
450.000 2.072 0.147 0.0(,4
)00.000 2.130 0.148 0.064 500.000 2.302 0.179 o.on
600.000 2.556 0.207 0.090 600.000 2.763 0.250 0.108
700.000 2.982 0.276 0.119 700.000
... "l"J
0.333 0.144
:J ........'
800.000 3.409 0.353 0.153 800.000 3.684 0.427 0.185
1000.000 4.261 0.534 0.2JI 1000.000 4.605 0.645 0.279
1200.000 5.113 0.748 0.324 1200.000 5.526 0.904 0.391
1400.000 5.965 0.996 0.431 1400.000 6.447 1.203 0.521
1600.000 6.817 1.275 0.552 1600.000 7.368 1.540 0.667
2000.000 8.521 1.927 0.834 2000.000 9.210 '2.328 1.008
2500.000 10.652 2.914 1.261 2500.000 11.512 3.520 1.524 Note:
3000.000 12.782 4.084 1.768 3000.000 13.814 4.934 2.136
HANDBOOK OF five PIPE
\' - DESli;N
A))'\VA C900 P\'C rIPE
12" CI (AWWA C900) DR 18
Actual O.D. 13.200 In., Press. Chss 150
Flow VelOcity LOll of Press.
Gnl./min. Ft./sec. He,1,J Drop
FI./lOO Ft. p,i/WO Ft.
300.000 0.904 0.025 0.0 II
350.000 1.054 0.033 0.014
400.000 1.205 0.042 0.018
450.000 1.355 0,OS2 0.023
SOO.OOO I.SOIi 0.064 0.02(;
600.00(J UW7 0.089 0,039
700.()()(l 2.10i\ 0.119
800.000 2.410 0.15:: (J,(lf,tJ
lOOO.OOO 3.012 0.230 0.0<)9
1200.000 0.322 0.139
1400.000 4.217 0.-128 0.1 X5
1MlO.OOO 4.&'19 0.54ii 0,237
2000.000 6.024 0.1)29 0.359
2500.000 7.530 1.153 0.5,13
3000,OO(j 'J.{}J/i 1.757 0.761
:L'){)O.OOO 10.542 2.331 l.012
4000.000 12.0:R 2.9'13 1.296
"1500.000 13.554 3.722 l.611
0.009
0.012
0.015
0.019
OJ123
0.032
0.043
O-lJ55
O.OHJ
0.117
0.155
0.199
0.300
0.454
0.636
O.H46
I.()!i.!
1.341\
12" Cl (AWWA C900) DR 14
Actual 0.0, D.2ao In. Press. Class 200
FI(lW Velocity of
G:l!./min. l-t.hcc: Drnp
FLjlOft Ft. p\i/IOO Ft.
lQQ
300.000 0.977 0.0:10 0.0 l3
350.000 1.140 0.0'10 0.017
400.000 1.302 0.051 0.022
450.000 1.465 0.063 0.027
500.000 1.62S 0.077 (1.033
600.000 1.954 O.IOR 0.047
700.000 2.279 0.143 0.062
800.000 2.605 0.184 0.079
1000.000 3.256 0.278 0.120
1200.000 3.907 0.389 0.168
1400.000 4.559 0.518 0.224
1600.000 5.210 0.663 0.287
2000.000 6.512 1.002 0.434
2500.000 8.140 1.515 0.656
3000.000 9.768 2.123 0.919
3500.000 11.397 2.825 1.223
4000000 13.025 3.618 1.566
4500.000 14.653 4.499 1.948
TAIlLE 39 Fl.OW FRlCTlO;.; LOSS,
Continued
Table 39 and 40 11m\' friction values are based on inside diameters calcUlated as follows:
ID ::= 00 - 21' Where: ID = Imide dktmctcI, in.
OD '" Outside diameter, in.
t' = .\llnilllum wall thickness -1- wall thL;:ki1cSS
tolerance, in.
IlTHYI. C:O'f>'OHA"lON
300.000 0.840 0.021
350.000 0.980 0.027
400.000 1.120 0.035
450.000 1.260 0.044
500.000 JAOO 0.053
600.000 ! .1') 79 0.075
700.000 1.959 0,099
800.000 2.239 0.127
lOOO.OOO 2.79ti 0.J92
1200.000 3.350 0.269
1400.000 0.35}i
1600.000 4.479 0..159
2000.000 5,5% 0.694
2500.000 6.9')S 1.0.19
3000.000 R.3'17 1..170
3500.000 9.7'J7 1.955
4000.000 11.1 % 2.5().1
4500.000 12.596 3.11-1
12" CI (AWWA C900) DR 25
Actual O.D. 13.200 In. Pres'}. Class 100
- -- Flow Velonry of
Gal./rnin. 'jlt./s:c:. Head Drop
Ft./1CD Ft. psl;JOO Ft.
IlOUIlO;:lJ;:

Drop
Ft.
VC1Dcllj'
F.. hcc.
Flow
Gal./min.
175.01l1l O.69J O.lllS O.OOR
'200.000 a.i92 0.023 0.010
250.000 0.990 0.0:;4 0.015
300.000 1.1 RS 0043 0.021
350.000 1.3!\.:; 0,06-1-
Ann 000 OiL':::'. 0.035
45fUiOO 1.7S1 n 102 O.{).14
500 000 l.Wi0 n1 o.Oq
/,00 (100 :;,375 (11 7-)--(W75
iOO,{H)(\ 2.771 0231 O.lon
3.167 02'15 0,12:\
IOOll.(j(l() 3,<15S {) .IM) 0.193
12(j(J.(J(){J j,750 O.::!71
1.IlHL(l()(} S."42 {l S:;2 fUf,O
!(,{)(JO{lO (,.111 JOMI {j,161
20()(UlOO 7.1)17 U,J::! llJl()o
2'i(J(UlO(1 (I),ll(l ::.; H, 1.055
:HlO()(lO{l 1\)\75 :>':15 lAiR
10" CI (AWWA C900) DR 25
Actual O.D. i 1.100 tn.. Pre,,::;. Class 100
0.011
0.016
0.022
O.OJO
O,03S
O.05X
{LOX 1
(l.l
O.l3li
0.172
0.209
0.292
o.:n'l)
OA'H,
0.753
1.056

1.799
2.719

Drop
FI.
0.024
0.037
0.052
(1.069
O.ORB
0.131
(l.l X7

0.:119
0.397
O.jli2
0/17(1
0.ti9
l
)
1.15 I
1.710
2.1:\9
:'.2t')
4. L'i5
(l.2B2
of
Head
Ft.f\OU FL
0.692
0.866
1.039
1.212
1.3S5
17:'1
VeJcdty
Ft.ii;;e.
2.077
.....'"1,
_,"'l_.'
2.770
3,116
3.H.,:;
U.'\5
4.,1.;:7
5.510

:;Wl
11,(1(/':
11 (\"/l)
13,:';\'>
100.000
125,000
150.0UO
175,000
200,000

31J().U()O
350.000
wn.ooo
45()OOO
5(10.000
600.00(}
70n.OOO
1\000(}0
11100JlOO
120(I,O{jO
140(l.()OO
I(,(Ill.OOO
2000.000
Flow
Gnl,lmin.
8" CI (AWWA C900) DR 14
Actlw.l a.D. 9.050 in., Press. Clas5 200
'fAilLE 39 FLOW FR!CTlON LOSS, AWWA C90n PVC PHi'E
Continued
Note: Table is based on EquatiQn 77. ?S. 79 and l30. C=150
TABLE 40-FLOW FRICflON LOSS, ASTM D 2241 PVC PIPE
0.30
2.45 0.89 0.39
2.7(, J.j 1 OAS
3.07 1.35 (l.St:
3.ClX l.Pt;
4.2
1
) 2.5 J 1.09
"loW 2.X) 1.23
. 4.9 J 3.22 J.3fJ


6.1.:1 1.S6 2.10
7.Cll 1.3(, :Uq
9,20 HUO tAr.
10.71 13.72 5.91
2 liz" IPS (ASTM D-2241)
CH..\.PTER V - DESIGN
0.35
LOO a.i3
1,22 0.53
1.71 0.74
2.27
2.5X 1.12
2.91 J.2Cl
3.()2 1.57
4.39 1.90
6.65 2.Xli
9.31 <1.0;1
12.40 5.37
SDR 26
2.65
2.94
3.53
U2
4Al
:.71
5.30
5.B9
7.3Cl
S.R;l
10.31
40 - Continued
45
50
60
70
75
SO
90
100
125
150
175
t
Flow Vc!ocity Loss of Head Press. Drop Velocity of Head Drop
FL/SCC. Ft./IOO Fl. PSI/IDa Ft. Fl./Sec. FI./Wj Ft. PSI/WO Ft.
5 0.30 0.025 0.011
7 0.42 0.Q35 0.0l5
10 0.59 0.06 0.026
15 0.88 0,13 0.056
3" IPS (AST;l1 1)-2241)
SDR 26
I
SDR 21
flow I
\elllCIl}' 10'" pf lle:ld I'n..... Drop I Vc1odl\ 1 n", of Iic:I\l I'n"'" DH'f'
G:lls,fl\lin 1't /Jon 1'1 PSI/100 Fl H./S,, It / Hid I'l PSI/IOO fl.
5 0.20 (J.() I n.()()15 0.20 0.015 O.()(l(l
7 0.28 0.014 0.0063 0.29 0.021 O,{J09
10 0.40 0.02 {l.OOY 0.41 0.03 0.013
15 0.59 0.05 0.022 (l.G2 0.06 0.026
20
I
0.79 0.09 0.039 0.83 0.09 0.039
25 0.99 0.13 0.056 1.03 0.14 0.061
30 1.19 0,18 0.078 1.24 0.20 0.087
35 1.39 0.24 0.10 1,45 0.2i 0.12
40 1.59 0.31 0.13 1.65 034 0.15
45 l.7S 0.38 0.16 1.86 0.42 0.18
50 1.98 0.47 0.20 2.06 0.51 0.22
60 2.38 0.65 0.28 2,48 0.72 0.31
70 2.78 0.87 0.38 2.89 0.96 0.42
75 2.97 0.99 OA3 3.10 1.09 0.47
80 3.n 1.11 0.48 3.30 1.23 0.53
90 3.57 1.38 0.60 3.72 1.52 0.66
100 3.97 1.68 0.73 4.13 1.85 0.80
125 4.96 2.54 1.10 5.17 2.81 1.22
150 5.95 3.56 1.54 6.19 3.93 1.70
175 6.94 4.74 2.05 7.23 5.23 2.26
200 7,93 6.07 2.63 8.26 6.69 2.90
250 ,
9.92 9.18 3.98 10.33 10.13 4.39
201
SDR 21
-\- Vdod!)' Loss of Hcad l'rc$s. Drop
Ft./S
ec
. FL/lOO Ft. 1'51/100 n.
333
4.0;
5.C,7
7.)1
0.57
2" II'S (ASDI P-2241)
\ SDR 21
Press. Drop
PSI/lOG Fl.
1Yz" IPS (ASTM D-2241)
\
SDR 26
SOURCE:' PLAliTICS PIPO! INSTITuTI::
1'1'1 TH""
Flnw Vc!pcity
(If jk;,t!
nrllp I
Vch'cit V I \If 1!l':\(\
1'rc..... nrpr
G.l!.. .:l\lill.
Fl,/Sec.
1'\./100 FL
l'S\!!OO ft. I

Jot.flll(} Jot
l'S11100 1'l-
2
0.17
0.01
0.00.
,
0.10
0.02.3
O.O!O
,
5
0.44
0.045
0.020
,
0.'15
O.Ot'i
0.025
7
0.61
O.Og
0.035
\
0.63
O.OSI
0.035
10
0.87
0.16
0.069
0.90
0.17
0.074
15
1.30
0.33
0.14
1.35
0.37
O.lt'i
20
1.73
0.57
0.25
\.SO
0.63
0.27
25
2.16
0.S6
0.37
2.25
0.95
0.41
30
2.60
1.21
0.52
2.71
1.34
0.5S
35
3.03
1.61
0.70
3.16
1.7S
0.77
40
3.46
2.06
0.89
\
3.61
2.27
0.98
45
3.90
2.56
1.11
4.06
2.83
1.23
50

3.11
1.35
4.51
3.44
1.49
60
4.36
\'1)9
4.82
2.09
-
5.19
5.41
70
6.06
5.80
2.51
6.31
6.41
2.78
75
6.49
6.60
2.86
6.76
7.29
3.16
80
6.92
7.43
3.22
7.21
8.21
3.55
90
7.79
9.25
4.01
8.12
10.21
4.42
100
8.66
11.24
4.87
9.02
12,41
5.37
H... \.t"iDBOOK OF PVC PIPE
SDR 21
203
12" lPS (ASTM D.2241)
SDR 26 I
CHAPTER V - DESIGN
40 - Continued
8" IPS (ASTM D2241)
SDR 26 SDR 21
\'c!ocity Loss of Hcnd Press. Drop VelocilY LOiS of Hend Press. Drop
FI./Sec. FL/Ioo Ft. PSI/IOO Fl. FL/Sec. Ft./lOO Ft. PSI/loo Fl.
100 0.66 0.03 0.012 0.67 0.03 0.012
125 0.83 0.037 0.015 0.85 0.037 0.015
150 0.98 0.04 0.017 1.02 0.05 0.022
175 1.14 0.06 0.026 I.19 0.065 0.028
200 1.30 0.07 0.03D 1.36 0.08 0.D35
250 1.63 0.11 0.048 1.70 0.125 0.054
300 1.95 0.16 0.069 2.04 0.18 0.078
350 228 0.21 0.091 2.38 0.103
400 2.61 0.27 0.12 2.72 0.30 0.13
450 2.93 0.33 0.14 3.06 0.37 0.16
500
I
3.26 0.41 0.18
HAO
0,1.5 0.19
750 4.89 0':';(, 0.37 5.10 0.96 0.42
1000
I
&.51 lA7 0.(,4
I
(!.fW 0.64
1250
00'
O.W; H.50 1.07 _._,.'l
I
1500 9.77 3.11 1.35 10.19 3.45
1.4()
:WOO I 5.:\0 2.29 13.59 5.S? 2.54
lO" IPS (ASTM 1)2241)
SDR 26 SDR 21
Flow f 1(>\\ (,I Ik:](l Pre\;, I)r0l' Vel\'rilY 11"'\ p! lle:lu I'n"\, Dr,'l'
G:Jh./1\lin I'Ll lOll H. PSI/IUO 1'1- H.lScc. It,]\jOlt T'SJ/lW It
200 a.x;; n.n27 0.012 OJH, 0.027 0.012
250 1.05 D.Oj 0.017 1.10 0.045 0.020
300 1.26 0.05 0.022 1.31 0.06 0.026
350 tA7 0.075 0.0:1,3 1,54 0.08 0.035
400 1.61' 0.09 0.039 1.75 0.10 O.O'iJ
450 1.89 0.11 1,97 0.13 0.056
5011 :!.lO 0.14 0.061 2.19 0.15 0.065
750 3.14 0.29 0.13 3.29 0.14
1000 4.19 0.50 0.22 4.3fi 0.56 0.24
1250 5.27 0.76 0.33 5.40 0.05 0.37
1500 6.29 1.06 0,46 6.57 1.18 0.51
2000 8.38 1.81 D.n 8.76 2.02 0.87
2500 10A8 2.74 1.19 10.96 3.06 1.33
3000 12.58 3.84 1.66 13.15 ' .,"" 1.85 .... _f
Flo\\' Velocity of Heat! J're5S. Drop ! Yciocity Lo<s or He:Jd Press. DrDp
Gals./Min. FUSee. Ft./IOU Ft. 1'51/100 Ft. FI.jScc. Ft./iOO Ft. 1'51/JOO Fl.
350 1.04 0.04 0.017 1.08 0.036 0.016
400 1.19 0.04 0.017 1.24 0.04 0.017
450 1.34 0.05 0.022 lAO 0.06 0.026
500 1.49 0.06 0.026 1.55 0.07 0.030
750 2.23 0.13 0.056 2.33 0.14 0.061
SDR 21
Ln
U7
2.00
2.25
2.50
3.13
3.75
0.50
0.62
0.75
0.87
1.00
1.12
1.25
1.50
1.75
Velocity Less of Head Press. Drop
Ft./Scc. Ft./IOO PI.. PSI/JOG Ft.
0.03 0.013
0.04 0.017
0.06 0.026
0.08 0.D35
0.10 0.043
0.12 0.052
0.15 0.065
0.11 0.091
0.18 0.12
0.32 0,14
0.36 0.16
OA5 0.19
0.5.: 0.23
0.S2 0.36
1.15 0.50
1.54 0.G7
1.% 0.S5
-1.,1.)7 1.29
1 7..19 LIC; 1.HO
I S.7t 5.54 2.'10
i 9.99 7.09 :U17
I 11.21 3.82
I 12.-lS 10.72
(ASHI D.2241)
I
202
6" IPS
Press. Drop
PSI/IOO Ft.
4" IPS (ASTM:
1 SDR 21
0.009
0.017
0.022
0.030
0.039
0.048
0.061
0.082
0.11
0.13
0.14
0.17
0.21
0.33
0.45
0.(10
0.77
:'---'1.16
1/12
2.17
2.77
3.44
4.tH
SDR 26
FI<lW Vclodty or He;td I'rc\\. Drnp I \'c]ndlr
(,r lIead I'rcv. Drop
Gah,fMin. FUSee. Ft./lOO FI. I'SljlO'J 1'1. I, ISec. H,/IOO Fl. 1':-:;1/100 Ft.
50 0.55 0.02 0.009
I
0.58 0.02 0.009
60 0.66 0,03 0.013 0.69 O.oJ 0.013
70 0.77 0.04 0.017 0.81 0.04 0.017
75 0.83 0.04 0.017
I
0.86 0.05 0.022
80 0.88 0.05 0.022 0.92 0.05 0.022
90 0.99 0.06 0.026 1.04 0,07 0.030
100 I.10 0.07 0.030
I
I.15 0.08 0.035
125 1.39 0.11 0.047
I
1.44 0.125 0.054
150 1.66 0.16 0.069 I 1.73 0.18 0.078
175 1.94 0.21 0.091
,
2.02 0.24 0.103
200 2.21 0.27 0.12
I
2.31 0.30 0.13
250 2.76 0.41 0.18 2.89 0.46 0.20
300 3.31 0.57 0.25
I
3.46 0.63 0.27
I
350 3.87 0.76 0.33
I
4.04 0.85 0.37
400 4.42 0.97 0.42 4.61 1.08 0.47
450 4.97 1.21 0.52 I 5.19 1.34 0.58
500 5.52 1.47 0.64
I 5.76
1.63 0.71
750 8.28 3.12 1.35

3A6 1.50
1000 11.05 5.30 2.30 I 11.).} 5.89 2.55
HANDBOOK OF PVC PIPE
TABLE 40 - Continued
SDR 26
Flow I Velocity Loss of Hend
Gals./Min. Ft./$tc. Ft./IOO Ft.
20 0.48 0.02
25 0.60 0.04
30 0.72 0.05
35 0.84 0.07
40 0.96 0.09
45 < 1.08 0.11
50 1.20 0.14
60 1.44 0.19
70 1.67 0.25
75 1.79 0.29
80 1.91 0.32
90 (lAO
100 2.39 0.49
125 2.99 0.74
150 3.59 1.04
175 4.19 1.39
200 4.79 I.T
250 5.9g 2.6H
300 7.18 3.75
350 g.3' 5.00
400 9.57 6.39
450 10.77 7.95
500 11.% 9.M)
HANDBOOK OF PVC PIPE
204
CHAPTER V - DESIGN

n
1.486
v =
205
Wltel'e. v = velocity or flow, rtfsec
V is a special case or "v" rcprest:l1ting ,1 pipe
flowing rull or half rull
n ;;::: an empirical coefficient analogous to the C in
the Williams-Hazen formulas. Jt represents the
interior surface characteristics of the rip:: and
comes into use in dctc"rmining the frictional
losses. The greater the losses. the higher will
be the value of 11.
I' = the hydraulic radius of the wetted cross section
of the pipe. It is obtaincd by dividing the cross
sectional area of the flow by the wetted perimeter
of the pipe in contact with the flow. The units
are feet for hydraulic radius and wetted perimeter
and square fect for area.
R is a special ease of r for pipes flowing half full
or fujI. It is equal to one-fourth tile inside dia-
meter and measured in feet.
EQUATION
The relatively small concentration of solids ordinarily found in
and storm water is not sufficient to make it behave differently
water. For this reason, sewage is accepted as having the same flow
characteristics as water, provided self-cleansing velocities are maintained.
water, sewage \vill seek its own level when introduced into a pipe with
sloping invert. The attempt to level itself induces movement of the
sewage known as gravity flow. For simplification in solving the problem
sewer design, it is necessary to assume "steady') flow conditions even
though most sewers operate with constantly fluctuating now rates. Also,
long as the surface of the sewage is permitted to expand or contract,
it is considered "open channel" flow. If Opt.:!l channel flow is not the
condition, then the sewer is said to be flowing rull under head or int,:rnal
pressure.
Till' l\bnning Equation is based on tilt,; abov,: L"oIH..Iition of stt:ady
flow and opcn ch;Jnnei flow for the computations illvol\'cd in dctt:rmining
discharge or:! s,,"\ver lint:.
n + 41.67 + 0.0028
S
1 n ( , I
+ VR 41.67 + 0.0028\ v'RS,
s, )
1.81
v
SDR 26 SDR 21
Flow Velocity of Head Drop Velocity La,s or Hend Press. Drop
Gals'/},[in. Ft./S.:c. H/IDO Fl. PS!llOO FL FuSee. Ft./lOO Fl. PSI/100 Ft.
!ODD 2.98 0.22 0.095
I
3.11 0.24 0.10
1250 3.73 0.34 0.15 3.89 0.37 0.16
1500 4.47 0.46 0,20
I
4.66 0.51 0,22
2000 5.96 0.79 0.34 6.22 0.87 0.38
2500 7.45 1,20 0.52 7.77 1.33 0.57
3000 '8.94 1.67 0.72 9.33 1.85 0.80
3500 10..13 2.22 0.% 10.88 2.47 1.07
4000 11.92 2.86 1.24 12.44 3.17 1.37
4500 13,011 3.54 1.53 13.99 :\,93 1.70

Xliller's hJrlllli!{i -
Where: V = mean now velocity, fps
R = hydraulic radius, ft.
n :::= coefficient of roughness
Sa = slope of energy grade line. ft/ft.
TABLE 40 - Continued
12" IPS (ASTM D-2241)
EQUATION 88
At velocities above 5 ft/$t:c. (1.5 !11iSL'C) in PVC pip,-'. special
c:-rJtion should be given to surge pressurcs :lJld conditions. It should also
be noted th:lt high velocities n:sult in high hcad lossL's.
Gravity Flow or Sewage and Storm Dr:linage ill PVC Sewer Pipe.
Hydraulic now research and an:J1ysis h:I\'t.: establbhed tllal flow conditions
:lnd ilydr;lldic slope in PVC gravity scw::r syskms can be tksigllcu
I.:ollscrvatively Llsing the i\1anning's equatlOll. Kuttt:r's forillul:! was accepted
till' proper design basis for estimation or now in the early
1900's: however. liSt: or tile formula was dillicult. Use or
lion has superseded Kutter's forlllula due [0 tile equation's relativL'
ity. The coefl'icient of rou&hnc'ss (n) lIsed in both Kuttt:r's formub and
}'l<.!nning's equation arc essenlially equal for piping products cOilllllonly
used in sewer construction.
206
for half now
,
", ("D")
,- 4
3rea = a =
?
lli1!.!O
D
0.660' = 0.165'
(4)
=
4
=
4 r = Yz("D)
from 0.007 to 0.011. (See Bibliography items 7 and 39).
These relatively low values can be attributed to:
the non-porous, smooth surface of the PVC pipe
the low profile gap at the joints, and
rile longer laying lengths available in PVC pipe, resulting in fewer
wetted perimeter = ITD for full flow, for half flow
?07
CP...,-\PTER V - DESIGN
The long lengths with fewer joints actually contribute to a more
rrnd consistent energy gradient (slope), thereby reducing friction
losses and providing a lower value for the Manning's n [;Jetor. The Uni-Bell
Plastic Association recommends that the value of the i\hmning's n
factor be 0.0 I0 for hydraulic design of PVC gravity sewer systems.
The USc of ;\iallning's H1 design of PVC gravity sewer
system is demonstrakd in the followmg e,';:lmp!e:
the velocity :J.lld quantitY of l'k)\v for 8" PVC
sewer pip, lAST)\) D3034 DR 35) flowing hall' rull with an invert slope or
4 feet per 1000 reCl.
Product dimellsions (l\STM DR 35):
OlJ = 8.400 ill.
l = 0.240 in.
f) = lD on -2l = 7')2U
7 cpo
lJ = = 0 (,60 n
12 .
r = cross-sectional area -;- \vdted perimC"tcr or when r = R
(IIal r full or rull)
R =
Sol,"" both ways ror example:
7fD
2

-- for lull'
4 .
s = ft = 0.004' 11 = 0.010
1.486 .
,. = 0.0 I(j (0.165)"' (.004)'"
= 148.6 (0.301) (0.063) = 2.8 ft/sec. velocitv
H, - H
2
-L--
s =
L ;:::: length oj' pipe section. ft
H
1
=: pipe elevation. f!
H
2
::: pipe dt:\"l.ltioll. rt.
s ::: hydraulic slope, ftift
J) = inside diameter of the pipe. f1.
d = the depth of flow. Ft.
a = the area of the wetted eross seetion flow. ft2
A = is a special case of "a" occuring when the pipe is
flowing full; ft2
D == pipe inside diameter, ft.
s = the slope which is obtained when the length of
any straight portion of a se\','8f line is divided into
the difference in elevation between the beginning
of that section and the end of the seetion. It is
equal in most cases to the slope of the invert and
the slope of the llowing surface. The units used
in obtainirfg the quotienL or slope, lllU:-.t be the
same, usually ket.
EQUATION 90
R = D/4
Wiler,:
EQUATION 91
HANDBOOK OF PVC PIPE
Although not defined ill equation (;9. it is helpful to kllow t11L'SL'
additional definitions:
The value for n has been experimentally determined for all common
sewer piping materials. The value can be as low as 0.007 under laboratory
conditions and using clean water, or higher than 0.015 under less favorable
conditions and with rough surfaced pipe. 110st engineers have historicallY
selected n to be 0.0 13 for sanitary sewer Line when using the products
avaibble berore the advent of PVC sewer pipe. Studies in the laboratory,
and more importantly in actual usc, have found the value of n for PVC to
FIGURE 30 - HYDRAULICS U\: PVC SEWER FIPE AT DEPTHS
CHAVfER V - DES!GN
/ ...
I
1;' 1;1
"
I
"
A = nab
s
A,
EQUATION 94
DEFLECTED PIPE
\< r
2b
2a 1- -3' .
1)!:, I' I () II (!" u '.'
IIYOnAUlIC HAT lOS --- "'HI -5.\_
V full 0 full
0,1 U1
= 7rr
2
lTD:
4
FIGURE 31 - PIPE CROSS SECTIONAL AREA
=
A,
EQUATION 93
-- !1 v.,,,,,l,l. ;"i'll' <kpt],

