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A Report by the Seattle National Lawyers Guild WTO Legal Group

and the Center for Study of Domestic Militarization

Police State
Targets the Left
By Jim Redden
The sound of breaking glass signaled a dra-
matic change in the focus of the government’s
political surveillance programs in late 1999.
After spending most of the decade spying on
the right wing neo-Patriot movement, law en-
forcement agencies abruptly shifted gears and
declared brick-throwing anarchists to be the
newest threat to the American way of life. By
the dawn of the new Millennium, the govern-
ment was running COINTELPRO-style opera-
tions against a coalition of radical labor, envi-
ronmental, and human rights organizations
opposed to corporate control of the global
economy. Police were photographing sus-
pected activists and entering license plate num-
bers in their computer databanks. Undercover
operatives were infiltrating meetings and dis-
rupting protests. Even the Pentagon was in-

volved, dispatching its Delta Force anti-terror-

ism commandos to identify and secretly vid-
eotape suspected leaders. By early August, calls
were underway for a full-blown federal investi-
gation into the movement, raising the specter
of a government-orchestrated Green Scare Police use chemical agents on demonstrators. Not only were protesters and bystanders injured, so were police. At least one
along the lines of anti-Communist witch-hunts officer exposed to these chemicals experienced heart problems, according to SPD reports.
of the 1950s.

A New Type of Domestic Warfare

The shift was the direct result of the mas-
sive protests, which disrupted the World Trade
Organization conference in Seattle. Over 50,000
demonstrators jammed the streets, snarling
traffic and preventing WTO delegates from Paul Richmond, NW Regional Vice Presi- lists of corporate donors) and the media Again” attitude about Seattle style dem-
reaching their meetings. When the authorities dent, National Lawyers Guild (all six outlets) decided this was a cause onstrations here in the United States.
tried to break up the protests, a small group of for exalting the power of democracy. The Demonstrations subsequent to Seattle
the most militant activists struck back, vandal- “We are up against the strongest, well- people had taken to the streets. The people have been met universally with intense
izing businesses in the downtown core and trained militant revolutionary group that had challenged the tyrants. The people preemptive harassment, chilling levels of
clashing with police throughout the city. Much has ever assembled in America...They’re had won. Bill Clinton and Al Gore found surveillance, and an equation of basic First
like the urban riots of the early 1960s, the in- worse than the brownshirts and the Com- it a cause for celebration. So did George Amendment rights with acts of terrorism.
tensity of the confrontations caught political munist element and the night riders and W. Bush and Dick Cheney. The reason for these escalating tactics,
leaders and law enforcement officials off guard, the vigilantes.” Two years ago, something similar hap- more reminiscent of a fascist dictatorship
prompting the most significant change in the – Ohio Governor James Rhodes, speak- pened in streets of Seattle. Tens of thou- than a democracy, has to do with the fact
direction of the government’s domestic surveil- ing in Kent Ohio, May 3 1970, the day be- sands of citizens, concerned about an un- that we’re living in a system run not for
lance operations in the past 20 years. fore the shootings democratic institution managed by a few the benefit of freedom, but the benefit of
Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, the FBI individuals who thumbed their noses at profit. The rules of the WTO, the FTAA,
and other domestic law enforcement agencies Corporations Calling Protest War democratic process, blocked the streets NAFTA and GATT openly allow human
focused their political intelligence-gathering The “War on Terrorism,” “War on and shut the despots down. They too rights, environmental protections, restric-
programs on militias and other Far Right orga- Crime” and “War on Drugs” have one braved tear gas, rubber bullets, and para- tions against child labor to all be chal-
nizations. But, by the summer of 1999,federal main thing in common. All of these are military troops with military rifles and no lenged as “barriers to free trade.” This is
authorities were beginning to look at the emerg- becoming code words for waging war on identification. nothing really new. The U.S. government
ing anti-globalization movement. Tipped off that civilian populations. Ironically, many of the same voices that has overthrown foreign democracies and
large numbers of protesters were preparing to trumpeted what took place in Yugoslavia
travel to Seattle for the December WTO meet- What happened during the Seattle as a triumph, have expressed a “Never (see NEW TYPE OF WAR, p. 3)
ing, the FBI began spying on environmental, WTO Ministerial, when the police ex-
labor and anti-corporate activists. As the Se- posed tens of thousands of people to po-
attle Weekly reported on December 23, 1999, tentially lethal agents and invaded the
“Sources say ... that police and 30 other local, densest population center on the West
state, and federal agencies have been aggres- Coast north of San Francisco, is that the False Police Reports, by Tim Ream, p. 2
sively gathering intelligence on violent and non- Third World got a lot bigger.
violent protest groups since early summer (FBI In Yugoslavia, almost a year after the
New Tanks and Planes, p. 3
agents even paid personal visits to some activ- WTO held its historic meeting in Seattle, Columbine Triggers New Police Tactics, p. 6
ists’ homes to inquire about their plans).” thousands of people gathered in the Coup d’etat, p. 10
Even the military got involved. According streets. They were outraged by a few
to the Seattle Weekly, the Pentagon sent mem- petty despots who thumbed their noses Historical Background of Corporations, p. 13
bers of the top-secret Delta Force to Seattle to at democratic process. Tens of thousands Signs from the Times, p. 13
prepare for President Bill Clinton’s arrival. As strong, these outraged citizens stormed a The Role of WTO in Corporate World Government, p. 15
the paper put it, 3the elite Army special force, heavily defended meeting place, braved
operating under its cover name of Combat Ap- tear gas and rubber bullets and shut down Goons Around the Globe, p. 16
plications Group (CAG), was in Seattle a week an undemocratic process. Organizing in the Face of Increased Repression, by Starhawk, p. 20
The voices of the establishment in poli-
Recommendations, by Paul Richmond, p. 20
(see POLICE STATE, p. 3) tics (both major parties and their shared
False Police Reports Are Part of Police Strategy
by Tim Ream Recent Examples smoke bomb that fogged the McDonalds. Needless
Philadelphia Republican to say, the retractions did not receive the level of press
A disturbing trend is developing regarding National Convention - August 2000 coverage of the original actions. Discussion of the eth-
police pre-emptive response to mass protest. The Philadelphia Police Department raided a ware- ics of animal genetics received little discussion.
In numerous situations since the protests house where activists were engaged in creating pup-
pets to protest at the Republican National Conven- Tacoma Kaiser Aluminum
against the World Trade Organization in Se-
tion (RNC). Seventy activists were arrested, materi- Lock-out of Steelworkers March 2000
attle in late 1999, police have issued misinfor- als were seized and the warehouse was shut down. In the wake of the successful alliance built between
mation claiming unsubstantiated evidence of The police claimed prior to the raid that they believed labor and environmentalists in Seattle, action was
violent plans by protesters gathering for mass that activists were storing C4 explosives. Also, activ- planned in Tacoma to support the locked-out United
actions. The false information is then used as ists were allegedly preparing weapons in the form of Steel Workers of America. The Direct Action Network,
a pretext for unwarranted police actions. acid-filled balloons presumably to throw at the po- Steelworkers and more than a dozen other groups al-
lice. The warehouse was claimed to be a staging lied to call for a weekend of actions. As that weekend
The misinformation concerning protester
ground for both producing weapons and preparing a approached, police warned the press and community
plans have ranged from chemical weapons to riot. leaders of the violence that was likely. They claimed
bomb-making. None of the numerous claims Police also claim to have arrested people associ- that “anarchists from Eugene were missing” and ac-
of violent plans have been substantiated. ated with a bus containing small animals, some of tions at the Kaiser plant could start a chain reaction
Nonetheless, many media outlets appear to which were poisonous. Police claim that these animals and “blow up the whole port of Tacoma.”
have been predisposed to repeat information were to be used to attack delegates of the RNC. In this case, initial scare tactics were sufficient. Steel-
No C4 explosive was found. Nor were any other worker leadership backed out of the alliance one week
provided by police without fact-checking or
weapons or acid found. The bus driver transporting before the actions and the protest fell apart. No mass
seeking responses from the organizations ac- the animals claims to be a pet shop owner. labor-environment action coalition has happened
cused. The damage to free speech and the mass Bail was set at amounts that preclude easy release since.
protest movement has been extensive. generally ranging around $15,000. One activist was
held on misdemeanor charges and $1,000,000 bail sub- Eugene, Oregon
sequently reduced to $100,000. This effectively pre- Eugene Active Existence - June 2000
Introduction vented activists from speaking out against the RNC A six-week anarchist conference was the subject of
Mass protest of government policies on this conti- and the subsequent Democratic National Convention numerous police press releases concerning alleged
nent is at least as old as the property destruction that (DNC) in Los Angeles. threats of violence and the precautions the Eugene
characterized the Boston Tea Party, involving hun- Police Department employed to avert trouble. Police
dreds of activists in 1773. Since the anti-war protest Washington, DC distributed to the media a portfolio of dozens of fly-
of the 1960s and anti-nuclear protests of the 1970s, few IMF/World Bank Meetings - April 2000 ers spanning five years that they claimed revealed
instances of mass protest have garnered national me- The day before the mass protest of World Bank and protesters’ violent threats. They created a video simu-
dia attention. That situation changed radically on International Monetary Fund meetings in Washing- lation of a dummy police officer burned by a police-
November 30, 1999 when activists from around the ton, DC police raided a training and art supply ware- constructed firebomb that anarchists might use.
globe shut down Seattle meetings of the World Trade house popularly referred to as a “convergence” space. Two days before the final planned march, police ar-
Organization (WTO). This story garnered widespread Police reports claimed that they found materials for rested two young men for allegedly burning a truck.
international attention, fueled further by the violent making Molotov cocktails, a laboratory for mass pro- They are currently being held on $900,000 bail and
police response to peaceful protesters and the decla- duction of pepper spray and bomb-making materi- face 15 to 86 years in prison if convicted.
ration of a no-protest zone. als. This, in part, justified arrests that ran to near 1200
The Seattle Police Department reputation was dam- people for the week. Conclusions
aged severely by officers’ lack of control and brutal In a later retraction, police admitted that the Mass media and public perceptions are being sys-
response in the streets. In the wake of the protests, Molotov cocktail supplies were plastic containers and tematically manipulated by police departments and
Seattle Police Chief Norm Stamper quickly resigned. rags that smelled of solvents. The pepper spray fac- other government agencies faced with upcoming mass
Police departments charged with preventing similar tory was nothing more than a kitchen, and bomb- protests in their cities. These manipulations are de-
disruptions in their cities since the Seattle actions have making materials were limited to simple plastic wa- signed to squelch protest and thereby the message of
scrambled to find ways to prevent mass protest. ter pipe. All of these materials are consistent with ac- dissent. A common thread in the current series of na-
A disturbing pattern of response has appeared over tivities related to the convergence and art projects. tion-wide protests is a sense that control of govern-
the next months. It is loosely characterized by three As a result of police action the infrastructure and ment is no longer in the hands of common people.
steps. First, police departments, often in conjunction political messages in the form of signs and puppets Governments are effectively squashing the challenge
with city government, begin a multi-faceted media were taken by police and did not appear on the streets inherent in this message.
campaign designed to make protest organizers appear or in media coverage. Undoubtedly numerous people Editorial pages and conversations on the street are
to be involved in preparations for violence. Police de- stayed home for fear of associating with violent ter- full of critiques that protesters are not clear about what
partments have assembled and distributed collections rorists utilizing bomb-making factories. they stand for and seem more interested in violence
of flyers claiming violence, released videos of protest than meaningful change. This is as clear a sign as any
from other cities, held meetings with individual me- Minneapolis that protester voices have been effectively silenced and
dia organizations and created a mythic notion of an International Society of Animal police positioning of protesters is carrying the day.
organization dedicated to violence and central to the Geneticists July 2000 In addition, activists are scared. Anyone who has been
protest usually identified as “the anarchists” or “the Several days before the protest was to begin, po- involved in the mass protest movement through a
Eugene Anarchists.” lice claimed that large quantities of ammonium ni- major event of the last six months has friends who
Once the public is predisposed to expect violence trate had been stolen from a nearby storage area and have been brutalized at the hands of the system. Of
from activists, the second step in the process involves that unidentified protestors were suspected of in- the nearly 2500 protest arrests that have happened
a specific claim of evidence suggesting an imminent volvement. On the day of the major march, police since November 30, 1999, more than three-quarters
act of violence. These claims will later be retracted, claimed that a cyanide bomb had been detonated in a have had all charges dropped and only a small per-
corrected or will simply remain unsubstantiated. They McDonalds restaurant. The FBI called this an act of centage of arrests have resulted in convictions.
have included claims of stolen bomb-making materi- terrorism and the local anti-protest law enforcement These facts notwithstanding, there is little national
als, a bus load of poisonous animals, a factory to pro- action was placed under federal control. The next day debate on police strong-arm tactics. The reason seems
duce pepper spray, acid filled balloons, a cyanide poi- the federal Drug Enforcement Agency, including clear. Despite the injustice activists face for speaking
soning or the simple fact that known terrorists have hooded officers raided a house where some protest their beliefs, the public allows these police tactics
evaded police surveillance and now may be prepared organizing had taken place. Residents were beaten, because they have been made to fear activists. Unfor-
to act without restraint. arrested and taken to a hospital. Computer hard drives tunately, the evidence for their fear is the result of mis-
The third step in this tactic follows the second and political literature were seized along with less information by these same police agencies. The costs
closely or simultaneously. It involves a police action than an ounce of marijuana and a small amount of to police agencies since Seattle are minimal. No chief
publicly justified in the climate of imminent terror- psychedelics. Police at the raid claimed that an un- has been pressured to resign, no officer has been
ism. It has the effect however, of a prior restraint on dercover agent had warned that residents at the house charged with misbehavior and requests for special
free speech and intimidation of those who would wore hunting knives to attack police in the event of appropriations in the millions of dollars for gear and
speak their mind against their government. Examples an arrest. overtime have been granted. When the full range of
have included seizing training and puppet making Charges on all but one resident have since been political dialogue is no longer tolerated by the gov-
facilities; seizing training, art and medical supplies; dropped. Police announced that they now have no ernment, it will not simply disappear. With debate
and seizing hard drives and political literature. Po- reason to believe that activists were involved in the stifled, energy for change will instead transform and
tential protesters have been arrested, beaten and had ammonium nitrate theft. A health department inspec- move underground. Evidence of a growing movement
bail set at ridiculously high amounts to hold them past tor said that there was no cyanide threat, the poison of covert acts of sabotage indicate that the movement
the event around which the protest was scheduled. being more concentrated in apple seeds than in the underground is picking up steam.