(r !,''\
\1 D
jJ
U:\OEFLECTED PIPE
'=r:::==P'r I . I i I .
A
,
I j' '\' "--[i--r-I-j-j '
--'---I-r-----i--p--i-r/rn:::(71---r+
H
I '1 \ ',-, l if.J,-.
I 1
i L_r--'--i j ':"_ . i
F -'I-L-+ -,! , ii" I'Ll
.-. I , , 'I X'UL. _,_
' i. iii -'--'--i-Xiii I
,. ' I "I '--1------'-1-'-1 I i I .
---,- -;- . i , ,
fi--FFFT:: :'+-1-"--' --1/;-1

f _l_/J!"r j
1 I J ;
10
09
"
07
'10
"
0,):'
(H
OJ
u;'
01
EQUATION 92
Where: a = cross sectional area of flow,
V = flow velocity. ftisec.
Q ;;:; volume flow rate, ft3 /sec.
Calculation of Volume Flow Rate
o = OAo rt
3
/SL'C or Q x :: 310.0
gab/day
HA:'1DBOOK OF PVC PIPE
Q = av
= 1.,nQ-=) =, (iUlf>J))2 = 0 PI I' 2
a ._, -4- I, 2) .' t.
o = 0.171 rt
1
x (Ls:..',-' = LJAS f!3 !scc
For t!Jose GISCS whl'fl.' tkpth of rIow {(il 1:-> nol equ:l! to rull rio\\' (D)
or J,.; rknv n.,Dl. sel' Fir-urI.' 30. Thl.' \'.hl\..:h rcl:tlL';-; till' ratio or v/V
Clili. q/Q. rlill (or alA rulll 1<, cl/D. L'''" be 'N'd 10 alme al Iloll-rlill rIow
solutions. after thc V:dllCS at rull now.
It is n:cOlllll1l'!H.kd tl1at now vdol'ity in sanitary sewcr lilll's be not
k'ss th:lIl .2 rtiscL' (0,(1 ll1iscc) for action in the lillCS. SOlllC
authorities rnay reCjuirc 2.5 ft/Sl'C (0.8 l1l!s\:c) minimum velocitics, partiCll-
larly ror storm sewers, At vl'loeitics above 10 ft/st.'L' (J m/sec) special
cOllsit!L'r:ltioll should be I;iH.'n to energy and erosion prevention.
When slopes 20 Ih.:rl'cnt, pipe anchorag.e should be considel"l'cl. To
allow for future growth or flows. it is customary to size
sanitary collection sewers to flow one-hall' fuB at maximulll design inflow.
Tables through 50 afC provided for usc in dckrmination of veloc-
ity and discilarge Cor eacil size of PVC sewer pipe (ASH] D3034 DR 35)
at deCined slopes ancl Manning's n Factor values.
As flexible pipe is deflected. the cross sectional area of the pipe is
slightly reduced. Tile elliptical cross sectional area (As) after pipe ovaliza-
tion will be less than the undeflectecl circular cross sectional area (A).
C = liD
HA:-mBOOK OF PVC PIPE
EQUHIO:\ %
":"i!':')j':'))
v ' Q I
Ft!Scc 11000 Gal/D:J.}"!
1.3999 II' 76.9922
1.8278 223.7845
2.2205 I 487.4188
2.5767 )
2_0933 i
.. ,I" I .. - --- _1.. __
)A-" ,\
,\.3'7,\
O.3bb
1.431

j
i 1.> ]...;
:::--00--,j ----------,
-- ---' -- _!
84.6914
246.1629
536.1607
972.1240
1545.4196
2654.1125
Q
1000 Gal/Day
Reduction in Intern:J.] (to>.., Section::!l
/\.fC:l from Circular to EHiru:.::ol Shape
ASTNl 03034 0 R 35
Jl ::: 0.010
v
Ft/See
1.5399
2.0106
2.4426
2.8344
3.1826
3_6434
FLOIV ClJARACTLIUSTICS -I've SHI'Ll( I'I!'L
2 FT/1000 FT
5
10
IS
20
25
30
3)
94.1015
273.5144
595.7340
1080.1378
/717,1220
2(l'+() ,0 1.:W
s
Deflection
l\Bl.!. 12
TABLE 43 - FLOW CHARACTEIUSTlCS . PVC SEWER PIPE
S = 3 FT/1000 FT
3.5362
n ::: 0.009
4.04S2
\. I Q
Ft!Scc l 1000 Gal/D:Jy
UlJO I
2.2340 I
2.71-W
3.14Q3 J
TABLE -tl
REDUCTiON IN CIRCULAR CROSS-SECTlOl\AL AREA BY
DEFLECTING FLEXIBLE PIPES
CiVdTUt \' - DESIG:-i
4
6
8
10
i2
IS
4
6
8
10
12
15
pvc
ASTM 03034 DR 3::;
PVC .. J2.:oI1J----C-----n : fUJI I ;
Sewcr r-y I (), I .\' I () i \', {),!
Pipe 1 I-{,)(", IO(J() (dlby I,t/Sec 1O{)()(;al!J);JY I I (1St" IOO(}(,aLD;n\
-, .._'."_........ _.... .. ._-_._-, _._------ -----j
L'lliU! 1,2573 (/1,1502 II J .jun tJ2.:-:k'0!
1.:\241 I 22.' ..'2.)() !.(}'!!? 200.()tl/2 1.12": I
2.21:'\l I 1.:)]30 ::'(l7.(J75:\ J
2.5-1.1 0,SI.92,S0 2..,1 4 12 7'13.7350 2.10.'" 721.570] I
2.S,\7.'! 1402J)3':;{J 2.5<1t;(1 12(d.o.29
0
1147.11oi I
J.3CJ5.,>! 2.97--10 1970,O(17t I
Sewer
Pipe

\/<12 _ h
2
k =:
a
CircLlllll"crl'IlCl' of cir:.:k.ill,
Unddkded pipe !D. in.
I\.'rimdcf of dcrkclt.:d pipe. in,
Elliptic function of the first killd of Ie
circle cross sectional :.:.r.:a.
ellipse crOSS sectional area. in:
undeflected pipe ID. in.
undeflected pipe fildius. in.
deflected pipe long sen)i axis. in.
deflected pipe short serni axis. in.
Where: C =
D =
C =
,
E(k) =
Where: A
c
A
,
D =
I' =
a =
b
c = 40 E(k)
,
Cross sectional aren of del'lected PVC pipe is calculated based all the
assumption that the perimeter of tht: dcrIect(.'o pipe and the circumference
of the undel'lccted pipe arc equal (C = C ). Calculations involve a trial and
,
error computer solution, Cross sc:ctional in deflected PVC
pipe is shown in Table 41.
In using Table 41, two additional factors should be considered:
Flow capacities arc greater in PVC pipe by comparison with
many other pipe materials because of PVC pipe'$ better flow coefficients.
When considering dcfkcted pipe 1!owing parti:.lllY full. open
channel now throug.h all t:lliptical cross section will be better at S0111e
depths and poorer at otller depths due to variation in the hydraulic radius.
EQUATiO:\ '15
EQUATION '17
Wh:':Ia comp3ring detkctecl and tltH.1cfkckJ pipe. consideration must
be given to the pipe's internal The follo\ving equJtions
"pply:
EQUATION 96
E()L!ATION ')7
HANDBOOK OF PVC PIPE
5'-+7.;
"j7,')
0.3bb
J .-1-31
3.14(,
j - (,1
iL:-]";
Reduction in Intern:!) Scction:!l
Area from Circular {O EUi;'tic:!.l Sil:lPC
ASTM 03034 DR 35
,
JO
J 5
20
30
3:'

Def1cction
TABLE 43 - FLOW CHARACTEIUSTlCS . PVC SEWER PIPE
S = 3 FT/lDDD FT
n :::: 0.009 11 :::: 0.010 IJ :::: 0.01 J
\. i Q V Q V' Q I
l 1000 Gall Day Ft/Sce 1000 Gal/Day FUsee! 1000 GaljDart
1.7110 I 94.1015 1.5399 04.6914 1.3999 'I' 76.9922
00' '0 I "7' 'I '4 00106 0 '616
0
9 1 C'O-C' 0,' 78" "- ..).) ""t - ..' "'-'T.' "'- .<.>_/u I -_..). i.r )
2.7HO 595.7340 2.4426 536.1607 2.2205 407.4188
3.J4Q3 10S0.1378 2.8344 972.1240 2.576;) SS3.7..
3.53(':: I 1717.1229 3.1016 1545,4196l,0C)33 1
j :(l..t().OlYJ I 2654.l125 3.3122 I 2";12.8255
REDUCTION IN CIRCULAR CROSSSECTIONAL AREA BY
DEFLECTING FLEXIBLE PIPES
4
6
8
lO
12
15
TABLE
GL". iTER V - DESiGN
4
6
8
10
12
IS
pvc
Sewer
I'ipe
T,\BU. 12 FLOW CIJ,\I(ACTUUSTICS . PVC Sl:\\'U( I'I!'L
S 2 FT/lDOD FT ASTM D3034 DR 35
PVC - I:
Se\\cr \ f II I V ()' \ ()
I 1""0 '::" IJ", _ _!.-I/,s_,-,-J ..!.'!"lI...'.::"f.!'.:"., _ woo (,.t! 1>,1\ I
I I I 'd J' " lS-" q ;:;.., . 1'1 1
1..\ (I It\ X.\.'(l !._. I.) (1 .J. 0._ J hA (l_.XtJ.)"
1:-:.2 \ I 22.'.\2:'(J I.Cdl? 200.<}OJ2 !IQ2"': 1::'-:2.
7
1<1;j
2.21 \l I l.(N-li.f 1.0130 _'<17.
Q
7::'h)
(is .92,SK2..1J"12 7{)3,735() 2.1O,W 721.57:>] I
2.o,\ I !-fa 2.5()?\(l J2(d.829
0
2.362"+ 1J+7.11Si I
3.30 240 .(;(>42 2167.0730 2.70'+"; 1970.0671
j-;;-"-':'-
\-'(1" - hO-
k '" a
CirCLllllfl.'rcllCt of cir\.:k . Ill.
Undd'keted pipe [I). in.
Pl.'ril1leter 01 pip:.', in
Elliptic function of the first kind of k
Where'. C
D
C
,
E(k)
Cross sectional area of dcnectcd PVC pipe is calculated based on the
assumption that the perimcrer of the dctlect\.'u pipe and the circumference
of the undeflected pipe are equal (C C I. Calculations involve a trial and
,
error computer solution. Cross sectional areu in deflected PVC
pipe is shown in Table 41.
In using Table 41. two additional factors should be considered:
Flow capacities arc greater in PVC pipe by comparison with
many other pipe materials because of PVC pipe's better Claw coefficientS.
When considering deflected pipe nu\ving partiallY fulL open
channel now through an clliptical cross st'l.'lion win bc bettcr some
depths and poorer at other depths due to variculon in the hydraulic radillS.
When;: A :;:: circle cross sectional in
2
,
A :;:: ellipse crOSS s'ectional in::
,
D unclef1ected pipe [D. in.
r :;:: undeflected pipe radius. in.
a :;:: deflected pipe long semi axis. in.
b :;:: deflected pipe short semi axis. in.
EQUATIO.\ 95
c, 4" E(k)
C = iiD
WileTa comparing deneded iJnd lIIHJefkckd consideration must
be given to the pipe's internal circumference. The following. equations

iL\:";DBOOK OF PVC PIPE
T,\l1LE 45. FLOW CIIAI(,\CTEIUSTICS. !'\"C SEWER PIPE
TABLE 46 _ FLOW CHARACTERISTICS. pVC SEWER PIPE
ASTM 03034 DR 35
ASTM 03034 OR 35
ASTM D3034 DR 35
S = 7 FT/1000 FT
s 0 8 FT/1000 FT
S = 9 FT/1000 FT
"
TABLE . FLOII CIlARACTLlUSTICS . PVC SEWER PIPE
...
-=; 0.010 n:: 0.011 I
1000 GallO:!.} !
Q 'V
FUSee ) Ft/Sec ! 1000 I FUSee 1000 Gal!D:.Iy
(
r i
; " ."
143.7':;25
I
2.3522 J 29.3682 2.13S-t J17.6075 I _.01.'
3.412 417.0001 3.071 3 376.0201 2.7921
" '1 .>; ...
i
-L145
I 3.731 I
818.9990 3.3919 ;..,...,.).,. ,) I
4.810 {)-t9.9377 '-L3295 1484.9"+39 3.1.)360 13';'9.9490 I
5.401 622.9()39 I
4.3615 2360.6()75 4.-;j'-)6 !
8.iSJ )[).1, .(J(J 31
!
l I " ,
TABLE 47 - FLO\\' CH.\RACTERISTICS PVC SEWER pl.r'E
CHAPTER V DESIG:<
TABLE - FLOW CHARACTERISTICS \'VC SEWER PIPE
U.ooq (Ulll I
o IVI (l ()
1000 (;;I!'lby I IO{)O (;;ll/!J;IY.
I: I I
4 2.7()-lO 153.(11l72 I 2.514() I 13S.30012,,;;-'{lU I 125. 7277 1
6 I 3.2:-;33 101.W;2-1 2.i !0-1S 3bS,-L\S(l I
S 4.-131il W/2.S2W;' I 3.9}-\t\7 I 07S.Sf(,7 ::.(12(,] I 7
'
!5.\lS!{l'
10 'II') "'"l'')7( 1('11.,.::;11')(.'7"711.' "1',')"''''' 1'1"1'::;''''1 _. - _ {(L'.\l. I ' 1_<,'_ V ., ,J I! -+-t.'. _,{l_
12 5.774 5.1973 2523.f15
i
/7 4.7247 22li-L236! I
1S (l.blO 0JS.71
0
5 5.()19(1 -.!33,.f.J477 5.4007
PVC L-
Sewer i Y
Pipe! r C'Sn
I
"
8 '
101
1"1
. 15 I
L_ I
PVC II ::: 0.009 I n ::;: 0.010 II - 0.01l
Sewer
\ , Q !
V Q \ Q
Pipe FUSee 1000 Gall Day I FtjSee 1000 Gal/Day Ft/Sec 1000 Gal/Day
4 2.9635
I
146.6898 2.4247 133.3543
6 3.8694 ,,70.1408 426.3667 3.1659 387.606 I
8 1031.8417 ; 4.2307 928.6575 3.8"16 I 844.23-.!1
10 5.4547 1870.8535 j 4.9092 1683.7681 4.46:::9 1530.6983
12
I
6.1250 I 2l)74.J615 I 5.5115 2676.7463 5.0113 2433AOc.j9
15
I
7.0117 I 5107.8419 I 6.3105 4597.0577 5.7363 4179.1434
83.9U29
25gA041
562)';227
102UA655
lb22.2(}Jl.)
'_ 27S(l.O(l)to i
AsTM D3034 DR 35
ASTM 0303/, DR 35
ASTM 03034 OR 35
S = 6 FT/1000 FT
S 5 FT/1000 FT
S = 4 FT/1000 FT
\ PVC
11 ::: 0.009
11 :: 0.010
n - 0.011
1 Sewer
V
Q
V
Q
V
Q
! Pipe
Ft/Sce
1000 G"l/D"y
FllScc
1000 CaliDa)"
FI/Scc
I 1000
'I
I
2.4 I97
133.0797
2.1777
119.7717 \
1.9797
108.8834
; D \
3.1594
386.8078
2.8434
348.1270
:2 .5S.i9
316.4791
\ 0 , 3.8381

3.4543
758.2-1,57
3.1403
689.3143
i 10 I
4,4538
1527.5455 4.0084 \

I .8099
W
5.0010
2420.3927
4.500
fl 21 35
4.09 I 7 1986.8668
15 5.7250
4170.5354
5.1525
3753.4S19
4.684 I 'I 3412.2563
TABLE 44 _ FLOW CHARACTERISTiCS PVC SEViER PIPE
1
-.--------- . .-- - - -..j
I'\'e II ; O.OOl) Ill" O.IlIU i Ii D.OIl
-,-- 0---
__I
I:, 2.20SS \.,1.,11,,1(, \.<lSSO IO'l..'.",[!\ qq ..N(17
\
1\ 2),:--:.11 3S3.i05tl 2.50 57 317.75(1 2J5Q-2KS.QO.\S
" .5037 .>.1533 (,<l2.ISO'; 2.,,,,,,7 (,2".2"50
. 1 .Ol157 lY).LcI5\() 3.(}591 1255.0(J(1! \ 3.32(15 J j ..lO.()152
I .5(,53 22 I(,JIO')J ,1.1007 1'1'15.\2S2 i 3.7352 IS13.752"
1 .2262 -L7036 3.+2l1 ..Q.+) l ..L27C,O 311 ..\5
1
..\95
I PVC L n ; = 0.010 ! n = 0.011
! s",,, ! V \ Q V Q V Q
I
Pip;,; I FtlSee 1000 GallO;!)' FtjSee 1000 GaUD;!! Ft/Sec 1000 Gat!Day I
- 1-
I 1.9757 103.659\ 1.7781 97.793.1 1.010";
D 2.5796" 315.8272 2.3217 2.110G
b 3.133S 6S7J::945 619.1050 256..+0
III i 3.()365 12-\7.2357 3.2728 I 1122.5121
2
.(l753
! ," \ .I{)",)"n ItlS')7.... tF! ,-;'::;0 1-::'>..;.1JQ,u
j I I " I I
. .. '" .. _0,0 I _,,Jp-,,,U) I
214
lL\t\DHOOK OF I've I'Wl
Tt\BLE 50 -- FLO\V CHARACTEH..ISTlCS - PVC SEWER PiPE given 8_pplication:
Integral Bell Gilsketcd Joints: General Slk'cifit:ation provided
in UNI-B-l
lntegr;:d Bell Gaskctcd Joints and CoupLlngs Pressure:
L'N!-B-l (part). ASTM D3139
Integral Bell G3sketed Joints and Couplmgs >':on Pressure:
U:\I-B-l (purt), ASTM D3212
Solvent Cement l3ell Joints: ASTM D2672
Soivent Cement Couplings: /\STM D3036 (sch::duk 40 :lI1d
c- c,
ol,)1
CHAf"ILI-: \' - DLSiG:-';
Selection. Sckction or propc-rly designc-u linings 1'01'
l:; l\'ndc1'l'd difficult in tk:t lIl:l1lY ;'Htin);!:'.
manuL,:iUrcc! La meet proprktary spccil'it.::JtiuJl';, III t=';,:ncr:d, :\ST\1
:trl..' onl::.' :IV:Jlbbk fur SL'WL'r pipr.: filling" :!Jld ::,;:Ldl dialllckr
schc-uui-: and SO filling:,. With SUIII L' PVC pipt' prudtlCh, ,l-'ooli
pcrfornullce C;111 lw obt:lilll..'d with J'llllllgS !c:; . IrU!1
I-Jllin;-, Oil A\I'\\'A C'JUO PVC pipe J_
PVC !\lUllkip:tl \V:ltL'l i\bill: C:lSt iron flttln).!.\ Il); ('I dJJl1,,'!!-
""".. d pipe. AIVW,\ CI lU
P\'(' Pressur:.: Pipe: brgl' diallll'kr \l'L'lll:lIlt1Ll(-
tUft'r':> spcciricatiollS (-f" to 0" 1l01111na! di;lllll'tLT)
PVC Pressure Pipe: small dialllL'tcr sec schedule-W
:lnd spcciflcatiolls bl'low
PVC Pipe. Schedule 40: AST:\! D24(,(, (1/0" [0 0" llollli",,1

PVC Pipe. Schedule ASTM D2467 (1/0" 1l0mill,,1
di:imdcr)
I've Sewer Pipe: ASTM D3034 (4" to IS" Ilominal diameter)
PVC Sewer Pipe: 8 in. and smaller diameler fittings arc
normally injection molded while 10 in. fittings and larger Sill'
may be either fabricated or injection molded, See manufacturer's
sp::ciflcation. Note: Consult carefully with manufacturer before
llsing fabricated fittings in pressure applications.
A!l/-,urtcllollce Scleclioll. Air and vaCllum release valn::s, pressure
relief v:llves) gate and butterDy valves, air vents, adaptors, castings)
etc. are available in great variety. In many instances manufacturer's
specitlC3.tions are required,
Aggres.she Environl1lcn ts
Chc,',':ica/. In both above ground and ulH.kr-ground applications,
215
n '"- 0.011
\ r-- Q
I 1000 Galihy
ASTM D3034 DR 35 S = 10 FT/1000 FT
I
J 3.123S 171.8051 2.Si 154.62+5 2.5550 I J'+O.567i:l
6 I 4.0787 499.361j7 3.670f) 3.3372 40S.5727
! 8 j 4.9550 1007.6567 97o.S
Q
I(j ..LOS";l 089.9009
j 10 ! 5.7423 1972.0527 5.17.:iX 77-1.:)";75 ..} I J(\j3A977
lULl::: 6.4563 3135.0415 S))J(J& S21.53
7
4 5.2024 'I 2505.0339
I - ... ,. <:; {) - j
;!) 7,.);)Ju .,)0-r,l..hd 6.6.1 ,1)..,-., __..,..' b.O", J
.:\PPL1C:\TiC)i"\
In the tksign or PVC piPlilt: :-,y:.tl.'!ll:', jlL!<.:'liCt till-tales
\,.{Jllsldl'falioll or :ll1d tkSl;'::J ,.:ol1dillUn" prcs:.:ntt.'lJ III thb lbnd-
buok. DJrfc-rL'llt piPlll).!. Illatt'ri:ds, oi l'O\llsl', dl:.l)L!y SI,;!illt'h::lI11ly diflt'!"l.'lll
rl.'\pUllsC:i to aj!grL'ssivt' l'Xj10\1lJ'L'S, strl':-" applli,::dIUll, :llld :-tr;!!ll condillo!ls,
}-';llllillarily wIth :! SPI'(iJ'IL" piping prodLh:t typic:d I'I'SpllllSI.'S,
:lnd pn!orm;IIH.T is, Imkc-d, illlPO!"l;!l1l to tilt' hl' lIt'slgns a
piping using a sp{:ciric product.
To aSSIst tile l'llgilll:n ill the (!t.:\ii:n or P\'(' pipillt.' :1 gl'IlL'l"al
sumlllary of n: coIII JlH.'m!L'd :Ipplicatioll prL'c:llltl(1llS is jll'oVH.i',:d.
Product Selection
Pi/h'Sc/ccIUJlL PVC pip:.:, ;l':':! lksiJ;!l;".'d produ\.'t. rnw:t be ust'll in
the proper application 1'01' WlJil'il it is desi::!ll'll. Insul't' LlI:lt the PVC
pipe product to be used lws a Spl.'-:iril' produ,,'t specification:
PVC ,lunicipal Walcr ,bin: AWlr,-\ C900
Gencral Purpose PVC Prt>ssuJ'c Pipe: D:2241 (pressure
rated), CSA 13137.0, CSA BI37.3
General Purpose PVC Pipe: .'1ST,,] DI 7S5 (schedule rated)
PVC Gravity SelVer Pipe :md Drain Pipe: ASTM D3034 and
UNI-B4
PVC Telephone Duct: 1\DIA TCIO. AT 8546
PVC Electrical conduit: NEMA TC6: NDIA TCS, UL65],
CSABI96.1
Joint Selection. The vast majority of sy'stem failureS experienced
through the years are attribukd to joint fJilure - improper assembly
or design. Insure that the proper joint design is specified for
[PVC I n = 0:009 I
!$.:wer i v I Q -I
i h' ! J.-. 1000 Gal'DJV
-I ; .
OF PVC PIPE
specific exposures to chGll1ical agents should be.: (See
Chapter III - Resistance to Aggn.:ssivc EnYironments.l
Corrosion. Corrosion, due to aggn:.'ssivc soils. nggrt:ssive water,
or electrolysis, is not a design consider;'llion.
Tempera/ute. PVC pipe is ror at 73.4 F
(23 C). When operating temperature higher thun 73.';:]. F (23 C) is
anticipated, PVC pipe response to thermal t'ffcl..:ts must t,e properly
factored into SySt8r11 design. Chapt':.'[ III - Effects and
ChuQtcr V - Static and Dynamic Loadings.) When the PVC pipe is
to be used in applicmions at low rcmperatures [at or
below 32 F (0 C)l, protect the product from imp:t:.:t Allow-
ance should be.' made in for t'\pan:;ion :lnd conl.raction if
substantial varbtion in li...'mp-:rJtUl\::-' .... ;!l hI.:
As willi urIlL'!' pipe prodLlch. PVC pip;: should lh:: buried below tile
frost line.
l1io/ugica/ .-1 (tuck. This :lggr-.:sSIYt' t'xpo:;ure I" nol :t L1t'slgn con-
sllkralion.
JI'nlfhcriJlg, \Vlll'll PVC pipL' is u\cd In !'nl1l:11ll'nt :llH1Yl'-gl'Ollnd
applic;ltions, COl1SillL'r proklting tlll' IrOlll ulir;l-\'jp!l't r;llli;ltion
Isunl ighI),
/lhmsi()/I. Although not a SlIbst:li1Ii;d lOIl\IL! ..,:r;llioll 111 system
design. allow:llll:e for \',irar SllOUld bl' 11l:!dL' wilen l'Xtl'l'lllC ;l!H:lsion is
:nlticipated (e.g., solid material transfer s)stl'nlsl. usc or
ckanillg toob need not be considercd a Si!;'.lliric4lnt soun:\,;' or abrasion
in the design of sewer or Sy'SIt..'llb.
Design for Stress Application, Sys!cm tk::.ign must definl' a PVC pipe
product specifically manufactured to accol1ll11oJak allticipakd stress
cations. Consideration must be gin.:n to planned stress conditions,
S"'ess CUlIdi/iollS. PVC pipt" ill appliccltions can be
exposed to the following stress applications:
Flexural Stress due to earth loading
Flexural Stress clue to live loadin;
Bending Stress due to beam loading
Bending Stress clue to curved alignment
Compression Axial Stress due to thrust under pressure or due
to thermal expansion
- Tensile Axial Stress clue to tlirust uncleI' pressure (solvent
cement joints) or due to Ulermal contraction
Shear Stress due to e\tt'rnal loaDing at rigid structures or at
216
C' \l'TER \' -. DESIGN
connections
Hoop Tensile Stress due to internal hycrostatic pressure
Hoop Tensile Stress clue to internal surge pn:s:;u[C
Hoop Compressive Stress due to cxternJI prt.'55ure
Hoop Compressive Stress due to intern;;! \'8CUUJ11,
PVC pipe in above-ground applications can b::: exposed to most of
the J.Dove listed stresses plus some or all of the foliowing Stresses:
Bending Stress dlle 10 vertical displ:Jc.:merH perpendicular
to the pipe axis (sag)
Bending Stress clue to displacement p:::rp:.:ndic'ubr 10 the pipe
:l\is dlc:cku by thrust under pressure
at pipl' :..;upports efJ't.'ctcd cor::::.'In;,:u weight or
p:p;,: and com'l'Y'l'd fluids
Flexur:d Stress dUL' to imp:!c( IO:lding.
h\xurill.r.;trt's,\, f)CSh:lf, PVC PJPL' lksign for :Jppli-
clIio!l:' rt'l:JtC\ prilll:lrily' to pip;,: stilTnl'ss ;,ll upn:ltn; tl.'lllpcr:ltun:.
In :lppliC:!liollS. tit-sign llltlsl rcL!k to Pi;":..: sl.ifinl'sS :lnd
soil L';ldioJl, (SCl' C!l:Jptn V I.'iLxih!c Pipe Thl'()rJt':"i Till' el'rl.'l.tivl.'
strl'i).. :.:th or a pJpl..-soiJ system using lkxibk 1'\'( pipe :;:1' l.'xt.'l'ctb the
pw\'jtkd by mallY rigid pipe products: hOwl..,:...!'. the rolJow-
ing prl'C;lutiollS are n:cOIllIllClldcdin sysk/ll tlL'::'lgn'
PVC pipe must provide sulTicienl piPl' stiffncs\ to assure COll-
Shtt'llt pipe-:ioiJ Systelll performance. In P\T gra,.!ty seWer sys-
tl':ns. minimum pipe stillness should be 4(1 psi unks5 spel'ific
d
c
si1!1l consiJerations arc provided.
Sufficient soil dCIlsity must be provilkd in PJr:..... embedment
tl
l
3ssure adequate pipe side SUpport. (Set' Chapter VI _ Installa-
[JOn 1.
- Critical soil densities must be provided in the !launching

- Uniform longitudinal support must be provided by pipe bed-
ding.
- Select embedment materials to provide long terEi soil support
strength and preclUde migration of finc grained soil into coarser
material, thereby effecting loss of soil density and
pipe sicle Support.
- At elevated temperatures [over lOa F (3S e)], PVC pipe pro-
vides significantly lower pipe stiffness. Pre-cau.tio::5 should be
exercised during installation.
217
H!u'\DHOOK or: PVC PiPr,
Bending Stress Design. PVC pipe S!i;l1ificant
over man)-' other pipe products in its response to bending stress. The
product will bend rather thun break. Howev::-r. the follo\'/ing pre-
cautions are recommended in system clcsif.n:
In above-ground appiicatiolls, provide- prop\2r supports at
correct spacing. (Sec Chapler V - Support
In above-ground applications, insure hc:avy appurtenances
(e.g., valves, pumps, etc.) art: supported inJ:.:pendently in the
s9stcm design.
In be1ow-i;,round insure tint foul1cb!!on (when
required\ bedding provide unironn !ol1gilthJilwl sup-
port.
Cumpressil't' ilnd Tensile .1.l.!ul S'll't'S> Dt's!.;;'; to :l\' ..... OJ!l-
lllOdate compression ami tCllsion ill :!\l;d :!ll,::n:ncnt b nul l:ritical
unkss JlJ opl'ratl!l:_' h' :lllliei-
Whell t:xtrelllc kl1lpl'rattlrc V:lfJ:tlJul1 jllLh! bt'
C:\l"rciSl' tlie following prcclllllons',
In abo"l'-grotlnd app!lcaliolls, IlhlllT til:!! plpt: suppurts do
not n:strict lon!,:itudinal plPl' mO\'L'Jlh:nt.
In below-groulld applic:llIOllS, Whl'J] lhill!,: llll.'l!ltllll [0 l:ll'b,c
di:lfllder pipe C; ill, "Illd prnvidl' aliow-
ance for expansion and contnlction wIth gaskl't jOlllts.
In below-ground applications. Wlll'll using small di:11l1ctef
pipe (2\12 in. and smaller :.!C(()fllllllHl:tlr..:
sian and contraction with gasket joints if possible. \Vlll'll using
solvent cement joints, "snake" pipe in trench, (Set: Chaptl'r V ,-
Expansion and Contraction.)
Shear Stress Design. PVC pipe provjdes sig,nificant protection
against shear breakag,':.;. When exposed to shear streSS, PVC pipe will
normally deform rather than fail in To accommodate shear
forces, the following precautions should be c:\crcised:
In above-ground applications, insure proper support configur-
ation ancl spacing. Avoid substantial external Ioacling on the pipe
adjacent to a support.
_ In below-ground applications, provide proper bedding and
haunching at connections to rig.id structures.
_ In belo\'l'-ground applications. prevent settlement or shifting
of rigid structures to which PVC is attached.
In below-ground provide proper bedding and
218
CTiAPTER V -
haunching at branch and risc
Hoop TCll.'i'iic awl Compressi!'.' Slress Design. P\'C pipe clt:sign
fa ;:li;COmmoaatc hoop stress is b:'L:icJ on the ISO R-161 Equation,
(Set: Ch:'lIHcr V ..- Internal Hydrostatic Pr;:ssurc.) In design. it is
0131 the correct PVC pip'c compound unci di:1h:nsion r:'ltio
aft' The following precautions are rccommemL.:d:
Select f:J.ctor of s:d'ety for hoop stress application based on
long-term { !00.000 hour; stress data.
(For pressure piping syskmsi, Sck'ct PVC ptpl.' compounu
wi!J;.:h provides minimum tcnsik strength or 700CJ psi (48.3
in cell cJ:!\sificatJo:L (S,,;,: Chapter Ii
I
1lUI pr'..'sstJl\' plPIJlg sysll.'llbl. IJ\\lll\' tlt:Jt ll]j:umUlll hydru-
S(;I[1I.: b:1Sis (1IOB) prm'idl'd by [lit.: PVC J1Lt\'.'n:d is 4uOO
\!Pal.
\Vii;.'!! Sl'Vl'l'l' surge (OndllJUlh :1', III
luI',,:..' lli;llll:-' ;llH] SCHill' llllllliclp:d w:lln 111:1111'., jllll"h.k !ll'l'L'Ss:!ry'
;dlp\\;JrHY, The design oj :\ WWA ('(lOU JlhiudD :1 suq!L'
:J11ow;1l1Cl.
In pressure systellls, provide propn alr fl'lll'l' v;lives
at ill;"':!! points to prevenl surge rd:lll:d tOl'nU:lpPl'd ;ur.
In prl'SSU1\' piping sys{eilJS, provide rt.:ll:...'J' valvcs 10
lIlSUf,.' that maximum rated pn'::';SUl'e IS not l':\cl'eckd.
III 1'1\'SSllre piping :-;ys[ellls, proriJ...: vaCUUlll rcll:..'f valves to
prl'v;'.'!1t dcvl'!opnll'nl under l':\tr<1ordinary conditions.
fFor pressure piping syskms.) At anticipalt.:d
temperatllrl'S above 73.4 F (23 C). apply' the approp,iate design
pressure dL'rating faclors.
lmpdc{ Stress Although PVC pipL' Sif:llificantI,Y
hh;her impact strength than most competitive pipe prodth:b, nonll:Ii
care must be exercised during installation and in the operation of
exposed systems, particularly at low temperatures, [0 aroid impact
damage. following are recommended:
Exposed PVC piping systems operating at temperatures
belo\\' 40 F (4.5 C) should be protected from impo,t damage.
When impact loading of PVC pipe must be accommodated
in sY'stel1l operation, specify hiL!h impact stn:ngth PVC pipe.
(Sec Ch:lj"Hcr II - PVC I\btl'rials.) Consult with !llJnUfaclurcr.
When installing PVC pipe at low avoid impact
0'0
H;\NDDOOK OF PVC PIPE
dam:.l.ge.
Design for SI/'{/ill Accommodulioll. PVC pipe is not considered
a strain sensitive prout!ct. Accomlnod.8.tion of strain through creep
is a natural function of polyvinyl chloride. When designed properly
for a glven application, PVC pipe will exhibit strain through creep
which stabilizes with passage of ;tnlC. resulting in the effective
termination of increase in strain.
The product's c"pability to respond to stress application with
controlled creep provides significant benefits. The advantage gained
is similar to the advantage provided by the willow tree flexing in the
wind storm rather than falling with the stronger but more rigid oak
(JW which cannot yield to the force 0' thc' storm. Str"i" is" naturai
response of pVC pipe under stres;. Stuin" related to long!tudinai
bcndmg and pipe deflection in response 10 external load 'Ire tlle
prim"'Y s\rain design considerations. The following precautions
arc rCl:omnH.:nded:
Do 110t attempt to prt.:vt.:llt controlkd ddkclion ill a huried
al'pIJcation. Deflection is essenld !lJ Ihe 10lld bClIring mechan-
ism.
lkrkction is norlllally not a considcr:ltioll ill prn;surc
pll'rng systems due to the relat!';dy shllllo
w
burial depths and
high pipe slillness provided by p,,,,,,,c ratcd I've pipe (c. g.,
Pressure Class 150 A\V\VA C000).
Deflection in PYC sewer systems (ASTivi ))3034
DR 35) should not result in prociuet failure tit levels under 30c;.
Recommended maximum cktlcction limit is 7
1
/:<'; for I'YC
sewer pipe. In systems using ASTivi D3034 DR 35 pipe, the
factor of safety against failure in ddlection exceeds 4.0.
General Design Recoll1m
e
ndations
Frosl Pel/elratiol/. pYC water pipe in buried applications should
be protected from freezing. Insure that the prodUct is buried beloW
the frost line anticipated. As with other piping materials, PVC pipe
can rupture wilen water freezes in confined conditions (e. g., valves
closed at both ends of a filled line). When thawing frozen PVC water
lines, avoid damage to the pYC pipe with excessive heat. Do not
expose the pipe to open flame. Frozen lines may be thawed with
steam jets; however, the lines must not be under pressure during the
steam thawing process. Increased earth loading from frost penetra-
tion is easily accommodated by PVC pressure pipe. Beam bendins
220
Cl!/.. FTER V - DESIeN
action due to frost hem'a] '.vill not cause brc<ikag:; common to many
pipe products.
111:-:;h lVater Table or Wet Conditions. PVC pipe is well suited for
use when buried below the anticipated ground water table. The fol-
lowing precautions tirc recommended:
If possibk, de-water the trench before installation to provide
proper working conditions and stable trench conditions.
When installing PVC pipe under water, insure proper pIpe
embedment.
When PVC pipe is installed below anticip:ltcd water table,
only imported bedding :'!11(.1 !launching rh:'it arc
compatible W1111 the soil tilUS prevcnting migration into
the voids 01' tllt.: or trench soils, thereby destroying
pip...: side support.
PVC pipe is buoyant. The PVC is heavkr thall w;.Ht.:r
(Specific Cravity 1.40): howl'vcr, till' pIp': witl fl.':ldily float if
not filled with wakr or \vith badJill lllateri;.\l.
Prevent loss of COJllplL'kd pip:..' embedment through notation of
til<.' pipe whell llsing flooding or j:..'! ting Illdltods for soil COllSU-
lid;ltioll. Sand bags ill;l)' be llsed during instaibtioJl to prt.:vent
pipe flotation.
J/(J!l//(J/c COl/l1ee/iolls, PVC gravity sewer pipe with inkgral bell
gaskckd joints C.:lll easily lilllit ground water infiltration to 50 gallons
per inch of diameter per mile per day (4.6 l/llllll of diamcLer!
km/Ja;.): however. proper manhole connections arc essential to gooel
system performance. The following precautions arc recommended:
Insure stable foundation and bedding for the manhole alld
connecting pipe to prevent shifting which could impair Connec-
tioll integrity.
Usc a water stop gasket produced from clastomeric material
that prevents leakage while permitting longitudinal pipe move-
ment.
Use a non-shrinking or expansive type grout for making con-
nections of pipe and waterstop to manhole walls.
Serrice alld Laleral COllllecliol/s. PVC pipe affords ease in mak-
ing line The following precautions recommended:
- 1.n gravity sewer lines. use proper fitting or saddles at service
linl:. branch) or lateral connections, Cut hoks in the sewer main
line: with a sharp hole saw or cutting tool.
221
223
CfPJ!TER V - DESiGN
"ASME Guide for Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems." American
Sodety of I\1echanical Engineers, New York, N_Y. (19731.
"AWWA Standard for Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Prcss:..:rc Fipe, 4 In. through 12 in.,
For Water. AWWA C900." American Water Works ..\s:::ociJtion, Dc:n'ler, Colorado
(June 1975).
:lnd DcOcctjOJl Cuutrul oJ LhHi:.:J Sted Pipe Supporting
SO;"H.:ty for le:,tl!lg dud \bterials, Pro.:. 57
"D<::'iJL!Jl
LU:/lls. "
5. Ibrn:Hd, R. E.
brtll .:J.nd Live
(19571
CHAPTER V
BlDLlOGflJJ'llY
"AGA Pipe i\Ianual for Gas Service." Amcricc'.!i G::5 Assuci:1tion, Arlington,
Virginil. Cat. No. X50967 (April 1971).
Airpori Rumvay Depth of Cover Tables, National Corrugated Sted Pipe Associa-
tion, ShiUer Park, Illinois.
6. Bi!;!ltlp. R. R. "The Struc{ur;t! l'erfOflll:lIl(l' or Pulynnyl C1dofldl' Pipe SubFcted
to Extern:!! Soil UlljlU!l!lS!H:J .\bskrs Ut;dl StalL' UniverSity,
Log;m, U!:J11 (tiLly ItJ73).
7. Bisllllp, l{un:lld R. ;I/Hl Roland W. JepPsoll. "llydrau!J.: Ch;:r;u.:tenstk:-. or PVC Pipe
in S:llllLlry Sewer!;." Ul;lll Slate Univeliiily. LOg;lll, Ut;ilL tS,:pl. Jo-;S).
8. Chall!::, F. S. C. "Predictioll of pipe burs:tn:; slress fwm short lillle
tests," Suclcty or Plastics Engincers. 271h AlJllu;l! Confercllce. bpcrs
VIS "by 196\)) 1'.154.
9. Cohn. \lorris 1'..,,1. By the Magic oj' Chemistry: PI)1: LinC} ;;11' Progress. eCl't:tlll-tced
Product:; Corp., Valley FOJ'gc, Pa. (j975).
10. Design (lnd Coustruction oj'Sallitm]' ([lid Sturm Sewers. ASCE ;\bnual and Report
on EnglIlccring Practice No. 37. (WPCF i\lJnual of Pra>:ticc No.9). American
Socictv o{ Civil Endncers and the Water P'Jllution CQntrol Fedcration, Ncw York,
N. Y.(1974). '
11. Findlcy. W. N. and J. F. Tracey. "16 - Year Creep of Polycthylt'nc and PVC."
MRLE - 88, Ei\1 RL . 57. JVlakria!s Scienccs Program. Brown Univcrsity,
dence, R.1. (November 1973).
12. "Flow of Fluids Through Valves, Fittings rlrld Pipe." Tedmical Paper No. 410,
12th Printing. Crane Co., Chicago, Illinois (1972).
13. Handbook 0/ Drainage alld Construction Products, Arm.:o Drainage unci Metal
ducts, Inc. Middletown, Ohio (1955) p. 554.
14, Handbook of Steel Drainage and HighlVay COllstruction .Products, American Iron
and Steel lnstilute. Donneliey and Sons, Co. (1971).
222
At aU brunch, service, and l:1teral connections in both non-
pressure and pressure systems, provide proper beddi.ng and
haunching to prevent excessive shear stress.
Service line connections into PVC pressure pipe may be
accomplished with tapping sadJL::s or, in certain products,
through direct tapping. Sec mrii1ufacturer's specifications for
tapping saddles; insure proper design for PVC pipe. Direct tap-
ping of PVC pipe is limited to heavier wall sizes of AWWA C900
product. Refer to pipe manufacturer's recon111lcntlations.
(See Chapter VI - Service Connections.)
Pipe Storage During Construction. PVC pipe unless specially
formulated for expusure to ultrJ.-vlokt SllOUIJ IV,,! be
exposed long-term to direct sunlight. (S-.;;,; Cllapkr 111-
Normally, PVC pipt' in storage exposeJ to dircd sunlight 1'01' less
than six months \vill not suffer signifI-:-ant loss or impact strength.
If exposure is necessary, protect tilt: product from
ilgllt. (Sl'L' Chapter VI -- Storagt: and Handling.l WhL'1l cOllsidt.'rillg
tillle limit for prolonged t:xposed storage, obtain
recomlllCndat ions.
Initial rljJe Filiing aI/(/ PVC pn::,>,-;url' piping systt:lllS
should be (\t:signt:d to aCCOlllll1odai-.' illtt:rnai h)/drost,ltic pressure
and operational surges with atkquatc f:H.:tor of safdY Few prt:;;>surc
piping systems, PVC as wdl as otbcr products. can be designcd
econoll1icatly to accolllmodate abuse during line filling, and
The following precautions an:: rl'COllllllcndcd:
Insure that proper air relief vJlves arc and
ing properly at all system elevation peaks.
Purge all trapped air at hydrants and deadocnds.
Fill line slowly. Flow velocity during initial pipe filling
should not exceed 2 rt/sec. prererably not in excess or I rt/sec.
Do not place line in service until all inspection and testing is
successfully completed.
Close valves and hydrants slowly when flushing the line.
JU,,!'iDDOOK OF PVC PiPE
28.
16.
20.
"The Na lwt' of Ilydrost;J! Ie Till1c-tol{upt ure P!tltS. PPI lechlllc:;d j\plC'. PI'lT:\ 7."
P!:rstic:; Pipe lnsilllltc. 0t'W York, N. \ .. (Sept ll}73l.
Neale. Llwrcllcc C. 2nd Robelt E. Price. "Flow CI!'lrill..'lcrbtics llf PVC Sewer
Pipe." JOUIll;r! u( Silllitary f:nl;lllL'crs DI\'. PlOt'. YO Si\3. 109
Nesbcitt. \L D. "Longlife Safety or PVC Water Pipe." J\lodcrn Pbstics. L\t:w \'ork,
N. Y. (L\u\,. ]lI75).
Mo:;cr, A. J' "Call Pl:!:-;ll<: Se\'l{,.'r Pipe.: Ik Illstalled \VlllJ 100',,: COlilhkil'k'I,.'.'" I're:-.cn.
t,Jtlon ,II Iii:: An!l\d l\kctillg of the ASSE, Nt.:w OrkllJs. LL
A. P.. Ie K. \\;Itkill:\, alld O. K. ShllPl:. and I'nlorlll:!l1Ct' or PVC
Subjc;,;ted to LxtCfll:r1 Soil Prcsslllt.:." Buried Stru;,;turt':, Llbpl;llory, ULJ!l
St:ltc Univcniity. Logan, Utah (.June jW/tl)
37.
39.
36.
38.
40.
41. Nesbcitt, W. D. "PVC Pipe in Water Distribution: Rellabillly
Americ.m W3!er \Vorks Association Journal, v. 67,110. J 0 (1975) p. 576.
42. Newmark. l\. ,\1. "Influence Charts for Computation of Stresses in EJastic Founda-
tions." Ulllvcrsity of Illinois, Engineering Experiment Station, 13ulle till 338 0942).
43. Pannaki'lll. J. "Pressure Surges at Large Pump Installations." TrailS. ASi\JE,
75:995 (1953).
44. Pannakiafl. J. Water Hammer Analysis, Prcnticc-l-!:dl, Inc., New '{ark, N. Y.
(J 955).
35. Molin, J. of Calculation for UllderbfOuno LUJd, D,.":fk\:.
lion, Strain." ISu/le 130/\\'(;6 (S\veden - 3) (Jan. 1971)
CHArTER v - DESIGN
Manual of Recommended Praclice, American Railway Engineering /\S50C., AREA
Spec 1A-28, Chicago, Hlinois.
225
Anson, u.nd A. O. Anderson, "The Theory of Load:; on Pio;::s in Ditches
and TeSt';; of Cemcnt J.llJ Ciay Drain Tile and Sewer Pipe." Bul. 31,10
'
,','<1 Engineer-
ing Experiment Station, Ames, 10w:I, 1913.
34. Mudcm Plasrics Lncyc.Ijpcdiil. annually by Modem ;\kGr:l\v.Hill,
New "lurk. \, Y.
L "fvlaintcl1;'HlcC and 0rtratioll of G3.S Systems. A.Jmy TI\15-654, NA\"F/,.C - MOJ20,
Air Force AFM 91-6" U. S. Government Printing Ofikc, \V::;shingioil, D. C.
1970).
CHAPTER V
BIBLIOGRAPHY - Continued
45. Perry, John H. Chemical Engineer's Handbook, 3rd Edition, McGraw-Hill, New
York. N. Y. (1950) PI'. 377 -- 387.
46. Pipe F'rictic1l! J/a!lual, 3rd Edition, l1ydr:1Ulic fnstitute, l\C\\i York, 1\. ) .. tJ961).
K
f
!
l'
i:
t


!
!
f
,
t
!

)(
I
I
B
f,
Killeen, N. D. and J. S. Schaul. of determining hydrostatic design stresses
for PVC pressure pipe." Interpace Technical Journal, v. I, No. I t196.f) p. 17.
Kolp, D. A. 'Water Hammer Generated by Air Release." Colorado State University
Thesis, (August 1968).
30. Uu, Henry. ;'.\lanning's Coefficient for Smooth Pipes." ASCE Journal of Sanitary
Engineer. Div. Proc. 98 SA2, 353 (1972).
29.
224
CHAPTER V
lamon, J. L. ;llld J. 1\loltll. "Practk:d EXpc.:f1CI1Cl.';-' w1l11 Scwel PljH':\."
S(llllhhalllpton Ln);lanJ ConierelH.:t:. Study\' (Sept. IlO'::.}.
21. Jeppson, Roiand W., Al/alysis of Fi{m' ill I'lll!' Sdworks. Ann :\rhol SCll:llce,
Ann Arbor,l\hdllt,-.lll (lln7l.
BIBLIOGRAPHY - Continued
',"I Robnd W.. Curdon II. FlaI1Hlll:'l. (;:llY Z. \\;ltlcr:-.. "b;pl,.'rlfllcntal Study
of Walcr Ibmmcr ill Buried PVC and PlllCS," lkdl W:lll'l l<t'sc:ndl
or Enginel:ring. Utah Statl' (April
1(72).
23. Kern, Robert. "How to Compule Pipe Size." Chernleal Ellg.ll1
C
Crlnl; (J:tn. ]lnSl
1'.115 -- 120.
24. Kerr, S. L. "Effect of Valve Actiol1 on Water llammer." AWWA Jourual, 52:65
(1960).
25. Kerr, S. L. "Surges in Pipelines _. Oil and Water" Trails. 72:667 (J950).
26. Kerr, S. L. "Water Hammer - A Problem in Engineering Dcsig.n." Consulting
Engineer (i\hy 1958).
27. Kerr, S. L. "Water Hammer Control," Journal AWWA, 43:985 (Dec. 1951).
Hermes, It M. "On the Inextellsional Theory of Deformution of a Rigllt Circular
Cylindrical SheiL" Presented j,t West Coast Natio1i3,J of tht: /l.pplicd
l\1echanics Divisioll, AS:'v!E (June 1951).
Howard, A. K. "Laboratory Load Tests on Buried Flexible Journal AWWA,
(Odober 19721.
,
Howard, Amster K. "i\lodu!us of Soil Reaction (E') Values for Buried Flexible
Pipe." Journal of the Geotechnical Engineering Division, ASCE, Vol. 103, No. CT,
Proceedings Paper 12700 (J::in. 1977).
Ilucks, Rober! T. "Design of PVC lJistributiDll Pipe." Civil Engine.:enng,
ASCE,42:6;70(JUlle.: 1972). pp. 70 --7."\.
J9. ilu<:b, Robe.:rt T. "DesIgning PVC Pipc lor W;lter
AWWA, {1(72).
1
,
<,,'.
17.
15.
HANDBOOK or pvc PiPE
HA?<DDOOK DF l'\"C I'il'E
CHAPTER V
BIBLIOGRAPHY - Continued
Bulletin 153,
I,
BIBLIOGRAPHY - Continued
Sp:mg!el", \1. G. "The SlfUclur:d DeSIgn of Flexible
fuwa Engineering Experiment Station .Ames, Iowa (1
69. Shtl1dlfnl Spccijfeilfi(J1l j(Jr Puhlic Il'lJr!(s Comfrucrioll, A11Jc, !t'all PLlblk' Work'.
ASSOCJ:I(IOIl ;md C;clleral Los /\ngelL':,. CdifofJlI;1.
71. "Swnu;lrd Test ;VIethod for Short-Timc Rupturc Strcngth of Plastic PIpe. Tubing
f'lttinp. j\STM D1599." American Sodcly for Testing alld Materials, Phila-
delphia, Pa. (1974).
72. Streeter. Victor L. Fluid Mechanics, 2nd Edition, i\lcGraw]-lill. Nev,' )ork. N. Y.
(195,) p. 175 - 107.
66. "St3iJdard ;\L.;thpd fllr J!vdrusl:l[J(; [Jesl!.'.!l lUI '/ hCfl1HJPbstk PJnl'
Materials. AST:Vl Amerlc;;n Soewty fur and
phi;], P;!. (1\)]0).
Spangler, i\l. G. :..tnd R. L. ll<lndy, Soil Engineerilig, lntext l:ducatio;d PubL, NeVi
'Ymk,N. Y.(1973)_
73. Strc'2ter. V. L. ,IIll! E. B. Wylie. !/vdraulic Trawiellls, McGraw-Hill. ;\t:w York.,
"- y, (1967).
Sprinkler frrigmiull Handbook. The Irrigation Association. SHvGr Spring. MJfyland.
65. "Stand:lld :'krhod of Test for Tirne-ToFal!url' of Pl;!$tic Under Long-Term
Hvdrostutic AST!\l D15
l
)3.' :\.llH..'rkan S(Klo.:tv fm
f', (I in(j)
",... f I ",.. "., --, .'
70. "S(al1l!:nd SpC(lfJca(IOl1 rol' Type PS,\II\ll,Y (Vinyl Chloride) (I'VC) Sewer Pipe and
Fit AST,\I 1)3031." American Snclt'ty for Test ing alld MatefJals. PillladeiphiJ.
p;:. (l974l.
C/l/i.f'TER V - DESiGN
67. SWlldiJrd .'''!It'e1jlCl/fion jor IJigl!\\'a)' !fridge.... , of '\\;llc
\\;:y \\';ls!lIllrtPll, D. C. (j \)bi )}
60. "St;lIld:Jld '\i1t:CIJh':;I{IUJl for Poly (VJllyl Clduflde) (I've) PL!'.th': PIPt' ISDf{.PJU.
A:-;T.\l t\mr:rk:ll1 SUcletv lor lC:';(1l11: and ,\Ll\elDh, Pln!:l\J::jp!lI::, P:i.
( ! (76), -. .
CHAPTER V
74. Symons, Gcorg..c E. "Dcsign and Selection: Valves, Hydrants. and Fittings. Manual
of Practice Numbcr Four." Water and Wastcs Engineering. Dun-DonneUcy Publish.
ing Corp" New York,?', y, (May 1968),
75. Symons. George E. "Water Systems Pipes and Piping. Manual of Pructice Number
Two_" Water ;md Wastes Engineering. DUll-Donllcllcy Publishing, Corp" York.
N, y, I}loy 1967),
Ul1i.!lt:llI'J;i:;tlc Pipe A""ul;'ta-
" Ulll.lh:J! Pi;l\tic PqH: A:-",11\:ia
Works." Creal L:d:l'\Upper i\lississippi
Alb:lllY.?\. Y. (l
l
17\ l.
226
Hydrostatic ::>trcngtlls of Thermoplastic Pipe,"
Association Plastic Pipe Sympo,:;iurn. Arlington,
I
!
I
,
!
!
[
f
Frank W. "Long-Term
Proceedings - 4th American Gas
Virginb. (1973).
Rcinhan, F. W. 'Lons.term Working Stress of Thermoplastic Pipe." SPE Journal,
v, li,no,SlAugust 196I)p, 75,
Reissner, E. "On Finite Bending of Pressurizetl Tubes." Journal of Applied i\lc .
chanics Transactions of ASiv!E. (Sept. 1959) pp. 386 - 392,
ft'
Sansone. L. F. "i\ comparison of short-timc \'crsus longtime proper tics of plastiC "
pipe unJcr hydrostalic pressure." SPE JoufJl',ll. v. 15. no. 5 (;'lay 1959) p. 4iS. j
"Recommended Standards for Sewage
River Huard of State Sanitary Engineers.
"Recommended Standard Spt'dJ"ication for Polyvinyl ChlonJe (PVC) Pl:',stic
GraVIty Sc\vcr Pipe and U\'I-B-1-." Uni-Dell Plast!( Pipe Assocatioll
,
Dallas, Texas (1'177),
"!\ccn;lHllCnded Service (lkslpl) hl(tur;.. fur !'r\:\:-urc Apr-Il>.:;t[lom or TltCfllW-
pbstic.: P1PC PPI Technical lZC;lurt. PPITR ll." Pb"t1cs lnstltute,
York,:;. Y. (August 1973).
"I've PIP\.' '1 cdwology Sen'liI
t
; the Waler IJldt1:;try."
tlOIL D,db", Te;';;IS ([077),
"I've l'ljlt' 'I t'ciuwlOi-'Y St'l\'lll\:; the Sewer Illlhl\(f:
IIOil. U;db:-.. Tl'xa:-. (I W17),
"PVC PIp:: (ur Water DlstrihutlOll Sys.telll:-'." Tedllllc;d J{::pOll, InJ'tHlll:lllon
prt';;'t'nlt:d by PJaslil;S Plpt: Illstitute to AW\\ A St;ul,brd\> (Ull1ll11ttC
e
Oil Pbs
Ilc l,!;)c, CiJl"::lrO, IHlllOJS (Junc 1t)72).
61.
60,
59.
58,
;) f.
56,
55.
5..\,
5.' .
52.
S1.
Design fol' Waler and Wastev,'Jter. Amerk::n Sodety or Civil Eng!necr$,
New York,?', y, (1975),
48. Plastics Pipi!!g Manila!. Pipe Institute. New '{ork, N. 'y'. ;1976).
49. "Poiide$ and Procedures for Recon1Jl1c!l(!t:d Design Stresses
for Thermoplastic Pipe !,,1aterials. I'PI Technic:.!! R.:port, PPJ-TH":;.' Plpe
Institute, York, 1'1. Y. (June 1Y7Sj.
50. "Poly (Viny! Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Piping Design and Ios-ulbtion PPI Technical
PPl.T!{i3' Pipe Institute, :';',:w }o:k. .N. "y'. ! .
1'('lHL'roy, 1Z. U, "Flu\\ Vdocltie;; 111 Sm;dl jouf'd \\,PCL Vol. 30,
(I tSept. 1'lb 7).
H./j,.NDBOGK OF FVC PiPE
CHAPTER V
UlBLIOGRft"..PHY - Continued
127
67. Stalldard S/'t'cJ/i'caliui! Jor IJrgItH'{f,\' AIJll'ficall of St:rtc IJit:b.
W:!j' Ot'ficJ::h. Wa<,hillgtoll, D, C. (jlJ{J(ll.
68. "Stand:ild for Poly (VlllyJ Cldorltk'J (PVC) l'bsti;; Plpt' (SV1U'iZl.
D.:'2:,j ," AlllCrJi.:.lll Soclcty lor ,illt! M;!tcr'I;!ls. Fllibd:.:Jpltia. 1\1 .
(I "7(,),
IHBUOGRft.PHY _. Continued
64_ Sprinkler irrigalion JJandbook. The lrrig,ation SiJv-::[ Spring, t.'brybnd.
CHAPTEI< V'
62. Spangler, ,\1. G. "The Structural Design of FJe:dblc Pipe Culverts." Bulletin] 53.
Iowa Engin;:::.;ring Experiment Station, Ames, iowa (1941).
63. Spangler, 1,1. G. and R. L. Handy, Soil Engineering, lnl-cxt Educationa! Publ., l\'cw
York, N, Y. (1973).
71. "St,lllu,lrd Test ;"lcthod for ShortTime Rupture Strength of Pbstic Pip''::. Tubing
and ASTi\1 D1599." Amcrlcan Socictv for Testing and Materials, Phila-
delphia,P;;.(I074L .-
72. Streeter, Victor L. Fluid Mechanics, 2nd Edi1Joll, McGraw-Hill, New )ork. N, Y.
(1958)p, /75 -187,
73, Streeter. V. L Jnd E. B. Wylie. Hydraulic Transients, 1\lcGr;lw-1lill, ;'<cw York.
K Y, (1967).
70, "StalhJard Sp.:dflc:ilioll for Type I'S\IPoly (Vinyl (,hlondc) (PVC) SGwer Pipe and
Fittin)!s. AST;-"l D3034." American Sodety for "Tcstlllg :Ind PhilaLlelphb,
1',1. (1974 j,
69, Stiln(/ard .)'pt'Cl)'lcalion FJr Public Works COlls!rlle/ioll, j\n1l'ric;11l Public Work:>
Assuciation ;H1d AssocI,lted Gelll'ral ('O!l\i;l!..:lors_ Los Angeks. Cdifornla.
66. "St:llltbrd .\kUlU:.l fur Obtaining llydru:.l;!tic Dt.'Slgfi l.b"lS lu! Tlier:nopi:lstit; Pqil:
i'.btcriab. ASTi\l D2;)37" Amcl'ii.:;.l\l SocIety fur illlJ Pllihtdel-
plda, P,L (19701.
65. "Standard 1'.l;::t!luJ of Test for Tlllle1oFailure of PiastlC Pipe Under Long-Term
Hydrost;,tk Prl':;surc. AST!\i D159S. -. SUCil'ly for :.tnd i\lat!'fi:.ds..
PhiLlddphb. P". (i 976).
CHAPTER V - DESIGN
74. Symons, George E. "Design and Selection: Valvcs, Hydrants, and Fittings. Manua!
of Pr::Jcticc l\umbcr Four." Water ,lnd W::JSlcs Enginecring. DunDonnelley Publish-
ing Corp., New York, N, Y. (May 1968),
75. SymoIlS, Gcorge E. "W::Jtcr Systcms Pipes and Piping. rvlanual of Practice Number
Two." W<Jtcr and Wastes Engineering. Dun.Donnclley Publishing Corp., York.
N, Y, (,\Iay 1967).
American Suciety of Civil Engincers,
Works:' Great i\tississippi
Albany, C;, Y, (1971),
Velocities in Sm:Lll St.:wcrs."
226
"Reconllllended Standards for Scw:n:e
r':jvcr Bl1ard of Swtc Eng,inecr's.
"Recommended Standard Specification for Polyvinyl Chloriuc (PVC) Plastic
Gwvity Sewer Pipe and Fittings. UniBeli PlastiC Pipe Assocation,
Dallas, Texas (1977),
Reinhart, Frank W. "Long-Term Hy'drostatic Strengths of Thermoplastic Pipe,"
Proccedings _ 4th American Gas AssociHtion Plastic Pipe Symposium, Arlington,
Virginb (1973),
Reinhart, F. W. "Long-term Working Stress of Thermoplastic Pipe." SPE Journal,
v, 17, no, 8 (Augost 1961) p, 75,
Reissner, E. "On Finite Bending of Pressurized Tubcs." Journal of Applied Me
chanics Transnctlons of ASME, (Sept. 1959) pp, 386 - 392,
L. F. "A comparison of short-timc versus long-time properties of plastic
pipe ulluer hydrostatic pressure." SPE Journal. \'. IS, no. 5 (i\lay 1959) p. 418.
1\'llH::roy, R. D. "Flow
t\(l. 9 (Sept. 1967),
"PVC Pipe ror W;ller Uistributiol1 'TCC!Jllll;;l! Rej1urt, Illfoffll:ition
Plt'St'lllt'd by Plastic:; PIpe w 1\\\'\\',\ St:llllbnl:i. COnlllllltet: on Pias
tiC PIpe, Chicago.ll!illois (June IIJ72).
"PVC Pipe Technology Serving tIle Sewt'f UlIiBdl PLtstH: Pipe ASSUt:I;i-
iit1;1, U;dlas, Texas (1\)77).
"PVC Pipe Tl:c!lnology Serving the Water Industry," Uni-Ikll Pl:l:itic Pipe Assoda-
(l,lll, l);dLis, Tcxa:::. (1977).
"iZl'Ct)[11111Cnded Service (lks'lgn) fur Pre':'';'Jrt.' AppIH;;:tlon:> of Thcr1llo
pListk Pipe Materials. PllI Tecllnic.d Report, PPjTR II." Pbstil.:s hpe lmtitlltc,
l\cw \\nk, N. Y. (Atli!-ust 1(73).
61.
60,
59.
57.
58.
56.
55,
54.
, "
.'-).
52.
51.
Piastics Piping Manual. Plastics Pipe Institute, Nev/ Yurk, N. Y.(1976).
49. "Policies and Procedures for Developing RecommenJ(J Hydro:;tutic Design Strc:-:ses
for Thcnlloplastic Pipe Maleri:l!s. PPI Technical Report, PPI-TR3." Plustic:> Pipe
In'ititute, Nhv York, N. Y. (Junc 1975).
50. "Poly (Vinyl Chioridct (PVC) Plastic DC'iign alld lllstalbtioll PPI Technical
PPI-TR!3" Pi;lstics Pipe iwt!:. ''(':w \' ork, 1\. Y. (, "\ 1t}7
3
)
Journ:d \\,PCF. Vol. 39,
47. Pipeline Design for H'Olcr dlld WasteWaler.
:Ncw "lork, N. Y. (1975).
HM<nf.OOK OF I've PIPE
CHAPTER V
BIBLIOGRAPHY - Continued
76. Symons, George E. "Wastewater Systems - Pipes and Piping. Manual of Practice
Number Three," Water and Wastes Engineering. DunDonnelley Publishing
New York, N. Y. (Sept. 1967).
77. "Thermal Expansion and Contraction of Plastic Pipe. PPI Technical Report,
TR21." Plastics Pipe Institute, New York, N. Y. (Sept. 1973).
78. "Thermoplastic Water Piping Systems. PPI Technical Report, PPI-TR16." Plastics
Pipe Insti\utc, New York, N. Y. (Aug. 1973).
79. Timoshenko, S. and D. H. Young. Elements of StrengrJz of Materials, Fourth
Edilion, Van Nostrand Company, Princcton, N. J. p. Ill, p. 139.
80. Til11oshcnko, S. P. Theory 01Elastic Srability, Second Edill(Jl). McGrawHill, ! ()61.
gI. TlIlloslJenko, S. P. Strengrh alMalerials, Parr JI - Adl'tll1ccJ Theory and Problems,
V::ln Nostrand Company. Prince lon, N. J. (1 96:)) pr. un - 190.
H2. W;ltkins, R. K. and A. P. i\!oser. "Respunse of Corrugated Steel Pipe to EXlcfIla[
Soil Prcssures." Iligll\vay Research Record 373 (1971) J 12.
Watkim. R. K., A. P. {\.Imel' alld R. R. Bishop. "Strlll.:tural of Buried PVC
PJpe." r-,'Iodern Plastks, (Nov 1(73) pp. B0 90.
X4. WatkllJs, R. Ie and A. n. Smith. "Ring DdlcctlOll of Buricd PIpe." jOlll'lIalAWWA,
No.3 (March 1967).
85. Watkins, R. K. alld M. G. Spangler. "Some of the 1\lodulus of Pas
Sive Resistance of Soil A_Study in Similitude."
86. Watkins, R. K. "Design of Buried. Pressurized Flexible PIpe." ASCE National
Transportation Engineering {\.'lceting in Boston. :\lass. Appendix C (July 1970).
87. Watters, G. Z. "The Behavior of PVC Pipe Under the Action of Water Hammer
Pressure Waves." Utah State University, Utah Water Research Laboratory H.eport,
PRII'G 93 (March 1971).
88. "Water Flow Characteristics of Thermoplnstic Pipe. PPI Tedmical Report, PPJ
TRI4." Plastics Pipe Institute, New York. N. Y. 1971).
89. White, H. C. and J. P. Layer. "The Corrugated :\.letal Conduit as a Compression
Ring." Highway Research Board Proceedings. Vol. 39 (1960) pp. 389 - 397.
90. Wilging, R. C. "Stress Rupture Testing of PVC Pipe." Modern Plastics, 57:10:90
(October 1974).
228
CHAPTER VI
CONSTRUCTION
A series of factors contribute to a functional PVC piping system -
raw materials, and development, product specifications, manu-
factoring. quality control, design, and construction. The importance of
proper construction practice for any piping syskm cannot be overstated.
Recommended practice for construction procedlm:s is presented in the
following calcgorics:
Rcc;civing, Storage, and Ilandling
Joint Assembly
Installation
Appurtenances
Inspection and Testing
In most jnst.ll1CCS, with exceptions cited in the following. recom-
mended practices, good construction procedure applicable to any piping
product is proper for PVC piping products.
229
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~
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rn ~
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233
CilAY[U{ ",'1 - CO;\STRl'C"flO."\
, 'OOS!! pipes
"rrow
L .hc,ho'.... n
1ih
.....
'7'\.'=r"""\F.'. "-r-,