POLICE STATE (cont.) world’s resources that are taking place,
from the loss of half the world’s topsoil,
in advance of the Clinton visit to scope out "...(W)e know the direction we must to our ever-diminishing supply of drink-
possible terrorist acts. Under the control of able water. With the collapse of the
the Joint Special Operations Command begin to travel. On land our heavy world’s ecology, Kaplan acknowledges,
(JSOC) at Fort Bragg, North Carolina, the con- will eventually come the collapse of most
tingent took up residence in a Regrade motel
forces will be lighter, our light forces of the world’s economy. As this occurs,
and fanned out downtown dressed as dem- will be more lethal. All will beeasier the poor will continue to grow in raw
onstrators, some wearing their jungle greens. numbers and percentage of the human
The preparations didn’t work. Thousands to deploy and to sustain..." population. The “global village” will
of protesters overwhelmed the police on the become divided. Most of it will be ghet-
opening day of the conference, shutting down President George W. Bush tos. The privileged few who own most
the center where the main meetings were of everything that can be owned will try
scheduled to be held. The police overreacted to find ways to hold onto what they’ve
and began pepper spraying and tear-gassing got. They will ride around in armored
the protesters who were preventing the WTO NEW TYPE OF WAR (cont.) at in restaurants, in their cars and in their limousines as they drive from one forti-
delegates from entering the center. When a homes. What was going on? fied suburban enclave to the next.
few hours later, a small group of the most even opened fire on domestic strikers,
militant protesters retaliated by attacking such before anyone reading this article was The World as Third World – Author Kaplan writes this report from
corporate icons as McDonalds, Nike Town, born. It’s merely making what has been Fortified Limousines Riding the vantage point of “those of us inside
the Gap and Starbucks, smashing windows, last-ditch standard operating procedure Through the Global Village the stretch limo,” (p. 44). He analyzes
toppling shelves, spraying graffiti they pro- into an official policy. the changing state of warfare, relying on
vided the justification for a massive police Here’s what’s really frightening: if you One of the best explanations of the prominent military historian Martin Van
crackdown. examine the plans of those in power, as dynamic which is creating institutions Creveld, and his book The Transforma-
The mayor of Seattle declared a state of we do in this article, you see that they’re such as the World Trade Organization, tion of War. Van Creveld describes a new
civil emergency, essentially a local version of aware that our ecological base is collaps- and the paramilitary presence they inevi- type of warfare, “Asymmetric Warfare”
martial law. Washington’s governor called out ing around us, and will of course take the tably bring with them is The Coming that has already taken the place of war
300 state troopers and two divisions of the economy with it. But their plans aren’t to Anarchy published in the February 1994 between nations. These are the high-
National Guard to secure the blocks around stop this, only to keep themselves in edition of The Atlantic and recently ex- lights of their analysis:
the downtown convention site. A “Protest- power as the planet goes down the tubes panded into a book. Author Robert
Free Zone” was declared around the confer- Recently, there has been an escalation Kaplan describes the plundering of the • War will be more likely to take place
ence headquarters, allowing the police to ex- of the tools and tactics used to wage war
clude anyone merely wishing to express their on the U.S. domestic population. It’s re-
First Amendment rights. Police dressed up sulted in more than half the adult black
in military-style riot gear chased protesters
through the streets for the next few days.
male population under 27 being in some
form of detention or parole. If you look Tanks. Planes and Big Guns
Thousands of people were sprayed with pep- at the more rural populations, the war on
per gas, clubbed with ballistic batons, and
shot with rubber-coated bullets and steel pel-
drugs has allowed the police to work with
National Guard units, with helicopters
for Asymmetrical War Fun
let-filled “beanbag” shotgun rounds. Many of and automatic weapons. There’s been the “Today, wars are small regional conflicts that
the victims were innocent bystanders and “war on crime” which has turned the increasingly start and end fast. A weapon that can’t
business owners who simply didn’t get out prison industry into our leading growth arrive in time for the battle isn’t really a weapon at all.”
of the way fast enough. industry. The “threat of terrorists” has “Army’s New Ride,” Scott Gourley,
The chaos was broadcast around the prompted unrestricted information access Popular Mechanics, February 2001.
world. TV viewers saw police firing at pro- by the law enforcement, particularly the
testers at point blank range. One cop went federal agencies. Indications that the military is retooling in a major
out of his way to kick an empty-handed pro- Not only are these increased powers way to fight the “asymmetrical” wars
tester in the groin. Another cop ripped a gas being used against the poor, but they are described by Kaplan, Van Creveld, ERI,
mask off a pregnant foreign reporter and being used against any who practice po- et al are found in the seemingly innocu-
struck her. litical dissent. If you believe the “experts,” ous publications Popular Mechanics
Delta Force troops were in the middle of what took place in Seattle during the WTO and Popular Science. Popular Mechan-
the confrontations, working to identify pro- Ministerial, and during the other large ics examines new, light-weight alterna-
test leaders. Some Deltas wore lapel cameras, demonstrations that have followed, are tives to the 70 ton Abrams Battle Tank
continuously transmitting pictures of rioters prototypical examples of what is being that can be used in urban terrain and
and other demonstrators to a master video called “asymmetrical warfare.” Accord- are transportable quickly to any city in
unit in the motel command center, which ing to these “experts,” “asymmetrical war- the world. Popular Science looks at
could be used by law enforcement agencies fare” is the war of the future. Their re- new types of experimental jet fighters
to identify and track suspects, the Weekly ports say the scope has shifted from wars that are easily transportable and can
reported. between nations to warfare between land and take off in very limited areas,
The WTO conference ended in disarray, a gangs and political factions. Under asym- like city streets.
victory for the protesters and a major embar- metrical warfare, “wars” on crime, drugs, Replacing the tank will be an eight wheeled, treadless armored vehicle, much like a
rassment for the Clinton Administration. Four and political dissent are all lumped to- very buffed up version of the “Peacekeepers” seen by our local SWAT teams. The new
days later, Seattle Police Chief Norm Stamper gether. Political dissent and revolution are weapons, according to author Scott Gourley will travel 60 mph and have the “off road
resigned in disgrace. looked at as criminal acts based on op- agility of light armored vehicles.” This doesn’t mean they’ll be lacking in destructive
The corporate media immediately fell into portunism. The primary field of conflict is power. Gourley informs us they will carry 105mm cannons, the original weapon of the
line behind the government, portraying all “urban terrain,” or in plain English, cities. Abrams M1 main battle tank. But where the M1 is too heavy to be used effectively in
anti-corporate protesters as violent thugs to Seattle is being held up as the prototype urban terrain, the new LAVs (Light Armored Vehicles) can make deliver this firepower to
justify the coming crackdown. Although the of this type of “war.” Incredible tactical, the crumbling streets of Lebanon, Mogadishu or even Anytown USA.
police shot demonstrators with tear gas can- and even militaristic characteristics are be- And not only can these new vehicles move quickly, they can be relocated quickly
isters at point blank range, images of black- ing attributed to the protesters. This has too. The department of Defense’s plan is to have combat brigades that can be any-
clad anarchists smashing windows domi- led to justifications of sophisticated weap- where in the world, Kosovo or the LA Riots, in 96 hours, and a combat brigade – about
nated the post-riot news reports. The Decem- onry against these protesters as the new 15,000 soldiers, could be there in 120 hours. “We will begin to immediately transform
ber 13 issue of Newsweek linked the anar- norm. Remember when you could go to the entire Army into a more dominant and strategically responsive force,” the article
chists to Ted Kaczynski, the Unabomber. 60 a demonstration and not expect chemical quotes General Eric K. Shinseki, Chief of Staff of the Army as saying.
Minutes traveled Eugene for a story on the agents or rubber bullets? Law enforce- While Popular Mechanics looks at fun with tanks, Popular Science has fun with
new domestic terrorists. They came to Se- ment have become ever more ready to use jets. Playing off the recent X-Men movie, author Bill Sweetman calls his article “The
attle with violence in their hearts and destruc- heavy-handed tactics and potentially le- New Generation –X.” Both Lockheed Martin and Seattle’s favorite child, Boeing are
tion on their minds, the CBS News show thal force. This is true of large demonstra- testing a fun new concept called STOVL – Short Take Off and Vertical Landing (get it?).
warned viewers sternly. tions and it is true of their daily response It appears our armed forces need a fast flying combat aircraft with lots of kill power
The government’s abrupt shift from right when dealing with unpopular people. that can land and take off from a small area like “a 400 yard stretch of road.”
to left wing activists was accompanied by a During the WTO Ministerial in Seattle The development of these Asymmetrical “X” planes are on the fast track. The Penta-
wave of false alarms and bogus reports. A something changed in the U.S., something gon is planning to buy 3,000 of these starting in 2008, and to export another 2,000 to our
rumor spread that the Eugene anarchists were fundamental to the way that the govern- economic vassals. Sweetman continues, “the winner (between Boeing and Lockheed
planning to drive up the freeway to Portland ment of the United States conducted it- Martin) could gain as a trillion dollars including lifetime support costs.” Put another way,
and disrupt that city’s downtown New Year’s self with its citizens. it’s a contract that dwarfs Microsoft.
Eve party. The local police went on high alert, During the WTO Ministerial literally Clearly both jets and LAVs are designed for the sort of “asymmetrical” combat – a
fencing off the site and installing security tens of thousands of people many of them war against civilian populations - that Van Creveld, Kaplan and ERI describe. That
gates to detain and search party-goers. The bystanders, many of them elderly, many these systems appear so prominently in popular publications and with so little attempt
U.S. Marshals Office opened a number of tem- of them people with asthma and AIDs, to hide their intent, is indicative of the thoroughness and velocity with which these
porary holding cells in an old downtown fed- were exposed to potentially lethal chemi- plans are rocketing forward.
eral building. The FBI set up a command cen- cal agents. Heavily armed and anony- Paul Richmond
ter in the basement of the nearby Mark O. mous police invaded Capital Hill, the Sources:
Hatfield Federal Courthouse. Heavily-armed most densely populated area on the West “Army’s New Ride,” Scott Gourley, Popular Mechanics, February 2001
federal agents gathered in the basement on Coast of the United States north of San “The New Generation X,” Bill Sweetman, Popular Science, February 2001
Francisco. People were gassed and shot
(see POLICE STATE, p. 4)


NEW TYPE OF WAR (cont.) this industry spreads into things like the fed and educated their impoverished POLICE STATE (cont.)
building of prisons where major military communities. The response of the gov-
among groups of people formally consid- contractors including Bechtel, the largest ernment was predictably brutal. Simul- New Year’s Eve. Police in full riot gear pa-
ered civilians. Hence the military must privately held company in the U.S. become taneous military attacks were staged on trolled the perimeter. None of the anarchists
prepare to wage war upon what are pres- builders of prisons. the different headquarters of the Black showed up. The informant was wrong.
ently considered civilian populations. Panther organization. In the case of at Another bogus tip sparked a similar panic
• Future wars will be based on com- Militarizing Main Street USA – least one chapter in Chicago, the chapter’s in Tacoma, Washington a few months later.
munity survival and environmental scar- The Third World’s Getting a Lot members were surreptitiously drugged The local steelworkers union had called for a
city. Bigger before the forces of the law broke in and March 25 rally at the Kaiser aluminum plant.
• State armies will shrink, gradually Another dynamic that must be exam- machine-gunned them as they slept. In Labor and environmental activists from
being replaced by private security. ined to understand what took place dur- South Dakota, members of the American throughout the Pacific Northwest were plan-
• Existing distinctions between war ing the Seattle WTO Ministerial is the cre- Indian Movement armed with antiquated ning to attend. Then Eugene authorities con-
and crime will break down as they have in ation of an ever-larger paramilitary force rifles designed to hunt small game, faced tacted the Tacoma police and reported that
Lebanon, El Salvador, Peru or Columbia. to control the domestic population. a well-armed military force that included some of the anarchists were allegedly head-
The use of a paramilitary force to keep helicopters and armored personnel carri- ing their way with a bomb. The police con-
The model put forward by Van Creveld political dissidents and even the general ers. tacted union organizer Jon Youngdahl, who
and supported by Kaplan is also that be- population in line is something puppet • On May 13, 1985 the Philadelphia called off the protest. No bomb-carrying an-
ing put forward by the Chicago based dictators in Third World nations have Police ended a long, politically uncomfort- archist was ever found.
Emergency Response Institute (ERI). The used for years. It’s allowed them to loot able standoff with the African American Anarchy fever gripped the Portland police
ERI has recently put out several reports their own countries, put a little bit of back to the land group MOVE. MOVE oc- again in late April. A few hundred local activ-
describing what took place in the streets money in their pocket, and help the cupied a small row house. Police used tear ists were planning a May Day march and dem-
of Seattle during the WTO Ministerial and world’s wealthiest corporations, the true gas, water canons, shot guns, Uzis, M-16’s, onstration. An unnamed informant told the
more recently during the World Bank/ beneficiaries of WTO type policies (and M-60 machine guns, a 20mm anti tank gun police that the Eugene anarchists were com-
IMF protests as examples of “Asymmetric incidentally, many of the players that and a 50-caliber machine gun. Police filled ing up to cause trouble. According to one
Warfare.” According to their analysis, what brought Hitler into power,) accomplish the home with tear gas and fired over police report, they have little regard for the
took place in recent U.S. protests is little dif- whatever they feel is needed. 10,000 rounds. When this was insufficient laws of society and were expected to engage
In practice this has meant such things to force out the people inside, a helicop- in civil disobedience. Police Chief Mark
as the murder of outspoken religious lead- ter dropped an incendiary device. The Kroeker, a former deputy chief from the Los
ers in places like El Salvador, the murder blaze was allowed to spread consuming Angeles Police Department who had only
of labor leaders in Chile and the whole- not only the MOVE house, but also all 60 been on the job a few months, dispatched
sale massacre of populations as in Indo- homes on the block. Eleven people, in- over 150 officers in full riot gear, including

nesia and East Timor. Its also been ap- cluding five children died in the inferno. black body armor and helmets with plastic
plied domestically from time to time, its There were two survivors, one of them an face shields. Police spent hours chasing dem-
just not as widely reported. infant who was carried out. onstrators through the streets, spraying them
• Under the guise of the “War on with OC, clubbing them with ballistic batons
Some Earlier Domestic Drugs” the National Guard was given in- and shooting them with “beanbag” rounds.
Paramilitary Police Actions creased powers. These powers enable the Nineteen people were arrested, mostly on
The use of the U.S. military against U.S. Guard to be used routinely against the do- minor charges. None were anarchists from
citizens is a long-standing tradition. The mestic population. Among the areas hard- Eugene. Kroeker later apologized to the city
following just serve as a few of the better- est hit were the parts of Northern Califor- council for the actions of his officers.
documented examples: nia and Southern Oregon called the “Em- These incidents occurred as federal au-
• In 1914, National Guardsmen broke erald Triangle.” Routinely now, people thorities were bracing for the next major anti-
a strike at a Standard Oil owned Mining in these areas find their homes invaded. globalization protests, set for the World Bank
facility in the town of Ludlow. They did Troops in camouflage uniforms, carrying and International Monetary Fund meetings
so by firing machine guns into the tents M-16 combat rifles and supported by he- scheduled to begin on April 16 in
occupied by the striking miners and their licopters hold families at gunpoint. Fur- Washington DC. As the activists began
families. Thirteen people, mostly women niture and other property are destroyed. planning their demonstrations, federal, state
and children died, scores more were in- Dogs and livestock are shot. Some of these and local law enforcement officials targeted
jured. (For point of reference, Standard people do grow marijuana. The majority them. Their meetings were infiltrated, their
Oil and its satellites were key players in of them are loggers with nothing left to public gatherings disrupted, their phones
the discussions that created GATT, the cut or farmers with nothing profitable left tapped, and police were posted outside their
Waco, Texas, 1993
IMF and the World Bank in the 1940’s. to grow. This has been going on since the homes and offices. Even the corporate me-
City Bank, now Citicorp, was created as mid 1980’s. dia took note of the harassment. “Some pro-
ferent from Somalia, Lebanon, Bosnia or one of Standard Oil’s banks.) • An avowed “White Separatist,” testers think they are being watched. They are
Panama. • In 1932, at the height of the depres- Randy Weaver, found himself and his correct,” the Washington Post reported on
Kaplan’s prescription is to unify intelli- sion, a group of starving World War I vet- family laid siege by hundreds of paramili- April 1O, quoting Executive Assistant Wash-
gence agencies such as the CIA with the erans came to Washington D.C. with their tary agents in his remote, plywood shack. ington Police Chief Terrance W. Gainer as
military. This is a dynamic mirrored in law wives and children in tow. They num- Facing questionable charges from the Bu- saying, If it’s an open meeting and it says,
enforcement circles through programs such bered more than twenty thousand. They reau of Alcohol Tobacco and Firearms, ‘Come on over,’ then anybody’s welcome.”
as “community policing” where an inti- had no work, no food, and no place to live. Weaver had refused to plea bargain his Three days later, USA Today reported gov-
mate knowledge of the community by law They hoped that they could collect a bo- charges by infiltrating a “White Separat- ernment agents were going undercover online
enforcement, is being paired with increased nus promised them by the government ist” organization.Camouflaged snipers to thwart the protesters. “[T]hey have been
tactical capabilities when they’d served their country as sol- who hid in the woods killed his dog and monitoring 73 internet sites where the groups
The other factor in Kaplan’s prescription diers in what had been history’s bloodi- fourteen-year old son. His wife was killed have been exchanging messages to learn
is acknowledging that as we move to a glo- est war. The U.S. government responded when a sniper’s50 caliber bullet exploded more about their plans. Sometimes, officers
bal society, it is the corporations that have by sending out four troops of cavalry, four her head as they prepared the son’s body have even gone online posing as protesters,”
the true power. The natural extension of troops of infantry, a machine gun squad- for burial. For those unfamiliar with the paper said, adding that police were physi-
this is that it is the rights of corporations, ron and six tanks. Soon the streets of weapons, this is the same caliber bullet as cally following suspected anarchists through-
not nations, much less their populations, Washington D.C. were filled with tear gas. that used by the Macaw Indians to kill a out the capitol city. “They have been moni-
that must be protected. Casualties followed. This domestic force whale. Vicky Weaver’s head exploded with toring the movements of nearly two dozen
Understanding this social dynamic was led by several who would go on to such force that Randy Weaver was injured self-proclaimed anarchists who have arrived
helps explain why during the Seattle WTO become top military commanders includ- by the flying fragments of her skull. in Washington.”
Ministerial, law enforcement protected del- ing George Patton, Dwight Eisenhower • In Waco Texas, hundreds of armor- As a result of this surveillance, all 3,500
egates and exposed thousands of Seattle and Douglas Macarthur. clad federal agents laid siege to a half-con- DC police officers were put on alert, along
residents to CS, CN, OC and other poten- • In the 1940’s the entire Japanese structed combination church and commu- with unknown number of law enforcement
tially lethal agents. population was forced to abandon all their nity center. During the initial siege fed- agents from at least 12 federal and state agen-
Another factor that puts this in perspec- worldly possessions and relocate to eral agents broke through doors and win- cies, including the FBI and Bureau of Alco-
tive is that the military itself is an industry camps. Barbed wire and armed guards dows, and helicopters passed overhead hol, Tobacco and Firearms. The authorities
and a source of pecuniary income for the surrounded the camps. It was similar to firing machine guns. Records available spent over $1 million on new body armor and
wealthy few. Despite the fact that it’s been Rex 84 Bravo, the scenario envisioned in later show that the agents only withdrew bullet-proof shields. They set up three mass
more than fifty years since the U.S. mili- the 1980’s by Oliver North for locking up when they ran out of ammunition and detention centers where arrested protesters
tary engaged in all out battle with anything political dissidents in the event the U.S. negotiated a cease-fire and retreat. For would be taken. They removed 69 mailboxes
resembling an evenly matched opponent, again found itself experiencing dissent long weeks, the members of the religious where bombs could be hidden.
we are still living in a wartime economy. during a military conflict. It is also simi- community were subjected to loudspeak- “They ain’t burning our city like they did
What saved the U.S. economy from the lar to the militaristic dynamic that cur- ers that blasted sounds of rabbits dying in Seattle,” Police Chief Charles Ramsey told
Great Depression was World War II. What rently exists on the U.S. Mexican border. in slaughterhouses as they watched the USA Today. “I’m not going to let it happen. I
kept it going afterwards was the Cold War. • In the 1960’s and early 1970’s many corpses of community members killed in guarantee it.”
With the end of the Cold War, the military of the most repressed minority groups be- the earlier shoot-out decompose. Tanks The authorities started cracking down on
industrial complex has had to focus on new gan to acquire a sense of pride in their circled their property, driving over their the activists the week before the IMF/World
targets. Part of this focus has been “terror- cultures and history. Many of them had vehicles. After some six weeks the facil- Bank meetings were scheduled to begin. On
ists.” Part of this has been “the war on been sent to fight in a pointless war in ity, seventeen children inside, was filled April 13, seven activists driving to a planning
crime.” Part of this has been “the war on Vietnam. They came back realizing that with tear gas – a highly incendiary sub- meeting were pulled over and arrested. Po-
drugs.” Part of this has been the war on they were a group of victims being used stance outlawed by the Geneva Conven- lice seized 256 PCV pipes, 45 smaller pipes,
“political extremists.” And as the police to fight more victims. Groups like the tion, and a favorite tool of law enforce- 2 rolls of chicken wire, 50 rolls of duct tape,
and military become more interchangeable Black Panthers developed programs that ment. The plywood structure burned gas masks, bolt cutters, chains, an electrical