0' ..
.. I" "'\\.
iAO0 6:::-'.. /' \\ \\.
\\
.. -'--
-j';'
- Remove restraints from the
top unit loads. These may
be either fabric or steel
straps, ropes, or chains with
padded protection.
- If there are boards across
the top and down the sides
of the load which arc not
-----
part of pi pc packaging. rc- .. con".
move them.
- lise a fork lift (or front
end loader equipped with
(L1rks) to fl.'move eaclt top
unit (one at a time) from
the truck. Remove back
units tirst. Do not rlln the
lorks too (ar under units ;IS
!"I,)rk cnds striking adj,lcefll
unit...., may cause damage.
It' a fork lift is not ,,,ail-
abk. a spreader har with ._\
fabric straps which arc I,'
capable of handling _j
the load. With straf)' -. ,.,,'2}---
>:"',' . I ':'. V ,' ..\<'\
::......./ .. ..; - . j .' , .......: .. ,"':'.\'
'paced approxlnwtely (if'.;" .. ' ..".<'
. "'td>
Sleet apart and loop-
ed under the load may
be used. Cables may CHOCK BLOCK
also be used if cushioned with rubber hose slce"es or other mate-
rial to prevent abrasion of the pipe.
- During the removal and handling be sure that the units do not
strike anything. Severe impact could cause damage (particularly
during cold weather).
Caution:
Do not handle units with individual chains or single cables, even
if padded.
Do not attach cables to unit frames or banding for lifting.
- Pipe package units should be stored and placed on level ground.
Package units should not be stacked more than 8 feet high. Units
COI\STRUCTION
RECEIVING, STORAGE AND HANDLING
Receiying- When receiving the PVC pipe shipment at the job site. the
contractor or purchaser should exercise established precautions. The follow-
ing procedures are suggested as common practices to prevent problems.
Ipspeclion-Each pipe shipment should he inventoried and inspected
with care upon arrival. The pipe was inspected and loaded with due care at
the facton using methods acceptable to the c"rrieLlt is the carrier's responsi-
bili[y to ddivcr the shipn1cnt in g(lud condition.]t b thc respllJ1sibility oCthe
receiver hl insure that there ha:- been or
Thc records which each rrovide a complete list
oral! itemsshirrt:J. ItcmsshollJd he: cht:eke:d ag.aill'.. t tht: n:con.b. Rcport any
c:rror:-. to the carric:r immc:diatcly and mab; propt:f lhltation on tilL' lkli\'L'ry
rc:ct:l pc
The prucnlun;s (llf ;ILTqHancc of ddirt.:ry art: fL'C0J11111C1H.kd:
(lver:l!l t:x;llninatll)1l of the lll;ld. If tht.: IO;ld is ordilwry
inspt:ction while unlo;H..!in.g slwuld hc slIllicicllt to insurt: th;lt thc
pipc has arrivcd in gOl1d cnnditil)ll.
_ If the load has shined, h;\s broken pac!\;lging, tH :->110\\' .... wugh
trcalment, each piecc be cl!Tfully inspectcd for Jall1age.
_ Check total quantities 01' each item against shipping records (pipe
gaskets. fittings. lubricant. etc.).
_ Any damaged or missing items must be noted on the delivery receipt.
_ 00tify carrier immediately and make claim in accordance with I.
their instructions. "I
_ Do not dispose of any damaged material. The carrier wil! notify I
YOll of the proeedurc to follow. .
_ Shortages and damaged materials arc normally not reshipped
without request. If replacement material is needed, reorder from
the manufacturer, his distributor or his rcpresentative.
Un{oading- The means by which PVC pipe is unloaded in the
field is the decision and responsibility of the receiver. Preferred unloading
is in package units using mechanical equipment; however, the pipe can be
unloaded individual!y by hand. I
When unloading package units. the fol!owing instructions should be I
carefully followed: 232
CHAPTER VI
fL\,\;!JUOUK OF PVC l'iP!
..,,,,,,, ", < "",'""""""
'-"O'L' ",__ 0' "-0"" ... """,-,,,
CH;f'TlI{ \'1 - CO,\ST!{LCnON
direct sunlight. ozone, oiL and grease:, SQhcnt cement. \\'hcn
used. should be stored in tightly scaled containers away from
excessive heal.
Handling-Standard Procedures
- When using fork lifts or
other handling equipment.
prevent damage to the PVC
p'pe.
- When handling PVC pipe,
avoid severe impact blows, I
abrasion damage. and
or cUltlng by
pr AVOId
qre:-,slng bell jOiIlLS and
Jamage (1/" bevel CJl(k
PIpe :-.lwuld he I{)wl'!"ed, not
drl1pJx'd lrnlll truck.s alld
Illll 1 trenchC'o
In prcpar;ltlon (or pipe in-
stallatloll, placelllent (:-.trillg-
ingl of pipe should he as
c1n'e to the trL'nch ;IS practical ,"",,'<, O' t,,,,.'" CO"".
and nn the orposite side from excavated earth, Bell cnds should
p(llnl in the dircction of work pn)t: ress ,
- In subfreezing tem peratures, cuutioll is
ali\-iseu in handling to prevent impact
damage. (Sec Chaptcr III - Thermal
Effects. )
Note: When handling PVC pipe in cold
weather, consideration must be given to rariation
in the pipe's impact strength. Thc impact strength
o[PVC pipe at OF (-16C) is no worse and some-
times better than the impact strength of othcr pipe
products: however, unlike some other materials.
PVC pipe's impact strength at 0 F (-16 C) is lowcr
than its impact strength at 73 F (23 C). Low tem-
peratures cause dimensiOlli.tl changes that may
allow mo\'ement of pipe within unit packages, Handling techniques
Considered acceptable at warm tem peratures may be unacceptable at
,
I

f
r
i'
t

the pipe.
NolL:: Normally PVC pipe in Ulllt p:u.:kage' will di\play' hell
ends arranged altcrnately with pipc
_ \Vhen unit p'H.:k'lges l)f' PVC pipe arl' stacked. insure thal weight
of' upper unib dl1es IJrlt cause del"orrn;ltllHl to pipe in [ower uilits,
_ PVC pipe unit packagcs should be supported bv racb or dun-
nage to prevent damage to the botwm during stl)rage, Supports
should be spaced to prevent pipe bending.
_ \Vhen longAcrnl storage with exposure to direct sur;light is Ull-
avoidable. PVC pipe should be c()\'ered with an opaque material
while permitting aOCljllate air circlllatil1l1 aho\'e and around the
pipe as required to prevent heat acculllulation, (See
Chapter III - Weatheri ng Resistance l.
_ PVC pipe should not be stored close to heat sources or hot objects
such as heaters, boilers, steam lines. engine exhaust. etc.
_ When unit packages of PVC pipe arc stacked. insure that the
height of the stack does not result in instability which could cause
stack collnpsc, pipe damage. or personnel injury.
_ The interior, as well as all scaling surfaces of pipe. flttings. und
other accessories should be kept free rfl..1m dirt and foreign Illatter.
_ Gaskets should be protected from excessive exposure to hent.
.., 1J
should be protected by dunnage in the same way that they were
protected while loaded on the truck.
_ To unload lower units, repeat the abov'e unloading process.
If unloading equipment is not available. pipe may be unloaded by
removing individual pieces. However, care should be taken to insure that
pipe is not dropped or damaged.
Storage-An age-old problcm experienced on pipe construction
projects everywhere is the damage of piping products during storage. The
following prilcedures and practices are recommended to prevent damage
to PVC pipe:
Storage Recommendations
- p', pe should be stored if
possible at the job site in
unit packages provided by
thL manuf'acturer. Caution
should be exercised to avoid
compn:ssion, damage or
lkf'ormatioll to bell l'nds of
!L\;-';D800K OF PVC 1'11'[
,- J. ",. ','
I/I,IU: ,'"Ii" ( Iii:" l"IUUJ't' IIlId
fl'''I;''
III,'I'::'I;"n,
!'wit !U/"IC<:I,';! elld flUS! {he
illfu (he
'<'I'falll fi;, ht-ll'!""\/ltl'flf ,'lid
"11'/' ii",' fr,',' .'r,J"1 "ir{
!ahriulII! ;0 "(I'dI'd SjllgOI,
"HOTO':; 0" "<.ow "O,","OJ<"l"JON
NOle: S'uniC juil/l dcSif[IlS propide !'eT}JJllllCl/f .!(/(:/w:l' ills/illlcd gits!l.ClS.
,Yole: The flf/J(' shal! be assellliJ/ed cil!lcr by !lam/ or \t'jl!l lilc usc of bar alld
block. :IICe/IilIi/c.l! cqUljNJ!el/{ s!lould be used all!lc dfrcelioll ofllle JIIii!llfjllelurer.
If undue resistance to insertion of the pipe end is encountered, or
the reference mark does not position properly, disassemble the joint and
check the position of the gasket.,If it is twisted or pushed out of its seat
("fishmouthed"). inspect components, repair or replace damaged items.
clean the components. and repeat thc assembly stcps. Be sure both pipe
lengths are in concentric alignmcnt. If the gasket was not out of position.
verify proper location of the reference mark. Relocate the reference mark
237
C1L\I'lLl\ \,'j - cu\'snu:cnoN
FIGURE 32 - TYPICAL ASSEMBLY
swing it mto the bell. The spigot ene! of the pipe is marked by the
manufacturer to indicate the proper depth of insertion.
very cold temperatures. (See Appendix 4, Erieets of Cold Weather).
HANPBOOK 01 1'\'( PJP!
PVC PIPE JOINT ASSEMBLY
The assembly of one pipe to another may be performed using
various methods. One of the most successful methods employs a gasketed
joint.
The gasketed joint may be either of integral bell design (formed as
a continuous, homogeneous entity with the pipe) or may consist of a sepa-
rate sleeve-type coupling. The joint provides the following advantages:
- Allo\\/anee for expansion
and contraction
- Reliably assembled in poor
weather conditions
_. Consistent rcliabilitv
- Flexibilitv and resiliency
- Lahor-sa\"ing and o\'cr-all
ccol1om\,
- r:ase or installation
Assemhly of Pipe willi GaskeU..d .Joint... Thc a\scmhlv or the
gasketcd joint should he perrormed as recoml1ll:nded hy the pipc nlllllll-
factun:r. The clasIOlllcric ga.\kets Illay he SUrplll'l1 separ:l!cly ill cartons
or prepositiolled In the hell joint or coupling ;It the r:lctory. \Vhen gaskets
arc color coded. hc surc to consult the pipe manufacturer or his literature
for the significancc. In all cases, clean thc gaskct. the hell or coupling
interior. especially the groovt: area (except wht.:n gasket is pt:rmanently
installed) and the spigot art:a with a rag, brush t1j p.tptT ll1\\'el [() remove
any din or foreign material before the assembling. 1I1srcct the gasket,
pipe spigot beveL gasket groove. and scaling surfaccs for damage or
deformation. \Vhcn gaskets are separatc, only gaskets which arc
designed for and supplied with the pipe. Insert them as recommended
by the manufacturer.
Lubricant should be applied as specified by the pipe manufacturer.
Bacterial growth. damage to the gaskets or the pipe. may be promoted
by use of non-approved lubricants. Use only lubricant supplied by the
pipe manufacturer.
After lubrication, the pipe is ready to be joined. Good alignment
of the pipe is essential for ease of assembly. Align the spigot to the bell
and insert the spigot into the bell until it contacts the gasket uniformly.
Do not swing or "stab" the joint; tbat is, do not suspend the pipe and
236
..,,,,,,, ", < "",'""""""
'-"O'L' ",__ 0' "-0"" ... """,-,,,
CH;f'TlI{ \'1 - CO,\ST!{LCnON
direct sunlight. ozone, oiL and grease:, SQhcnt cement. \\'hcn
used. should be stored in tightly scaled containers away from
excessive heal.
Handling-Standard Procedures
- When using fork lifts or
other handling equipment.
prevent damage to the PVC
p'pe.
- When handling PVC pipe,
avoid severe impact blows, I
abrasion damage. and
or cUltlng by
pr AVOId
qre:-,slng bell jOiIlLS and
Jamage (1/" bcvel CJl(k
PIpe :-.lwuld he I{)wl'!"ed, not
drl1pJx'd lrnlll truck.s alld
Illll 1 trenchC'o
In prcpar;ltlon (or pipe in-
stallatloll, placelllcnt (:-.trillg-
ingl of pipe should hc as
c1n,c to the trL'nch ;IS practical ,"",,'<, O' t,,,,.'" CO"".
and nn the orposite side from excavated earth, Bell cnds should
p(llnl in the dircction of work pn)t: ress ,
- In subfreezing tem peratures, cuutioll is
ali\-iseu in handling to prevent impact
damage. (Sec Chaptcr III - Thermal
Effects. )
Note: When handling PVC pipe in cold
weather, consideration must be given to rariation
in the pipe's impact strength. Thc impact strength
o[PVC pipe at OF (-16C) is no worse and some-
times better than the impact strength of othcr pipe
products: however, unlike some other materials.
PVC pipe's impact strength at 0 F (-16 C) is lowcr
than its impact strength at 73 F (23 C). Low tem-
peratures cause dimensiOlli.tl changes that may
allow mo\'ement of pipe within unit packages, Handling techniques
considered acceptable at warm tem peratures may be unacceptable at
,
I

f
r
i'
t

the pipe.
NolL:: Normally PVC pipc in Ulllt p:u.:kagc' will di\play' hcll
ends arrangcd altcrnately with pipc
_ \Vhen unit p'H.:k'lges l)f' PVC pipc arl' stacked. insure thal wcight
of' upper unib dl1es IJrlt cause del"orrn;ltllHl to pipe in lower uilits,
_ PVC pipe unit packagcs should be supported bv racb or dun-
nagc to prevent damagc to the botwm during stl)ragc, Supports
should be spaced to prevent pipe bending.
_ \Vhen longAcrnl storage with exposure to direct sur;light is Ull-
avoidable. PVC pipe should be c()\'ered with an opaque material
while permitting aOCljllate air circlllatil1l1 aho\'e and around the
pipe as required to prevent heat acculllulation, (See
Chapter III - Weatheri ng Resistance l.
_ PVC pipe should not be stored close to heat sources or hot objects
such as heaters, boilers, steam lines. engine exhaust. etc.
_ When unit packages of PVC pipe arc stacked. insure that the
height of the stack does not result in instability which could cause
stack collnpsc, pipe damage. or personnel injury.
_ The interior, as well as all scaling surfaces of pipe. flttings. und
other accessories should be kept free rfl..1m dirt and foreign Illatter.
_ Gaskets should be protected from excessive exposure to hent.
.., 1J
should be protected by dunnage in the same way that they were
protected while loaded on the truck.
_ To unload lower units, repeat the abov'e unloading process.
If unloading equipment is not available. pipe may be unloaded by
removing individual pieces. However, care should be taken to insure that
pipe is not dropped or damaged.
Storage-An age-old problem experienced on pipe construction
projects everywhere is the damage of piping products during storage. The
following prilcedures and practices are recommended to prevent damage
to PVC pipe:
Storage Recommendations
- p', pe should be stored if
possible at the job site in
unit packages provided by
thL manuf'acturer. Caution
should be exercised to avoid
compn:ssion, damage or
lkf'ormatioll to bell l'nds of
!L\;-';D800K OF PVC 1'11'[
,- J. ",. ','
I/I,IU: ,'"Ii" ( Iii:" l"IUUJ't' IIlId
fl'''I;''
III,'I'::'I;"n,
!'wit !U/"IC<:I,';! elld flUS! {he
illfu (he
'<'I'falll fi;, ht-ll'!""\/ltl'flf ,'lid
"11'/' ii",' fr,',' .'r,J"1 "ir{
!ahriulII! ;0 "(I'dI'd SjllgOI,
"HOTO':; 0" "<.ow "O,","OJ<"l"JON
NOle: S'uniC juil/l dcSif[IlS propide !'eT}JJllllCl/f .!(/(:/w:l' ills/illlcd gits!l.ClS.
,Yole: The flf/J(' shal! be assellliJ/ed cil!lcr by !lam/ or \t'jl!l lilc usc of bar alld
block. :IICe/IilIi/c.l! cqUljNJ!el/{ s!lould be used all!lc dfrcelioll ofllle JIIii!llfjllelurer.
If undue resistance to insertion of the pipe end is encountered, or
the reference mark does not position properly, disassemble the joint and
check the position of the gasket.,If it is twisted or pushed out of its seat
("fishmouthed"). inspect components, repair or replace damaged items.
clean the components. and repeat thc assembly stcps. Be sure both pipe
lengths are in concentric alignmcnt. If the gasket was not out of position.
verify proper location of the reference mark. Relocate the reference mark
237
C1L\I'lLl\ \,'j - cu\'snu:cnoN
FIGURE 32 - TYPICAL ASSEMBLY
swing it mto the bell. The spigot ene! of the pipe is marked by the
manufacturer to indicate the proper depth of insertion.
very cold temperatures. (See Appendix 4, Erieets of Cold Weather).
HANPBOOK 01 1'\'( PJP!
PVC PIPE JOINT ASSEMBLY
The assembly of one pipe to another may be performed using
various methods. One of the most successful methods employs a gasketed
joint.
The gasketed joint may be either of integral bell design (formed as
a continuous, homogeneous entity with the pipe) or may consist of a sepa-
rate sleeve-type coupling. The joint provides the following advantages:
- Allo\\/anee for expansion
and contraction
- Reliably assembled in poor
weather conditions
_. Consistent rcliabilitv
- Flexibilitv and resiliency
- Lahor-sa\"ing and o\'cr-all
ccol1om\,
- r:ase or installation
Assemhly of Pipe willi GaskeU..d .Joint... Thc a\scmhlv or the
gasketcd joint should he perrormed as recoml1ll:nded hy the pipc nlllllll-
factun:r. The clasIOlllcric ga.\kets Illay he SUrplll'l1 separ:l!cly ill cartons
or prepositiolled In the hell joint or coupling ;It the r:lctory. \Vhen gaskets
arc color coded. hc surc to consult the pipe manufacturer or his literature
for the significancc. In all cases, clean thc gaskct. the hell or coupling
interior. especially the groovt: area (except wht.:n gasket is pt:rmanently
installed) and the spigot art:a with a rag, brush t1j p.tptT ll1\\'el [() remove
any din or foreign material before the assembling. 1I1srcct the gasket,
pipe spigot beveL gasket groove. and scaling surfaccs for damage or
deformation. \Vhcn gaskets are separatc, only gaskets which arc
designed for and supplied with the pipe. Insert them as recommended
by the manufacturer.
Lubricant should be applied as specified by the pipe manufacturer.
Bacterial growth. damage to the gaskets or the pipe. may be promoted
by use of non-approved lubricants. Use only lubricant supplied by the
pipe manufacturer.
After lubrication, the pipe is ready to be joined. Good alignment
of the pipe is essential for ease of assembly. Align the spigot to the bell
and insert the spigot into the bell until it contacts the gasket uniformly.
Do not swing or "stab" the joint; tbat is, do not suspend the pipe and
236
j
}.
U'" I :-,
!
'1- '" ',,<,","//, .-- -"'-:' :'-,..; 1
0. __@fp,%% HOC'" i
..::::i.:!:ii!ii:;:,.,i i" ,.;;"j,;;;;"""
_--L.'--
'IPE
J-
;',

/f
{;.,
re',l [1t!vHrn IIDtll
"j; -
1{

1:'
co:!" PIP! rlOl1l I f
'" h';" ;c
(1\0 t. jX - -;f/
Making Solvent-Cemented Joints with Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC)
Pipe and Fillings.
FtGURE 33 - TRENCH CROSS-SECTION SHOWING TERMINOLOGY
INSTALLATION
As with other pipe products, proper installation procedures are
essential to the achievement of successful PVC pipe performance. Although
recommended installation procedures for PVC pipe do not vary sub-
stantially from installation procedures used with other pipe products, an
understanding of significant differences is important. Recommended
installation procedures are defined separately for pressure and non-
pressure PVC pipe to accommodate differences between anticipated
stress applications in the two installations as well as differences in product
design. Terminology commonly used in PVC piping installation practice
is defined in Figure 33. The f(Jllowing installation recommendations,
When properly implemented, should insure trouble-free, long-term
performance in buried PVC piping systems designed for pressure and
non-pressure applications:
PVC Pressure Pipe Installation (See UNI-13-3)
Alignment and Grade:
All pipe should be laid to and maintained at required lines and
PUSH
,
, ,
( ,
'J
2x4BLOCK
BAR AND BLOCK ASSEMBLY
if it is Ollt or position. Few littings
allow <l.S much $pig,ol insertion length
as do pipe bells and For
short body iron liltings. it may be ill
necessary to reillove the beveled PVC. ...
spigot end to imam: joint tightlless. ,....... V
To join tieid-clit pipe. it is
l
:
necessary to first prepare the pipe
end. A square Clit is essential for
proper assembly. The pipe can be
easily cut with a hacksaw. handsaw ,:'_liIlli
or a power handsaw \vith a steel blade ""OTo COV"U:"'''' or JOHN";.,.,,, ... VILLt: l> ... Lr.,; co',,',
or abrasive disc. It is recommended that the pipe be marked around its
entire circumference prior to CUlling to assure a square CUt. USC a t'lctory-
finished beveled end as a guide for proper bevel angle, and depth of bevel
plus the distance to the insertion reference mark. The end may be beveled
using a pipe beveling tool or a wood rasp which will cut the correct taper.
A portable sander or abrasive disc may also be used to bevel the pipe
end. Round orr any sharp edges on the leading edge of the bevel with a
pocket knife or a file.
Assembly of Solvent Cemented Joints-In special applications,
solvent cemented joints may be required. Solvent cemented joints should
be made in accordance with manufacturer's recommendations or
in accordance with ASTM 02855, Standard Recommended Practice for
HANDBOOK OF PVC PIPE CHAPTER VI - CONSTRUCTION

HANDBOOK OF PVC P1PE
grades established by piping system design engineers. Fittings, valves, air
vents, and hydrants should be installed at the required locations with
valve and hydrant stems plumb.
Trench Construction:
Stockpiling Excavated Materia/-All excavated material should be
stockpiled in a manner that will not endanger the work and that will
prevent obstruction of sidewalks and driveways. Hydrants under pressure,
valve pit covers, valve boxes, curb stop boxes, fire and police call boxes,
or other utility controls should be left unobstructed and accessible until
the work is completed.
Trench Width -Trench width at the ground surface may vary with
and depend upon depth, type of soils, and position of surface structures.
The minimum clear width of the trench, sheeted or unsheeted, measured
at the springline of the pipe should be one loot 1300 mm) greater than the
outside diameter of the pipe. The maximum ekar width of the trench at
the top of the pipe should not exceed a width equal to the pipe outside
diameter plus two feet (600 mm). If the above detined trench widths must
be exceeded or if the pipe is installed in a compacted embankment, pipe
embedment should be compacted to a point of at least 2.5 pipe diameters
from the pipe on hoth sides of the pipe or to the trench walls, whichever
is less,
DCI\,(l(cring-\Vhcrc conditions are such that running or standing
water occurs in the trench bottom or the soil in the trench bottom displays
a "quick" tendency, the wate'r should be remo"ed by pumps and suitable
means such as well points or pervious underdrain bedding until the pipe
has been installed and the backfill has been placed to a sumcient height
to prevent pipe notation,
Preparation oj Trellch BOllo/ll-The trench bottom should be con-
structed to provide a firm, stable and uniform support for the full length
of the pipe. Bell holes should be provided at each joint to permit proper
joint assembly and pipe support. Any part of the trench bottom excavated
below grade should be backfilled to grade and should be compacted as
required to provide firm pipe support. When an unstable subgrade con-
dition is encountered which will provide inadequate pipe support,
additional trench depth should be excavated and refilled with suitable
foundation material. Ledge rock, boulders and large stones should be
removed to provide four inches (100 mm) of soil cushion on all sides of
the pipe and'accessories.
Laying oj Pipe: Proper implements, tools. and equipment should
CHAPTER VI - CONSTRUCTtON
be used for placement of the pipe in the trench to prevent damage, Under
no circumstances should the pipe or accessories be dropped into
the trench. (See Chapter IV-Handling), All foreign matter or dirt should
be removed from the pipe interior. Pipe joints should be assembled with
care. (See Chapter VI-Joining), When pipe laying is not in progress,
open ends of installed pipe should be closed to prevent entrance of trench
water, dirt and foreign matter into the line,
Reactioll or Thrust B/ockillg: Concrete reaction or thrust blocking
should be provided at each hydrant, valve, bend, tee, and at reducers
or fittings where changes occur in pipe diameter or direction. Anchorage
may also be made to the water main pipe with rods and clamps. (See
Chapter VI -Appunenances, Pressure Pipe).
Pipe Embedmflll: PVC pipe should be installed with proper bedding
providing uniform lon2itudinal suppon under the pipe. Backfill m'tterial
should be worked under the sides of the pipe to provide satisfactory
haunching. Initial backfill material should be placed to a minimum
depth of one lOt (300 nlln) over the top of the pipe. All pipe embedment
material should be sdected and placed carefully, avoiding stones, frozen
lumps, and dehris. Proper compaction procedures should be exercised
to provide soil densities as specified by the design engineer.
Filla/Backfill: After placement and compaction of pipe embedment
materials, the halance of backfill materials may be machine placed and
should contain no large stones or rocks. frozen material or debris.
Proper compaction procedures should be exercised to provide required
soil densities.
PVC Non-Pressure (Sewer) Pipe Installation (See UNI-B-51
Alignment and Grade:
All pipe should be laid to and maintained at required lines and
grades established by piping system design engineers. Appurtenances
should be located and installed in accordance with design requirements.
Trench Construction:
Stockpiling Excavated Materia/-All excavated material should be
stockpiled in a manner that will not endanger the work. Hydrants under
pressure, water and gas valves, manhole covers, fire and police call boxes,
or other utility controls should be left unobstructed and accessible until
Work is completed, Gutters should be kept open, or other satisfactory
provisions should be made for street drainage. Natural water courses
should not be obstructed. Unless otherwise approved, stockpiles should
not obstruct adjacent streets, walks, or driveways,
CHAPTER \'1 - CONSTRucnON
9:.....

;;



.,
.,
-':;'
1<.'!OHO!
-jji{if51,folll
-&

SURHCt
;;..-;.,. ) .... ,;,;,:,::::',:'.,
i
4
f:

;;..., H
. '\ ',:


SURf let

,'. ;. ,.',;r."
110m
I ::;,', I

V
r
.,
.,.;
Ut.t! 10
Of
c; 50ll
;.::/



:/ .
"<

"';" .-
..
';';'t;;.,'
FIGURE 34 - EXAMPLES OF SUBDITCH
Wide Trench - Wide trenches are classified as trenches whose width
at Ihe lOp or the pipe is greater than 2'h pipe diameters on each side of
the pipe or a lot'll or 6 pipe diameters. There is no limit to the maximum
width or the trench beyond pipe diameters from the side of the pipe
since the maximum earth load on Ilexible pipe docs not exceed the weight
of Ihe earth prism directly over the pipe. However, the pipe embedment
in wide trenches should be compacted to a point at least 2',i pipe diameters
from each side of the pipe.
Note - The pressure in the soil at the sides of Oexible pipes is
equalized within a horizontal soil column which is 2V, pipe diameters
from the side or the pipe according to Barnard's theory.
Supported Trench - Where an unstable or flowing soil condition
is encountered in the trench wall, such as may be found by excavation
below ground water or in weak or non-cohesive soils, this condition should
be stabilized before laying the pipe. Depending upon the severity of the
condition. the installer may elect to use tight sheeting, stay bracing, trench
jacks, or a trench shield or box to support the trench during pipe laying
operations. If the condition is too severe, it may be necessary to leave
any sheeting in place or to use chemical or cement grouting of the soil
adjacent to the excavation to prevent migration between the material
used beneath and around the pipe and trench wall material. To allow
sufficient working room plus trench wall supports, the minimum excavated
trench width to the outside of the sheeting or shield box should be as
shown in Table 52.
;-';olllilla[l'lpl'Sifl' Trl'llch \\idlh, \lllllllllllll
No, of Pipe
Di:UlIl'lcf!'
lIIlll. W.D,) 1lIll\,
4 100 4.3 IB 455
6 150 2.9 18 455
8 200 2.9 24 610
10 250 2.5 26 660
12 300 2.4 30 760
15 380 2.0 30 760
HA:'\DBOOK OF PVC PIPE
1,11
TABLES1
NARIWW TRENCH WlIJTH.
Unsupported Sub-Ditch Trench-A variation of the narrow vertical-
walled trench is to lay the pipe in a subditch and backcut or slope the
sides of the excavation above the top of the pipe, as shown in Figure 34.
This type of construction may be permitted where no inconvenience to
the public or damage to property, buildings, subsurface structures, or
pavements will result. In such case, the width of the subditch below the
top of pipe should be established as shown in Table 51.
Trench Widlh-The maximum earth load on flexible pipe (PVC pipe)
results from the consolidated prism of earth directly over the width of the
pipe. If design load on the pipe is calculated based on embankment con-
ditions (prism), the trench may be excavated to a width which is as wide
as is dictated by practical and economical construction. Types of con-
struction for various anticipated conditions are described as follows:
Narrow Unsupported, Vertical-Walled Trench-The amount of
pavement to be removed and replaced, amount of rock excavation or the
amount of elhbedment material used may dictate lhat the most economical
installation is the narrow, vertical-walled trench. The width of narrow
trenches as determined hy the minimum working room for a man to
place haunching material should provide a minimum of IB inches
(450 mm) for 4" and 6" (100 and 150 mm) size pipes a...d nol more lhan
6 III 9 inches (150 III 230 mm) clearance on each side llf Ihe pipe for W'
(200 mOl) and larger sizes, The resulting narrow m.:nch minimum wiJlhs
are presenled in Table 51. In narrow trenches the pipe embedment should
be compacted all the way III the trench walls.
HA.'\'DBOOK OF I've PH'E
TABLE 52
SUPPORTED'TRENCH WIDTHS. ,1INnlU,1
Nominal PiP<: Size
Tren-:h Width.
No. of Pipe
Diameters
Inches mOl.
(0.0.) Inches mm.
4 100 8.5 36 915
6 150 5.7 36 915
8 200 4.3 36 915
10 250 4.0 42 1065
12, 300 3.4 42 1065
15 380 3.1 48 1220
Table 52 widths are based upon 8 to 10 inches (200 10 250 mm)
clearance on each side of Ihe pipe to the inner face of Ireneh supports. The
trench supports are assumed to be (, inch (150 mm) thick Ireneh hox or
shield walls or 4 inch (100 mm) wales inside "f 2 inch (50 mm) sheeling.
Exccplionally tkcp trcl1chcs with thicker and hracing or other
:-;ystell1s of trcHch support may rcquire varl;ltll1n of thesc tn;nch widths.
Timber sheeting. \vhen: useu below tftc lop or 11ll' pipe. should be drivcn
approximately 2 feet (WO mm) helow the bot 10m of Ihc pipe and be len
in place appfllximately 1.5 feel (450 nlln) above the lop of pipe. [n
supported trenches. compaclion of foundation and embedment materials
should e.'tend to the Ireneh wall or sheeting left in place.
MOl'able Sbeerill". Trellch Boxes or Sbidds- When using movable
,
trench support. care should he exerciscd nol 10 disturb the pipe localion,
jointing or its embedment. Removal of any trench proleclion below the
top of the pipe and within 2'1, pipe diametcrs of each side of the pipe
should be prohibited after the pipe embedment has been compacted. For
Ihis reason, movable trench supports should only be used in either wide
trench construction whcre supports exlend below the top of the pipe or
on a shelf above the pipe with the pipe installed in a narrow. vertical-wall
subditch. Any voids left in the embedment material by support removal
should be carefully filled with granular material which is adequately
compacted. Removal of bracing between sheeting should only be done
where backfilling proceeds and bracing is removed in a manner that does
not relax trench support. When advancing trench boxes or shield, prevent
longitudinal pipe movement or disjointing.
Dellaterillg- Where conditions are such thai running or standing
24..t
CHAPTER \'I - CONSTRCCftON
water occurs in the trench bottom or the soil in the trench bottom displays
a "quick" tendency, the water should be removed by pumps and suitable
means such as well points or pervious underdrain bedding until the pipe
has been installed and the backfill has been placed to a sufficient height
to prevent pipe flotation. Care should be taken that any underdrain is of
proper gradation and thickness to prevent migration of material between
the underdrain, pipe embedment and native soils in the trench below and
at the sides of the pipe.
Preparation of Trench BOllom - The trench bottom should be con-
structed to provide a firm, stable and uniform support for the full length
of the pipe. Bell holes should be provided at each joint to permit proper
joint assembly and alignment. Any part of the trench bOllom excavated
below grade should be backfilled to grade and should be compacted as
required to provide firm pipe support. When an unslable subgrade con-
dition is encountered which will provide inadequate pipe support.
additional trench depth should be excavated and relilled with suitable
foundation material. In severe conditions special foundations may be
required s.uch as wood rile or cappell by a concrele mal.
sheeting with keyed-in plank foundation. or foundation material processed
with cement or chemical. A cushion of acceptable bedding malerial should
always be providcd bclween any special foundation and the pipe. Ledge
rock. bouldcrs. and largc stones should be rcmoved to provide four inches
(100 mm) of soil cushion on nIl sidcs of the pipe and accessories.
Laying of Pipe: Proper implemcnts. tools. and equipment should be
used for placemenl of the pipe in the trench to prcvent damage. Under no
circumstances should the pipe or accessories be dropped into the trench.
(See Chapter Vl-Handling).
Pipe bells should be laid on the upstream end. Pipe laying should
commence at the lowest elevation and should terminate only at manholes.
service branches or clean-outs. All foreign matter or dirt should be
removed from the pipe interior. Pipe joints should be assembled with care.
(See Chapter VI-Joining). Whenever pipe laying is interrupted, the
open ends of installed pipe should be closed to prevent entrance of trench
water, mud. or foreign matter.
Service Lines, Connections and Incidental Structures:
Branch Fillings-Fittings for service branches in new construction
should be molded or fabricated with all gasketed connections. Taps into
existing lines should use a gasketed fitting in conjunction with a repair
sleeve coupling or a gasketed saddle wye or tee with all stainless steel
245
iL\:\DBOOK or pvc PIPE
clamps. Saddles may be mounted on pipe with solvent cement or gasket
but should be secured by metal banding. Saddles should be installed in
accordance with manufacturer's recommendations. Holes for saddle
connections should be made by mechanical hole cutters or by keyhole
saw or sabre saw. Holes for wye saddles should be laid out with a tem-
plate and should be de-burred and- carefully beveled where required to
provide a smooth hole shaped to conform to the fitting. Fittings which are
prefabricated using pipe sections, molded saddles and PVC solvent cement
may be used, provided the solvent cement used in fubrication has cured
at least 24 ,hours prior to installation. Cemented mitered connections
without socket reinforcement should not be used. PVC primer and solvent
cement should be used in accordance with the cement manufacturer's
recommendations and ASTM Making Solvent-Cemented Joints
with PVC Pipe and Fittings. After cementing saddles. tcmporary
band clamps should be quickly placed both upstream and downstream
of the saddle and tightened.
SCrl'ic(' Lines-Normally, sen'ice from the property line to
the collection sewer should he at a minimum depth of J J'cel (I m) at the
properly line <lnd should he laid to straight alignment and uniform slope
of not less than '/4 inch per !(lOt (20 nl/ll/m) !(If 4 inch (100 mm) pipe and
',', inch pu foot (10 mm/m) for 6 inch (ISO mm) pipe. Where collection
sewers arc deeper than 7 feet (2 m). a vertical standpipe Of stack is
commonly permitted. Thc standpipe or stack Joes not require concretc
encasement; however. it should he uniformly supported hy compaetcd
backfill.
Pipe Caps and Plugs-All caps and plugs should be braced. staked.
anchored. wired on or othef\\'ise secured to the pipe to prevent leakage
under the maximum anticipated thrust from internal abnormal operating
conditions or test pressures from water or air.
Manholes- Unless required otherwise by system design. the pipe
milY first be laid through and beyond the manhole location followed
by over building the manhole, grouting the bench. and cutting out the top
of the pipe in the manhole.
All manhole connections should be made using proper water stops.
If portland cement grout is incorporated in the manhole connection, the
grout should be of a type that expands, rather than shrinks, upon curing.
Water stops should be installed in accordance with manufacturer's
recommendations. Hinged connections which use short pipe bell stubs
outside the manhole face arc not required to prevent shear breakage in
246
CtL\PTER \"I - CO:\STRccnON
PVC sewer pipe because of its fiexibility. Excessive manhole settlement
can cause excessive detJection and should be prevented or accommodated.
N01e- When water stop is not used at the manhole connection,
bond between grout and pipe can be improved by treating the pipe end
with solvent cement and sand.
Ins/ailing Pipe Through Casings-Encasements for pipes under
highways or railroads should conform to the requirements of the highway
or railroad authority. Runners or cradles should be used to support the
pipe in the casing. (See Chaper VI -Casing).
Pipe Embedment:
Embedmen/ Mall'ria/., -Embedment matefJals listed here ,nclude
a numher of processt,.'u marerials plus the soil delineJ accurdIllg (0
the UnitieJ Soil Cla"ilication Svstem (uses) in ..\ST,\I Standard
!vfethod for Classification of Soils for EngineerIng (See 'Llhle
53 for descnption of soil classilicatioJ1). These an: groupcJ Into
five oroad ca!cgorit"s according. In (/Jeir suitability for till" tlpp!Jcath1n:
('I:L\' IT:\n!;ular, 1':1 III II} InchL's () lo.:.lf) Illlll) graded
incluuing a llumher of Jill matcrials thaI have n:E-it1Ilal signilicancc such
as coral. slag. cinders, crushed shells. and crushed S(Pfll'.
Notc Tilt: sill: range and resulting high void...., r:!IJ(l or CI,IS, I
material m:d\l' if SUitable for use to dewaler trenches during pIpe ill.Q;l1Ja-
tion. This permeable eharlleteristic dictatc$ lhat its lise he limitcJ to
locations where pipe support will not he lost by migratioll of" tine grailled
natural material from the trench walls and bottom or migration of otller
embedment materials into the Class I material. When such migration is
possible, thc material's minimum sizc range should be reduced to finer
than '/4 inch (6 mm) and the gradation properly designed to limit the size
of the voids.
Class II-Coarse sands and gravels with maximum particle size of
lit, in. (40 mOl). inclUding variously graded sands and gravels containing
small percentages of fines, generally granular and noncohesive, either
wet or dry. Soil Types GW, Gr, SW and SP are included in this class.
Note -Sands and gravels which are clean. or borderline between
clean and with fines, should be included. Coarse-grained soils with less
than 12% but more than 5% fines are neglected in ASTM D2487 and the
USCS and should be included. The gradation of Class II material
infiuences its density and pipe support strength when loosely placed. The
gradation of Class l! material may be critical to the pipe support and
stability of the foundation and embedment, if the material is imported
HANDBOOK OF PVC PIPE
and is not native to the trench excavatibn. A gradation other than well
graded, such as uniformly graded or gap graded. may permit loss of
support by migration into void spaces of a finer grained natural
material from the trench wall and bottom.
Class III-Fine sand and clayey (clay filled) gravels, including fine
sands, sand-clay mixtures, and gravel-clay mixtures. Soil Types GM, GC,
SM, and SC are included in this class.
Class IV - Silt, silty clays, and clays. including inorganic clays and
silts of low to high plasticity and liquid limits. Soil Types MH, ML, CH and
CL arc incll\ded in this class.
Note-Caution should be used in the design and selection of the
degree and method of compaction for Class IV soils because of the diffi-
culty in properly controlling the moisture content under field conditions.
Some Class IV soils with medium to high plasticity and with liquid limits
greater than 50';; (CI-I. 1'.11-1. CI-I-MI-I) exhibll reduced slrength when wet
and should only be used for bedding. haunching. and initial backlill in
ariJ locations \\'here the pipe c:mbedment will not be saturated by ~ r o u l l d
water. rainl'all. and/or exliltration I'rom the pipeline system. Class IV
soils with low to medium plasticity and with liquid limit:-. lower than 5()f;(
(CL. ML. CL-ML) also require careful considerati,'n iII design and
installation to control moisture content but need [wt he restricted in
use to arid locations.
Class V- This elass includes the organic soils OL. 011. and PT as
well as soils containing I'rozcn earth. debris. rocks larger than 1'/, in.
(40 OlIn) in diameter. and other foreign materials. These materials arc not
recommended for bedding. haunching. or initial backfill.
Methods oj Placing Embedment Materials - The I'ollowing
compaction methods are recommended as the optimums which will
achieve desirable densities with the least effon:
Note-Average Density vs. Soil Class and Soil Consolidation
Method is provided in Table 54. Maximum height of cover I'or density
ranges in given soil types is recommended in Table 55.
Manufactured Angular, Granular Materials - Manufactured
materials which are angular, granular such as broken coral, crushed
stone or rock, crushed shells, crushed slag or cinders which have a maxi-
mum size of IV, inches (40 mm) may be placed by loose dumping with
a minimum of compactive effort, except that care should be taken to
assure proper placement of material under pipe haunches.
Clean Granular Soils-With coarse-grained soils containing less
248
1
CfL\PTFR \'l - CO,,\STFWCnON
than 5'<: fines such as G\\', GP, SW, SP, GW-GP, and SW-SP, the
maximum density will be obtained by compacting by saturation or
vibration. If internal vibrators are used, the height of successive lifts or
backfill should be limited to the penetrating depth of the vibrator. If
surface vibrators are used, the backfill should be placed in lifts of 6 to 12
inches (150 to 300 mm). This material may also be compacted by tamping
or other means provided that the desired relative density is obtained.
Coarse-Grained Soils with Little to No Fines-Coarse-grained soils
which are borderline between clean and those with fines containing
between 5 and 12'<: fines, such as G\V-GM, S\\'-SM, G\\'-GC, S\V-SC,
GP-G!'.L SP-SM. GP-GC, and SP-SC, should be compacted either by
hand or mechanical tamping. saturation, or yibration. or whichever
method meets the required density.
CQarSt>GralI1C:u Soils with Finc.... -Coar:-.c-grained .... oib containing
more than 12", tines, such as GM. GC, S!'.l. Sc. and alll borderline
cases in ttle group (c.g. G M-SM). should be compacted bv hand or
mechamcal tamping. The backfill should be placed in lifts or 4 to 6 inches
(100 to 150 mm).
hne-Cirainnl Soils - f:inc-grained suib such a" "1H. ell. ML.
CL. SC-CL. SM-!'.lL. and 1\1L-CL. slllluid be compactnl by h,,,,,1 or
mechal1Jcal tam pi ng in Ii l'ts or 4 to (, inches ( 100 te> ISO mm).
1::mhcdmclll lompoc/io!1 Afcl!l()(.l\'- \Vhl"fC compaction flleasun:-
ment or control is desired or required. the recomml'lH.!et! rdcn:nccs arc:
(I) AST!'.l 02049. Standard Method of Test for Relati\'C Density 01'
Cohesionless Soils. (2) I\STM 0698. Standard !'.lethod of Test for
Moisture-Density Relations of Soils Using 5.5-lb. (2.5 kg) Rammer and
12-in. (204.8 mm) Drop. (3) ASTM 02167, Standard Method or Test for
Density of Soil in Place by the Rubber-Balloon Method. (4) ASTM 01556.
Standard Method of Test for Density of Soil in Place by the Sand-Cone
Method. and (5) ASTM 02922, Standard Method of Test or Density of
Soil and Soil-Aggregate in Place by Nuclear Methods (Shallow Depth).
It is recommended that the in-place density of embedment materials
in Class I and Class II be measured by ASTM 02049 by percent of relative
density. and Class III and Class IV measured by either ASTM 02167,
01556 or 02922, by percent of Standard Proctor Density according to
ASTM 0698 or AASI-ITO T99.
Common compaction methods are defined as follows:
Tamping and Vibrating-Soils which require compaction by
tamping or vibrating generally reach maximum density with a minimum
249
flA.'\DBOOK or pvc PIPE
of effort when controlled to optimum moisture content.
Saturation-If flooding, jetting or puddling is employed for com-
paction, care should be taken to prevent drainage and flotation of the
pipeline. Saturation should not be used during freezing weather. Erosion
of support at the pipe sides and bottom by water jetting should be
prevented. Apply only enough water to give complete saturation. Allow
time for the saturated soil in each layer to dewater and solidify until it will
support the weight of workers.
Use gf Compaction Equipment-Take care to avoid contact
between the pipe and compaction equipment. Do not use compaction
equipment directly over the pipe until sufficient backfill has been placed
to insure that such equipment will not damage or disturb the pipe.
Bedding-Bedding is required primarih to bring the trench bottom
up to grade. Bedding materials should be placed to provide uniform and
adequate longitudinal support under the pipe. Blocking should not be
used to bring_the pipe to grade. Bell holes at each joint should be provided
to permit the joint to he asscmhlt:J properl; while maintaining uniform
pipe su pport. A corn paCled dcpth of 4 to (> inches (100 to 150 mm) is
generally suflicicnt bedding thickness. In tn.:nchcs which have natural
matl"rials of tine grains. and in conditions where migration of trench wall
material into bedding material can be anticipated, either wide trench
construction or well graded bedding material without voids should he used.
f{allnching-The most important factor affecting pipc performancc
and dellection is the haunching material and its density. Material should
be placed and consolidated under the pipe haunch to provide adequate
side support to the pipe while avoiding both "ertical and lateral displace-
ment of the pipe from propcr alignment. Where coarse matcrials with
voids have been used for bedding. the same coarse material should also
be used for haunching and consideration shall be given to using wide
trench construction. Haunching is placed up to the pipe springline.
Initial backfill-Initial backfill should be completed to a point at
least 6 inches (ISO mm) over the top of the pipe. If the remaining final
backfill contains large particles which may dislodge or damagc the pipe
from impact during placement, the depth of initial backfill should be
increased to a point at least 12 inches (300 mm) over the top of the pipe.
Little or no tamping of the initial backfill directly over the top of the
pipe should be done to avoid disturbing the embedded pipe, since this
area will contribute nothing to the pipc support.
250
CHAPTER Vt .- CO;-;STRUCTION
Final Backfill:
Backfill Material-The material used in the final backfilling opera-
tion need not be as carefully selected as was the bedding, haunching and
initial backfill. In the final backfill material. exclude boulders. frozen
clumps of dirt, and rubble which could damage the pipe.
Backfill Compaction - Unless specified otherwise, the final backfill
should be placed using special compaction under improved surfaces and
shoulders of streets, roads, aprons, curbs and walks. Under open fields,
lawns, and wide shoulders, unimproved rights-of-way, or neutral grounds
which are free of traffic, final backfill should be placed using natural
compaction. Special compaction requirements should be defined by the
system design engineer. Natural compaction is attained by the loose
placing of material (usually pushed or bladed) into the trench. rolling the
surface layer with the placement equipment. mounding the surface. and
filling and maintaining all sunken trenches umil final acceptance of the
work. In natural compaction the main consoliJation results from rainfall
and ground water fluctuations.
Minill/IIII/ COI'erj;" LOlld App!iclIt;o/l- At least 30 inche.s (760 mOl)
of cover over the top of the pipe should he pf<1\'ided before the trench is
wheel-loaded. At least 48 inches (1200 mm) of cover should be provided
before using mohile trench compactors of' the hyJrohammcr or impactor
type. Depth of cover may be reduced to 36 to 42 inches (915 to 1070 mm)
by requirement of some authorities or by recommendation of some equip-
ment manufacturers. Such compactors should be used only when the pipe
embedment has previously been compacted to at least 85';, of Standard
Proctor Density (see ASTM 0698 or AASHTO T99).
251
252
HA>;DBOOK OF PVC JlIPE
TABLE 53
6075
6075
I
\)0-100 1
I i
I 60-.s0 I
60-.s0
(50-60)
95100 I
IJ:'I[)O
IHl,Y5 I
..."" I (6U... <;0) i 00lJ5
60-80
(,10-60)
I I II I III
I
IV
I
IS'nd ,nd G""II ;IC"d : G"inl Fino G,,;n
.\larerials Soils - Clean SOils I 50115
Dumping
Relalivc density IS /loted ill p:lrcnt!leses,
'"
CLASS OF DlUEDMENT I
253
)IATERIAL DESCRJPTJO:-i
TABLE 54
CHAPTER VI - CONSTRUCTION
This table SC!\CS ;IS an ;lppro\ilJl:lte gutde defining. :lvcrag.e densitics attained
through various methods of soil CUJlSuliJ:llion in different classes of soil. The table is ill .
tended to provide gUJ(jance :lnd is no! recol11lllended for ucsign usc. ActLl:.t1 dcsipl values
should be developeJ by the engineer for spedfic soils at spc'.::ific moisture contcnts,
GUIDE FOR ESTI)I:\TED RA:'iCE OF
DEGREE OF VERSLS CLASS A:'\D OF PL,-\CE)IENT
AS PERCENT OF STA:,\OARD PROcrOR DEi\SlTY OR RELATIVE DE;\SITY*
FOR GRA"ULAR 1:\ PARENTJIESIS'"
Optimum moiHure r:luge '),Il
dry \\'elght
1---------
.suillunwliJJtwII Method ',; of l'rodol 10f I<d:llile) l>cn:.ity K:tng\'
CO/lljl:tll by power IJmpl.'f '15100
Ofram/lll.'f (7.\100)
-----+---
l>emiry hy pOr[Jhle !'\lJ'I"
vibrators IV"""'}

,. . SO,)5 80')5!
hy s:truratHlIl /0 0 'I 'I
(6075) (, ...<; )
-. --------I----------.----.,j--__..J
I I
Hand pla(,lllg (lO{IO) ) I
60-80 III
!land tJmping (50-60) I 60--80
Liquid limit pealer 1I1Jn50:'G, 50';
DESCRIPTION OF
CLASSIFICATIO:\
M:lnufaCllucd :m<:ulJr. granulJr ffiJlcri.l1, 10 Pi inches (6 1040 mill) sizt,
indudin:! mJlerials h;:l\,inl! redon:d simificancc such as crushed Siolle or rock.
broken :ora[, crushed slag-. cin'dets, or shells.
Wel!gr:ldcd pavcls and nll\IUreS, linle or no fmes, or more
rel:lined on No.4 SICH..\Iorc tlull 95
c
:. reWIlled on :\0, 200 sic\'c, Clean.
PODrJ}' graded gravels Jnd mixlures, lill],; or no (incs, 0: Illore
retained on No, 4 sieve. lll.l!'! 95'- re!:lined 011 :-;\1, 2/JU sieve, Clean.
\\'dlp;H.kd $;Illds and }'f,lvelh LnJ;, hllk or nu '\[lln' lh,m Sty,
No.4 Sll'\l', \Iorl' :h:l1l95 rl'l-llnd on No. 20(1 Slt'\ .., Ck,lJl
-lIlJ link t>r II" :In"" ,\IUIl' th.m 50', jl;ISW\
:-"0, 4 111-lnlJ5 rcLun"J un :\u. Cle'lll.
SillY j.'r-l\eh, llll\lutn, 50. ul !1Iol' 1\'J;Llllnl un sl<:l<'
[lUll 5U', ret.LlIl'd ull 2()(l
('U}l} l1ll\tt;:(\ 50 "r mPh' 1l'l.IlIl<'d 011 :\u,1 \!l.'\<'
.\lor( 1],;Hl 50 /tt,l1nn! on SIne
Orplllc SlitS ;Ind OIPlllC Silly cLin of !I.'w Liquid limil 50:; or less,
or Illore pJsseS No, 200 sic\'e,
Or!!:lnic clJYs of mcdium 10 hi!'.!! plJSlklty,
or morc passes No. 200 sie\'e,
Pcat, muck Jnd other orf::lI1ie soils,
OF E.\IBEmlEXT .\lATERIAL
I'T
51'
GP
c('
OL
sw
GW
011
G\l
SOIL
TYPE
:r.
'"
.'