saw, and lock boxes. According to a Wash- quickly. Survivors recall that many who nario that could make Kent State look ence of members of the Seattle chapter of
ington Post account of the incident, a Secret tried to exit the burning structure were like a picnic.”(Coulson p. 139) the National Lawyer’s Guild. NLG attor-
Service agent frisked one passenger, show- fired upon. Thermal imaging of film taken neys received a short letter from Captain
ing him a photo that had been taken of him during this time, seems to confirm this. In point of fact, these military units Linda Pierce a few days before the WTO
earlier. What distinguishes these from what may be overruling their civilian counter- Ministerial. Captain Pierce’s letter in-
The police justified the arrests by saying took place in Seattle is that all these ac- parts once called in. Evidence of this is cluded the following acknowledgment:
the materials and tools found in the van were tions took place against populations that shown by examination of the testimony “While we appreciate your interest in
“implements of crime.” The accusation struck were marginalized socially, geographi- by Attorney General Janet concerning ensuring individual First Amendment ex-
National Lawyers Guild President Karen Jo cally or economically. During the Seattle the disaster that occurred at Waco. Reno pression, it is important to note that secu-
Koonan as absurd. “These activists construct WTO Ministerial this use of military force first described the role of the President rity issues are paramount and are often
signs, puppets, sound stages, and other tools was openly applied to a vast middle-class as being limited like a World War II gen- dictated by federal agencies responsible
for expressing their political views,” she wrote population in the most densely populated eral who was not expected to exercise for event security.”
in a letter to U.S. Attorney General Janet Reno. urban area north of San Francisco. It was constant oversight. Reno also acknowl- In essence, the letter is saying, what we
“They were in fact arrested for possession of not only an effective way of telling the edged that though the FBI had conceived locals think or want doesn’t matter. The
implements of First Amendment activity. We people that the rules had changed. It was the April 19 th assault of the Branch Feds are in charge.
have been told by an MPD officer that the FBI setting a precedent about the use of po- Davidian’s plywood structure with mili-
directed them to make this arrest.” tentially lethal military force against any tary tanks, the actual implementation What this Portends
But the police claim was made a specific population, in effect telling the U.S. which began a few minutes after the What took place in Seattle is part of a
purpose – a purpose that would soon become middle class that they too had joined the tanks were first deployed, was the work larger trend. Over the last decade is the
clear. It is illegal for the police to spy on any- Third World. of Delta Force. “In effect Delta Force’s capability to wage war on the domestic
one simply because of their political beliefs. recommendation was carried out.” population has increased several fold.
But political activists can be monitored if the Say Goodbye to Posse Comitatus (Kopel and Blackmun, No More Wacos, Much of the money that went to the
police believe they are planning to commit The United States has a protection pp. 84-87) military now goes to National Guard
crimes, no matter how petty. The police against the use of federal troops for civil- There is certainly evidence that a Units. These units are functionally the
claimed the items seized from the van were ian law enforcement. The Posse Comita- similar dynamic was taking place in Se- same as the military. They have been
“instruments of crime” to justify their surveil- tus Act of 1878 makes it a crime to do so.
lance. It was a claim that would be heard re- The intent behind this is that the military
peatedly in the days, weeks and months to is there to deal with foreign enemies, usu-
come. ally with a lethal response. Police, by con-
On the morning of April 15, law enforce- trast are members of the community and
ment authorities unexpectedly raided a ware- there above all to protect life. The two are
house that served as the demonstrators’ hence incompatible.
headquarters. According to eyewitness ac- Recent legislation enacted as a result
counts, the agencies involved in the raid in- of the “War on Drugs” has changed this.
cluded the BATF, the Washington Metropoli- The lines between police and the military
tan Police Department and the Washington have become increasingly blurred.
Fire Department. Saying the warehouse vio- For example 10 USC 375 only limits the
lated fire codes, the authorities threw all the use of military to actual engagement of
activists out and closed the building. Then the troops in the field. This means that that
authorities claimed they found weapons in the the most elite “Special Forces” military
warehouse, physical proof that violent crimes units including the Navy Seals Team 6,
were being planned. According to the police, Delta Force and the Special Service (SAS)
the evidence included a Molotov cocktail, bal- routinely train both federal and police
loons filled with acid, and a lab for producing SWAT Teams. These “Special Forces” not
explosives and pepper spray. In a later retrac- only are allowed to conduct trainings, they
tion, the police admitted they’d only found oily can also appear on site and act as “consult-
rags and a kitchen, but not until after the ware- ants” at every stage of the action, even writ-
house was shut down. Police also kept all the ing action plans that supercede those of
signs, banners and giant satiric posters un- their law enforcement counterparts.
der construction inside, depriving the dem- Under 10 USC 372, the military forces
onstrators of their most effective means of can also provide any piece of military Philadelphia, 1985
communicating their causes. equipment deemed necessary. The only
The first mass arrests happened that af- restriction is that military personnel can- attle. Evidence of Federal involvement called to serve in Panama and the Persian
ternoon when a few thousand protesters took not operate this military equipment. in the Seattle Ministerial is there as early Gulf. Arguably the training, level of
part in a march against the prison industrial Under 10 USC 373, the military are au- as July 16th article in The Wall Street Jour- equipment and level of recruits they re-
complex. The police blocked their way, then thorized to train the law enforcement on nal. This article quotes SPD spokesper- ceive is superior to that of their counter-
isolated and arrested approximately 635 ac- any piece of their equipment, such as the son Carmen Best as saying, “The police parts in the regular military. Indeed many
tivists — far more than the 525 protesters tanks that were used at Waco. department has set up a WTO planning of these National Guard Units routinely
arrested during a full week of demonstrations Also under recent exceptions created commission, which is coordinating with best their military counterparts in staged
in Seattle — declaring their march illegal. under the “War on Drugs” members of the the U.S. Secret Service, the Federal Bu- competitions. The difference is that the
By the morning of Saturday the 16th, the National Guard may be brought in di- reau of Investigation, the State Depart- National Guard may be used against the
police had cordoned off 50 blocks around the rectly. ment, Federal Emergency Management domestic population.
headquarters of the World Bank and the In- FBI Hostage Rescue Team (HRT) Agency, The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco The police too have become milita-
ternational Monetary Fund. “What makes the founder Danny Coulson seems to have and Firearms and numerous other law rized. The euphemisms for this are the
situation all the more maddening is that such grasped some of the implications of this enforcement types.” (Emphasis added.) “War on Crime” and the “War on Drugs.”
actions are apparently being taken based on blurring of the lines between military Their result has been a vastly enlarged
the ridiculous view that every protester or and law enforcement. Then FBI Direc- An article in The Seattle Weekly pub- police force. This force many more and
activist is an anarchist time bomb waiting to tor William Webster and Coulson had lished two weeks after the ministerial, newer officers. These officers use weap-
go off – a view apparently buttressed by un- observed an early training session of states that Delta Force members were on ons with higher capacities, but having
specified police intelligence that may or may Delta Force. Coulson who describes the the street in civilian garb mingling with less training and street experience be-
not be true,” reporter Jason Vest wrote in the FBI’s involvement in the 1973 Wounded demonstrators. The Delta Force mem- hind them. There has been an increase
online SpeakOut.com website. Knee siege as “disastrous” (Coulson, No bers may not have only been in charge in the number of paramilitary SWAT and
The authorities quickly revealed that they Heroes, pp. 136-37) describes the follow- of much of what was going on in the SERT units. In large part because this is
were obsessed with identifying the protest- ing exchange: streets, but according to two sources, where the federal funds are, small town
ers. Those who provided identification were “Webster nodded sagely and took a were those who pushed the hardest for police forces apply for and receive grants
fined $50. Those who didn’t were fined $300. closer look at the array of guns and the crackdown that occurred on the for SWAT teams, not basic items such as
Demonstrators clashed with police dur- gizmos. There seemed to be something streets. (SW, “Delta’s Down with it.” police cars. One recent academic study
ing the next few days. The federal govern- missing. He turned a puzzled face to Rick Anderson, 12/23/1999, p. 16.) Cer- found that nearly 70% of the cities with
ment gave all non-essential employees in Major General Richard Scholtes, com- tainly the response that occurred on No- populations under 50,000 had paramili-
Washington DC the day off on Monday, re- mander of the Joint Special Operations vember 30 where thousands were ex- tary units. For cities with populations
sulting in a partial government shut-down, Command, who oversaw Delta, SEAL posed to chemical agents and almost no over 50,000 the number jumped to 90%.
which is far more than the neo-Patriot move- Team Six and other DOD counter terror one arrested mirrors Coulson’s and And much of the tactics and mindset of
ment was able to achieve at any point in the activities. Webster’s impressions of Delta’s operat- SWAT has become integral to police
1990s. By the time it was over, even the IMF ‘I don’t see any handcuffs,’ Webster ing style. training and culture.
had released a communiqué that acknowl- said. Much of this rise in the militarization
edged the protesters had made its policies a ‘We don’t have handcuffs,’ Scholtes re- Community leader Harriet Walden, of the police has occurred alongside the
matter “of growing public debate.” As the ABC sponded crisply. ‘It’s not my job to arrest one of the founders of the group Mothers growth of something called “Community
Evening News reported on Monday, “The people.’ for Police Accountability made remarks Policing.” Discussions of community po-
demonstrators outside the building did their Oh? Oh! Webster’s eyebrows curved to this effect at a community dialogue with licing are usually dominated by touchy-
best to be heard. The delegates inside the like the St. Louis arch as the realization Seattle Police Chief Norm Stamper: feely terms of “community involvement.”
building said they got the message.” dawned that once the military was After the crackdown began, every Neighbors are encouraged to be the eyes
The full extent of the government’s sur- called in, the situation would most as- press briefing was held in the federal and ears of the police in the community.
veillance operation was not revealed until May suredly be resolved with bullets, and building. The local authorities were not They are encouraged to report any “sus-
4, when the Paris-based Intelligence News- there might be no one left to be taken in control. picious” persons and events and to work
to jail. It conjured up a nightmare sce- This conclusion is mirrored by experi- with the police in eliminating these ele-
(see POLICE STATE, p. 6)


ments. What in fact “Community Polic- letter carried a story titled “Watching the Anti-
ing” accomplishes is that the police, par- WTO Crowd” which reported that U.S. Army
ticularly the paramilitary police described intelligence units were monitoring the anti-
above, are given eyes, informants and corporate protesters. Among other things, the
unchecked entry into the community. newsletter discovered that “reserve units from
Portland, Oregon is one of the national the US Army Intelligence and Security Com-
models of “Community Policing.” It has mand helped Washington police keep an eye
hosted several national conferences on the on demonstrations staged at the World Bank/
subject and two of its chiefs were among IMF meetings ... [T]he Pentagon sent around
the three finalists for position of adminis- 700 men from the Intelligence and Security
tering the allocation of the 100,000 new Command at Fort Belvoir to assist the Wash-
police created by the federal crime bill. A ington police on April 17, including special-
closer look at this program reveals how ists in human and signals intelligence. One
closely it is intertwined in the community. unit was even strategically located on the
Figures in a study conducted by the Port- fourth floor balcony in a building at 1919
land City Auditor’s office revealed that Pennsylvania Avenue with a birds-eye view
under community policing, the number of most demonstrators.”
of patrol cops actually went slightly down, The newsletter also charged that much in-
while the number of those involved in formation being collected about the protest-
Tactical Operations went from two to fifty- ers was being fed into the Regional Informa-
six officers in the space of a little over three tion Sharing System computers used by law
years, an increase of some 2800%. Also the enforcement agencies across the country. Ac-
person who was “Lieutenant in charge cording to the report, the government is ra-
of Community Policing” inevitably be- tionalizing this surveillance by claiming the
came the “Captain in Charge of Tacti- protesters are terrorists. As the report put it,
cal Operations.” “to justify their interest in anti-globalization
Just to clarify, “Tactical Operations” is groups from a legal standpoint, the authori-
the division that runs the paramilitary ties lump them into a category of terrorist
team that knocks down doors, dresses in organizations. Among those considered as
camouflage, drives armored cars, and car- such at present are Global Justice (the group
ries military type AR-15 combat rifles and that organized the April 17 demonstration),
H&K MP-5 submachine guns. This is also One can find why “Community Polic- ploded with rampant regularity across Earth First, Greenpeace, American Indian
the division of the police that can confis- ing” is most relevant to what is now oc- America…questions were raised about Movement, Zapatista National Liberation
cate property. This is part of the “asset curring in the U.S. in remarks by one of the apparent inability of police to pre- Front and Act-Up.”
forfeiture” fund mentioned in the 1993 the program’s founders. Lee Brown a vent or at least control such outbreaks.” In early May, In These Times confirmed
Federal Crime Bill that created 100,000 former Multnomah County Sheriff, New (Perspectives on Policing, U.S. Depart- the government spy operation. The progres-
new police on the streets. “Asset forfei- York City Police Commissioner and ment of Justice, September 1989.) sive newspaper quoted Robert Scully, execu-
ture” refers to property taken through Clinton Drug Czar wrote this in a history In other words, “Community Policing” tive director of the National Association of
drug and other crime related seizures by of “Community Policing” intended for was put into place to answer the question: Police Organizations, as saying that federal,
law enforcement. In effect, the police are members of the law enforcement commu- how can the police more effectively elimi- state and local law enforcement agencies were
expected to become self-funding through nity. Brown begins by looking at “short- nate dissent, or if that is not possible, con- “successful in infiltrating some of the groups
the confiscation of private property. One comings” to the police response that oc- trol it. ... and had firsthand, inside information of
obscure ordinance passed by Portland City curred during the protests of the late To place this trend in perspective, who, when, why, and where things were go-
Council enabled this branch of the police 1960’s and early 1970’s: imagine the political furor in the U.S. if ing to happen.”
to work with the National Guard to com- “ (These shortcomings) came into Lee Brown’s remarks on “controlling” dis- Even before the Washington DC protests
pile a database of property owned in Port- sharp focus by the middle 1960’s and sent, which are not disputed, could be at- began, organizers began planning to bring
land under the guise of a “War on Drugs.” early 1970’s when riots and protests ex- tributed to the domestic policies of say their message to the Republican and Demo-
Fidel Castro or Saddam Hussein. cratic Presidential conventions, scheduled for
July and August in Philadelphia and Los An-
More Cops, Less Training geles. Police representatives from both cit-
Columbine Triggers “Community Policing” also brought
with it a mass of new hires. There is no
ies traveled to the nation’s capitol for the April
demonstrations, consulting with federal au-

New Police Tactics objective evidence anywhere that sup-

ports that bringing more cops on the street
limits crime. FBI Statistics prove that there
thorities on how to identify and handle the
demonstrators. Federal officials also traveled
to the convention cities, setting up surveil-
“His ears ringing from gunfire, his uniform damp with sweat, his breath labored and is no correlation with having more police lance operations in advance of the arriving
acrid-tasting from the gunpowder in the air, Officer Larry Layman ran heavily down a and a lowered crime rate. That informa- demonstrators.
hallway toward an insistent pop-pop-pop. A gunman was running through school shoot- tion is being ignored and more and more By late May, the corporate media was
ing children, and Layman was chasing him. Layman rounded a corner, holding his gun police are being hired. openly writing about the intelligence-gather-
in front of him two stiff arms and stopped dead. The gunman stood facing him, with an In most police departments, new re- ing operations. Previewing the Republican
arm around a hostage’s neck and a gun held to the hostage’s head. “Drop your gun or cruits have swelled the ranks, and some- convention, the Philadelphia Inquirer said,
I’ll blow your head off!” the gunman screamed. Layman, a police officer for more than times even form a majority of the police “The Secret Service is checking rooftops. The
half his fifty years, had been trained always to drop his gun at a moment like this. Now on the street. In Seattle, as the WTO Min- FBI is monitoring the Internet. And city po-
he fired. isterial approached, one third of the SPD lice are getting ready to play cat and mouse
“This was only a training exercise. But the point of this training is something had been on the force for less than two with protesters ... ‘Virtually every resource
radically new and different, and it is unsettling for Larry Layman, and his fellow offic- years. This flood of new hires has brought that the FBI has available will be put into play,’
ers in Peoria, Illinois and thousands of other law enforcement officers across the coun- a concern noted by many police com- said Thomas J. Harrington, the assistant spe-
try. Historically, the police in the United States have employed a standard response manders and police union leaders, that cial agent-in-charge in the FBI’s Philadelphia
when confronted with armed suspects in schools, malls, banks, post offices, and other with the increasing numbers of new re- office.”
heavily populated buildings. The first officers to arrive never rushed in. Instead they cruits, police cannot be and are not being The Reuters news agency confirmed the
set up perimeters and controlled the scene. They tried to contain the suspects and called adequately trained. FBI’s role in June 2, saying, “The U.S. Secret
in a rigorously trained Special Weapons and Tactics (SWAT) team. The SWAT team Robert Vernon, Retired Assistant Service is running security inside the conven-
arrived, assumed positions to keep the suspects pinned down, and negotiated with them Chief of the LAPD writes the following tion and at main hotels, the FBI is handling
until they surrendered. SWAT teams stormed buildings only when necessary to save in his book LA Justice: intelligence and state police are providing
lives, such as when hostages were being executed one by one. “I also called the (Christopher) escorts for dignitaries. That leaves Philadel-
“Today, however, police officers are setting aside traditional tactics. They are being Commission’s attention to our training phia’s 6,800-strong police department to keep
taught to enter a building if they are the first to arrive at the scene, to chase the gunman, problem in the LAPD. Our hiring sched- the streets of the 5th-largest U.S. city safe
and to kill or disable him as quickly as possible. This sweeping change in police tactics ule was (and is) controlled completely by for delegates and clear of unruly crowds.”
– variously called rapid response, emergency-response, or first responder – is a direct the politicians and the city administrative Throughout June, activists from several
result of the shootings that occurred at Columbine High School in Littleton, Colorado officer…. (T)hese leaders mandated our groups reported at least five instances in
on April 20 of last year…. hiring to go from zero growth to adding which unidentified men were seen photo-
“Larry Glick, the executive director of the National Tactical Officers Association, several hundred in one year. To make graphing people entering and leaving protest
says that Columbine almost immediately became a seminal event in the history of police political points with the people, they ac- planning meetings. On June 29, a reporter
training and tactics. Most of the nation’s 17,000 police agencies, he says, especially the tually began seeing who could add the with the Philadelphia Inquirer observed two
roughly 2,000 agencies with fifty or more officers, have instituted new rapid-response most officers to our authorized strength. men dressed in casual clothes watching ac-
training programs in the past year. These programs are intended to train all police The result was that in recent years of tivists arrive for a meeting at the offices of
officers not just SWAT teams – to respond swiftly and aggressively if they are among heavy hiring, we hired too many too the Women’s International League for Peace
the first officers on the scene. Glick’s association, with 37,000 members from 3,500 quickly. and Freedom. The pair sat on the hood of a
participating agencies, teaches SWAT specialists to retrain their fellow officers, includ- When I joined the department and maroon Plymouth, taking pictures of the ac-
ing everyday patrolmen, like Larry Layman….” graduated from the academy, I was as- tivists as they came and went. Both men re-
signed to work with an 8-year veteran. I fused to answer any questions from the re-
“Shoot to Kill” Timothy Harper, The Atlantic Monthly, October 2,000. soon learned that it took several years of porter. Police spokeswoman Lt. Susan
experience to become an effective officer. Slawson flatly denied her agency was doing