'"
'"

=
=
.
.
:3
'"
'"
-*


GVl
SOIL
CLASS
,. Soils defincd as CI:JSS I maleliJls art' nol defincd ill
..... In J.ccord;l!1CC with D248i, less than Y-; p:lSS :\0. 200 sieve.
.. "* lr: accord.mcl' wilh AST,\1 D2487, morc than 12';<- pass ;\0. 200 sievc. Soils with to pass No,
2.00 sieve fall in borderline classification, e.g.. GP-Cc.
, S,\l Silt)' s.llld,\t!1 flll\flll<', .\],,!\' lh.lll p.""" :-;, .. 1 \11'1" '\1"1(' Ih,1I1
I 50'. H'l,Hunl "I! No, 2()1l \In,'
. II S(' ('LLI'\')' S,lIHh, '.lIld'd.l\ Itll'llll'" \Lot, th,lIl >0 I'.l\\t" ,\01 sIn,' th.lll
I '-" 50, 11'!;llflnl on '''0 21111 \ll'\<',
...-.. -.
l:.r, .\11 Inol/';(flil. VCI)"IHlt'\,llld" rod. fl"lll, \tlt\ 01 d.I;'I'Y 11ll\' ,\,111(1\ I lqllill
...: hmn.sO I'l Jc", 50, Of Illor,' P,I\S\" 'I!. 2()(j ,II'\<'
! (I ]nor/:;ml<, Cl,l}" of 10\\ t,' mnllUl1l I'l.l\tkny. \'1;1)'\, ';Illdr tidY', \llt}
! :.- t:Liy'. Il'JIl dars. LHjllld IJlJJlt 50 I'l k\\, S(l', or mill,' l'a,H" NIl. 2(jO \h:n:.
I
;. .\111 Illoo:anlt' 'lit" micac\'l1\l\ 01 Ul.II"m.ll.r"U' lUll: s;Hld, (If '11l\, e];l,tl\' Sill,. LlqlUd
llmll 'th'lll 50',:, or mOlc i'J"C\ N\>. 2(HI \lell:.
I
:; I C'II IllOlPHllI.: dJYS ur hi):h plJSlicllY, fJ[ 1.1.1)\, LiqUId limit /.:lc;ller th,1Il50',';, 50'
. Of more ]',I\\C\ No. 200 \ICH'.
,
I
I
c.
.,
HA:'\DBOOK OF PVC PIPE
TABLE 55
HEIGIlT OF COVER RECO\L\IE:\DED
PIPE ZONE CONDITIO;\" RECO\l.\IESDED

'lr OF PROCTOR HEIGHT OF
E.\IBEDMENT DENSITY COVER
CLASS RASGE (FT.) (M.)
t -
30 9.1
tI i 90100 30 9.1
0090 24 7.3
lit 90100 30 9.1
.s5\}(J 30 9.1
10 -t.t)
05'75 -t.3
IV leiS.] UU 3u
t).]
75K5 IS I.{J
657) 13 t .0
V SOlt l LASS :\01
to llJ\l\ll.Sllt I)
.\tl\ltlIlllll hL"li'Jll 01 l;OVL"1 over 30 fL"L"1 wllh :';''''..;1;11
l'cr-:cn! III I'IO-:!lll tkn\lly III :h':-:Dfdal1(L" wltll AASIIl () 'f .\1'1 01 AS'] .\] (,\)h
.', lable IS applh:abJc only wilL"i1llJilltrlllllll pIpe p, .1() lbf/IlHll
4 ,\1 rCCDJlllllcnded maXIIllUlll of (On'f tkllm',L ..kl]c([lllll\ WIll Iwl cxt:ced
wilen rwpcr lIIst,II]:J!lon pnJ(ct!urC:i.i.lfC llseu.
APPURTENANCES
Piping systems include pipe and \arious appurtenances required in
the control, operation. and maintenance of the systems. Proper design.
Installation. and opcration of PVC piping systcms must rcl"te to appurten-
ances as well as pipe. In general. such appurtcnanccs rna\' be evaluatcd
in two gcneral classes - (I) pressure water distribution ,,'stcrns and (2)
sewage or drainage collection systems.
Appurtenances-Pressure Pipe-A prcssurized water distribution
s\'stem consists of" network of inter-connecting pipes. Within the network
of pipes a water circulation system is developed which supplies water to
all points within the system. normally with continuous ser\'ice even if a
given line within the system has been isolated because of a failure or if
there is a need for removal Crom service. Such distribution systems provide
water for home. commercial. industrial. and municipal applications. Often
254
CHAPTER \'1 - CO;';STRlTTI00i
a critical factor in design of municipal water distribution systems is fire
protection service. Obviously. valves. hydrants. and fittings are essential
to the performance of these systems.
System Requirements:
COlllrol Valves-Control valves (gate or buttertly) must be
provided in the system to permit isolation of anyone line within
the system. Secondary lines are valved from main feeder lines. In
high value commercial and industrial areas. control valves are nor-
mally located at intervals nO greater than 500 ft. (152 m). In other
areas. control valve interval normally should not exceed 800 feet
(244 m).
Va!\,('s- Pressure relief are important in iung
pipe lines ft)f surge control. Air relief vaht.::-. arc (ksirahle at high
points in pressure lines when: taps antI connections are not available.
Vacuum relief valves are providctI at critical prolik summits and
arc designed to admit air at times of powcr or total prL'ssure
loss to prL'vcnt developmcnt of vacuum. Blt)w-ofr \',lIvcs are lIsed
at low sy:.telll elevations and ttl permIt line llushing
when l1L'cessarv.
Fire lIydrul1!S- Fire hydr'lllts tire placed throughout inhabitcd
or ucn:lopnl areas in accordance with lire protection requirements
estahiished by state rating bureaus or the Insurance Scrvices Ollicr
(ISO). Hydrants arc normally spaced tP provide m'L,imum fire
protectipn 1\'erage of 120.000 sq. n. (11.100 SCI. m) pr less. The
distribution lines servicing fire hydrants arc normally provided in
6 in. (I50 mm) nominal diameter or larger. Hydrant connections
from main lines should be valved.
Fi!!ings - FiHings arc required for changes in line direction or
size and branch connections (e. g.. tee and cross fillings). Fillings
arc available in a variety of designs and materials. PVC I1Hings arc
frequently used in IPS (iron pipe size) pressure systems. Cast iron
fillings are principally used in CI (east iron) dimensioned PVC
municipal water mains.
Appurtenance Installation:
COll/I'ol Valves- Valve weight should not be carried by PVC
pipe. Valve weight should normally be supported by a concrete
cradle or concrete block with anchors. Valves should connect
directly with PVC pipe using elasLOmeric gaskets which are supplied
by the valve manuntcturers. Control valves in pressurized systems
255
or JQ><NSMA,NVll.l..l.: COil".
FlGURE.15 - FmE IIYDRANT FOUND.lrION
PIPE FITI'I;o;(; F1T1T\C VAt YES. TEES
StZE 9(1 ELBOW -l5 ELBO\\" IlL\!) E,'ms
-----
I'/' 300 200 200
2 500 300 400
3 1.000 600 800
4 1.800 LiOO 1.300
6 4,000 2.300 2.900
8 7,200 4,100 5.100
10 11.200 6.300 7.900
12 16.000 9.100 11.300
'1''\ BLE 5(,
TIIRUST DEVELOI'ED I'ER 100 I'SII'RESSURE (LBS. FORCE)
257
CIJ.\PTER \'1 - CO;o;STRUCTIO;o;
blocking should be provided. as necessary. to pre\'enl movemenl of
pipe or appurtenances in response 10 Ihrus!. Thrust blocking is
required wherever the pipeline:
- Changes direction (e.g. lees. bends. elbows and crosses).
- Changes size as at reducers.
- Stops as at dead ends.
- Valves and hydrants, al which thrusl develops when closed.
Size and type of thrust blocking depends on:
- Maximum system pressure
- Pipe sizc
- Appurtenance size
- Type of lining or appurtenance
- Lint:: proJlk (t::.g. horizontal or vtrtical bc::nJ:--)
- Soil type
Flgllrt:: 36 uispJays standard types of thrust blocking used in
izcd Water svstellls.
Tahk .56 shows thl: approximatc thnl\( dCH:lopcd fillings
appurtenances for each IO() psi of eilher Il:sl or operating. pfI:ssurc. Thrusb
frolll greater or ksscr prcssul"l'S l:lay be proportioned accllrdlllgly.
There are numerous design methods and nomographs available for
sizing thrust blocks. One method used assumes soil bearing values. Table
57 gives approximate allowable bearing load for various Iypes of soil. The
bearing loads are estimated for horizontal thrusls when depth of soil
cover exceeds 2 feet. It must be emphasized Ihal safe bearing loads in
project soils must be established in system design. When doubt exists, soil
'-\
-@
.. O" "00
@;
J56
require anchorage, reaction or thrust blocking to prevent movement
from thrust when the valve is closed. In some designs, butterfly
valves will not function properly on certain sizes of PVC pipe
without special nipple adaptors.
Safety Valves-Valve weight should not be carried by PVC
pipe. Heavy valves should be supported by concrete cradles. Light
weight valves may be supported with properly compacted bedding
and haunching. Valves should connect directly with PVC pipe
using elastomeric gaskets provided by the valve manufacturers.
Fire Hydrallls-Hydrant weight should not be carried by PVC
pipe. Hydrant weight should be supported by a concrete cradle. The
hydrant lead valve (normally located at the main. at the hydrant,
or in between) should be supponed by a concrete cradic. Insure that
tittings and branch tee arc al,o supported by el'ncrele. Hydranls
should be ,el plumb at designed burial deplh and braced firmly
Juring installation while concrete cradles arc poun:d anJ cured.
The concrete foundation for the lin: hydrant serves as:
- Rc'l(.:tion O[ thrust blocking
- Anchorage preventing frost heave
- Foundation preventing wash out
(Sec Figure 35, Fire Ilydrant Foundation.)
Filflngs - \Vcight or
cast iron and metallic lit-
tings should not be carried
by PVC pipe. Casl iron
fitting weight should bc
supported by a concretc
cradle. 1'\'( fittings may
be supported with propcrly
compacted bedding. Fi t-
tings in pressurized systems
require reaclion or Ihrust
blocking to prevenl move-
ment effecled by fongitud-
inalline thrust.
Reaction or Thrust
Blocking - Water under
pressure exerts thrust forces
in piping syslems. Thrust
':."'O'n fitting::. ilre used In allydrunl runou, J
length C<ln be llsed to conneCl tWJ

Tilis of hydrilnt foundation acts as a thrustblock.
as un anchorage afpinst frostheave and eliminates
from WJst-:W<lter druin.
H/u'\DBOOK OF PVC PIPE


COV"TO:';;V 0"- IO .. N';_MA"VlI.Ll: " ... 1.<: S CO,,"OflATIOr<
UlSjIT'
o
500
1,000
1,500
2,000
4,000
5,000
= 14.4 ft'
14,400
--
1.000
Total Thrust Support Area =
- Select Type of Thrust Block
From Figure 36, select type 3
TABLE 57
ESTIMATED BEARING LOAD
CHAPTER VI - CO:-';STRUCTION
259
Total Thrust = 2(7.200) = 14,400Ibs.
- Calculate Thrust Block Sizc
From Table 57, safe bearing load for sand = 1000Ibs/ft'
SOIL TYPE
Muck, Peat, Etc.
Soft Clay
Sand
Sand and Gravel
Sand and Gravel With Clay
Sand and Gravel Cemented
with Clay
Hard Pan
If thrust block design has not been speciJied by the project
engincrr. the design or thrust blocking may be calculated as shown
In the followtng example:
Example:
Required, thrust block at 8 inch 90' dbow. Maximum Test
Pressure = 200 psi.
Soil Type: Sand
- Caleulate thrust
From Table 56, thrust on 8 inch 90' elbow = 7,200 Ibs pCI'
100 psi operating pressure.
A widely used nomograph for selecting thrust blocks is given in
Figure 37. Also, thrusts can be effectively resisted by commercially avail-
able joint clamps or designed tie rod and clamp systems.
6. Directioll clw!II:e. cross IIsed as elboll'
7, Dirl!Clioll dU/1Ij;!'
8. Thrulilli! cO/l/leetlon. WI''
9. I i.ihl.' anchor .
/0. Directioll change I"arieal, bend allchor
258
Ji {llrIl,,!S, dlH' 10 tliqh rm's.slJr,'. <lfl' ,lllC!lnr v,;I\,'.'5.J5
t"I'l'N At v!'rtie,JI lJPods, ,I1H:hor (I,' v,llwdf(! (tlru$ls
.'.:'.,
FIGURE 36
TYPES OF THRUST BLOCKING
j
9TI
rJ .
C' ,'.' 'r
m
, II .

1 . ,::.,J ..
J.. '0 r
j

,k\n-_.....

,.."",,,.,". >C.
. / ,v
.- ;/.. / /
" ./.' ..
" ",' ",r',//,
)t -.:J F' .

! - '. J".
..... c,t' '" IX,.. '!"T7'<-rr

I, Thru fille conneclioll, fec
Thru iiI/I! cOl/flection, cro.U used (/S h'l!
.? Directioll c!louge, dbow
./. Cham,:" line reducer
5. Direc/ioll change. /('I! used as dbol\'
H:\;'\OBOOK OF PVC PIPE
bearing tests should be conducted.
Appurtenallces-Non-Pressnre Pipe- PVC plplllg may be used in
various types of non-pressure piping systems such as drainage. venting
and sewage systems. The following recommendations are made for PVC
piping used in gravity sewer systems. A sewer system consists of a piping
system which conveys storm drainage or sanitary sewage. The great
majority of sewage systems in North America are non-pressure systems
using gravity open-channel !low. Sewer systems are carefully designed
and constructed and depend, in great measure, on proper use of pipe
and appurtenances.
System Req uirements:
Manholes and Junctions - Manholes and junctions are
essential to [he operation and maintenance of gravity systems.
Manholes are required to:
- pro\'iue access to the sewer line for in:->rcction and
maintenance.
- provide control of hydraulic now in chang\.' of dirt:ction,
changL: or grade, and consolidation or CtlIl\'crging flow
channels.
In common practicc, manholes art: normally located at stred
intersections. lnlerval bClwecn sanitary sewer manholes Illay vary
from 300 to 500 lCel. Interval may be greater for pipe products. such
as PVC :\cwcr pipe, which substantially minimize cleaning and
maintenance problems. compared to piping products which exhibit
poor now characteristics and which arc prone to root penetration
and damage.
FittillgS- Fittings arc required for all house connections.
"clean-out" access, and changes in line direction and/or size not
occurring in manholes. Tees. wyes, or tee wyes are provided for
service connections, risers, and "clean-outs". Elbows (90) and
bends (45' and 22'/2) are used at changes in line direction par-
ticularly at service connections into sewer main lines. (See figure 38,
Service Connections). Increasers are used at changes in line size.
Caps or plugs are used at dead ends. Commonly used fittings are
shown in Figure 39.
261
CI-lAIYfER VI - CO;-';STRCCTlON
,;
-.
!
c

c
"

-,
"?-
2.'!
;!'::
(;,::

g
:;
:-: ;

Ii

g

"--
-;<



;i


E:'


..

U
:::: t
t}

"',
,'I
i
,
, ..
. ,"
-',' .
.-...
......
,
o
,
':
:
..:.::
: :.' -:
,'..
,
,
" d:


;iy
,
_

,


...
:.:--'-'---''--..-
1-- . ,

,
,.,:, .
'i
,
. ,
g. :..
,
0
I 2 .. '"
.. _!
I " - .

,
,.


1
;;; ;;;: s
;:
"
.) "

_,
::,: ::
'.
........-
";-"... -
:::.::; " " - ..... :;
lL\:\"DBOOK OF PYC PIPE
:: " :: '!: ..
,
/.
:L

-'

:/)
::J

'0
'"
'"
::J
163
Risers-Sewer chimneys. risers. or vertical stacks may be
required in deep sanitary sewers to minimize excavation for service
lines. They are generally permitted where the collection line is
deeper than 7 ft. (2 m).
Appurtenance Installation:
Manholes-Connection of sewer pipe to manholes has gained
importance with the added emphasis on system design sizing and
operating cost incurred due to ground water infiltration. Manhole
connections should be water tight. Connection of PVC sewer pi pe
to manholes cannot be effeetively achieved with water-tight seal
using concrete without special L"nlike some other se\\'L'r
piping l11aterials, PVC pipe ",ill not bond \\lth concrete. A PVC pipe
manhok connection shoulLl be accompli:--heJ using some form of
sea] or w<Iter stop. rvlanhole C\Hlnections ('an he made as follows:
- )-..lanhok couplings prl)\'iding. elaswflleric gasket seal. Unit
is grouted into Illanlwk \\'all. Plpt: inst:rts into coupling.
\V,I!CrSWp in various forms (e.2-" llc\ihk boo! or slecvc.
O-ring or gaskct) produccd from elaslollleric compound
is grouted or locked into Illanhnl:: w,lIl. Pipe inserts into
W<llerstop.
Precast l11anholt.: with connection pl1rtS with clastolllcric
seals precast into manhole wall. PIpe inserts into connec-
tion port.
_ Grouted connections directly to I'\'C pipe l11ay be effec-
tivc if the pipe at the connection is first softened ",ith
solvent and covcred ",ith sand.
Drop manholcs arc customarily required when the difference
in incoming and outgoing invert elevations are 2 feet (0.6 111) or
more. Connection to drop manholes requires manholc connections
as described above and fillings installed w provide nccessary line
profile. Drop manholes using PVC pipe mac' be designed in these
configurations:
- Inside drop manhole
- Outside drop manhole
Recommendation for proper connection in the inside drop
manhole defined in Figure 40, Figure 41 provides recommendation
for connection to the outside drop manhole.
(II AfTER \"1 - CO:,\STRL:CTION
45' WYE
45' BEND
90' EL
.."..... 'to.
t...,
...,
I T.. t'.",,"

I f'
'!" ' " ..------"

COURTeSY OF" JO'lr-ll'MANVH.Ll'.: SAL'::; CORPORATION
262

r=
. "--L:

"'''-
(e) Plan
FIGURE 39 - SEWER FITTINGS


__
.... ... .. _ _. r\
I (bl hM '; ?",." ..."
,"' '-..J }\

0:>._,
FIGURE 38 - SERVICE CO:'>iNECfIONS
!

22;;" BEND
TEEWYE

I :
irl( i


HA.NDBOOK OF PVC PIPE
!
tl
i
I
I i
i
TEE
I
1-.-:
I
i
I
i
I
;1'"
90 ELBOW

SECTION AA
.
w
m
<
2
<
>
Ii -rr

, {.
4" MIN
Ir,COMII\;G
$W fl
"I f

HE
SECTION A-A
265
, . ) \
f I
.... yE !.lHAl-.(" I { :
. ,
Cl:::::OUf J
, , . , ...... LG !
',,- .. ,,.,,, I'
",.' ',i I _.
o I .. I I I
(ll. -\-..... t 1
]" .. I 1
\
" .. ! I
CONCII(I[ .. " .' .' I
lNV(IlT10IH JOlJ1GOlNC
\" v ,,"l OU,I(.N[ tJ M"OJ l,t WIll
) (;" IUSUlI ._.
o .. , ..O '? .:::J
90 III '- .7.. .. 5
"'ANHOlt
!.lASt
INV ELEV AS
SHOW''; ON PLAN
CONCRETE!.:
4"' MIN
CHAPTER VI - CONSTRUC'TION
ilGURE 41
OUTSIDE DROP MANHOLE CONNECTION
5T M,OARD PIlE. CAST CO""OI[ n:
01-1. BRICK MANHOL ISlE NOH 1)
CONCRETE
ENCASEMENT
SECTIONAL PLAN
/----..,
6"/;111'': //
, It
l, I " " !,' ./. .}>;t;:::::R;<\
,f__ __
i
____ _
I
8.
;:1
SECTION BB


J \
!
WEIR DET;\IL
i.(l(.l fl.
.\ ,'<tU.!... / THAI'

\
REVOVE PORTIO', JF DHor
PI;>::: TO CON/'.IECT ':"S SHQ1,';N
:.
I ;/;/
-
A
"J"}' 1.111.
fol1 TO!' III PH(W I',)'l
otll 10SlllVl 11,.\\"["
'I rn I


'I
w
"
L"

t
,
SECTION AA
264
<;:Ol)"TElOV 01' JOH .. S ...... NVILLE ""'LE!> COR".
r;hJ
SECTION C-C
r'
FIGURE 40
INSIDE DROP MANHOLE
CONNECTlO:\
I'lrt H'
/U"OI:>ltlll(l(D
:!IF '."'00""""
r. IF ORO!:fltO
. Jill" DIll. ALUMI,",U','
PIPE STlIAP, Sf T AS
aRGEAEO
{;' PLASTIC PIPE" rx;O ',0
OR lARGER ASOIlOEREO

UNDEA PIPE WITH A' CO'.c . M
OR MASONRY FOR A i'
0YW i
MIN. WlDTH 22""
A
L
HA.>;OBOOK OF PVC PIPE
166
ll:\:,\DBOOK OF PYC PIPE Cll,\f'HR VI - CO:\STRl'CTHJ:'\
267
CABLE
. STRAPPING POSITION WOOO CROSS PIECE \. 90::-:->
E.!J:: <,
un >__ u<> "
. . ., ..'.,.///,//._,'./J,.'. ,... .',.... ,... // ... ///. '
/ . :(
A SKID SKID ......... 90
12" BUNDER - 4 SKIDS
FIGURE 42-PVC PIPE CASING SKIDS
- Insure uniforl" support at the riser pipe connection by
uniform bedding with good compaction all around and
up the pipe.
- Achieve good compaction in the haunching from the base
to the springline of the fitting and sewer line using select
material if necessary.
Note: Concrete encasement of PVC riser pipe connections serves
no useful purpose.
Sewers all Sleep Slopes-It is recommended that sewers on
slopes of 20% or greater should be anchored securely with concrete
collars cast immediately downhill from bells to prevent downhill
movement of the pipe.
AND NON-PRESSURE P1PE
When PVC water or sewer pipe is installed under highways_
fUlw.. ays or railways, casings may be n::quircd for the liJilowing reasons:
- To prevent damage to structures c;lllscd by' soil erosion or
menl in lllL: pipe installation efTected by lint: failure P[ kakagc.
To pt:rmit l'conomical ripe removal and [cplaCl.:ment in the
- To accommodate regulations or requin.:IlH.llh imposed hy public
or private owners or property in which the pipe is installed.
- To permit boring ratllt.:r than excavation where ()pcn excavatioIl
would be impossible or prohibitively expensi'T.
When PVC pipe is installed in casings. skids must be used to prevent
damage to pipe and bell joints during installation and to provide proper
long-term line support. PVC pipe in casings should not rest on bells. Skids
should properly position the PVC pipe in the casing. Figure 42 shows a
typical skid arrangement on PVC pipe.
:-,
CONCRETE OR ,,1QATt.AEO
BRICK EI>CASE/.1ENT
=m
"

,,. L':::-- ,-M=...::.1 -
- --:.'1
,.
,
I'
SECTIONAL PLAN TYPICAL
'i )'
CO'"'T''''''' Or JO.. 'i5 ... 'It.",ILLE l''''L''. Co',,'
ff
-- I
I
. __ X--".
I I'
:' I :

/
I
' .. --,
!
NOTES;
1. MANHOLE BODY TO BE CONSTRUCTED
AS FOR STANDARD PRECAST MANHOLE
OR BRICK MANHOLE.
2. CHOOSE SECTION AA (DROP DETAILJ TO
SUIT TYPE OF PIPE ON JOB.
3. FOUNDATION FOR OAOP SECTION TO BE
POURED INTEGRAL WITH r...1ANHOLE BASE.
L
Make connections at manholes to insure that proper com-
paction is achieved in pipc bedding and haunching. Insure that
rigid structures are properly bedded and installed. Settlement or
shifting of rigid structures will normally not cause shear breakage
as is common with rigid piping products. HO\\el'Cf. excessive shift-
ing or settlement could place excessive strain on PVC pipe or cause
excessive dellection or distortion.
High Velocity Protection: Where 1I0w velocitics are grcater
than 15 fUsec., it is customary to provide baflles. cushioning or
energy dissipation within manholes.
Risers- When installing PVC riser pipes on PVC sewer line,
the following procedures are recommended:
- Use a tee or tee-wye fitting to connect PVC riser pipe to
sewer line.
FIGURE 41
OUTSIDE DROP MA."-iHOLE CONNECTION - ConCd.
HA,'\DBOOK OF PVC PIPE
Skids may either extend for the full length of the pipe, with the
exception of the bell and spigot portion required for assembly, or may be
spaced at intervals. Skids must provide sufficient height to permit clear-
ance between bell joint and casing wall. Skids should be fastened securely
to pipe with steel strapping, cables, or clamps.
Pipe may be installed in the casing using:
- Winch drawn cable
- Jacking
In both methods, care must be exercised to avoid damage to pipe
or bell joints. Use of.lubricant (flax soap or drilling mud) between skids
,
and casing can ease installation.
Caution: Do not use petroleum products (e.g. oil or grease).
Prolonged exposure to these products can effecI damage 10 somc
elaslomeric gaskcls.
Upon complelion of pipe insertion, backlilling in accordance wilh
design requirements can be accomplished.
NOle: Life of wooden skids can be eXlended by Irealmenl wilh
wood preservative.
During backlil!. care musl he exercised 10 prevenl 110aling Ihe I've
pipe oUI of proper posilion. Do nol usc wedges 10 lock pipe inlo posilion
during backfill operations. \Vhen pressure grouting is used fur backfilling.
exercise caution that excess grout pressure docs not efICct pipe distortion
or collapse.
TABLE 58
TABLE OF CASING SIZES
('ll.<;inc Sill' l\lnximum Skid
Nominal Pipe SilC
(Imide Di:unelcr) Support Spacing
(Dilllneler in Inches)
in. 111m. it. Ill.
4 8-10 203-254 4.7 1.4
6 10-12 254-305 6.3 1.9
8 14-16 356-406 7.4 2.3
10 16-18 406-457 8.5 2.6
12 18-20 457-508 9.6 2.9
15 22-24 559-610 11.0 3.4
See Chapfer V-SUPP0rl Spacing/or additional rejinemell/ 0/support spacing requirements.
Table 58 provides recommendations on casing size required for
different sizes of PVC pipe and maximum skid support spacings. Casings
are normally sized 10 provide an inside diameler which is at least 2 inches
268
CIIAPTER VI - CO:\STRUCTION
(50 mm) greater than Ihe maximum outside diameler of the pipe bell,
pipe skids or cradle runners.
SERVICE CONNECTIONS-PRESSURE PIPE
Service connections vary in size from small services supplying
individual homes !O large outlels for industrial users. Service connections
to PVC water mains are accomplished in the field using Ihe following
methods:
- Tapping Ihrough service clamps or saddles.
- Tapping with large service connection Ihrough lapping sleeves
and valves.
- Direct lapping (;\\\1\\1;\ C900 PVC pipe only).
Sen-ice Clnmps or Saddles - Service may be m:u..k using
a Scr\'lce clamp or saddle. l\laximum outlet sizl: rc:commclH.kd with
sen'ice clamps or saddles is .2 (50 mm). \Vhcn fl1:.lking this type of
conncclion, cqLlipnH.:nt is u.'icd which altadlc..:'i to the corporation SlOp
permittIng. a clItting tool FIGURE 43
to be fed through the
stop to cut ;1
l!(lle in Ihe pipe. No lap-
ping of Ihe pipe wall is
required since the corpora-
lion s1P is Ih readed in 10
the service clamp. Service
clamps or saddles used for
attaching service connec-
tions 1 PVC waler pipe
should: ""OTO QI- CLOW co.. ,o""nON
- Provide full support around the circumference oflhe pipe.
- Provide a bearing area of sufficient widlh along Ihe axis of the
pipe, 2 inch (50 mm) minimum, insuring that the pipe will not
be distorted when the saddle is tightened.
Service clamps should not:
- Have lugs that will dig into the pipe when the saddle is lighlened.
- Have a U-bolt type of strap that does not provide sufficient
bearing area.
- Have a clamping arrangement that is not fully con!Oured 10 the
outside diameter of the pipe.
A number of lapping machines are available which will drill through
169
It/\..... UlH)I)K. UI' I've I'll'l::
ftGURE 44
TAPPt:\G SLEEI'E AND VALVE
27U
nun.
406
457
483
533
483
584
483
533
635
in.
16
18
19
21
19
23
19
21
,<
--'
LAYI:-iG LENGTH
4 X 2, 4 X 3, 4 X 4
6 X 2, 6 X 3, 6 X 4, 6 X 6
8 X2, 8 X3, 8 X 4, 8 X 6
8x8
IOx2, IOx3, IOx4, IOx6
IOx8,lOxl0
12 X 2,12 X 3,12 X 5,12 X 6
12 X 8
J2x10,12x12
;'.IA[" & TAP (inches nominal)
CHAP'fER Vi - CO:,\STRUCTIO:-;
TABLE 59
MINnlUM TAPPING SLEEVE LEi\GTH
slwuld be used with proper direction and inslruclions from the manu-
I:lcturer or the PVC pipe and the manufacturer or the direct tapping cquipment.
Connecting Service Line -It is recommendni that all service COtl-
necli,,,,, (service clamps, saddles and direct taps) be installed so that the
outlet is at an angle or 45(' above horizontal. :\ heno or "gooseneck" in
the service line should always be provided to insure flexibility and to
accommodate the efTcets or load due to settlement O[ expansion and/or
conlr"ction. Proper soil consolidation should be providcd in thc area of
the connection.
271
SERVICE CONNECTIONS-NON-PRESSURE PIPE
Sanitary sewer st.::rvicc conllections may vary in size depending on
local codes, regulations, and system requirements. Service connections
for large industrial, municipal, or commercial installations may be quite
large. :-lost service connections for private residences wiil be 4 in. or 6 in,
nominal size. Servicc conncctions may be made \vith fittings installed in
the sanitary sewer main line (tee-wye, tee or wye) or with field installed
service saddles (gasketed and clamped or solvcnt cemented).
When a field cut-in service connection is required, the following
precautions should be observed:
- Prevent entrance of foreign material into cut-in pipe opening.
- Use proper fitting and procedurc when installing the field con-
nection saddle.
The following materials, tools, and procedures are recommended
,..,.,
;,;-\..1,
---
t:;.'3j-< -

;<-.. '( ",,,'.. ..
, /,i;...... - ....
-' \ \ !, . !'iJ/\\
J!B' \ I}
"1>,,,,., I,,, //
.... '\',\\v//
.>;
a corporation SlOp. It is important that the CUlling lOol be a she, lype
(hole) cutter which will retain the coupon and be designed to accommo-
date walls as heavy as DR 14 (pressure class :WO. AWWA C900). Many
shell cullers are designed only for thin walled PVc. Consequently, they
do not have sufficient throat depth to handle the heavier walled pipe.
Service clamps and saddles should be installed in accordance with
manufacturer's recommendations.
Tapping Sleevcs and Valves-Tapping slecves and valves are used
when service connections larger than 2 inches (50 mm) must be made in
PVC water main. Tapping sleeves may be used for making large taps
under pressl1ire.
When tapping sleeves are
ordered from the manufacturer,
the outside diameter of the pipe
being tapped, the size of the out-
let desired and the working pre:-.-
sure be specilied tll in"ure
that the sleeve furnished will he
satisfactory. Lcad.joint S!cL'VCS
should not be usn!.
Tapping sleeves should be
:l"sembkd in accon.lallo': with thl'
directions. Drilling equipment Cill be purchased or rented
from steeve who also furni,,1J Jrlstruclions and/or instructors
trained in making such taps. (Conlractprs wtw specialize ill this type of
work are abo available in SOlllC areas.)
Tapping slecves should be well supported independently from the
pipc during thc tapping. Support uscd should be left in place after tapping.
Thrust blocks should be used as with any other filling or appurtenance.
Table 59 provides recommended minimum lengths of tapping
skeYes for the various main and tap sizcs for PVC Municipal Water Main.
Direct Tapping-Service connections may be made by direct tapping
of AWWA C900 PVC pipe wall and the insertion of a corporation stop.
PVC municipal water main manufactured in accordance with AWWA
C900 in nominal sizes 6 inch through 12 inch, Pressure Classes 150 and
200, is being direct tapped in the field with success. For 4 inch nominal
size, Pressure Class ISO and 200 and all sizes in Pressure Class 100 use
service clamps or saddles. In direct tapping proper use of specified direct
tapping equipment and corporation SlOpS is recommended. This procedure
Wo-d"":,,!,,, ',lo,ll,. L- p,,' .,l """1\"/'

273
;
.?//.
:y7:
'7 / 7 r
- '0
/ / _ 1M"
/ '. L i/ _" .,' -\ - 1/
_. ...
, - \
,m __ __ \ f '.'
.- ,,1
,
FIGURE 46
TYPICAL END CAP.
FIGURE 4S
END BRACING
_ Tcst ends should be capped and braced to withstand the appreci-
able thrusts that arc developed under tcst pressure. See Fi&urc
45: End Bracing and Figure 46: End Cap.
CHAPTER VI - CO:\STRl'CTlON
under pressure. Three parts of tne line should be considered when testing:
_ The pipe to be tested must be sufficiently backfilled to prevent
movement while under test pressure.
_ Thrust blocks at fittings should be permanent and constructed to
withstand test pressure. If concrete thrust blocks are used. suffi-
cient time must be allowed before testing to permit the concrete
to cure. Cure time of 7 days is recommended when Type I port-
land cement is used; 3 days is recommended when Type III
high-early portland cement is used.
HAJ,DBOoK OF PVC PIPE
INSpECfION AND TESTING-PRESSURE PIPE
Good practice dictates pressure testing portions of a line as they
are completed in advance of the entire system. Before testing, the pipe-
line must be backfilled and braced sufficiently to prevent movemcnt
272
when making a field cut-in service connection:
Materials:
- PVC saddle wye or saddle tee
- PVC primer (if required)
- PVC solvent cement (if required)
- Saddle clamps
Tools:
- Brace and bit
- Hole saw, keyhole saw, or sabre saw
- Strap banding tool
-'Natural bristle brush, 4" (100 mm) (If required for cementing).
- Round or half-round file or rasp
Proccdure:
- Place saddle in position on pipe. Mark hole location using
saddle as template.
- Cut hole ,/," (13 mm) outside hole guide mark.
- Smooth hole with file or rasp and bevel hole, if required,
for wye saddles.
- Wipe clean and dry mating surface of saddle and pipc.
- Apply primer to both mating surfaces (ifrequired).
- While SUrn,CeS remain wet with primer, apply thick coat
of solvent ccment (if required).
- Position saddle over the pipe cut-in hole and drawn down
with metal straps or other suitable means. If using gasket
strap-on saddle; insure propcr placemcnt of gasket around
cut-in holc.
- Follow proper procedurcs and allow full curing timc when
using solvent cemented saddles.
Under normal conditions (temp. 70 F (21 C)) the solvent cemented
saddle connection, if properly made, will gain 50% of full strength after
24 hours of curing time. See Chaper VI-Joint Assembly for additional
details on solvent cementing procedures. Care must be exercised to insure
that the proper design of saddle is used. Do not confuse ASTM D3033
saddles with ASTM D3034 saddles.
CHAYt"ER VI - CO:\STRUCTlO:\
TABLE 61
ALLOWABLE LEAKAGE fOR PVC PLASTIC PIPE WITH ELASTOMERIC JOINTS
U. S. GALLONS PER HOUR
(IMPERIAL GALLONS PER HOUR)
examined for leakage.
Leakage Testing- The purpose of the leakage test is to establish
that the section of line tested, including all joints, fittings and other appur-
tenances, will not leak or that leakage is within the limits of the applicable
allowance.
Normal operating pressure is usually applied for leakage tests.
Pressure should be maintained at a constant level throughout the period
of test. Measurement of the amount of additional water pumped in during
test provides a measurement of the amount of leakage, if any.
Air trapped in the line during test will affect test results. Generally
the project engineer will establish leakage allowance and indicate
methods and procedure for testing. If not, Table 61 may be used to deter-
mine maximum leaka&e allowable.
A properly installed line will normally "how little or no leakage
using the methods described.
A &ross leak can usually be traced to a major problem (i.e. left out
gasket, dislodged gasket. broken pipe, loose mechanical joint bolts.
inadequate thrust block). Usually these problems are readily detected
and quickly repaired.
A minor leak grealer lhan allowable limits is frcqlll.:ntly frustrating
and dillicult to tind and repair. The usc of dye in the sy"em may be
necessary. The hest way to avoid this type (If problem is to pren:nt it
during installation:
- Vent all high poinls - usc a corporation stop if air release valves
arc not required.
- Double and triple check all mechanical joinl bolted connections.
250
.43 (.36)
.64 (.53)
.85 (.71)
1.07 (.89)
1.28 (1.07)
.38 (.32)
.57 (.47)
.76 (.63)
.96 (.80)
1.15(.96)
.33 (.27)
.50 (.42)
.66 (.55)
.83 (.69)
.99 (.82)
275
.27 (.22)
.41 (.34)
.54 (.45)
.68 (.57)
.81 (.67)
Average Tcst Pressure in Line - p.s.I.
.!QQ ill 200
Allowable Lcakai!c Pcr 1.000 FL or 50 Joints
so
.19 (.16)
.29 (.24)
.38 (.32)
.48 ( 40)
.57 (.47)
4"
6"
8"
10"
12"
1'\ominal
Pipe Size,
Inches
i

PIPE SIZE t'.S. Gill! 11m f l. Imp. Gal! WO fl.
4" 70
6" 15.1 127
W' 25
l
) 215
10" 405 JJ7
12" 57.1 477
214
Filling the Line- The line should be Iilled slowly from any
able source. The \";ter may be iOlrodueed from lines in service through
vah'ed connections or by temporary connections to hydrants or to taps
made in the new line or at the connection in the line cap. All such
connections, however, should be made at the lowest point in the line, if
possible. Where a portion of a line is to be tested and has not yet been
tied to the final source, some other source of water must be provided.
Flow velocity during line filling should not exceed 2 fps. (0.6 m/see).
Table 60 shows the quantity of water required to fill lines.
fl.\\:OBOOK OF I've PII'E
TAULE 60
OF WATER REQUIRED 1:-1 GALLONS
PER 100 FEET OF PtPE
Expelling Air from Pipeline :\11 air ,11lluld he expelled t'rom the
pipeline during tilting and again berore making either pressure (If leakage
tesb. Automatic air release yah'cs are rCl"(HllIllended. Ctlmpressed 1'1l-
tr;lrrt:d air C<l1l greatly amplify any surges as well as pumping pressures.
FurtlH:rmore. compressed air Illay leak thrl)ugh a joint which will not
1l:ak water and could caLlsc erroneous rcsults.
Pressure Testing- The purpose 01" a pressure-strength test is to
locate defects in materials or workmanship. thereby permitting proper
repair. In a properly designed line. pressure surges will be kept to a mini-
mum by the use of automatic relief valves. slow closing and opening of
valws. slow pump starting and other controls. A test pressure of 50 psi
abm'e the normal operating pressure should generally be suflicient. Do
not build up pressures greater than specified for test. This can happen if
the pressure is read from a gauge located at a hi&h point in the line. In
such cases the actual pressure at low points will be greater. Pressures
greater than those spccified may cause damage to pipe andlor move thrust
blocks. Specified test pressure should be maintained for the specified test
time while any cxposed pipe. fittings. vah"es and hydrants are carefully
ClL\I'l'ER \'J - CO,\STRlCTlOi\
277
Pipc Sizc Timc
Inche';. 1II1ll,

4 100
6 150 4
8 200 5
10 225
12 305
15 380 9',
TABLE 62
:'lli'\l.\tUol DURATtON FOll AIR TEST PllESSUtlE DllOI'
INSPECTION AND TESTIN, SEWER PIPE
All projects should be tested upon completion of installation. The
engineer should designate the locations of tests and extent of the system
to be tested. optional methods of testing leakage. alignment, and deflec-
tion and the requirements for recording test results. Sections of sewer
which fail to pass the tests should have dereets located and repaired or
replaced and be retcstcd until within specified allowances.
Ball Test - Prior to other tcsts. all sewer lines should be cleaned and
tested for major defects by flushing with an appropriately sized sewer
cleaning ball. Pre-cleaning by high \'c1ocity jet or other method may be
necessary.
Visual Test - All sewer lines shall be inspected visually to verify
accuracy of alignment and frt:t:dolll from debris and obstructions. The
full diameter Dr the pipe should be visible "hen \'iewed between consecu-
tive The method of tcst Call he plwtograrh;. closed circuit
or yj:-.ually lamping with mirrors ami lighb.
Leakag<..' Tesl .- Methods or It:-.t which an,; suitahk 1'01' con-
dition;.. :lfI: lo\\' preSSlll"l: air c.\!iltration. water lnliltr;llion. or watn
Jiltratil\l1. II is n:cOmll1Clllkd that thl: n:rcn.:c method or k;lkagc should
l1l..' hl\\ rn::-.sure air c:diltration. Plugs or caps on hranch Cnl111cTtipllS
must be against blow-on'during kakagt:
Air Testing- The minimulll lime duratioll pt:rlllltled ror ,I pre-
scribed low exfiltralioll pressure drop hctwct:/l two consecutive
manholes should not bc le" than that shown in Table 62. Thc prescribed
drop should not exceed 0.5 psi (3.4 kPaj rrom 3.5 to 3.1l psi (24.1 to 20.7
kPa) in excess or the grounJ waleI' pressure ahove the tor 01" the sewer.
,--
276
EQUATION 98
Design Basis
NOV P
L
7,400
Where: L = allowable leakage (gal! hr)
N = number of'joints in the te.qed line
D = nominal dianH:lcf of rip.: (in.)
P = avcrage lest rrt:s:-.un: (psi)
Note: Equation 9i'\ I(.)f integral ht:ll gaskctcd joint pipe in 20 rOOl
lengths results in a ic.tkagc or 10.5 gallon,... per inch dian1t.:ter
per mile per day when evaluated at a pressure or 1511 psi,
H/u'iDBOOK OF PVC PIPE
The following procedure is recommended to determine if "A is
entrapped in a pipe line:
(I) Pressurize with water to desired test pressure
(2) Allow pressure to drop to predetermined level
(3) Measure make-up water required to establish test pressure
(4) Repeat second and third steps
If the make-up water required to fill the line the second time is significantly
less than required for the first filling, air is present in the line. If no signifi-
cant difference is measured, a leak is probable.
- Adequately cure thrust blocks bcrore tcsting.
- Exercise care to clean Ollt gasket groove:. Often rain and dust
leave dcposits which must be removed rwm exposed gasket
grooves. Insure that exposed gasket grooves are properly cleaned
before inserting gaskets.
- Be sure when inserting pipe into a mechanical joint or gasket joint
that the spigot end is squarely cut and bevelled properly for
that hub.
- By testing the line prior to installing services. the integrity of
the main line is insured.
- When installing service lines and assemblies under pressure, any
cause of leakage becomes immediately apparent.
DisInfection of Potable Water Lines-Before bcing placed in
service, all new and exposed ponions of existing systems should be flushed
and disinfected. Flushing should be done at flow rates sufficient to provide
a velocity in the lines of at least 2'/, feet second (0.8 m/sec). Disinfection
should comply with AWWA Standard C601. Disinfection of Water Mains.
279
NOTE: Base I.D. is a pipe I.D. derived by subtracling a statistical tolerance
p3ckage from the pipe's 1.D. tokranL:L' is
defined as the square root of tilt.: sum of standard manu-
facturing: tolerances.
Avg lD= AvgOD -2 t'= AvgOD - 2(I.Oil) t
Tolerance Package = J A
2
+ 8
2
+ 8
2
+ C
2
Where:
A = OD Tolerance (ASnl D 3034). in.
8 = Excess Wall Thickness Tolerance = O.Otlt. in.
C = Out-olCRoundncss Tolerance;;; 0.015 (Avg aD). in.
t = Minimum Wall Thickness D 3034). in.
t' = Average Wall Thickness: t';:;: 1.06t. in.
In preparation of the recommended base inside diameter values presented
in Table 9. tolerances were established and accommodated in accordance
with accepted practice. The outside diameter tolerance (A) was taken from
Table I in ASTM D 3034. The wall thickness tolerance (8) is the custo-
mary 12% of minimum wall or 0.020 inch, whichever is greater (as done in
other ASTM plastic pipe standards). Current ASTM PVC pipe standards
specify out-of-roundness tolerances which vary from 3.7% to 0.6% of
the outside diameter. In development of this recommendation, increments
of 0.025 inch which are closest to 1.5% of the outside diameter were used
for the out-of-roundness tolerance. (Refer to ASTM D 2241 and D 1785.)
The base inside diameter was estabhshed by subtracting a statistically de-
rived tolerance package from the PVC sewer pipe's average inside diameter.
The tolerance package was derived by calculating the square root of the
sum of the squared standard manufacturing tolerances.
CHAPTER Vi - CO:\STRLJCnON
TABLE 63
BASE INSIDE DIAMETERS FOR
DEFLECTION MEASUREMENTS OF
ASTM D3034 DR35 PVC SEWER PIPE
Avg. 1.06! Avg. Tot. Base
DR O.D. t or t" I.D. Pkg. I.D.
35 4.215 0.120 0.1300 3.9550 0.0654 3.89
35 6.275 0.180 0.1908 5.8934 0.1018 5.79
35 8.400 0.240 0.2544 7.8910 0.1272 7.76
35 10.500 0.300 0.3180 9.8640 0.1529 9.71
35 12.500 0.360 0.3816 11.7368 0.1786 11.56
35 15.300 0.437 0.4632 14.3736 0.2292 14.14
Size
10"
12"
15"
4"
6"
8"
Infiltration Testing-Infiltration testing is an acceptable method of
leakage test only when the ground water levei is above the top of the pipe
throughout the length being tested. The allowable infiltration for any
portion of sewer system should be measured by a weir or current meter
placed in the appropriate manhole and should not exceed 50 gallons per
inch of internal pipe diameter per mile per day (4.6 l/mm/km/day).
including manholes.
Exfiltration Testing-Exfiltration testing is an acceptable method
of test only in dry areas or when the line is sufficiently deep and the
ground water/level above the pipe is suitably low. The allowable water
ext1ltration for any length of sewer pipe between manholes should not
exceed 50 gallons per inch of internal pipe diameter per mile per day.
During cxfillration testing, the maximum internal pipe pressure at the
!OWC\l end should not exceed 25 fecl (7.6 m) oj water or jO.X psi (74.5 kPa)
and the water level inside the manhole should be 2 reet (0.6 m) higher
than the top or tht: pipe or 2 fet:t (0.6 m) higher than lilt: ground water
Ie\'cl. whichever is greater.
Deflection Maximulll pipe dl'!kclion (rnluc-
tion In vertical inside diameter) :-.hould hc 7
1
:";. Iklkction lcsting is
unnL'ccssary when Llsing proper l'o/lslructilHl practicc'. and inspeclion
dUring pipe installation and when using elllhedmcnt malerial which has
heell properly selectcd. placed and compacted. lIowever. it may he
reqlllred that random dellectioll tests of pipc he perf"rmed helore linal
acceptance at construction !t>catitlIls hetween succes'.in: manholes whcre
thc construction encountered unstable trench walls t1 r bottoms, heavv
,
rainfall. rrozen soil. high ground water lewIs. deep lines. or dimeulty in
attaining compaction. Locations with deflection should be
exca\ated. and repaired by re-bedding or replacement of the pipe.
Optional devices for testing include a dellectometer. calibrated televison
or photography. or a properly sized go. no-go mandrel or sewer ball.
For the purpose or dellection measurements the base inside pipe diameters
without deflection are provided in Table 63. The maximum allowable
deflection should be applied to these base inside diameters in determining
the minimum permissible diameter. It must be emphasized that to insure
accurate testing. the lines must be thoroughly cleaned.
IlA:-;DBOOK OF 1'\'C PIPE
2;8
ClL\PTER \'I -
CHAPTER VI
BIBLIOGRAPHY - ContiIlued
16. "Recommended Standard Specification for Thermoplastic Pipe Joints, Pres-
sure and Non-pressure Applications. UNI-B-l" Uni-Bell PlastIc Pipe Associa-
tion. Dallas, Te,as. (1977).
:!81
"Swndard Practice for Description of Soils Procedure. ASTM
D248S," American Societv for Testin!!. and :'iaterials. PhiJaJelphia. Pcnn-
syl\ania. (1975). - '
"Standard Recommended Practice for ivtakin SolventMCemcntcd Joints with
Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Pipe and Fittings. ASTM D2855." American
Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia. Pennsyl\'ania. (1973).
"Standard Recommended Practice for Installation of Flexible
Sewer .Pipe. ASTM I?232 I." Arnerican Society for Testing and
Phliadelphw. Pennsyl\'ama. ( 1974).
"Standard Method of Test of of Soil and in Place by
Nuclear f\1cthods (Shallow Depth).' ASTM 02922:' Arl1L'rlean Society rtir
Testing. and \iaterials, Philadelphia. Pennsylvania, (1976).
25.
26.
24,
23.
21.
"Standard :"ktlwd ofTl:st ftlr J)Ln... iIY or Soillli Placl: by tilt:
:"ktlloJ. t\ST\l D21(17." Amcric,ln Society I'llI' Tt.:"tllH!,and i\Lit!..'ri;d:-.,
uclphia, PLnnsyl\';lnia. (1977). .
"''1 "Standard :"1ethod or Test ror Dcnsitv or Sl,lil in PJa(..'L' by thL S,lnd-Cofle
:.1t.:thod. AST\t 01556," :\mcrkan Societ\' ft1r Testin. ant.f l\1atcri,d:->, Phil;t-
delphia. Pcnmyl\'ania. (/9771. . '
20. "Standard \!ctllod or 1t.:... t I'll!' D,:n\lt\ RcLltlllll'" or Slllb
5.5Ih. (2.5 k!!..l Rammer and 12 Ill. mm) J) Hip.,\ST:"l J)(Il)X".
SlH:lLt .... It)!' '(L... tlllg ;\111..1 l\Ltlt:rl;d.... Phibddphi,\, PCllnsyh'<Jllia. ( I()77j.
19. "SLll1tbrd :'h:thod nc're..,t I'llI' RL'latlvc DL'I1S11\ uf Cuhc;-,llmks:-. Soils. ASTt\1
AI1lCfleall Snellt: hl!' lcstlllg and ;..1;tl .... rlab. PhilaJt:lphla, Pelln...
\';llll;!. (1')(,9).
17. "Recommendations for StOfa!!C and Handling of polyvinyl Chloride Plastic
(P\'CI Pipe. ppJ Technical Report. PpI-TR2b" PlastiCS Pipe Institute, New
York. New York. (May 1975).
lB. !\)r I'llr Enginecring. ASTl\1
:'\mLrlGII1 IlJr and \L:tenals, PlllLldclplll;l,
(19(\l)).
15. "Recommended Standard for the Installation of Polwinvl Chloride (PVC)
Pressure Pipe. UNI-B-3" Uni-Bell Plastic Pipe Association. Dallas, Texas.
( 1976).
IlA;-';DBOOK OF PVC PIPE
CHAPTER VI
BIBLIOGRAPHY
!. "AWWA Standard for Disinfectin2 Water Mains. AWWA C60!." American
Water Works Association. Denver. Colorado. (June 1968).
2. Barnard. R.E., "Desion and Deflection Control of Buried Steel Pipe Support-
in!?: Earth and Live loads." American Societv for Testing and !vlaterials,
Proc.57(1957).
3. "Descriptions of Plastic Piping Joints." ppJ Technical Note, ppI-TN 10.
Plastics Institute, New York. New York. (March 1975).
4, Design and COnSfrtlCfiOIl of Sonifary and Storm Sell'en. ASCE I\IanuaJ and
Repon on Engineering PractiCt: ;";0. 37 (\\'PCF I\L\ntul of Practict: No.9).
Society or Civl! En!.!int:ers and the \\'att:r 1\,llutJon Contrul
auon, New New York. (1974).
5. Hobbs, Sam I-l. and Lloyd G. ChLrnL. "Air Testing S;IIHt;lry SLWL'rs:' P;lpt:r
prcsL'ntLd at thL 40th Annual Conll'rclH':L' of lilt: I\lllutltlll ("untroJ
LratltHl, New 'r'orl\., New 'r'urk. (Octllba J9(7).
6. Morrison, Edward B. 'Nollw!.!raph for tht: tlL'si!!.ll of IhrtL'd bloeb." el\ll
Englnt:t:rillg - ASCI:. (J llllL J 96'J).
7. !l/asfics I'lping ,HaIllUlI. Pbstics Pipt: InstltlltL'. New York, New York. (1976).
8. "I\l]y (Vinvl ChJondL) (PVC) Plpillt- DCSIg.1l alld Inslall,ltion:' PPI
TL(hnical Report PlastiC',> Pip!..' InstitLltL' i\LW 'York, New )'ork.
(Augu't 1973).
280
9. "P\'(' Pipe TLc!lnoJt)gy Servin!!. the S!..'wcr Industry". Plastic Pipe
A>;"ciation. Dalla" Te,a,. (1971).
10. "P\,C Pipe Technology S!..'rving the \Vater Industry," Uni-Bcll Plastic Pipe
Dallas, Texas. (1977).
II. Ramseier, Rov E. and George C. Rick, "Experience in Using the Low-Pressure
Air Test ror Sanitarv Sewers," Journal \Vater Pollution Control Federation.
\\ashingtan. D.C. (October 1966).
12. Ramseier, Rov E. and George C. Rick. "Low Pressure Air Test for Sanitarv
Sewers," Journal of the Sanitary Engineering Division, Proceedings of the
American Society of Civil Engineers. Vol. 90. ;\0. SA 2. (April 1964).
13. "Recommended Practice for the Installation of Paly,'inyl Chloride (PVC)
Sewer Pipe. UNI-B-5" Uni-Bell Plastic Pipe Association. Dallas, Texas. (1977).
14. "Recommended Practice for Making Solvent Cemented Joints with Polyvinyl
Chloride Plastic (PVC) Pipe and Fittings. 1'1'1 Teehnical Report, PpI-TR 10."
Plastics Pipe Institute. New '(ork, New York. (February 1969).
282 283
i1A:"OBOOK OF I've PIPE
32. E. S\ ... lt:llh hpt:... and Plfllng. l\1anllal or Prat:-
tlCt: NUlllht:r lhrt:t:." \\;I!cr and ... tt: ... Dun-I>unnelln Puh-
h\hlf1,!; Corporation. Ncw York, 1\"C\\ York- (Scptt:lllht:f [967).
APPENDICES
CHAPTER \'l
BInLlOGRAPHY - Continued
"Standard Recommended Practice for Undcn:.round lnswllation of Thermo-
plastic Pressure Piping, ASTM D2774," American Society for Testing and
Materials. Philadelphia. Pennsylvania. (19721.
"Standard Specification for Bell-End Poly (\'invl Chloride) (PVC) Pipe. ASTM
D2672." American Society for Testing and 'Materials. Philadelphia. Penn-
sylvania. (1976). 0
S\mons. (jeof!!.e E, "Dt: ... I!!n and St:kL'lll1l1 \;l!\'e.... IhJr<.lnb, and Flltin!! ....
l\1anual of Pr,;ctil:t: Numher Four." \\;lll'r ;lod En!!IIlL"t:fll1!!. Dttn.
DOllndley Publishing CorporatIon. ll'rL Yl)rk,
"Standard Specification for Joints for Drain and Sewer Plastic Pipes Using
Flexible Seals. ASTM D3212." American Society for Testing and
Materials. Philadelphia. Pennsylvania. (1976).
"Standard Specifkation for Joint<;, for Plaqli..' Prtssur(," Pires Using Fk\.ihlt:
Seals, ASTM 03139:' Amcrlc<'ln S(lcitl\ f,H Testing and :--'Likl"-
iab. Philadelphia, PennsylvanIa. j [9731. .
28.
27.
29.
30.
31.
33. Svmons, Gt:Ol'!!t: E. "W;IIL"r Sv.... tt:m... Plpt: ... P1rin!!, "buual Dr Practicl:
Number "\\'0,''' \Valt:r and \\";IQt: ... DUJl:Dlll1l1t:llry
Corpnralion, NL"w York. New York. -
286
HANDBDOK OF PVC PIPE
*lli!!ht::r values arc rc<;ollHllclHled for de-rarcJ operatlng pressure::..
9.7 (3.0J
9.1 (2,8)
8.4 (2.5)
12.4 (J.B)
11.(1 (3.5)
10.7 13.3)
14.H (1.5)
13.9 (4.2)
12.H 0.9)
17.0 (5.2)
16.0 <4.9)
14.6 (4.4)
19,0 (5.8)
17,9 (5.4-)
16.4 (5,0)
8.4 (2,5)
7,9 (2,4)
10.9 (3.3)
10,3 (3.1)
13.0 (4.0)
12.2 (3.7)
15,0 (4.6)
14,2 (4.3)
16,8 (5,1)
15.9 (4.8)
7.5 (2.3)
9.8 (3,0)
11.9 (3.6)
(4.:n
15.6 (4.7)
17.8 15.4)
7,0 (2.1)
9,1 (2,8)
II.l (3.4)
12,8 (3,9)
14.4 (4.4)
16,5 (5.0)
7.8 (2.4)
10.2 (3.1)
12.4 (3.8)
14.4 (4.4)
16.2 (4.9)
(5.6)
10.1 (3,1)
9.5 (2.9)
S.7 (2.6)
12.9 (3.9)
12.1 (3.7)
11.1 (3.4)
15,1 1'1.7)
14.5 1-1,4)
13.3 (,1.0)
17.7 {.'iA)
J6.6 (5.0)
15.2 (4.6)
19.8 (6.0)
18.7 (5.7)
17.1 (5.2)
8.7 (2.6)
8.3 (2,5)
11.3 (3.4)
10,7 (3,3)
13.5 (4.1)
12,7 (3,9)
15.6 (4.7)
14.8 (4,5)
17.5 (5.3)
16.5 (5,0)
7.3 (2,2)
9.5 (2.9)
11.5 (3,5)
13.4 (4,1)
15.0 (4.6)
17.2 (5.2)
8.2 0.5)
10.7 13.3)
12.9 i3.9)
15.9 (L61
16.9 l5.2)
19.3 15.9)
10.6 13,2)
9.9 0.0)
9.1 (2.o)
13.5 ILl)
12.7 (19)
11.& (3.5)
16.1 (4.9)
15.2 H.G)
13.9 (1.2)
1l'i.$ (5.6)
17.4 15.3)
15.9 14.8)
20.7 16.3)
19.5 (5.9)
17.9 (5.4)
9,1 12,8)
8.6 (2.6)
11.8 (3.6)
11.2 (3.4)
14,1 (4.3)
13.3 (4,0)
i6,4 (5.0)
15.4 (4,7)
18.3 (5.6)
17.3 (5.3)
7.6 (2.3)
9,9 (3,0)
12.0 (3.6)
14.0 (4,3)
15.7 (4,8)
18.0 (5,5)
pvC PIPE SUPPORT SPACING. IT (101
73.4F (2JC) 100F OSC) !1Q1'!.\
400,000
400,000
400,000
400,000
400,000
400,000
400,000
400,000
400,000
400,000
Design
Modulus

400,000
400,000
400,000
400,000
400,000
400,000
500,000
500,000
500,000
500,000
500,000
SOO,OOO
400,000
400,000
400,000
.HJO.OOO
400.0(JO
-l0(J,000
400,000
400.000
400,000
-lOO,OOO
o.lOO,OOO
400,ODD
400,000
400,000
400,000
14-
IS
25
14-
IX
25
14
18
25
14
18
25
J4
18
25
21
26
21
26
21
26
21
26
21
26
35
35
35
35
35
35
35
35
35
3<
35
35
Dimen-
sion