anything that would violate its policy against NEW TYPE OF WAR (cont.) pursuit and stop of Rodney King. Every effort to avoid getting hit. But he wasn’t
political intelligence-gathering, saying, “[W]e moment on the famous videotape is ex- being hit at the time. King wasn’t avoid-
are in no way violating it. But then the re- When we shifted into heavy hiring mode plained as examples of the police doing ing blows. He was rolling toward Officer
porter traced the license plates on the Ply- that wise practice all but disappeared. exactly what they were trained to do. The Wind – he was doing the “Folsom Roll.”
mouth to the police department. Confronted Today it’s not unusual to have a rookie following are some of the more illustra- Any LAPD cop who’s dealt with ex-cons
with proof of his agency’s role in the surveil- working with a training officer who has tive examples from Sgt. Koon’s detailed is familiar with the “Folsom Roll.” Pris-
lance operation, department spokesman all of 18 months’ experience. The sharper narration: oners at California’s Folsom Prison and
David Yarnell reluctantly admitted the activ- recruits often find themselves working correction units in other states have been
ists were right. “We were watching. We were a 1-person car – on their own – near the “After the second TASER King contin- photographed teaching it to one another
making surveillance efforts. It’s just prudent end of their probationary period. This ued to right himself. In an instant he was in the prison yard. It’s a technique for dis-
preparations for anything,” he confessed. is another reason we’re not adequately on his feet. His arms outstretched, King arming an officer while proned out on the
“This is just outrageous,” responded orga- passing on the principles of police pro- rushed Officer Powell. If he had wanted ground. The idea is to roll into an officer
nizer Michael Morrill “If this is in fact going fessionalism.” (Vernon, LA Justice p. 120) to escape, there were plenty of avenues and tangle up his legs, then reach up and
on, and city officials are lying about it, I won- available. He could have fled across the grab a gun belt and holster while the of-
der what else they’re doing.” A similar dynamic pervades the dy- street into the crowd of bystanders, or to ficer is off-balance. Then the officer is
Philadelphia police officials openly talked namics of training special units such as his right into the park. But King didn’t downed and the suspect has the weapon.”
about having the protesters under surveil- SWAT teams. FBI Hostage Rescue Team do that. He chose to collide into Officer (pp. 42-43)
lance when the Republican National Conven- (HRT) founder, Danny Coulson describes Powell, and the two grappled for a split This provides insight into why the of-
tion began on July 31, with Police Commis- a situation in which he was assigned to second. That’s why all of the officers ficers were acquitted the first time – they
sioner John Timoney specifically saying his handle a prison disturbance with mem- present interpreted it as an assault on a were conducting the entire operation by
troops were watching “the anarchists.” The bers of several local police SWAT Teams. policeman instead of a chance to escape. the book.
first serious confrontation occurred on Aug- Coulson writes: Powell was terrified; police officers get A similar dynamic took place in one of
ust 1, after police unexpectedly raided a ware- “We were asking a lot of the SWAT
house where activists were painting posters agents. We’d had years to practice these Detainees, Port Isabel, Texas, 1990s
and building puppets. Before the raid, police skills. These men had days – maybe
claimed the activists were storing weapons hours.” (No Heroes, Coulson, p. 357)
in the building, in this case C4 explosives and An even worse dynamic seems to have
acid-filled balloon. No explosives, acid or occurred in Seattle during the WTO Min-
other weapons were found. But 70 activists isterial. Many of the police from outside
were arrested, and all their signs and pup- the Seattle area seem to all available evi-
pets were seized. dence, to have been called in at the last
The raid set off street protests, during minute and received no training whatso-
which 15 police officers were injured in ever on the less lethal weaponry.
scuffles, and more than 25 police cruisers and What often becomes a substitute for
other city vehicles were vandalized by pro- that training is the preconception that the
testers who also overturned dumpsters, officers have when they begin the job.
smashed windows, and sprayed graffiti on Usually these preconceptions come from
downtown buildings. Before the end of the television and movies. These works of
day, more than 350 people were arrested, in- corporate produced popular fiction fea-
cluding 19 who were charged with such felony ture continuous images of the police ac-
offenses as assaults. Most were jailed and tively engaging in direct physical acts
kept imprisoned on high bails. Hundreds were such as gun fights and car chases on an
still behind bars days after the convention abnormally regular basis, sometimes sev-
ended, complaining of deplorable conditions eral times a week. Actual officers may go
and brutal treatment. 20 years without a single shoot out, and
The day after the delegates went home, are far less likely than convenience store
Timoney called a press conference and an- clerks or tax drivers to have a firearm
nounced that he and his intelligence officers pointed at them.
had uncovered a vast left wing conspiracy. In These factors go a long way to describ-
language reflecting the anti-Communist hys- ing the enthusiasm and irregularities dis-
teria of the Red Scare, the Philadelphia po- played by numerous officers deployed
lice commissioner claimed outside agitators during WTO Ministerial. Scenes such as
had conspired to cause violence and prop- occurred after the December 1 st labor
erty damage at the convention. He called on march where demonstrators were inexpli-
the federal government to investigate this cably driven from one barrage of tear gas
subversive plot, saying, “There is a cadre, if to another, or in Seattle’s Capital Hill
you will, of criminal conspirators who are neighborhood, where less lethal weap-
about the business of planning conspiracies onry was fired into empty streets, make a
to go in and cause mayhem and cause prop- lot more sense in light of these factors.
erty damage in major cities in America that Consider also that as the training lev-
have large conventions or large numbers of els are going down, the capacity and le-
people coming in for one reason or another.” thality of the weaponry by these officers
One of the alleged conspirators was John are increasing. Where they once had very
Sellers, director of Ruckus Society, a Berke- accurate six shot revolvers whose barrels
ley-based organization that trains political formed a natural extension of their hands, Internment camp, California, 1940s
protesters in civil disobedience tactics. He the standard issue weapon is now a semi-
was arrested while walking down the street automatic 9mm Glock that carries any- scared, too. He defended himself with his the models of “Community Policing.” A
and talking into a cell phone outside the Po- thing from 17 to 30 rounds in a clip. To metal PR 24 baton…” (p.40) Portland Police officer pursuing a suspect
lice Administration building. Although all of accommodate the extra bullets, the Glock “Then the officers stepped back to fired twenty-seven shots. Gerald Gratton
the charges filed against Sellers were misde- is built with a diagonal handle, so that the evaluate the effect the blows were having had been observed carrying a gun, which
meanors, one of them was carrying an “in- barrel does not form a natural extension on the suspect. That’s strictly procedure, he immediately dropped. The officer,
strument of a crime,” the police excuse for of the forefinger when it is clasped in a because it gives the officers an opportu- Douglas Erickson, pursued Gratton
spying on him. His bail was set at $1 million, person’s hand, as it would with the stan- nity to determine whether the suspect in- through a residential neighborhood,
far more than all but the most dangerous fel- dard issue service revolvers. The result is tends to comply. More importantly, the shooting wildly. Since his Glock only car-
ons are required to post. that the Glock does not lend itself to be- pause gives the suspect an outlet to avoid ried 17 rounds, he even reloaded his clip,
In seeking the high bail, District Attorney, ing aimed as quickly and accurately as the any further blows by obeying the com- firing more than twenty bullets. Though
Cindy Mertelli produced a 27 page “dossier” older weapons. mand to prone out, hands behind the initially dismissed Erickson was rein-
on Sellers. She called him “a real risk of dan- back. These pauses are known as “pulsa- stated. The official decision to reinstate,
ger to the community,” noting he had been Police Being Trained to View tions” in police language. Yet they are described the pursuit in detail and how
“involved in Seattle, a situation with almost the Public as a Threat interpreted by many viewers of the vid- every move by Mr. Gratton, was a poten-
dead bodies.” Although none of the charges Also consider that a dominant factor eotape as policemen simply taking turns tial threat to the life of the officer. When
levied at Sellers involved violence or even in police training is to have officers as- beating an innocent suspect. That wasn’t Gratton crouched, when he held up his
vandalism, Mertelli said he “sets the stage to sume the worst about a person. Police are the case. They were following my orders hands, every move mirrored something
facilitate the more radical elements and in- trained to view nearly every movement and strict procedure; deliver the baton that the officer had been trained to re-
tends to do the same in L.A.,” where the that a suspected person makes as a threat. blows, then back off to see what effect spond to as a potentially lethal attack. A
Democrats were set to meet in early August. They are also taught to respond to that they’re having on the suspect…” (p.42) more recent example of this sort of shoot-
Shortly after bail was set, CBS News was threat with a necessary amount of force. “…in one of the more tense moments ing is the Diallo shooting in New York.
reporting that Philadelphia police had pin- One of the greatest illustrations of that is captured in stark clarity on the A similar dynamic seems to have ap-
pointed the “ringleaders” of the most violent this is found in Sgt. Stacey Koon’s book Holliday videotape, King began rolling plied during the WTO. One of the few of
protests against the Republicans and had Presumed Guilty; The Tragedy of the toward Officer Wind. Wind backed the approximately 600 arrestees to make
been stalking them throughout the day. Sell- Rodney King Affair. Sgt. Koon was the quickly away. He knew what was hap- it to trial was Eric Larsen, manager of a
ers was identified as one of the ringleaders LAPD officer in charge of the pursuit and pening. Rodney King was doing the local cafe, a photographer and a poet. The
that were stalked. arrest of Rodney King on March 3 of “Folsom Roll.” To the casual viewer of videotape of the King County Sheriff’s Of-
“We know they had a list of things they 1991. In the opening chapter Sergeant the videotape, it appeared as though King fice used in the trial, shows that Larsen
Koon gives a step-by-step analysis of the were rolling away from the officers in an was subjected to several distinct blasts of
(see POLICE STATE, p. 8)


pepper spray. King County Sheriffs duti- is to protect my partner. That’s my main be a wake up call.” (Oregonian 7/21/97, POLICE STATE (cont.)
fully explained the whys of this. When job.’ This kept coming across – every PDXS Vol. 7, No. 11) More recently,
Larsen wiped at his eyes, or held out his cop. ‘My main job is to protect my part- Mack has come under fire for his criti- were going to do, and they set about doing
hands to block a stream of the spray, or ner and make sure I go home every cism of the Portland Police Bureau’s use it,” Timoney said at an August 2 news con-
bent over slightly with his arms at his side, night.’ And we had to say: ‘That’s not of “less lethal” beanbag rounds, on May ference, signaling that at least some of his
every one of these was a potential chance why we hired you! Implicit in all this is 1st. Mack stated the policies were un- information came from infiltrators. “I intend
for Larsen to attack the few dozen ar- that it is a dangerous business. You may sound and being forced on the street of- on raising this issue with federal authorities.
mored officers he faced. get shot. You may be called upon to ficers from their commanders. He’d also Somebody’s got to look into these groups.”
Larsen was acquitted of all charges in- make the ultimate sacrifice. But I didn’t made these statements about a “Gang Although a judge soon lowered the bail,
cluding resisting arrest. hire you to protect your partner. I hired Enforcement Program” to a panel of the local news media immediately embraced
Other police videos support this view you to protect the public.’ And the more leaders assembled by his police chief: the police version of events. The day after
of a police force being trained to expect I thought about it, the more I realized: “When you talk about a popular Timoney’s press conference, the Philadelphia
the worst from the demonstrators. For ex- Something’s switched. Something’s thing, gangs are becoming bigger be- Inquirer congratulated the police for their re-
ample video of the police training on 11/ changed. I didn’t think straint, crediting their excellent intelligence-
19 shows the police divided into two I would have given that gathering work. The paper also said that what
groups one being the protesters. The “pro- answer as a young cop.” appeared to be a spontaneous melee on Au-
testers” do things such as hurling large The Last Cop in What distinguishes these from what gust 1 was in fact a carefully choreographed
chunks of debris at the other officers. Camelot, Tom Junod, assault, the result of a conspiracy.
took place in Seattle is that all these
There is also a tape provided by one of Esquire June 2,000, p116. Timoney’s conspiracy theory got a boost
the police agencies where they receive a This sort of insularity actions took place against populations when it was embraced by Bruce Chapman,
morning briefing. “They will try to pro- is something that can that were marginalized socially, president of the Discovery Institute and a
voke you,” warns their commander. and does pervade to the former U.S. Ambassador to the United Na-
geographically or economically. During
Most ominous is an assessment hinted highest levels of police tions Organizations in Vienna. Writing in the
the Seattle WTO Ministerial this use of Washington Times, Chapman claimed several
military force was openly applied to a left wing political organizations had conspired
to cause violence in Seattle, Washington DC,
vast middle-class population in the Philadelphia and Los Angeles, including the
most densely populated urban area Direct Action Network, Global Exchange, the
north of San Francisco. It was not only Rainforest Action Network, the Foundation for
Deep Ecology, and The International Forum

an effective way of telling the people on Globalization, which he described as “an

that the rules had changed. It was umbrella group for 55 organizations opposed
to globalization and high technology.”
setting a precedent about the use of
Chapman said several of the most prominent
potentially lethal military force against organizations were funded by Douglas
any population, in effect telling the U.S. Tompkins, who he described as “a business-
man who nurses an intense anger at modern
middle class that they too had joined
technology and international trade.” Chapman
the Third World. ended his piece by calling for a federal inves-
tigation of Tompkins, the organizations, and
“the rioters.”
Although the most serious charges
cause they are popular. I want you to against Sellers were eventually dropped, pro-
understand part of the approach we’re testers faced a similar surveillance and ha-
taking may be a reason for that. When rassment campaign in Los Angeles. On July
you put a special unit together and spe- 13, the Los Angeles Times printed a guest
Seattle, 1999
cial uniforms and special cars and call it editorial by Mayor Richard Riordan, which
at in some of the police reports, that a cer- organizations. New York’s Mollen Com- “gang enforcement unit,” the little kids warned of violence by “international anar-
tain number of police casualties would mission, one of the most in depth analy- who are wannabes and are not quite sure chists.” In the piece titled “A Fair Warning to
have been acceptable. Even if this was sis of police misbehavior conducted in re- look at it and go these “G’s” these “little All: Don’t Disrupt Our City, Riordan said the
only a rumor circulating among the po- cent years observed that the NYPD had G’d” and “OG’s,” these big guys they protesters coming to town had attended
lice officers, the fact that it had credence, become so concerned with protecting its must be important because the police are “training camps where they have learned
as all evidence suggests, is indicative of image that it avoided investigating known putting together a special unit to fight strategies of destruction and guerrilla tactics.”
the officers’ mindset. instances of corruption because of the de- them. I want you to think twice about Before too long, the authorities and media
moralizing effect such investigations making the gang unit bigger and bigger were talking about the protesters in terms,
Police Viewing Themselves as would have. The commission wrote: and bigger, because what you seem to be which had previously been reserved for do-
Outsiders in a Hostile Community “…the Department allowed its own doing, looking at the stats here is mak- mestic terrorists. On July 23, the Los Ange-
What has changed is that police who systems for fighting corruption virtually ing the problem bigger and bigger.” les Times reported the Secret Service and
were once taught to protect life, are now to collapse. It had become more con- (Statement of Officer Tom Mack to PPB other government agencies were warning that
focused on making it home from the hos- cerned about the bad publicity that cor- Chief’s Forum, 10/24/94, Portlandian Vol. a biological agent might be released in or
tile environments they patrol. It is part of ruption disclosures generate than the I, No.3) around the Staples Center, where the conven-
a larger rubric similar to the changed devastating consequences of corruption It takes little imagination to apply this tion was scheduled to be held. “We have pur-
training methods in the military that itself. As a result, its corruption controls same dynamic to the relationship between chased a lot of equipment, specialized masks
brought increased killing rates from minimized, ignored and at times con- the authorities and the Anarchists. By and gowns,” said Dr. Robert Splawn, medi-
American Troops in Vietnam. Once the cealed corruption rather than the devas- drawing so much attention to these cal director of the California Hospital Medical
enemy is dehumanized it becomes a lot tating consequences of corruption groups, members of law enforcement Center, the closest hospital to the center.
easier to kill if deemed necessary. Police itself….This reluctance manifested itself have become these groups’ best recruit- The police also began visiting businesses
come to view themselves as being in a po- in every component of the Department’s ers. By describing disruptive tactics that near the center, showing them videos from
sition analogous to “the lost patrol.” corruption controls from command ac- the demonstrators might use, certain mem- the Seattle protests and advising them to con-
Trapped behind enemy lines with no one countability and supervision, to investi- bers of law enforcement make their ap- sider boarding up glass walls and windows,
but each other for support. gations, police culture, training and re- pearance on the street inevitable. hiring additional security guards, and stock-
The dynamic of police as outsiders, is cruitment.” (Mollen Commission Report Part of Mack’s reticence may stem from ing up on emergency provisions like flash-
revealed in an interview with Philadel- 7/7/1994, pp2-3) the increased fatalities that Community lights, food and water. “It’s almost like a tor-
phia Police Chief Ed Timoney, some short Policing brings with it. For example in nado,” said LAPD Detective Darryl. “You can
months before the recent Republican Na- Smart Cops Realize This Puts 1993, annual statistics released by the Fed- see it coming, but you don’t know where it’s
tional Convention. Chief Timoney de- Them in Danger eral Bureau of Investigation show that going to go.”
scribes a 1994 gunfight he had investi- The more experienced cops realize that Portland had the third highest per capita On August 7, the Southern California
gated while a chief in the New York Po- these dynamics ultimately make their shooting rate of citizens by its own police. chapter of the ACLU wrote a letter to Police
lice Department. The gunfight had lasted own job more dangerous and create un- In 1997, for the first time in almost two Chief Bernard Parks and Deputy City Attor-
ten minutes, the police had shot 258 necessary friction in the community. decades, police officers wee fatally shot. ney Debra Gonzales on behalf of several
rounds of ammunition. Four people were Moreover, these policies may themselves The case of the first officer, Thomas Jeffries groups coordinating the upcoming demon-
killed including an innocent bystander create the very criminals that they are is especially instructive. Jeffries pursued strations, including the D2K Convention Plan-
who was shot by a police bullet. The ca- nominally there to protect the community an armed suspect, who had shot at a child ning Coalition, the Rise Up/Direct Action Net-
sualties also included a pregnant woman from. earlier that night. It was late at night, the work, and the Community Action Network. In
who was left alone to bleed to death in a Portland Police Officer Thomas area was a residential neighborhood. This the letter, ACLU attorney Dan Tokaji com-
nearby restaurant. Timoney states that he Mack, a representative of the Police Of- was a situation where containment would plained that police were watching the four-
conducted his investigation to determine ficers Union, has been one of the more have been ideal. Instead, Jeffries, sepa- story protest headquarters building around
how these officers defined their jobs as candid critics of the effect community rated from his partner, losing whatever the clock, constantly videotaped the building
members of the police department. What policing has had on officers ability to advantage he had. During his last mo- and recorded license plate numbers of cars
he found disturbed him deeply: perform their jobs. When Portland ex- ments, he crashed through ten-foot used by protesters. The letter also alleged
perienced its first fatal shooting of an of- hedges pinning his arms, and alerting the police were selectively enforcing traffic laws
“She was dying, she was pregnant, ficer in nearly two decades Mack made suspect through the rustling of leaves. near the building, and had repeatedly entered
and the cops went out – they ran away. remarks to a reporter attributing the This might work nicely on television but it with producing search warrants. “They’ve
And the more we spoke to cops the more officer’s death to the lack of training of- it was horrible in life. Jeffries was not the crossed the line separating legitimate secu-
we heard, ‘Hey, listen, my main function ficers were receiving. He said “it should only PPB Officer to die that year. A few rity preparations from unlawful harassment


that violates protesters” First and Fourth NEW TYPE OF WAR (cont.) tently in training were unable to kill their shaped targets that pop out at them. Some
amendment rights. The mere potential for a opponents. Firearms and lines of soldiers of these targets are even filled with jugs
disturbance does not justify the suspension months later several officers conducting seem to have been more often used as of red liquid to more effectively simulate
of our constitutional rights,” the letter said. a “no-knock” drug bust failed to pay at- means of intimidation. Most soldiers a person being killed by a bullet. The
When the city didn’t respond, the ACLU tention to a video camera mounted con- would do things such as load and reload point was to make the killing of what
went to federal court on August 11 and ob- spicuously outside the door. All three their weapons or fire over their enemies’ looked like a human being instinctual and
tained a temporary restraining order prevent were shot. For one, a recently married heads. A relatively small portion of the reflexive.
the police from raiding the building without a female officer on her first drug assign- soldiers did the actual killing. These re- There are also distancing techniques
warrant. In its complaint, ACLU lawyers cited ment, the shooting was fatal. Another of- sults are confirmed by numerous ex- through mechanization. It’s easier to kill
22 separate incidents of surveillance and ha- ficer who was her trainer remained in criti- amples in history: another human being if you’re looking
rassment, including random police visits with- cal condition for months. • In studies of the Napoleonic and through a simulator, scope, or any sort of
out warrants, low helicopter overflights, and U.S. Civil Wars it has been shown that device that makes them look less like a
people being followed and searched after leav- MAKING THE USE OF LETHAL lines of two hundred to a thousand men human being and more like a figure on
ing the building. Although U.S. District Court FORCE MORE PALLATABLE standing thirty yards apart and firing their the screen. This is why soldiers ranging
Judge Dean Pregerson granted the injunction, The Human Aversion to Killing and muskets at an exposed enemy regiment from bombers to snipers have never been
he did not bar police from keeping the pro- Lie of “Non-Lethal” Weapons produced kill rates of one to two per plagued with the low kill rates of infan-
test headquarters under surveillance if they “Blank cartridges should never be fired minute. For point of reference, these were try.
had “probable cause.” against a mob, nor should a volley be fired weapons that could fire between one and Another factor utilized is the use of
But the injunction didn’t stop the police over the heads of the mob even if there is five rounds per minute and would have pressure from leaders and members of a
from infiltrating the protest organizations. On little danger of hurting persons in the rear. an accuracy rate of 50%. This should have group. Two of the most famous experi-
August 12, a group called The Youth Are the Such things will be regarded as an admis- resulted in a killing rate of hundreds per ments in the field of psychology help il-
Future! We Demand a Better World! held a sion of weakness, or an attempt to bluff, minute. lustrate the methods used in the training
meeting Luna Sol Cafe. They were planning and may do much more harm than good.” • In World War Two, Army Brigadier of soldiers and more recently, police. In
to participate in the next day’s Mumia Abu- General Douglas Macarthur, Military
Jamal protest march. Shortly after the meet- Aid in Civil Disturbances
ing broke up, uniformed police officers rushed One of the major things to come out of
through the café’s door and through three of the WTO Ministerial Demonstrations in
the main speakers up against a wall. Several Seattle was a grudging acceptance of what
of the meeting’s participates also jumped up are being referred to by some members of
and helped with the arrests, revealing them- law enforcement as “non-lethal” weaponry.
selves to be undercover officers. After check- In demonstrations that have followed
ing the identifies of the three activists, the the WTO Ministerial in Seattle, police
officers let two go and hauled the third one seem more prone to using these weapons,
away in handcuffs. then they were even a short while ago.
By the time the Democratic National Con- • In Mardi Gras in Seattle, hundreds
vention began on August 18, federal, state of revelers in Pioneer Square received
and local law enforcement agencies were run- doses of pepper spray for reasons that re-
ning an untold number of undercover offic- main unclear at best.
ers and other infiltrators among the protest- • In Washington D.C, during the
ers. The infiltrators included members of the meetings of the World Bank and Interna-
LAPD’s Anti-Terrorism Division who were al- tional Monetary Fund, these weapons
ready spying on political dissidents in the Los were employed on multiple occasions.
Angeles area. As reported by the Los Ange- The acceptance these weapons have
les Times, “[S]ome of these undercover of- gained is illustrated by the fact that many
ficers met before going out on the streets in in the progressive community refer to
their work clothes: T-shirts and shorts, ban- these uses with terms such as “sparing”
dannas, thong shoes and sneakers. They even and “minimal.”
are allowed to break department policy by • Two hundred miles to the south of
wearing beards and keeping their hair long. Seattle, the Portland Police fire “non-le-
One wore a ‘Free Mumia’ bandanna, a refer- thal” bean bag rounds from shotguns, Grant Park, Chicago, 1968
ence to a Pennsylvania inmate on death row during a small May 1st street demonstra-
for killing a police officer. His face was un- tion. This was a first for the city George General S.L.A. Marshall worked with a one experiment a person was told that
shaven, his hair tousled.” Bush Senior once dubbed “Little Beirut.” team of Historians both during and after they would be helping to administer an
Among other things, these “scouts” the war. They conducted interviews with experiment. Their job, at the direction of
mingled with protesters at the various dem- No Normal Person Likes to Kill literally thousands of soldiers in more a person in a lab coat, was to deliver
onstrations, using cell phones to file continu- To understand the attraction of what are than four hundred infantry companies. shocks to a third party. In reality the per-
ous reports and allowing commanders to now being popularly referred to as “non- The results they found were consistently son administering the shocks was the un-
make “real time” decisions on deploying riot- lethal weapons,” it is helpful to understand the same: only 15 to 20 percent of Ameri- witting subject. The person in the lab coat
gear equipped squads around town. Intelli- the basic aversion to killing that is biologi- can riflemen in combat in World War and the person receiving the shocks were
gence officers working in several downtown cally hard-wired into most of the advanced would fire at the enemy. working together. As the experiment pro-
command posts took information from the life forms on this planet. Most of us who Interestingly it was found that those ceeded, the person in the lab coat would
undercover officers, then immediately shared have been around a television set sometime who were further removed from their direct the true subject to keep increasing
it with commanders and lieutenants. Police in our lives have seen the nature documen- enemy had far less difficulty killing. the level of shocks administered. The
used tip provided by these infiltrators to jus- taries where two members of the same spe- Bombers, and even snipers had a much simple mechanism of having an author-
tify arresting 42 animal rights protesters on cies engage in very ritualized combat over higher kill rate then their counterparts ity figure there, ordering the person on
August 15. Authorities claimed the protest- territory, food, sex, etc. Even the most vili- in the infantry who faced their oppo- was enough to make the vast majority of
ers had materials that could be used in fied species on the planet have adopted nents at close range. (see Lt. Col Dave the subjects continue to administer shocks
“homemade flamethrowers,” a charge these sorts of rituals to settle disputes. Pi- Grossman On Killing, 1995; also long after they were aware that what they
strongly denied by the activists. A Superior ranhas establish dominance by swatting Marshall’s studies of World War II and were doing would kill the person.
Court judge released 40 of them after a hear- each other with their tails. Rattlesnakes Paddy Griffith’s studies of infantry kill- In practical matters, this resulted in the
ing two days later. wrestle with each other. ing rates in the Civil War.) “improvement” of having more com-
“It’s standard operating procedure: infil- In the human realm these same habits manders in the field to urge on the troops;
trate and disrupt,” protest organizer Lisa are reflected in the anthropological docu- Making Soldiers into More an “improvement” that has recently been
Fithian told the Times. “They are potentially mentaries most of us have also seen, Efficient Killers added to many police departments as a
trying to incite problems in the midst of our where the warriors of two primitive As members of the U.S. military have component of “community policing,”
demonstrations. We’re not doing anything il- hunter gatherer societies stand in oppos- become more aware of these natural ten- even as we enter a an error of “streamlin-
legal; we’re not doing anything wrong.” ing lines, posture at each other, make loud dencies to avoid killing, the training of sol- ing” government through massive cuts.
The undercover agents helped police ar- noises and the like. When actual weapons diers has been modified to result in higher Another experiment involved group
rest hundreds of demonstrators during the such as spears and bows and arrows are killing rates. During Korea, figures gath- psychology. Two groups of people were
convention. By the time the Democrats went employed, weapons these people use to ered by Marshall indicate that about 55% selected at random. One was told that they
home, even the protesters were beginning to hunt with and are indisputably competent of U.S. troops were firing accurately upon were guards, the others, prisoners. With
concede the snitch-fueled tactics were begin- with, the weapons inevitably miss their the opposition. In Vietnam it is estimated no other stimulus, the two groups evolved
ning to hurt the anti-globalization. “Anyone targets. The point is not to kill a member that 95% of the soldiers fired at their en- distinct behavior patterns. The guards be-
who has been involved in the mass protest of one’s own species but to vanquish the emies. The methods used to accomplish came successively more brutal enforcing
movement through a major event of the last opposition through a show of force. these higher kill rates were based on de- each other’s behavior.
six months has friends who have been bru- These same habits and aversion have sensitization, conditioning and denial. This of course mirrors the sort of closed
talized at the hands of the system,” activist/ directed the way most war has been The training camps of World War II group psychology that allowed U.S.
journalist Tim Ream wrote in an August 10 fought in most of Western Civilization and these later wars differed dramatically. troops to participate in acts that would
dispatch from Los Angeles, noting that nearly including the United States. While the Studies of the methods used in these have been individually repugnant and
2,500 protesters had been arrested since popular image of warfare is of soldiers on camps show that use of the term “killing” unthinkable to the vast majority as indi-
November 30, 1999. both sides valiantly fighting slaying and was far more a part of the trainer’s ver- viduals, events such as the massacre at
But the repression wasn’t merely happen- triumphing over phenomenal odds, these nacular in the later wars. Also the targets Mai Lai. Stories abound of troops shoot-
ing in America. In recent years, the FBI has are usually just tall tales of another primi- more accurately resembled human beings. ing children, raping women, and execut-
opened more than 40 satellite offices around tive society. In nearly every case, the vast Where once soldiers practiced shooting ing entire villages. The ugly truth is that
majority of soldiers who behaved compe- bulls-eyes, they now practice on human
(see POLICE STATE, p. 10) (see NEW TYPE OF WAR, p. 12)


It’s Government by and for U.S. Corporations and Their Values
William Pfaff, International Herald Tribune Thursday, January 18, 2001
The inauguration of George W. Bush Pat Buchanan and Ralph Nader said war with Europe concerns bananas nei-
as 43d president of the United States con- the two main candidates were ther produced in nor shipped from the
firms a fundamental change in the nature Tweedledum and Tweedledee (who United States. The disabused citizen may
of U.S. government. Government has be- “agreed to have a battle,” to continue the ask what is new about all this. From the
come the instrument of a segment of quotation). We know what happened to 1920s on the U.S. Marine Corps enforced
American society: corporate business. It candidates Buchanan and Nader. If a can- the Central American interests of the

has become, as others than myself have didate today is not acceptable to the cor- United Fruit Company. The sober Calvin
already recognized, “America Inc.” porate mainstream, he is unelectable. Cor- Coolidge’s observation that “the chief
porate money determines national policy, business of the American people is busi-
This change has taken place in full and even foreign policy. Under Mr. ness” is incontrovertible.
sight and with general consent of the U.S. Clinton, industry successfully promoted
electorate. A minority has expressed con- the U.S. intervention with helicopters and What is new about the situation today
cern; a small minority has anxiously pro- arms into the struggle in Colombia. A na- is that a seemingly irreversible mutation
tested that this is not the way it was meant tional missile defense system, to which the in the American system has occurred. At
to be; but the overwhelming majority has Bush administration is committed, is an some point, quantitative change does be-
been content to see this happen. aerospace industry program, not a na- comes qualitative change. The point when
tional security program. Most foreign that change took place was probably 1976,
One might argue from history — the policy specialists and independent sys- when the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that
19th century Populist movement, the 20th tems analysts regard it as a technologically money spent in support of a political can-
century progressives and the New Deal – misconceived response to a vastly exag- didate is a form of constitutionally pro-
that the government’s takeover by busi- gerated threat. Mr. Bush’s supporters are tected free speech. Moneyed interests now
ness interests is normal and cyclical, with already promoting a new threat, which finance not only the winners of national
a “progressive” or liberal reform counter- promises to be as costly to counter as elections but also most of the losers.
action foreseeable in 2004 or 2008. After building a shield against rogue missiles.
all, Al Gore won the popular vote, and in A congressionally appointed commission This is part of the enlarging domina-
the opinion of many he should have won
the Electoral College vote as well. How-
led by Mr. Bush’s pick for secretary of
defense, Donald H. Rumsfeld, calls for
tion of American life by business corpo-
rations and their values, which are those Dear Mr.
ever, Mr. Gore was a corporate candidate, measures against the hostile-nation men- of material aggrandizement, a phenom-
too. That is what is new. ace to U.S. satellites. It calls for “doctrine,
concepts of operations and capabilities for
enon accompanied and promoted by the
circuses and gladiatorial contests pro-
There is no alternative. A Gore admin-
istration would have been different from
space, including weapons systems that
operate in space and that can defend as-
vided by the most important U.S. Indus-
try of all, entertainment, which now show-
a Bush administration in its handling of sets in orbit and augment air, land and sea cases elections and even wars as entertain- Help us! Massive election fraud is
the so-called cultural issues — race, gays, forces.” This would put American indus- ments. This is a curious outcome for the taking place in an area that looks like a
feminism, abortion. It would have been try in profitable competition with itself, United States, whose most powerful hated banana republic — but is actually part
friendlier to labor, but not so friendly as since the countermeasures to be devel- display and luxury, practiced severe and of the United States of America! We are
to alienate business. oped deal with a threat that no other high- unremitting discipline and considered sitting here helpless as our leaders ap-
It probably would have been more en- tech country has any interest in posing. man wholly sinful, able to be saved only pear unable to do anything about this
thusiastic about globalization and free by arbitrary grace. stolen election.
trade than Mr. Bush may actually prove In the past, weapons development has On behalf of freedom-loving
to be. Its foreign and economic policies tended to be driven by military definitions How far America has come from its ori- people everywhere, I appeal to the
would have been those of the business of threat. Today the tendency is for indus- gins! How distant its formative beliefs are world community and the United Na-
interests that supported the Clinton ad- try to promote advanced weapons sys- from the values that politicians celebrate tions for immediate intervention.
ministration and profited from having tems by marketing novel threats. Corpo- on such occasions as presidential inaugu- There is ample evidence to indicate
done so, and which largely financed the rate lobbyists drove trade policy during rations. The country no longer knows that the votes of thousands of our citi-
Gore campaign. the Clinton administration. The banana what it is. zens were not counted or, worse, were
given to a man who has a sister named
“Bay.” Further evidence also shows that
hundreds of African American voters

What’s Hiding In GW’s Cabinet? were simply not allowed to vote.

I ask that you appoint humanitar-
ian ambassador/carpenter Jimmy
by Robert Lederman Carter to head up an official United Na-
tions team of election observers from
“I’m very good at delegating author- water in concentration camps they could Rev. Floyd Flake, Dubya’s nominee for Rwanda, Brunei, Bosnia and South Af-
ity...I’ll surround myself with the best make prisoners far more submissive to Secretary of Education, was the only rica and send them to this state we call
minds in America”. Exactly who are these, authority. prominent African American leader in “Florida.” They are desperately needed
best minds in America, and where is GW Melquiades R. Martinez, designated NYC to endorse Bush pal Rudy Giuliani, to oversee the re-count, the hand-count
Bush getting them from? Secretary for Housing and Urban Devel- the racist NYC Mayor who has executed and any other forms of counting being
There is a common thread connecting opment, is a Cuban refugee who estab- a seven year long campaign of violence, conducted by people who apparently
all of Bush’s appointees -pharmaceuticals, lished his political reputation by prevent- harassment and false arrest aimed at Af- can count.
oil, Wall Street and the historical connec- ing new housing from being built in con- rican Americans. Giuliani’s most memo- Remember that guy Milosevic in
tion between the CIA, major US corpora- servative Orange Co. Florida-claiming it rable quote on education was a proposal Yugoslavia trying to claim victory when
tions and Nazi Germany. If you’ve stud- was a quality of life violation. As chair of to blow up the entire NYC Board of Edu- he got the least number of votes? He
ied the Bush family history in any depth Orange County, Martinez eliminated the cation. would love Florida! Next to watching
you won’t find many surprises among his department of community affairs, a civil Last year, to his everlasting credit, greyhound dogs run in circles, election
nominations. rights agency that was set up to give poor Flake publicly denounced Giuliani as a fraud is South Florida’s favorite pastime
Paul O’Neill, the Bush nominee for people a voice in local government. It is mental case. Like numerous GW Bush (I am enclosing, for your observer team,
Treasury Secretary, is the chairman of probable that Martinez received CIA in- aides and advisors, Rev. Flake is part of copies of the Miami Herald series on
Alcoa Aluminum, one of the nation’s larg- doctrination after he arrived in the US at the CIA’s Manhattan Institute which mas- voter fraud which won the 1999 Pulitzer
est toxic polluters. O’Neill owns 1.6 mil- age 15 as part of a government airlift pro- terminded Giuliani’s entire social eugen- Prize).
lion shares of Alcoa, worth more than $50 gram of children whose parents did not ics agenda. Among the areas Flake is likely It appears on the surface that lame
million. During WWII Alcoa negotiated a want them to grow up under the Castro to focus on for Bush is turning public edu- graphic design is at the root of this bal-
deal with the Nazis and IG Farben to sup- regime. cation over to religious institutions and lot problem, especially in Palm Beach
ply Germany’s war machine rather than NJ Governor Christie Whitman is the corporations. County where Jewish votes were given
the US military with aluminum. “If Bush designee for the Environmental Ann M. Veneman, Bush’s appointee for to a man who always has a nice word to
America loses this war,” said then Secre- Protection Agency. Her massively pol- secretary of agriculture, was deputy sec- say about Third Reich.
tary of the Interior Harold Ickes on June luted state hosts some of the world’s larg- retary for agriculture under President But even more telling is the situa-
26, 1941, “it can thank the Aluminum Cor- est oil refineries and chemical manufac- George Bush. She is known as an advo- tion in the Daytona Beach area. In that
poration of America [ALCOA].” turing plants. Environmental non-expert cate for letting corporations exploit pub- county, the Socialist Workers Party can-
Alcoa is the producer of hundreds of Whitman has said she doubts that the gi- lic land and for widespread distribution didate, James Harris, received a whop-
millions of tons of fluoride. This highly ant ozone hole over the North Pole or glo- of foods containing genetically-altered ping 9,888 votes. When your observers
toxic byproduct of aluminum has been sci- bal warming are actually serious prob- animal genes, viruses, self-contained in- arrive, they will discover that the social-
entifically linked in thousands of medical lems. secticides and bacteria. Bush has said he ist revolution in Daytona Beach is run-
studies conducted since the 19th century Donald L. Evans, the nominee for wants to open up Federal reserves, na- ning a distant third to drunken college
to cancer and other degenerative diseases. Commerce Secretary, is an insider in the tional forests and other pristine areas of spring breaks and NASCAR racing. In
In the 1950’s Alcoa arranged to have it Texas “oil mafia” and is GW’s closest public land to oil drilling, mining and road fact, you will be hard-pressed to find a
profitably added to our nation’s drinking friend and confidant. He’s also a close construction. single Bolshevik in Daytona Beach, let
water rather than disposed of as toxic friend, confidant and contributor to one Under Bush stewardship, we could see alone a decent cappuccino.
waste. During WWII the Nazis discovered of America’s biggest recipients of govern- corporations running frankenfood farms What CBS News discovered is that
that by adding fluoride to the drinking ment contacts, Halliburton’s Dick Cheney. these 9,888 votes in Daytona Beach for
(see WHAT’S HIDING, p. 18)