APPENDIX 3
Product
Standard
:\ W\\/\ ('900
:\ W\\:\ ('')OU
AW\\:\ ('900
AW":\ ('900
AWWA ('cJOO
:\ \\'W:\ ('9(JO
r\ WW:\ ('900
AWW:\ ('900
(\ WWA ('')00
,\\\WA ('900
AW\VA C900
AWWA (900
(\WWA ('900
r\WWA C900
AWWA C900
APPENDICES
287
AST!'>1 0 2241
D 2241
D 2241
D 2241
ASDI D 2241
D 2241
ASDI D 2241
D 2241
AST\I D 2241
AST\I D 2241
ASDI D 3034
ASDI D 3034
ASDI D 3034
ASDI D 3034
AST!'>1 D 3034
AST!'>1 D 3034
SUPPORT SPACING FOR SUSPENDED HORIZONTAL PVC PlPE
FILLED WITH WATER
AST!'>! D 3034
.. D 3034
ASnl D 3034
"Snl D 3034
"SI)I D 3034
A5T\1 D 3034
* AWWA C900 Pipe - All support spacing for cast iron size
NOTE: Calculations of support spacing intervals are based on
Equation 71 (n span), Pipe vertical displacement (sag)
is limited in calculations to 0,2% of span length, Pipe
bending stress values are limited to values defined in
Table 29.
.\
6
8
10
12
15
4
6
S
10
12
15
4
4
6
6
8
8
10
10
12
12
4
4
4
6
" (,
o
X
X
10
10
10
12
12
12
i\ommal
Pipe Size
-.lli!L
l50F (66C)
150 F (66 C)
130 F (54 C) 73 F (23 C)
100 F (38 C)
TDIPERATURE - CONTINUOUS USE
PRESSURE PIPE :\O:\'PRESSURE PIPE
Cell Class 12454
(e.g., PVC 1120)
PVC PIPE
MATERIAL DESIGNATION
PVC 2116 or Cell Class
14333 (e.g., PVC2116)
i
Cell Class 12354 and
Cell Class 13364
Note I: EJastol11l:rk compounds comlllonly llsed 1'01' joint gaskets arc
generally suitable for liSe in wakr with only fl'duction in
longwlcfm properties at continuous tl'mper:ltufl..':-' or 120 (..tt) C).
Ilowcvcf, the hip.h lcmj1cratun.: propt.'rties or specific ,,:lastolllL'f:'
should be dctl'l"ll1il1cd 1'01' SyStl'lllS opnaling :l! elev:lkd klllj1era
lurcs.
APPENDIX 2
MAXIMUM USE TEMPERATURE FOR PVC PIPE
Noll' 2: PVC pipl: gCllcrally will perform properly lllltkr stn:ss :lpplicatioll
when shortwtcrm intermittent It:mpcratllfcS L':\L'l,'cd tbe recolll-
mended muximum temperatures for continotls lise; however.
proper design evaluation of the anticipated operating temperatures
is advised.
HA:\"DBOOK OF PVC PIPE
APPE0:DIX .j
EFFECTS OF COLD WEATHER 0\ PVC PIPE
This section is a summary of all to low temperature in the
Handbook. It also includes specific information which may not be in the
main body of the Handbook.
GENERAL
physical characteristics of PVC pipe arc measured at "room
temperature" which is arbitrarily set by ASDI at 73.4F 3.6F 123C 2C).
There are sever.al characteristics of pipe which jre affected by lowering the
temperature,
Dimensions
o TL'l1sik 11
'r'otlng's \lodulus
IlllP:IC[ Strl'Ilj2[h

Till' col'fllcll'n! of tllL'l"l1l:l1l'\1':1I1'>lllll oj' }l\'( pipl' is 3,{):-, I(r=' Ill/ill/I:
(),l \ 10"-" llljlll'(). Thi,> L'Il;lr:ll'!l'fbtll' will ,,:;::hl':l rt ((l,! Ill) pIp,' 10
COil {r;It,.'1 0,7 ill ( 1.\ !l1111) \\l1l'n L'O(l!t.-d JrOlll q:" I 1.':; Cl [0 -) I' (-2()('),
The join! is easily :lhk to ;IL'l'Ollll::odall' tillS if" lllstalkd pro-
perly, 110\\'r..'\'el". till,.' l,.''\;llJlpk doe:-. point ouI tnl' prohk'lJl oj' j1lJsllill)..': tIll'
spip'ot fully into till,.' bl'lI whell ;l! \'l'lY low klllj1l,.'I':ltlln.'s,
This practicc n::->ults ill cOllsidcrabk ,,:olllprt:ssioll ;Hld
of tlil' pipc (l..';.;pansioll of the bl'll and ()f the spigot), Fortun:lkly.
this s,:ldolll, if l'\'l"r. rl'slills in a strlJ1.:tural raillli;;-, but may result ill failure
Or:l lllandrL'! test ill a !!ra\'ity sewn linc.
INSTALLATION TIP
During very cold [below -5 F (-20C) J \\t'J.ther r('frain from forcing.
spigot fully inlo bdl. Use the stop mark and back out pi pc if necessary to
insurl' adequate room for expansion,
Tile same coefficient of thermal expansion will cause a bundle of
pipe to shrink by a considerable amount. This mJy in effect loosen bundles
and cause displaced pipe if undue forc('s are aprlkcl. This would not nor-
mall}' cause problems when pipe is shipped from a plant or warehouse
because truck strapping will hold eva)'thing together.' Rehandling of
individual bundles particularly using a sling may cause displaced pipe.
INSTALLAnON TIl'
When handling. individual bundles in cold IlSt' a fork lin, If

APPENDICES
you must use a sling be careful to keep pipe horizont::l.1.
TENSILE STRENGTH
The tensile strength of PVC pipe increases with lowering of tempera-
ture. In the interest of conservatism, this fact is seldom applied to pipe
design. Cold temperature has a positive effect on the tensile strength of
PVC pipe.
YOU\G's MODULUS
The modulus of tensile elasticity varies inversely with temperature,
Cold weather produces a stiffer PVC pipe. This has two effects On installa-
tion. PVC pipe will be stiffer and therefore, have a higher F/!:'Y in eold
It.:mp,,'i:lture <lnd therefore, tklleet less, PVC pipe will have a grt:atl,.'r sl,.,ction
modulus (:IS a beam) and will bL' mail' dilTicult to !ll'nd in the trcllL'l1,
I.\II'ACT STRENGTH
..-\s is \\'('11 knc)\vn, the impact strength of all thL'f1noplastil's, indeed
III 0:-. t materials, is reduced with lkcreasing lL'mper;lturt.'. Therl' is llO method
lor ,kkrminill!! wllal the il11p:ll'! strl'ngtll 01':1 malL'ri:d will hL' at oIll' tl'lll-
pn;lltIl'l' ir till' illlpal'l st/'L'ngth at another tl'mpL'r;llllrl' is knowll,
Thl'J'L' an.: ;1 few bL'lll'ralizalions,
(;1) illlpact strl'llbth at low klllperaturl' usually 1llL';lnS good
impact strength at higher temperatures,
(j)) impact strength at iJigh telllpcralurl' usually ml'allS gOOlI
impact strength at low temperature,
(e) Very high impact strength orten requirt.'s a sacrifice in other
desirable characteristics, such as a reduction of tcnsik' strength,
lei) Determination of impact strength depends upon size and shape
of test instrument.
PVC pipe is generally better in impact strength at low tel1lperaturL's
[-5 F (-20C) ] than olher commonly used pipes. However, PVC is extreme-
ly easy to handle at eleva led temperatures. This situation results in a sense
of security and poor handling techniques. This often results in catastrophic
when these "warm weather" techniques are applied when the tem-
perature is sub-freezing. As an example, a PVC 6 inch DR 35 ASTM D
3034 pipe should easily be able to withstand an impact of 21 0 ft.lb. (284J)
at 73F (23C) (2 inch tup), At OF (-I8C), the same product typically with-
stands 50 fUb. (8J) of impact. The ratios are not consistant from size to
size or class to class or even PVC compound to PVC compound. The above
is intended only' as an example,
289
HANDBOOK OF PVC PIPE
INSTALLATION TIP
Encourage good handling practice at all temperatures. This will
insure minimum problems at low temperatures.
TAPPING
Because the pipe has a lower impact at lower temperatures, it is
advisable to proceed with tapping with more caution than would be neces-
sary at warmer temperatures.
APPENDICES
APPENDIX 5
PVC PIPE DIMENSIONS
Outside Diameters
i'\ominal Wall Thickness Tolerance
Pipe Size Tolerance Average 00 A....erage Out-or-Roundness
ASDI D 1785, PVC PIPE, SCHEDULE 40
I 0.133 +0.020 1.315 ::0.005 0.010
1'4 0.140 +0.020 1.660 =0.005 0.012
H-S 0.145 +0.020 1.900 ::0.006 0.012
2 0.154 +0.020 2.375 =0.006 0.012
0.203 +0.024 2.875 ::0.007 O.O 15
3 0.216 +0.026 3.500 ::0.008 0.OI5
3
J
/l 0.226 +0.027 4.000 ::0.008 0.050
4 0.237 +0.028 4.500 =0.009 0.050
5 0.258 +0.031 5.563 =0.010 0.050
6 0.280 +0.034 6.625 =0.011 0.050
8 0.322 +0.039 8.625 =0.015 0.075
10 0.365 +0.044 10.750 ::0.015 0.075
12 0.406 +0.049 12.750 =0.015 0.075
ASDI D I n5. PVC PIPE, SCIIEDUU:. 80
I 0.179 +0.021 1.315 ::0.005 0.010
-\
1'/, 0.191 +0.023 1.660 ::0.005 O.O12
}\/,
0.200 +0.024 1.900 =0.006 O.O 12

0.218 +0.026 :::.375 ::0.006 0.012


-
0.276 +0.033 2.875 ::0.007 0.OI5
3 0.300 +0.036 3.500 ::0.008 O.O 15
3Vz 0.318 +0.038 4.000 ::0.008 O.O 15
4 0.337 +0.040 4.500 ::0.009 0.015
5 0.375 +0.045 5.563 ::0.010 0.030
6 0.432 +0.052 6.625 ::0.011 0.035
8 0.500 +0.060 8.625 ::0.015 0.075
10 0.593 +0.071 10.750 ::0.Ql5 0.075
12 0.687 +0.082 12.750 ::0.Ql5 0.075
ASDI D 2241, PVC PIPE (SDR-PR), SDR 21 (200)
1 0.063 +0.020 1.315 0.005 O.O15
]14 0.079 +0.020 1.660 0.005 0.015
1V2 0.090 +0.020 1.900 :':0.006 0.030
2 0.113 +0.020 2.375 0.006 0.030
2V2 0.137 +0.020 2.875 :':0.007 0.030
3 0.167 +0.020 3.500 ::0.008 0.030
0.190 +0.023 4.000 :':0.008 :':0.050
4 0.214 +0.026 4.500 =0.009 0.050
5 0.265 +0.032 5.563 ::0.010 0.050
HA:"\DDOOK or: PVC PIPE
ASDI D 2241. PVC PIPE (SDR-PR). SDR 26 (1(,0)
1 0.060 +0.020 L315 =0.005 :to.OJ5
I' "
0.064 +0.020 1.(,()O :0.005 :to.015
I' , 0.073 +0.020 1.900 :0.00(, :tOJJ30
,
OJ)lJ 1 +0.020 2.375 :0.00(, iO.030 -
O. I I 0 +0.020 :0.007 lO.O30
,
O. 13 ') +0.020 3.500 -O.OOS W.030 -'
3
1
..- O. 154 +0.020 -UJOO LJ.OOS HJ.050
-I O. I 73 +0.02 I 4.500 : LJ.OO') HJ. 0') 0
5 0.214 +0.027 5.5(d 'LJJJ I0 W.O.'O
(, 0.2') ') +0.031 :(LOII HJ.O,)O
8 0.332 +0.040 :0.015 :'.(J. (J7 5
10 OA13 +0.050 10.750 :(LOI5 O.075
12 0.4')0 +0.059 12.750 ::0.0 IS a.075
Outside Diameters
Tolerance
c
c
c
c
c
c
C
L'
C
C
C
L'
L'
L'
L'
0.050
0.050
0.070
::0.009
::0.011
O.O15
::0.009
0.011
0.015
0.OI5
0.015
:0.009
::0.0 I I
:0.015
:0.015
a.OI5
Outside Diameters
Tolerance
Average 00 Average OutofRoundness
lPPENDIX 5 - Continued
PVC PIPE DIMEI\SIONS
Wall Thickness
Tolerance
:'\ominal
Pipe Size
293
A11'11' A C900, PVC PRESSURE PIPE
b
, PC 200
-I S.71 0.343 +0.041 4.800 0.009
6 /2.) 0.493 +0.059 6.900 0.011
8 15.4 0.646 +0.078 9.050 0.015
10 ,20-1
4
0.793 +0.095 11.100 0.015
12 z.:,.q,O.943 +0.113 13.200 0.015
b Note: Cast iron (Cl) outside diameters listed only
c Note: Out-of-Roundness tolerance on outside diameter not
specified in AWWA C900
SCS 430-DD, PVC 1120 IRRIGATION PIPE. 80 PSI
4 0.081 +0.020 4.130
6 0.121 +0.020 6.1-10
8 0.160 +0.020 8.160
;\\\'\\'A C900, PVC PRESSURE I'II' EI>, PC ISO
-I 0.267 +0.032 4.800
6 0.383 +0.0-16 6.900
8 0.503 +0.060 9.050
10 0.617 +0.07-1 11.100
12 0.733 +0.088 13.200
ASDI D 3034. PVC SEWER PIPE. DR 35
4 0.120 a 4.215 ::0.009 a
6 0.180 a 6.275 ::0.011 a
8 0.240 a 8AOO ::0.012 a
10 0.300 a 10.500 ::0.015 a
12 0.360 a 12.500 ::0.018 a
15 OA37 a 15.300 0.023 a
a ;.iotc: wall thickness tolerance not specified in
D 3034. Out-or-roundness tolerance not specified
in .\SHI D 3034.
A\\\\.-\ Cl)OO. PVC PRESSURE PIPE
b
, PC 100
4 0.192 +0.023 4.800
() 0.276 +0.033 (,.900
8 0.3(,2 +0.043 \i.050
10 OA44 +0.053 I LJ 00
12 0.528 +0.0(,3 13.200
il. .. :-Ln V1\..< ' ..0,,'>
0.050
0.075
0.075
0.075
0.030
0.050
0.050
a.050
0.050
0.075
0.075
0.075
0.050
0.050
0.050
0.050
0.075
0.075
0.075
0.008
::0.009
O.O10
0.011
:to.015
=0.015
0.015
Average 00 Average Out-or-Rollndness
APPENDIX 5 - Continued
PVC PIPE DIMEI\SIONS
Wall Thickness
Minimum Tolerance
i\ominal
Pipe Size
ASDI D 2241. PVC PIPE (SDR-PR). SDR 21 (200) - Continued
6 0.316 +0.038 6.625 =0.011
8 OAI0 +0.049 8.625 =0.015
10 0.511 +0.061 10.750 ::0.015
12 0.606 +0.073 12.750 ::0.015
ASHI D 2241. PVC 1'11'1'. (SDR-PRI. SDR 32.5 (1251
3 0.108 +0.020 3.500 ::0.008
3
V
, 0.123 +0.020 4.000 ::0.008
-I 0.138 +0.020 -1.500 ::0.009
5 0.171 +0.021 5.563 ::0.010
6 0.204 +0.02-1 6.625 ::0.011
8 0.265 +0.032 8.625 ::0.015
10 0.331 +0.040 10.750 0.015
12 0.392 +0.047 12.750 O.O 15
?O?
ASHl D 2241. PVC PIPE (SDR-PR). SDR -II (l00)
3Y, 0.098 +0.020 4.000
4 0.110 +0.020 4.500
5 0.136 +0.020 5.563
6 0.162 +0.020 6.625
8 0.210 +0.025 8.625
10 0.262 +0.031 10.750
12 0.311 +0.037 12.750
HANDBOOK OF PVC PIPE
Average OD Average Out-or-Roundness
'0"
f
f
r
f
f
f
r
f
I"
r
r
r
d
cI
d
d
d
d
d
::0.028
::0.033
::0.037
:to.042
::0.028
::0.033
::0.037
::0.042
O.021)
O.033
;:0.037
::0.042
Outside Diameters
Tolerance
_A_v_c_r._g_e Ou{-of-Roundness
. ,PPENDIX 5 - ContinueD
PVC PIPE DIMENSIONS
Wall Thickness
Mlnlmum Tolerance
Nominal
Pipe Size
UNI-B-7. PVC SEWER PIPE (18 - 27 inch), M-3
e
] 8 0.499 f 18.700
21 0.588 f 22.047
24 0.661 f 24.803
27 0.745 f 27.956
e Note: M-l = 400,000 psi minimum modulus
M-2 = 440,000 psi minimum modulus
M-3 = 500,000 psi minimum modulus
f Note: Maximum wall thickness tolerance not specified in
UNI-B-7. Out-of-Roundness tolerance not specified
in UNI-B-7.
UNI-I3-7. PVC SEWER PIPE (18 - 27 inch). ;'1_2
e
18 0.520 f 18.700
21 0.613 I" 22.047
24 0.689 f 24.803
27 0.777 f 27.956
295
UNI-I3-7. PVC SEWER PIPE (II) - 27 inch}, ;'1_l
e
18 0.536 I" 18.700
2 I 0.632 I" 22.047
2.+ 0.71 I I" 24.803
27 0.801 f 27.956

SCS 430-EE. PVC 112050 PSI PLASTIC IRRIGATION PIPE
4 0.065 +0.020 4. I30 ::0.009
(, 0.076 +0.020 6.140 ::0.011
8 0.101 +0.020 8.160 =0.015
10 0.126 +0.020 10.200 ::0.015
12 0.151 +0.020 12.240 =0.015
14 O.17() +0.021 14.280 ::0.015
15 0.189 +0.023 15.300 ::0.015
SCS 430-EE, PVC 1120 LOW HEAD IRRIGATION PIPE - Continued
14 0.140 +0.020 14.280 ;:0.015 d
15 0.150 +0.020 15.300 ::0.015 d
d Note: Out-of-Roundness tolerance not specified in SCS 430-EE
d
d
d
d
d
iO.050
W.050
::0.070
::0.075
::0.075
W.075
::0.075
=0.050
::0.050
::0.070
=0.075
::0.075
::0.075
:':0.075
:to.075
::0.075
::0.075
::0.075
::0.050
::0.050
::0.070
::0.075
::0.075
::0.075
::0.075
Outside Diameters
Tolerance
APPENDIX 5 - Continued
PVC PIPE DIMENSIONS
Wall Thickness
MinImum
Nominal
Pipe Size
SCS 430-DD, PVC 1120 IRRIGATION PIPE. 100 PSI
.+ 0.101 +0.020 .+.130 ::0.009
6 0.150 +0.020 6.1'+0 =0.011
8 0.199 +0.02'+ 8.160 ::0.015
10 0.249 +0.030 10.200 =0.015
12 0.299 +0.03() 12.240 ::0.015
1.+ 0.348 +0.042 14.280 :':0.015
15 0.373 +0.045 15.300 =0.015
SCS 430-DD, PVC 1120 IRRIGATION PIPE. 160 PSI
4 0.159 +0.020 4.130 ::0.009
6 0.236 +0.028 6.140 ::0.0 II
8 0.314 +0.038 8.160 ::0.015
10 0.392 +0.047 10.200 ::0.015
12 0.471 +0.056 12.240 ::0.015
14 0.549 +0.066 14.280 ::0.015
15 0.588 +0.071 15.300 ::0.015
SCS 430-EE, PVC 1120 LOW HEAD IRRIGATION PIPE
4 0.065 +0.020 4.130 ::0.009
6 0.070 +0.020 6.140 ::0.01 I
8 0.080 +0.020 8.160 ::0.015
10 O. 100 +0.020 10.200 ::0.015
12 0.120 +0.020 12.240 ::0.015
ses '+30-1)1). I've 1120 IRRIGATION PIPE. 1251'51
4 0.127 +0.020 4. I30 :'0.009
6 0.11)9 +0.023 6.1'+0 :':0.011
I) 0.251 +0.031 8.160 ::0.015
10 0.314 +0.038 10.200 =0.015
12 0.377 +0.045 12.240 =0.015
1.+ 0.439 +0.053 14.280 =0.015
15 0.471 +0.057 15.300 ::0.015
SCS 430-DD, PVC 1120 IRRIGATION PIPE, 80 PSI- Continued
10 0.200 +0.024 10.200 :to.015
12 0.240 +0.029 12.240 :to.015
14 0.280 +0.034 14.280 :to.015
15 0.300 +0.036 15.300 :to.0 15
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HANDBOOK OF PVC PIPE
Bending,ovalization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. /, .. 178
Bending, strain 177
Bending, stress 1- 6
Bio-degration 50,51
Biological Attack 50
Blending 62
Boussinesq Theory .131, 132
Buckling 160
Building Officials and Code Administration (BOCA) 75
Bulk PVC r 61
C
C:"wulan Standards Association (CSA) 76,89
Casings :267
Cell Cbss 9,10, II
Cell Cbssiflcation Testing BO.81
Certification _ btl
Rcsist:lIIce. PVC 22,43
ChClllil,;al Resistance Suffix, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , 11,02
Cleaning , , , 53
Coefficient of Thcrrnal Expansion .. , 49, 1t:5
Commercial Standards (U. S. Dept. o( Standards) .4
Compaction i\lcthods 249,25::)
Compliancc Statcmcnt , 89
Compounding 60,62
Compounds 60
Consensus Standards 3
Construction 232
Control Valves 255
Cooper E-80 Live Loauing 135
Corrosion Resistance 18
Creep 101,102,146,147
D
Darcy-Weisback 191
Deflection, AWWA C-900 145
Deflection, Joint. 166
Deflecrion, Maximum , _ .158,159
Deflection, Lag Factor 143,146
?QR
Deflection, PVC Sewer 158
Deflection, Temperature 10,82
Deflection, Theoretical. 141
Department of Agriculture Specifications 71
Department of Army Specifications n
Department of Defense Military Standards 71
Department of Housing & Urban Development (HUD) 72
Department of Navy Specifications n
Department of Transportation (DOT-OPS) Specifiearions 71
Design 93
Design Guides 96
Design Recommendations 96
240,244
Dimension Ratio 110
Disinfection 276
Dynamic Loadings 99
E
E' _ , 141
!:arlit Loaus .1 19, 126
Elastic Wave Theory 131
Elastomcr, Comprcssion Sct 15
Elastomer, Elongation 15
Elastomeric Seals 15
Elastomerie Seal Compounds 15,284
Electrolysis 19
Embankment Load 123
Embedment 239
EncasCIllcnt , 267
Equilibrium Deflection 149
Exfiltration Testing 278
Extrusion 64
Extrusion Quality Test 87
F
Factory Mutual (FM) 89
Fatigue ' 159
Federal Housing Administration 72
Federal Specifications 71
299
.............. 98
Final Backfill. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .239
Fire Hydrants 255
Fitting Specifications 68
Flattening Test 87
Flexible Pipe Theories 136
Flow, Pressure Pipe 188
Flow, Sewer Pipe 204,211
Flow Velocities, Maximum 116, 117,142
Foundation 239
Friction Loss 192,193,196
G
Galvanic Corrosion , 19
Great L:Jkcs.Upper !IIississippi River Board of
State Sanitary Engineers (G . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (J7
H
11-20 lilghway Loading , 134
I bll Integratioll 133
II;lllgcTS IX1
Iiaullching 239
IlazcnWilliams Formula 188
Iloop Stress 04, 102
lIydraulics 188
Hydraulic Transients ' 112
lIydrogen SulrIdc Cycle 21
Hydrohammcr 251
lIydrostatic Designllasis 84, 102.103, 104
Hydrostatic Dcsign Stress Committee (PPI) 4,12
Hydros,"tic Design Stress, Ratings 9,12.84, 104
Hydrostatic Design Slress Testing, Long Term 9,83
Hydrostatic Pressure 99
Hydrostatic Proof Test 88
I
Impact Factor. 133
Impact Strength (Izod) 10,82
Impact Test 87
lnnltwtion Testing 278
300
Initi"i Backl111. . . . . . . 239
Installation 239
InSlitute for Hydromechanic and Hydraulic Structures
of the Technical University of Darmstadt 53
Insurance Services Office (ISO) 255
Integral Bell Gasketed Joint. 66,236
Internal Hydrostatic Pressure 99
International Association of Plumbing and
!>lechanical Officials (lAPMO) 74
International Conference of Building Ofllcials (ICBO) 74
International Standards Organization (ISO) .4,77,105
Iowa Formula 139
lrrig:.1tiun Association .
ISO Equotiun- R16I1960 . 105
J
System Performance Testing tn, 85
JOIlH :\ssembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 236
JOllli Spedlkatiolls 69,78
K
!\.utters Formula 204
L
L:mgelicr Index 20
Lcabgc Testing 275
Liners 21
Listing 89
Live Loads 119,131,135
Long Tcrm Hydrostatic Design Stress Testing 8I l 83
Longitudinaillending 163,165, 170
Los Angeles Green llook 96
Los Angeles Rubber Group, Inc 22,23
Lubricant, Gasket 51
Lubricant. PVC 62
M
!>Ianhales 246,261
Manning Equation 205
301
HANDBOOK OF PVC PIPE
Manufacturing, Joint 66,67
Manufacturing, Processes 60
Manufacturer's Compliance Statement. 89
Manufacturer's Warranty 89
Marketing 86
Marston Theory 119
Mass PVC Resin 61
Material Code 12
Modified Iowa Formula 141
Modulus of Elas/icity 10,82, lIS
Modulus of Soil Reaction, E' 141
1\!onOlller , . , 61
i\-Ioudy Diagr:llll ,', 194,195
Municipal Water lllains 116
N
National Association of Corrosion Enginccrs. . 113
National Association or Plumbing, Ilcating.
Cooling COli tractors (NAPIICC) _. _ _ 75
Assn.
(NEil-tA) Standards 73
National Fire Protection Assn. (NFPA) 79
National Sanitation Foundation (NSr) 4,9,73, B2, B3
Newmark Integration : 133
a
Organoleptic Testmg 9,81,83
Ovali"tion 178
Ozone Resistance 15
p
Packaging 87,90
Performance Limits 159
Pipe Stiffness 136,137,138
Pipe Stiffness Test 88
Plastic Flow 101,102
64
Plasticizers 9
Plastics Pipe Institute (I'l'l) .4
INDEX
Poisson's Ratio 161
Polyene 52
Polymer. 2,61
Polymerization 2,61
Polyphosphates 20
Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) 2
Potable Water Pipe 4,9
Pressure Capacity vs. Temperature .107,108
Pressure Class 109,110, III
Pressure Rating 105,106, III
Pressure Surges 101,114,116
Pressure Testing 274
Prism LO;Jd .123.131
Procwr Density J43
Product t\bking 86
Public Standards (U. S. Dept. of Commerce) _ .4
PVC ,llaterial Specifications 70
PVC Pipe, Compounds _ 13,14.60
PVC Pipe, Extrusion Compounds 8
PVC Pipe, 60
PVC Pipe, Material Code 12
PVC Pipe, Origin 2
PVC Pipe, Testing 60,79
PVC Resiliency 53
Q
Qualification Testing 79,80
Quali ty Assurance Testing " 88
Quality Control Inspection 86
Quality Control Testing 80,85,87
Quick Burst Test 87,100,101
R
Rankine's Ratio 121
Recommended Practices 70,76,78,79
Reissner Theory ' 166
Renord Series III
Rigid PVC Compounds 9
Rigid PVC Compounds, Additives 9
HANDBOOK OF PVC PIPE
Rigid PVC Pipe. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 3,9
Ring Compression Theory 162
263
Ryznar Index '.' 20
S
Saddles 271
Safety Factor 84,104,109,110
Safety Valves 255
Sanitary Sewagcif' 21
Sanitary Sewage, resistance 21
Service Clamps 269
ServiL:c Conncl.:{iuns 26()
Sewage Force Maills. , . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 117
Sheeting , , , , , , .243
Shipping , , .. 90
Soil, Aggrcss.ivl: . . , 21
Soil, Alk:dilH: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Soil Cell. 151
Soil ClaSs. 247,252
Soil ('oll5crvatioll Service Specillcatiom (SCS) ,71
Soil Tcs.t , .20
Solvent Ccmcnt Joints. , , . , 238
Solvent Cement SpcdHcations , 69
Southern Building Code Congress (SBCC) 74
Spangler Theory 139
Sprillgline , , 239
Standard Dimension Ralio , , 110
Standard Specifications 67, 291
Static LO;.Jdings , ,99
Stiffness Test 88
Storage , , , . 234
Strain Limit 163
Stress .104,159
Stress, Bending 166
Stress, Regression 84,102,103
Stress. Relaxation 147
Subditch 243
Sulfide Generation 21
-:tot!.

Sulfuric Acid . . . . . . .. . 11,21
Superimposed Loads 119
Supporr Spacing 181,287
Surge Allowance .109,110
Surge Control 118
Surge Pressures 112,114,116
Surge Resistance 118
Suspension PVC 61
Sustained Pressure Test. 88,100
System Standards 68
T
Tappm::: Sleeves , 27D
T __\. Odor Testing 9.83
Tcchru..:;.d University of Darmstadt 5.3
"Tell SC.ltcs" Standards , , .97
TCll:ilk Strcngth. Elastolller .. , , . , , 15
Tens.ile Strellgt!l. PVC , 10,82
TCfllllllulogy , , , . , , , , , 70
Tesl , , , , , , . , , , .. OS
Tc::;t , , , , , , , , . , . , .. 69,79
Then,,"l Erfects 49. 107, 108, 148,206,280
Thermal Expansion, Coefficient or , , 49, ISS
Thermoplastic , . , .. , , , , , , , 2,61
Thrust llIock 24 1,256
Timoshenko Theory 166,168
Toxicological Testing, , , , 9,81,82
Transition Width , , , 122
Trench Box 244
Tuberculation 54
U
Ultraviolet (UV) Degradation 51
Ultraviolet (UV) Radiation .51
Ultraviolet (UV) Shielding 52
Underwriters Laboratories, Inc. (UL) 75, $9
UniBell Joint : 66
UniBell Plastic Pipe Association 5,78
Unified Soil Classification System (USCS) 247
305
U. S. Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) 143
U. S. Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards 82
V
Vinyl Chloride ............................................ 2,61
Vinyl Chloride Monomer 61, 83
W
Warranty 89
Water Hammer 112
Water Pollution Control Federation (WPCF) 83
Water Service Lines 117
Waterswp 263
Watkms Suil Strain Theory 151
Wave Velocity , 113
Weathering Resistance 51
Workm:ll1ship , 86
x,v,z
306
307
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