Coup that shames America
Continuing unofficial counts reveal the full extent of Al Gore’s lead and the massive abuses that have
put George W. Bush into power
I never thought I would live to see it. vertible abuse is that Bush has won power goes on, offering the US and the world a

There has been a right-wing coup in the despite losing, and critically he only pulled policy and perspective not wanted by the
United States. It is now clear beyond any off this feat because the Republicans con- majority of Americans. The consensus
doubt that the winner of the Presidential trol the Supreme Court. The Right has view is that within months the whole
election was Al Gore. In Florida the votes subverted pivotal US institutions to win Florida affair will be forgotten, and Bush
are being counted unofficially in a way the power - a campaign of which the discred- will be installed as a legitimate US Presi-

from the Supreme Court would not permit: he was iting and attempted impeachment of dent. I don’t agree. The value of democ-
already 140 votes ahead when counting Clinton was part - and in the process dis- racies is they produce administrations
stopped for Christmas and his final lead graced the legitimacy of US democracy at broadly in tune with the times and will of
promises to be in the thousands. Nation- home and abroad, and undermined con- the people, and thus able to marshal both

ally he leads by over half a million votes. ceptions of the rule of law. It is a poor au- consent and the correct policy responses
What has happened is beyond outrage. It gury for the twenty-first century… for the varying crises that hit them.
is the cynical misuse of power by a con- …For all the talk of reconciliation Bush Not so in America. Whether the need
servative élite nakedly to serve its inter- is building a tribal conservative adminis- to respect international treaties abroad or
ests - and all of us should be frightened tration bent on supporting business at the desire to universalise medical protec-
for the consequences. home and asserting US unilateralism tion at home, the US has the man in power
The issue is not George W. Bush’s con- abroad. His next Treasury Secretary has it did not want and whose instincts are
servatism, opponent though I am of what been picked not for his capacity to nego- opposite to those of the majority. This will
Bush plans to do; a democracy only has tiate the US and the world through the prove a disastrous administration for
vitality and political tension if its philoso- minefield of a fragile international finan- America and the world….”
phy and stream of thinking is articulated cial system, but his interest in feathering
and pitches to win elections. The incontro- the nests of corporate America. And so it Will Hutton, The Guardian

the socialist Mr. Harris represented more

than HALF of his ENTIRE 19,310 votes
Ebert on the election: Thumbs Down
nationwide! Some might see this a com- Now that the adventure is over, it ies on TV, including a valuable souvenir crats had crossed the “fine line” between
munist plot; election officials in Florida might be instructive to consider some of for herself), the Republicans referred to it “typical Democrat lies and demonstrably
have tried to pass it off as a “computer the ideas that seeped into the general con- endlessly as a valid event, even though it psychotic behavior.”
glitch.” I call it fuzzy math. sciousness. How and why, for example, was clearly a shameless ploy to slam the
You should know that the ruler of did it become established in so many door before the election escaped. A meme The Democrats were just plain
this disputed region of our country is the minds that Bush was the presumptive was born. outshouted. And Lady Luck rolled the
brother of the presidential candidate winner and Gore the apparent loser? dice and gave them the butterfly ballot,
who is benefiting from these shenani- The other effective GOP meme was the the Jews for Buchanan, the election boards
gans, George W. Bush. He is already be- What the Republicans did, cleverly, mantra, “we counted, and counted again, that took days off, the hired mob to stop
ginning to function as the “President- was to establish effective “memes” in the and then a third time.” These words were the Dade recount, the disenfranchised
Elect,” even though he got fewer votes minds of the public and the pundits. A chanted by Baker and the other Bush black voters, the illegally franchised mili-
in the country than his opponent, Al meme, so named by the British evolution- spokesmen until many Americans ac- tary and absentee voters, the Bush cousin
Gore! The networks had reported that ist Richard Dawkins, is like a gene, except cepted them as a form of truth, even to call the election on TV, the Bush co-
Gore won the state of Florida, but after that instead of advancing through organ- though it is clear that thousands of bal- chairwoman to rush it through certifica-
the one Bush (the candidate) made a call isms, it moves through minds. Memes are lots were never counted at all. tion, and the Bush brother to mastermind
to the other Bush (the governor of simply ideas that demonstrate a high rate operation fail-safe by the Florida legisla-
Florida), suddenly the Bush running for of survival and transmission. The GOP had no hesitation in making ture to certify Bush electors no matter who
president was ahead. the dangerous charge that Democrats won. Even in Vegas they’d be amazed by
This must sound very familiar to Bush became the “winner” of a dead were “stealing” the election. This in the luck this rotten; the Miami Herald’s
you. I know you have had to deal with heat, in the midst of an incomplete re- face of plausible evidence that Gore got statisticiansestimated that Gore probably
“the relatives” before in places like In- count, when a premature victory was de- more votes in Florida, as he did nation- outpolled Bush by about 23,000 votes.
donesia and The Congo, and, hey, who clared on her own unnecessary deadline ally. Right-wing pundits were stirred to a That’s why it was so important for the
can blame them? Everyone wants to see by his Florida campaign co-chairwoman, frenzy. Ann Coulter accused the Demo- Republicans to stop the count.
family members do well. But in this case, who also held the crucial post of secretary crats of being “delusional nutcases,”
the self-declared “President-Elect” is of state. Once this bogus “certification” called the Florida Supreme Court “power- Roger Ebert
also the son of the former President who was final (Ms. Harris signing several cop- mad lunatics,” and found that the Demo- Chicago Sun Times
was dethroned by Gore and his running
mate 8 years ago. Does any of this make
sense? Would it help to know that the
father of the “President-Elect” was also
the head of the CIA? Just so you know
Down The “Memory Hole”
By Daniesha L.
what you are getting into. sion news outlet? Periodic checks of the agers canceled the story, and erased all
Mr. Secretary General, you are al- George Orwell wrote of journalists major outlets (including all those involved record of it on their web site. To this day,
ready at the U.N. in New York! Flights who would destroy articles which con- in the recount, namely the Associated there is no web site which contains the
from NYC to Miami leave every 15 min- tradicted the prevailing orthodoxy. Of- Press, the Washington Post, the Miami original CNN story.
utes! Mr. Carter is in the state right next ficials working for the “Ministry of Herald, the Wall Street Journal) show no The truth about Bush’s election loss in
to Florida! Stop by, pick him up, and tell Truth” would throw them down a interest in the story. Florida is “secret knowledge”, unknown
him he may need at least his hammer, if “memory hole,” where they would be What is even more troubling is the fact to the vast majority of the American pub-
not his nails. burned. that the Orlando Sentinel has ERASED lic. Excerpts from various letters are cir-
If the state of Florida refuses to This erasure of history is happening THE STORY FROM ITS ARCHIVES. The culating the net, which tell the story as
admit your international team of elec- now — not in government ministries,but story has fallen into the “memory hole”. follows:
tion observers, I implore the Security in the corporate controlled newsrooms. It no longer exists. A search of the archives Media recounts now show Al Gore
Council to impose economic sanctions What was ignored by the mainstream will find plenty of articles about the re- would have won a statewide recount of
against this place which calls itself “the outlets is the FACT that the manual re- count, which go back further than the Florida. Even in conservative Lake,
Sunshine State.” The rest of us in counts throughout the whole of Florida above mentioned story. The report on Hernando and Hillsborough counties,
America can no longer tolerate their have shown that G.W. Bush actually lost. manual counts in Lake and Broward examination of the ballots by independent
rogue operations. Please remember this One paper in Florida, the Orlando Sen- County,which showed Gore pulling auditors has shown that clear and legal
is the same state which earlier this year tinel, reported that Gore gained 130 ahead, appeared just before Christmas. votes for Gore were not counted. In addi-
turned kidnapping into a legal sport votes in Lake County and in Broward tion, tens of thousands of predominantly
when they refused to return a little Cu- County alone: A search on the Orlando Sentinel Web Democratic voters were prevented from
ban boy to his father. We had to put up An inspection of more than 6,000 dis- site shows the existence of older stories having their vote recorded.
with that circus for nearly eight months. carded presidential ballots in Lake about certain foods and drinks named af- But still the major newspapers, net-
Thank you for your prompt atten- County on Monday revealed that Vice ter the “chads” and after other irregulari- works, and cable news stations refuse to
tion to this matter. If this kind of thiev- President Al Gore lost a net 130 votes ties. Stories about the “recounts” and tell the story. Abroad, the story has been
ery were happening in any other part of that were clearly his even in a conserva- about “undervotes” are easy to retrieve, reported in the Guardian and Observer of
the world, we would have bombed the tive GOP bastion that President-elect if they are mere “human interest” stories, London. The facts cannot be hidden, and
crap out of it by now. I am hoping for a Bush dominated as a whole. or entertaining anecdotes. But the real are widely known, especially amongst
peaceful resolution to this crisis and for The tally of uncounted ballots by story has disappeared down the memory members of the African American com-
the self-declared “President-Elect” to be the Orlando Sentinel was the first out- hole. It cannot be retrieved, and the above munity, who feel aggrieved by their dis-
returned to his box seat in Arlington, side review to be completed in any quoted paragraphs were copied before the enfranchisement. Even though many
Texas. Florida county since the U.S. Supreme Sentinel web site erased them. people do not have direct access to the
Court halted a statewide recount on This is not uncommon. When CNN internet, the news has traveled by word
Michael Moore December 9. published and broadcast a story on the use of mouth, and has been conveyed by chan-
mmflint@aol.com Why was this not reported in any ma- of poison gas by the US military to kill US nels other than those controlled by the
www.michaelmoore.com jor newspaper, or by any major televi- deserters in Indochina, the station man- major media corporations.


NEW TYPE OF WAR (cont.) cannot help wondering if policing eco- training. This is indicated by their place- POLICE STATE (cont.)
nomically depressed communities has ment in the “use of force continuum.” A the world. In August 2000, the Central and East-
these acts mirror the tactics that Organi- become an example of what Van Creveld use of force continuum is a guideline that ern European Review reported that FBI Direc-
zations such as the school of the Ameri- and Stratton call “Asymmetrical Warfare” tells an officer how much force is appro- tor Louis Freeh and Czech Interior Minister
cas and CIA often encourage their train- if these patterns of abuses are in some way priate for a given situation, or put another Stanislav Gross met to discuss launching a joint
ees to take part in, because it demoralizes deliberate as they are in many third world way, how much force should be used to operation in advance of the annual meeting of
and controls the domestic population. regions outside the U.S.? counter a specific type of threat. The the World Bank and the International Monetary
rankings for these weapons provided by Fund, set for September 26 in Prague. At the
Transferring Military Training to The Correct Term is “Less the manufacturer and the SPD in their time, thousands of anarchist, socialists, com-
the Police Lethal” training academy are quite different. The munists and other left wing European activists
The reason this report examines the One of the most efficient ways to get manufacturer rates these weapons in the were planning to protest the gathering, and
training methods of the military in such people to be able to inflict pain or harm is same range as use of a gun or other po- Czech Prime Minister Milos Zeman had de-
detail is that the training methods of the to build up denial mechanisms. tentially lethal force. The SPD rates them clared, “Largest threat to stability in the coun-
police have begun to resemble those of the Most of the police in Seattle seemed to slightly above a verbal command. try is the extreme left.”
military, especially as many of these po- have believed that the weapons they had As Freezerbox political writer Ezekial Ford
lice units train with and go into action weren’t capable of killing anybody. This Projectile Weapons put it, “The Battle of Seattle, followed by May-
with those of the military. Police shoot- is seen by the repeated referral to them as “… Plastic and rubber bullets were day demonstrations around the world and the
ing simulators, enormous video games, “non-lethal” rather than “less-lethal” products of British colonial experience in IMF protests in Washington, was a wake up
train police to reflexively shoot at human weapons. The term “non-lethal” was used Hong Kong where the flying teak baton call to those interested in seeing popular
targets. Police sniper ranges also feature in some of the SPD training materials and round became the template for future ki- struggle against the reign of capital stunted or
human figures with exploding heads in many of the officers’ afteraction reports. netic weapons. The concept was one of a reversed. We must remember that the 1960s
filled with red liquid. Police gear includ- It was even used by SPD Chief Norm flying truncheon which could disperse a were viewed by elites not as a flowering of con-
ing night vision goggles, gas masks, all Stamper during WTO related Press Con- crowd without using small arms. They sciousness or a period of liberation for sub-
serve to add another layer of distancing ferences when he first acknowledged were however regarded as too dangerous jected groups, but constituted a ‘crisis of de-
to what the police are doing. these weapons existence after their use. for use on white people, so in 1969, Porton mocracy,’ according to the Trilateral Commis-
The police have also utilized what has Moreover the police officers are even Down came up with a ‘safer’ version for sion, the collective voice for elites in the US,
been learned from the field of psychol- forced to expose themselves to the effects use in Northern Ireland in 1970. Just as Europe and Japan. Networks of activists in-
ogy’s most famous experiments. Where of some these weapons. The author of this plastic bullets were considered too dan- volved in the struggle against the investor-cen-
government has been cutting middle level report has been giving training videos that gerous for use in mainland Britain until tric model of globalization may become future
management in nearly every field, the show the police pepper spraying each 1985 when they proliferated throughout targets of state repression, just as they were in
opposite is true of the police. Instead the other. For most the atmosphere is jubi- the UK’s police forces, so were baton the 60s and 70s. And the FBI is apparently do-
trend has been to increase the number of lant, almost like a watching a frat party. rounds regarded as too dangerous for the ing the preparatory fieldwork.”
field commanders. This of course makes The officers make jokes, and go through residents of Northern Ireland but not The New Millennium is suddenly looking a
it more likely that police will be more macho posturing routines. Hong Kong. Now plastic bullets have lot like the 1960s.
likely to perform tasks that they consider Using these weapons themselves is been deployed in virtually every conti-
repugnant such as tear-gassing members probably a huge adrenaline rush. Like nent from the USA to Argentina, to South (The preceding article is a condensed ver-
of their community. taking part in a furious snowball fight as Africa…” sion of a chapter from SNITCH CULTURE(ISBN:
Consider also the analogy of gangs. a kid, the adrenaline is pumping, the other – An Appraisal of Technologies of Politi- 0-922915-63-6), a new book by reporter Jim
Philadelphia Chief Timoney’s remarks not side says “ow,” but it’s all in good fun. cal Control, page 22. Redden. It is now available at local bookstores,
withstanding, there are numerous in- The author of this report had the oppor- – European Parliament, January 6, 1998. from Amazon.com, and from Feral House, 2554
stances of police forming into gangs and tunity of joking with a police officer in- Lincoln Blvd., Suite 739, Venice CALIF 90291.
performing acts as despicable as those of side the WTO Ministerial doing security. There were several type of projectile SNITCH CULTURE retails for $14.95.
the worst of the troops in Vietnam. The The officer was asked questions about weapons, used by the police during the
recent Ramparts scandal is hardly some- how quickly he’d be able to disperse the Seattle Ministerial. These projectile weap-
thing new. In New York the Mollen Com- delegates with the same weapons he’d ons included:
mission reported officers in the NYPD used on the demonstrators. The officer’s • 12 gage pump action shot guns
forming gangs, taking property from face lit up as he joked about a smoke bomb • 37mm and 40 mm weapons that
murder victims, selling drugs and even here and a concussion grenade there. The fired large versions of what were in the Snitch Culture: How
going into a brothel, chasing out the johns point in relating this is not to condemn shot gun shells Citizens are Turned into
and raping the prostitutes. In New Or- this officer but to realize that these weap- Both of these fired a variety of projec- the Eyes and Ears of the
leans one officer was convicted of mur- ons have a powerful intoxicating effect, tiles including:
dering someone informing on a drug especially if one’s been raised on corpo- • 32 caliber rubber bullets State, by Jim Redden
dealer she worked for. In Portland, a sur- rate TV and video games, as so many • 60 caliber rubber bullets In this alarming expose, investiga-
vey by the city’s Metropolitan Human have. • wooden dowels tive journalist Jim Redden examines
Rights Commission found the thing that The problem is that the term “non-le- • leaded weights called “bean bags” how snooping has become so much a
members of the city’s minority population thal” is a misnomer. These products’ manu- • a variety of chemical agents part of American culture that it is prac-
most feared was the police. There are of facturers refer to them as “less lethal.” There were also CO2 powered launch- tically a family value, encouraged on
course no end to the number of citizens In essence, these are weapons that can ers that fired individual .69 rubber spheri- billboards, television, and even in
who have attended forums in the past and have produced many fatal injuries. cal projectiles, or “rubber bullets,” at 350+ classrooms. From employees hired to
year to speak about police abuse, not only These have been documented in their feet per second. spy on their coworkers to doctors
in relation to the WTO but also among the use during war time, their use as weap- Additionally, exploding, “less lethal” forced to disclose medical information,
poor and minorities as well. ons of “civil control” in other parts of the grenades released some of these projec- the U.S. has developed a chilling net-
In a military campaign these sorts of world including South Africa, Israel and tiles. work for monitoring its citizens. Worst
tactics can have a demoralizing effect on Ireland and studies of their use domes- There are two factors that make these of all, the information gathered—and
the native population. U.S. funded Insti- tically as part of law enforcement. (An weapons less likely to produce lethal in- widely disseminated—is often unreli-
tutions such as the School of the Ameri- Appraisal of Technologies of Political juries. One is that the ammunition that is able, solicited from paid and anony-
cas even train “police” in foreign coun- Control, European Parliament, January propelled is physically lighter than that mous informants.
tries to inflict these harms upon the do- 6, 1998.) of the traditional firearms. The other is Chapters and case studies cover
mestic population. CIA distributed manu- Indications are that a large part of the that the explosive charge that propels such topics as the FBI’s notorious
als give step-by-step instructions on how reason Seattle Police did not consider these projectiles is not as powerful as that COINTELPRO operations, the NSA’s
“freedom fighters” can do the same. One these weapons lethal had to do with their used for traditional firearms. super-secret ECHELON surveillance
In theory, the smaller explosive charge system, private intelligence networks,
delivers the projectiles at a slower speed. and the government’s current efforts
This less powerful charge is crucial to to infiltrate and disrupt the growing
these weapons not producing fatalities. If anti-corporate globalization movement.
a lightweight plastic munition is given a
large enough charge it can easily be lethal. “No one is safe in the Snitch Cul-
In fact some of the more popular “cop ture. Jim Redden has written a scary,
killer” bullets are made out of similar fascinating, and important examina-
materials to some of the “less lethal” tion of the pervasive use and abuse of
rounds. They are simply propelled with informants and snitches in the United
enough velocity to penetrate a “bullet- States.”
proof” Kevlar vest – it is similar to the way —Katherine Dunn, author of
that a straw can penetrate a tree or a con- Geek Love
crete block in a hurricane.
The smaller explosive charge is why List Price: $14.95, Paperback — 320
none of these projectiles are dispensed pages
from semi-automatic type weapons that Feral House; ISBN: 0922915636;
rely on the charge’s backfire to cycle the December 2000
next round into the chamber. The 37mm
This “Multi-Launcher” can fire as many as eight projectiles and 40mm mechanically load the next Snitch Culture can be ordered
without reloading. It can shoot rubber bullets, batons, chemical round in the manner of a revolver. The through Amazon.com or from Feral
agents, or combinations of these. pump action shotguns require the user to House Books, 2554 Lincoln Blvd, #1059,
manually cycle the next round in to the Venice, CA 90291

(see NEW TYPE OF WAR, p. 14)


Signs from the Times
On page 17 of the Seattle Times, four sol- Summary: FLEISCHER SAYS
Historical Background of
diers pose. The assault rifles they carry
are those carried by the King County Sher-
iff and nearly acquired by the University PREVENTING IT
of Washington Police mere months ago.
There is a slight difference. The soldiers' Conflict between democratic ideals and corporate desires is nothing new.
weapons have a second barrel capable of 14 February 2001 Consider the role price gauging policies of the East India Tea company
firing tear gas, flash bang grenades, or full White House Report on National played in fomenting the American revolution and it’s obvious that much of
out explosives. Caption: Guard/Domestic Terrorism, Feb. 14 this revolution was about keeping monopoly power, whether by king or cor-
"Training as part of a more mobile poration, from going unchecked.
army, infantry soldiers at Fort Lewis pre- En route back to Andrews Air Force The corporations behind the WTO are the same ones that have built the
pare to enter a mock house inhabited by Base from Charleston, West Virginia Feb- most corrupt monopolies on the planet. Well over a hundred years ago, the
"civilians" and "the enemy." ruary 14, White House Press Secretary Ari owners of the same fortunes that still dominate our economy fortunes, called
Fleischer was asked by reporters to flesh “robber barons” by the critics of their time, took part in power grabs centered
On the bottom of the page a soldier out President Bush's comments at Yaeger on the building of the railroads. During these times there were huge financial
rides a vehicle of similar configuration to Field on potential changes in the National
the peacekeeper, but much larger and with scandals that involved funneling enormous sums of money into non-existent
Guard. Fleischer offered these remarks:
the weaponry of a tank. projects. There were also huge give-aways of land and the resources on that
"The mission of the guard, under his vi-
sion, will increasingly be homeland de- land as part of the railroad construction. This enabled the few families who
Highlights of text: fense, which means dealing with the con- profited from the railroads’ construction to build many more industries. These
sequences of domestic terrorism or pre- new franchises included mining operations, timber companies, residential
Army Prepares for New Type venting domestic terrorism. land developments and banks to finance these operations. Look at the names
of Battle of a few of the timber companies created during this time such as Georgia-
Alex Fryer, Seattle Times 2/25/2001 "As you know," said the White House Pacific and Louisiana-Pacific and the connection becomes obvious. Families
Press Secretary, "in recent years at Olym- to profit from this included Morgans, Rockefellers, Vanderbilts and Mellons.
“Ten years after the Persian Gulf War, pic events, major events, it's become an The power of these corporations was enormous, and because of the increas-
a new army takes shape in the shadow of increasingly unfortunate concern of our ing power of technology, unprecedented. Before the turn of the century, these
Mount Ranier. Soldiers at Fort Lewis are government about preventing incidents at
the first in the nation to form a combat corporations were even granted legal status as human beings. (See Robber
home and protecting American people
unit with the agility of an infantry force Barons, Josephson; America’s Fifty Families, The Rich and the Super Rich,
from any incidents at home. And the
and the training of a SWAT team. Guard plays an increasing role in home- Lundberg; Railroads and Clearcuts, Draffan)
When operational, the unit will fill a land defense. The familes themselves, like ancient medieval royalty, made political al-
gap in the traditional U.S. Army, say top liance and arranged marriages. After World War I, many of them began to
generals. "It's a change," Fleischer said. "When gather into institutions called “think tanks.” Representatives of the different
Soon after the liberation of Kuwait on he was in the Guard, it had a different fortunes would meet with the leading politicians and academics they funded.
February 28, 1991, military planners rec- mission. Homeland defense was patrol- They would discuss ideas for moving forward, and they would come to con-
ognized that victory depended on the abil- ling off the coastline. Homeland defense sensus on ways they could move forward. Working through their members
ity to deploy troops quickly. The war in now unfortunately has taken on a whole that consensus would be exported. Politicians would implement it as policy.
Kosvo proved that big tanks couldn't cross new meaning as a result of terrorism that Academics, journalists and even some “community leaders” would act as
crumbling old bridges or narrow streets. can threaten our government." The Press
So two years ago, the top brass ordered the politicians’ cheerleaders, creating the appearance of a spontaneous
Secretary declined to comment on a pro-
Fort Lewis to lead an operation known as popular groundswell.
posal before the Congress to establish a
"transformation." Tanks and heavy ve- homeland defense agency that would in- The most influential of these think tanks was the Council on Foreign
hicles are giving way to light armored corporate several agencies now involved Relations. Initially it was born out of the circle of JP Morgan and his banking
brigades of 7,000 men and women, able in such duty. empire. As Morgan declined somewhat, that power shifted to a circled domi-
to be anywhere in the world in 96 hours. nated by the Rockefeller family whose circle included Citibank, Chase Man-
Troops in transformation learn police (Distributed by the Office of Interna- hattan, and every gas station with a red white and blue logo. Prior to and
tactics; how to kick down a door and the tional Information Programs, U.S. Depart- during World War II, institutions that were conceived by the Council on For-
best way to use plastic handcuffs. Explo- ment of State. Web site: http:// eign Relations included NATO, the National Security Council, The Central
sive grenades on the firing range are usinfo.state.gov) Intelligence Agency, The World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, and
sometimes replaced with flashbang gre-
the General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs. The leaders of these institu-
nades, intended to startle instead of kill.
"The initial training has attracted tions were predominantly officers, board members and major shareholders
worldwide attention. Military observers of the same few corporations run by the same few families. Since many of
from France, Thailand and Japan have these individuals dominated the cabinets of Presidential Administrations
visited Fort Lewis to tour exercises. Ger- and both houses of Congress, it was pretty easy to turn these corporate
man television has twice sent camera desires into U.S. government policy. (Korten, When Corporations Rule the
crews. World Ch. 9; Minter and Shoup, Imperial Brain Trust.) —Paul Richmond

Send in the Goons

By Robert Rees on crowd control. Rationalized Fishman, Correa did reveal that certain city parks nience rule to the Martin Luther King Jr.
Honolulu Weekly, Feb. 7, 2001 "We are training and developing a police will be shut down. Ostensibly this is to parade financed by the city, or to the Con-
force for a higher level of proficiency that provide staging areas for the HPD in its vention Center itself, neither would exist.
The Honolulu City Council commit- makes Hawaii a more attractive place." new role, as an occupying army, but it will It's enough to make you want to pro-
tees on Transportation and Planning and Assistant Chief of Police Boisse Correa have the effect of choking off any oppor- test. In fact, with President Bush possibly
Public Safety met jointly on Jan. 31 to dis- assured the Council that "We're on top of tunity for protesters to legally congregate on hand, the international forum provides
cuss a single agenda item, the plans to this," but added, "We need more riot in our public forums. This, in turn, will a grand opportunity for a highly visible
curtail free speech when the Asia Devel- equipment." Correa noted also that "the force the protesters to the streets. demonstration on behalf of freedom for
opment Bank meets in Hawaii at the Ha- National Guard is working with us," and Getting into this spirit of Dr. diversity and dissent.
waii Convention Center. "all leaves will be canceled." Strangelove, Transpor-
Attending the May 7-11 ADB meeting Correa didn't disclose that the HPD has tation director Cheryl
will be representatives of 60 owning coun- asked the state judiciary to cancel all Soon noted solemnly
tries, 1200 investment bankers and as scheduled court appearances by HPD of- that bus routes might
many as 400 journalists. The Hawaii Tour- ficers during the conference, and has ar- have to be altered. Fur-
ism Authority considers hosting the event ranged for alternative sites for arraign- ther, intoned Soon, "We
a coup, and the HTA's executive director, ment and detention of protesters. Further, will give out [revised
Bob Fishman, was on hand to tell the as first reported by the Hawaii Chapter bus schedules and
Council how important it is that Hawaii of Refuse & Resist, the City Council is routes] only on a need
"makes a good impression" on these cash- rushing to pass new ordinances to make to know basis."
laden and opinion-leading visitors. the job of the HPD easier. Says Council Of special concern
Fishman warned that the opponents of Chair Jon Yoshimura, "We are giving the was Fishman's promise,
globalization have learned to utilize inter- HPD additional tools to deal with protest- "We will not tolerate ex-
national conferences as venues for ex- ers. These tools are patterned after what cessive inconvenience?"

pressing concerns. Hawaii, hungry for Los Angeles has done."(Among other As a policy, this is an ex-
business, was chosen for the ADB confer- things, it will be illegal to wear a mask cuse for stifling free
ence because it promised an oasis of se- "with the intent to commit a crime," po- speech based on con-
curity. To hold up its end of the deal, Ho- lice dogs will be allowed in our parks and tent. In fact, if we ap-
nolulu plans to spend an extra $7 million campers will be arrested.) plied Fishman's conve-


NEW TYPE OF WAR (cont.) cording to available evidence, ever offered
medical treatment by the police. In fact
There has been an increase in the number of paramilitary
chamber. The problem here is that these this is something that is mandated by the
weapons still must have a sufficient SWAT and SERT units. In large part because this is where manufacturers, the trainers and the SPD’s
charge to propel the projectiles as far as the federal funds are, small town police forces apply for and own guidelines. All of these require fill-
they are intended to travel. In practice ing out a medical report each time a sus-
what this means is that they are traveling receive grants for SWAT teams, not basic items such as pect is struck with one of these potentially
at much faster speeds when they leave the police cars. One recent academic study found that nearly 70% lethal rounds. No completed forms of this
muzzle, then when they arrive at the dis- of the cities with populations under 50,000 had paramilitary type have ever been presented to this
tance they are designed to hit their targets group or to all available evidence to the
at. So if they strike someone at close range, units. For cities with populations over 50,000 the number Seattle City Council’s WTO Accountabil-
before they’ve lost velocity, most of these jumped to 90%. And much of the tactics and mindset of ity Review Committee during their half-
weapons become potentially lethal. year long investigation.
SWAT has become integral to police training and culture.
Though there is some variation with Training officers from other depart-
the many types of cartridges and projec- ments were appalled at this casual mis-
tiles used, as a general rule they shouldn’t use of the weaponry. One Los Angeles
be striking anything closer than fifteen Sheriff’s Department Deputy wrote in a
feet, or you’re risking serious injury, chat line for members of law enforcement,
trauma and possible death. during a discussion on Seattle:
Even at “safe” distances, the manufac- “As a less lethal weapons tactics in-
turer’s guidelines stress that there are lim- structor, I was somewhat concerned with
ited areas of the human body that these what I saw.
projectiles are designed to hit with a mini- “Why were officers with less-lethal
mum expectation of loss of life. These ar- weapons engaging suspects while their


eas where these weapons can be shot are partners watched? These personnel
limited to the areas of large muscle mass should have been behind skirmish lines.
mostly limited to the buttocks and thighs. “I also hope that 37mm Stinger rounds
Some of the munitions, such as the car- were not being fired into the faces of dem-
tridges with multiple rubber bullets, are onstrators as some still photographs sug-
not even intended to be fired directly at gest. Shooting these rounds above a
the target. Instead they should be fired at suspect’s waist is only an option at our
the pavement in front of a large crowd so agency in deadly force situations. Firing
that they will lose velocity as they rico- Stinger ordinance point-blank into
chet up and hit their intended targets. someone’s face escalates the chance of in-
This method is called “skip firing.” flicting a lethal injury.
The literature provided by the Armor “I noticed officers were firing full-auto
Holdings Company, a manufacturer and pepperball guns in addition to tossing CS
distributor of these weapons gives a very grenades. It was not clear what they were
lengthy list of the possible injuries that can hoping to gain—crowd dispersal or
result from these weapons misuse, or even shepherding suspects toward an arrest
by chance if used correctly. Seattle, 1999 area? In either case, it seemed like too
normal brain function to the affected area; ynx that could obstruct the airway. much of a good thing.
Shots to the head can result in: may cause swelling hemorrhage, uncon- b) “Fractures may effect the teeth, jaw, Col. Ijames of the Springfield Missouri
• “ Concussion – Mild injury to the sciousness, and possibly death. facial bones, nose, sinus cavities and au- PD, a leading trainer and expert on the
brain resulting in short term loss of con- • “Fractures - may result in abrasions, ditory organs. subject of less lethal weaponry notes that
sciousness and memory, headache and contusions, lacerations or, (sic) avulsions at least six fatalities have occurred as a
possibly vomiting. to brain and spinal tissue requiring neu- Shots to the chest can result in: result of the use of these weapons in the
• “Contusion – Bruising of the brain rological and orthopedic remedies. • “Mydrocordial Contusion – Bruis- United States, and an unknown number
tissue or spinal cord, resulting in a loss of a) “Fractures to trachea and/or phar- ing of the heart and surrounding tissue in Europe. Speaking in a recent training
(thepericarium) resulting in tachycar- session, Ijames told the story of someone
dia, arrhythmia, or weakening of the in Canada who was struck in the chest
aorta or pulmonary artery that could with a leaded weight known as a “bean
result in tearing. bag” round. The lead projectile traveled
• Fractures to the sternum or rib cage through the suspect’s chest cavity into
that may cause hemothorax, pneumotho- their heart. “The subject was DRT – dead
rax, hemmoraghic shock, or diagrammatic right there.”
rupture; all of which are potentially fatal. Ijames also stressed the need for
prompt medical attention with anyone
Shots to the abdomen: who is shot with any of these rounds:
• Depending on the force of the blow, “You can’t see what’s going on inside
the trauma can lacerate the liver spleen, the subject. He may have internal bleed-
rupture the stomach and bruise or dam- ing. If he goes into the drunk tank and
age the kidneys and intestines. dies, you are going to be in trouble.”
These are the instructions provided Only the minutest fraction of the thou-
with the munitions by Armor Holdings sands of people exposed to these less le-
Inc. It is hard to imagine how they could thal weapons during the WTO Ministe-
be more explicit. Yet it seems from an rial, seem to have been given any medi-
overwhelming body of evidence, that cal follow-up by the police.
these warnings were routinely ignored. Additional complications in the de-
Witness statements given to organiza- ployment of these weapons have to do
tions including NLG, DAN Legal and oth- with the very nature of the situations in
ers report police firing both from distances which they are deployed. In essence, the
that are potentially lethal or trauma induc- very nature of crowd control situations
ing, and shooting into parts of the body makes their deployment as practiced in a
that are potentially lethal or trauma induc- training situation, impractical. Simply
ing. This is confirmed in photos and video put, with hundreds, or even dozens of
taken by the press, members of the Inde- people moving around in a close area, it
pendent Media Center and hundreds of is impossible to factor in the distance and
independent citizens. trajectory for each of the people so that
One witness states that an officer the weapon may be fired in a “safe” man-
pointed a large barreled weapon in their ner. This is of course exacerbated with the
direction and shot them. At least one of grenades.
the projectiles seems to have struck them This inability to actually use the weap-
in the eye. Either from the force of the ons in their intended manner is born out
projectile, or as a reaction to the pain, they by studies completed after the extensive
fell back into a large metal box. This per- use of rubber bullets in Ireland. One re-
son suffered partial blindness, continued port compiled by physicians in the early
bleeding in the eye, and the possibility of 1970’s includes documentation of the fol-
a detached retina. lowing as some of the injuries sustained
Another person states that they were from 90 patients who sought hospital
This is one method of dispersing rubber bullets. They can also be
struck in the face by the rubber projectiles treatment after being hit with rubber bul-
dispersed from 12-gauge shotguns, grenades, and CO2 guns. If they
and that they made holes as they passed lets:
strike the wrong part of the body or are fired from the wrong distance,
through the area around their mouth. • 32 fractures of facial bones
they can kill.
Neither of these individuals or any of • 8 ruptured eye globes, all resulting
the others shot with these rounds was, ac- in blindness


• 3 cases of severe brain damage Further empirical work suggested…the
• 7 cases of lung injury resistance they bred led to a successive
• 4 cases of facial disfigurement deployment of each subsequent and
This and similar studies have found
that the majority of these injuries were
caused not only by their being pointed at
more violent phase of the low intensity
conflict programme. In effect they bred
the dissent they were designed to ‘fix.’”
The Role of the WTO in a
the wrong parts of the body, but being
fired at far too close a distance. In an-
other study done of 12 fatalities caused
(Emphasis added.)

It was based on facts such as these that their

Corporate World
by these bullets, inquests found that six
out of the twelve killed were not in any
way involved in any civil disturbance,
use was banned by the European Parliament
in 1982, and upheld as a recommendation in
1998. (An Appraisal of Technologies of
and seven of the twelve were children fif- Political Control, European Parliament, Lux-
teen years or younger. embourg, January 6, 1998.) The WTO was officially established as part of the Uruguay Round Agree-
It was also found, that each time these ment of GATT in January 1995. It now has more than 130 nations.
The WTO was nominally chartered as a dispute resolution organization. The
problem is it is an organization with no real oversight or accountability, and a
process that favors the most powerful corporations. Each country that signs on
to the Marrakesh Agreement (which brought the WTO into existence) gives up
its ability to preserve and enforce its own laws. The WTO is governed by “dispute
resolution panels. Typically, a panel consists of three “trade experts” selected by
the WTO Secretariat from a list created and maintained by the WTO. The quali-
fications to be on the list relate solely to having experience in international trade
relations as an academic or a government official.
A panel member need have no understanding of why a country might heavily
regulate or ban particular products, of the environmental or social concerns
underlying a particular law
Panel members’ inherent bias for trade over governmental interests serves
merely as the background for a system of rules and procedures that sacrifice
the most basic elements of democracy and human rights to a primacy of trade
in commodified goods. At the outset, all submissions to the panel, and the
proceedings themselves, are secret. No one is allowed to participate except
representatives from the participating countries. The WTO denies even the
citizens of a participant country the right to review their own government’s
submissions. The only public result of a WTO panel decision is the opinion of
the panel itself, written by the panel.
In health and safety, a product may be developed and immediately intro-
Wounded Knee, 1973 duced, and may only later be banned or restricted if a country can prove the
existence of health or environmental risks. By then, of course, the worst dam-
weapons were used, they required a stron- Chemical Irritant Weapons age may already have been done.
ger response. As was found in a 1987 “On November 30 I observed police Second, products must be treated “equally” by a country’s trade laws, with-
study conducted by the Richardson Insti- throw tear gas canisters at non-violent out regard for how or where the product was made or harvested. A tee-shirt
tute at the University of Lancaster: protesters…downtown. They were made in a sweatshop or by child labor is the same as one made by union
“The initial use of water canon thus not…(warning) the crowds and people workers. Tuna caught in purse seine nets that kill thousands of dolphins are
gave way to the use of CS gas. This was were taken by surprise. I had to assist an the same as those caught by methods that do not endanger dolphins. Eco-
augmented by rubber bullets which elderly man momentarily blinded by gas.” nomic sanctions against an inhumane government, such as the sanctions against
were then replaced by the harder hitting “Around 8’O Clock PM, at my friend’s apartheid-era South Africa, are not acceptable under the WTO regime.
PVC variety, and in greater quantities. apartment on (Capitol Hill) I was inside Finally, even if a country is able to prove that a product is unsafe, even if a
product is shown to be somehow physically different due to its method of pro-
duction, the WTO Agreement requires that a country use the “least trade-restric-
tive” means to accomplish its non-trade-related (environmental, human rights,
health and safety) purpose. Again money, not safety or effectiveness, is the bot-
tom line.
Once a panel makes its decision, there are only two ways it may be changed.
The losing country can appeal—which means a three-member panel is formed
to review the legal issues addressed by the original panel. Or, the decision can
be overturned by the unanimous vote of every member country of the WTO—
including the country that won the dispute. It is not difficult to understand why no
decision has ever been overturned by that unanimous vote.
Once the decision has been made to subjugate human rights to trade, all
that remains is enforcement. The losing country in a WTO dispute has only three
choices: change its laws in accordance with the dictates of the panel pay mon-
etary sanctions to the winning country, or allow the winning country to impose
retaliatory trade sanctions.
What this means in practice is that any international corporation that was
prohibited from doing what might be reasonably considered a hazardous prac-
tice anywhere on the planet, need only find the government of one country to
come forward and present a complaint on their behalf. A business that pro-
duces a food prepared with dangerous, carcinogenic, or poisonous chemicals
can bring a challenge. So can a corporation that employs eight-year old chil-
dren who work 20-hour days who lived in cardboard boxes. So can the manu-
facturer of flimsy houses that tended to collapse or cars that tended to ex-
plode. Under the regulations of the WTO any protections against these or other
practices could be viewed as barriers to “Free Trade.”
In practice this has meant successful challenges to:
• The U.S. Clean Air Act
• Protections on Dolphins and Sea Turtles,
• Guaranteeing 30 day shelf life for meat
• Banning hormone tested beef
• Labeling of genetically modified food
• Bans on asbestos.
These are the issues that brought tens of thousands of people to Seattle to
protest the WTO Ministerial Meeting. This is why environmentalists, indigenous
peoples, anarchists, labor unions, social justice activists, and church groups
all find common cause against the WTO: because it threatens by the very
structure of its existence every aspect of the values that make human beings
and their relationship with the earth something more than the dull collision of
objects in a dead universe: the inherent value of the ecosystems of the Earth,
and the worth of human beings for their qualities that cannot be bought and

—Paul Richmond and Eric Nelson

An inaccurate weapon, this grenade combines chemical agents and rubber
bullets. It is of course impossible to predict how it will affect people when
thrown into a large crowd.


NYPD Seeks to Quebec City to pull up

Tighten Rules for Goons Around the Globe drawbridge to protect

heads of state at summit
PublicProtest, Activists charge police with infiltration
By Tom Cohen, Associated Press
January 8, 2001

ActivistsCryFoul Activists have accused police of infiltrating their groups before most of the major
protests in the District in April and during the political conventions in Philadelphia
The towers and walls built to repel in-
vaders of centuries past are no longer suf-
A little-noticed proposal to amend the and Los Angeles this summer. It happened again Wednesday, when activists with the fice for protecting 34 heads of state com-
city rules governing parades and rallies Justice Action Movement, the umbrella group for Inauguration Day protests, said they ing for the Summit of the Americas in
could serve to restrict political dissenters, recognized a man at their meeting as a police officer. “We outed one undercover cop,” April. So another wall will be built, this
critics of the proposal say. Community ac- Mr. Holstein said. “We booted up a picture of him from the protests in April in a police one of metal fencing around several
tivists and first amendment advocates parka. He said, ‘That’s not me.’ “ square miles of old Quebec City, says
complain that the new requirements . . . Activists have made more serious accusations about “agents provocateur” at Houle, of the Royal Canadian Mounted
would make it harder to hold a protest previous protests and upcoming demonstrations during Inauguration Day. Mr. Hol- Police. Riot police will stand guard along
than a sports celebration . . . . stein said a new member at an activist meeting about two months ago said, “Let’s take the fence in an old-fashioned show of
“These are direct political attempts to a bunch of explosives and block the bridge.” He said the man’s comment was ridicu- force intended to prevent a protest move-
restrict speech,” testified anti-police-bru- lous among a group with many members who view eating hamburger or wearing ment from disrupting the three-day sum-
tality activist Steve Yip. He was one of sev- leather as violence. mit that likely will be the first foreign trip
eral who argued that a recent rise in po- Fred Smith, Washington Times for President Bush. It will be one of the
litical protest, particularly around the largest security operations in Canadian
Amadou Diallo and Patrick Dorismond
police shootings, has triggered a backlash Davos: Credibility of meeting history, with a perimeter security fence
similar to the 10-foot wall of metal wire
on the part of an already intolerant ad-
ministration and police department.
Fueling activists’ distrust is a pro-
threatened by policing, say NGOs that surrounded June’s Organization of
American States gathering in Windsor,
Ontario. . . . Preventing street clashes like
posed change that would allow police to Letter of Concern from NGOs at Davos the ones that derailed World Trade Orga-
deny a permit based on the belief that an Unfortunately, the actions of the Swiss authorities have transformed Davos into a nization talks in Seattle in December 1999
event would involve disorderly conduct “fortress”. In the process, the right of peaceful assembly and freedom of expression - is the main goal, say police officials at the
as defined under the city’s penal law. In a guaranteed both by the Swiss Constitution and international standards - has been federal, provincial and local level.
letter to the NYPD’s legal department, the severely restricted.
NYCLU contends that any rule allowing Even people seeking to attend or participate in an NGO seminar hosted by “Public Organizing Against the FTAA :
police to presuppose illegal acts is uncon- Eye on Davos” were arrested. For instance, NGOs present in Davos report that several
stitutional. It is also an excuse for discrimi- people handing out brochures about this seminar to passersby on Davos streets were A Report from Quebec City
nation, activists argue, questioning detained. A researcher who was travelling to Davos to speak at the NGO seminar was By Chris Dixon
whether any event other than a political taken off the train by police during a car-by-car check of all trains travelling towards
protest would so trigger police suspicions. Davos. Adam Ma’anit was stopped by police on the morning of Friday 26 January What is the FTAA?
“The target is people of color, people while on his way to a forum, organized by nongovernmental organizations taking The Free Trade Area of the Americas
with AIDS, poor people,” says Puerto place in Davos parallel to the World Economic Forum. He was stopped at a train sta- (FTAA) would effectively integrate the
Rican human rights activist Gabriel tion in Landquart by security forces where he was searched, questioned and photo- nations of North and South America into
Torres. The pending rule would impact graphed before being taken back to the border at Basel. a single free trade bloc. It is being negoti-
such communities the most, he argues, The Swiss authorities, by simply banning demonstrations in Davos during the ated under the auspices of the Organiza-
because “we are the ones who need to World Economic Forum, have set an ominous precedent for future world gatherings. tion of American States (OAS), which in-
demonstrate.” Given Switzerland’s reputation for democracy and inclusive, participatory governance, cludes trade representatives from all 34
Other, less obviously controversial certainly the Swiss authorities would not seek to play such a role. countries of the Americas (excluding
proposals have sparked concern, includ- Cuba). With the aim of being fully opera-
ing a new restriction that would recognize
only titled “officers” of a “corporation, Police role in terror task force criticized tive by 2005, the FTAA would encompass
800 million people in a potential market
organization, or association” as legitimate . . . A new task force on domestic ter- at today’s City Council meeting of $19 trillion.
permit applicants. Since grassroots groups rorism that includes Portland police offic- More than 30 cities across the country Mimicking the North American Free
usually rely on volunteers and keep in- ers and FBI agents follows a national trend have formed antiterrorism task forces Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and reputedly
formal structures, they would have a to combat terrorism on U.S. soil. that include federal agents and local po- copying key features of the failed Multi-
tough time meeting that requirement,says But some think the wording of an lice. Seattle formed one in September to lateral Agreement on Investment (MAI),
Brody. agreement between the city and the FBI thwart such things as white supremacist the FTAA promises more deregulation
What makes seemingly innocuous is merely window dressing for a newly violence. and privatization while affording global
regulations questionable is context, argues formed “Red Squad” to infiltrate lawful The FBI also has teamed with police capital ever-greater power and profit-
Richie Perez, a lead organizer with the political protests and their organizers. departments to battle cyber terrorists making potential. This means further con-
National Congress for Puerto Rican Rights The FBI’s budget and number of who could hack into computer systems solidation of corporate power, erosion of
and a coordinator of the multiracial counter-terrorism agents have jumped to do such things as shut down the popular gains, exploitation of resources
grassroots coalition People’s Justice 2000. significantly each year since 1993, when a nation’s power grid or collide two airlin- and labor in the global South, and dis-
The proposals, he says, cannot be viewed bomb blast rocked New York’s World ers . . . . mantlement of already insufficient envi-
apart from recent NYPD practices such as Trade Center and the nation’s psyche. Other federal agencies are also prepar- ronmental protections—all in the name of
the videotaping and other surveillance of (Editors Note – The “terrorists” were later ing. The federal Centers for Disease Con- “free trade.” In other words, it’s the same
protesters in violation of a longtime legal found to be trained, encouraged and sup- trol and Prevention has a $155 million old story of colonialism, capitalism, and
prohibition. The aggregate result is “a plied with explosives by the FBI.) annual bio-terrorism research program imperialism.
chilling effect on participation,” accord- Portland’s task force was formed spe- with 100 full-time employees, according What will Quebec City look like in April?
ing to Perez. By minimally advertising the cifically to investigate crimes by extrem- to a September report by Newhouse Snowy and scenic, Quebec City is rela-
hearing and holding it on World AIDS ist groups. An agreement between the FBI News Service. The CDC is stockpiling tively small (pop. 500,000), 98%
Day, fellow critics complain, the city con- and the city names the Earth Liberation drugs in case of large-scale exposures to francophone (French-speaking), and over-
tinues to discourage participation of Front and the Animal Liberation Front, such things as anthrax and smallpox. whelmingly white. Protestors arriving in
dissenters. Chisun Lee, Village Voice militant environmental groups that have Some say having the police gathering April will be greeted by the largest secu-
claimed responsibility for crimes. intelligence on extremist groups presents rity operation in the history of Canada.
“It’s Big Brother keeping his spying eyes difficult choices for a nation that values Police are promising a 3.8-kilometer se-
Corporations target on people,” said Spencer Neal, a Portland civil liberties. They caution that the po- curity perimeter around meeting facilities
activist groups civil rights lawyer who has filed numerous
lawsuits against the city and police. “I think
tential to cross the line is far too easy.
“The FBI has a long history of spying
and downtown hotels. (Local activists
suggest it will probably be half as large in
In response to the anti-globalization they’re going to have a problem.” on political groups,” said Portland attor- reality.) The perimeter will be fortified
movement’s numbers and vigilance, mul- Some activists are calling on the City ney Alan Graf of the National Lawyers with a 3-meter fence fixed in concrete bar-
tinational companies and right-wing think Council to reconsider its approval of the Guild. “They’re identifying people based riers and tipped with barbed wire. In
tanks are beginning to take aim at the pro- agreement, or at a minimum, hold a hear- on political ideology and association with preparation, authorities are also empty-
testers. ing in which their opinions can be fully certain groups.” ing out the local prison in order to “make
According to a document obtained by aired. Several have signed up to be heard Mark Larabee, The Oregonian room” for protestors.
the newsletter Inside EPA, the Sony Cor-
poration has been preparing an “action Information and Communications Tech-
toring and contact network” to keep tabs quested by a company or industry group.”
plan for counteracting the efforts of sev- nology Industry Association’s conference
on these organizations. Sony executives have acknowledged
eral domestic and international environ- on environmental policy. Sony’s strategic
Inside EPA suggests that this monitor- that the company is monitoring environ-
mental groups—including Friends of the suggestions included “pre-funding inter-
ing might be carried out by “one of the doz- mental groups. “We are obviously con-
Earth, Greenpeace and Silicon Valley vention” to reduce the financial support
ens of new Internet ‘intelligence’ agencies— cerned about our image,” Mark Small,
Toxics Coalition” that are involved in a that liberal foundations give to environ-
such as the London-based Infonics PLC— Sony’s vice president of environmental and
campaign to hold electronics manufactur- mental organizations; a recommendation
that monitor chat rooms, e-mail lists, elec- health and safety issues, told the InterPress
ers responsible for their toxic waste. that companies ratchet up their capabil-
tronic bulletin boards, online news news service. “If Greenpeace is pushing
Last summer in Brussels, Belgium, ity to quickly respond to environmental
services,newsgroups and other sources of something, we want to be on top if it.”
Sony representatives presented a paper critics and pre-empt future legislation;
public information for specific data re- Bill Berkowitz, In These Times
called “NGO Strategy” to the European and the development of a “detailed moni-



the apartment – not even participating in

the events. Watching TV coverage on
Channel 5. Eyes started burning inside
the apartment building. Realized it was
tear gas. I went outside. Police outside. I
complained to police about gas. Police
said, ‘I don’t give a fuck. If you don’t want
something more severe, go back inside
your apartment.’…Gas continued inside
for 2-3 hours. “
“Skin irritation, chest pain…(I) am
asthmatic have heart problem. Was in-
volved in good dose of pepper
spray…could not rest could not breathe.

Used (respirator) machine (to breathe).”

– From Declarations collected by the
Seattle National Lawyer’s Guild Data Col-
lection Group.
Speaking before a recent panel at the
Environmental Law Conference in Eu-
gene, Dr. Kirk Murphy, a UCLA physician
told those assembled that they were part
of the largest experiment in chemical war-
fare in recent history. The reason Dr.
Murphy was able to make this statement
was that CN and CS gas fall into a sort of
limbo where they are not subject to test-
ing for their effects. They are not classi- Seattle, 1999
fied as weapons of war, though they have
been used in warfare extensively.
Chemical Irritant Weapons were first those in hiding so that machine guns and CS sure, sometimes cause heart failure, so
introduced by Allied forces during carpet bombs could kill them. The CS CS is also a solid that is mixed with py- could be potentially be the cause of the
World War I. They were intended to clear gas doubtless mixed with defoliants rotechnic carrier agent and propelled heart problems experienced by an SPD
out German trenches so that the Allies such as Agent Orange and added to the through a pressurized aerosol. The basic officer mentioned in one of their
could then machine-gun them. It was a literally millions of persons who’s long instructions manuals supplied by the afteraction reports. “Of particular con-
weapon that remained popular with the term injuries may never be understood. manufacturers and the Seattle Police De- cern,” writes Harvard epidemiologist
Allies in the subsequent struggles they (A Higher Form of Killing, Robert Harris partment require that any person or group Howard Hu, “are allegations that expo-
had with their colonies. The RAF and Jeremy Paxman, esp. pp. 9, 44, 194-5, of persons being sprayed with CS gas be sure to tear gas has been associated with
dropped it on the Afghan trenches in the 233.) given an exit path. In Seattle, where dem- increases in miscarriages and still-
1920’s. The French and Spanish used it The effects these substances have on onstrators were, on multiple occasions, births.” Hu has also linked CS to chro-
in Morocco. The book A Higher Form of humans and other living creatures are still trapped between lines of armor clad po- mosomal mutation – changes to the very
Killing provides this summary of the use not understood. A major portion of the lice spraying chemical weapons and structure of a person’s DNA. CS also
and development of tear gas: notion of their safety comes from the be- shouting dispersal orders through Jack in particularly puts people with asthma,
“The Geneva Protocol had laid down lief that they will naturally disperse, so the Box style PA systems, these instruc- diabetes and heart conditions at greater
firm controls over the use of gas in war. that persons will not be exposed to con- tions were violated on repeated occasions. risks. The Journal of the American Medi-
But the use of chemical weapons, like tear centrated doses. This of course does not There is no doubt that these are po- cal Association (JAMA) found that one
gas, by domestic police forces was a mat- happen if the agents are used in a confined tentially lethal substances. In an inves- exposure to respiratory irritants similar to
ter purely for national governments. Both space, or are altered by such factors as tigation of the Israeli Army, the United CS have led to the development of ‘reac-
the United States and Britain had estab- weather. Nations determined that there were doz- tive airways disease syndrome’ – in
lished factories to manufacture CN gas All information provided on the safety ens of deaths resulting from application layperson’s terms this has meant a pro-
after the First World War, and the British of these agents to law enforcement comes of CS on Palestinians in closed spaces. longed cough and shortness of breath.
were soon using the gas against rioters in form the manufacturers themselves. In The substance also killed a large num- The British medical Journal The Lancet
the colonies. The weapon which replaced many ways it is the ultimate WTO dy- ber of children in South Africa under called for CS Gas to be withdrawn from
it, and was used in Vietnam, CS gas, namic, as if the manufacturer of DDT or apartheid. CS has been determined police until more research has been car-
(named after the two American scientists, Thalidomide or Malathion were in charge among other things to raise blood pres- ried into health implications.
Carson and Staughton who discovered it of determining its products safety. The
in 1928,) provides a near-perfect example police rely on the manufacturers of these
of the way in which British chemical war- products for assurances of their safety, and
fare research, despite its commitment to the public in turn relies on police.
purely defensive purposes came to be Compositions of these products all
applied to war.” contain carriers and agents. As with the
Britain realized the shortcomings of other weaponry examined, the lethality of
CN gas in the 1950’s in Korea and Cyprus. each can vary depending upon the
In particular, it was ineffective in control- strength with which it is mixed. Often it
ling “rioters” who had only to close or is the carrier agent the chemical is mixed
cover their eyes to protect themselves with that is the most lethal part of these
from its effects. CS gas had the “advan- weapons. The tests done on these carrier
tage” of producing a far wider range of agents are limited and sometimes nonex-
effects. These effects included making the istent. Frequently the manufacturers
victims’ eyes burn and water, their skin guard the most basic information about
itch, their noses run, and inducing cough- carrier agents as “trade secrets.”
ing and vomiting.
All of the above are complaints, not co- CN
incidentally, made by members of the Se- CN is more commonly known by the
attle Police Department in their afteraction brand name of its most popular brand,
reports. “mace.” During instructions in its use,
The British first tested CS in Cyprus in trainees are told that it is not a gas, but
1958. Buoyed by the success of this, the really small metal barbs contained in a
British continued to use CS ‘in support of carrier agent. According to one manufac-
civil power’ as in when it was deployed turer the propellant in the Def-Tec formula
in Ireland a few years later. used in Seattle added a methylene chlo-
The U.S., under General Westmore- ride a toxic substance used in paint remov-
land, Commander in Chief of Operations ers as a propellant. OSHA classifies me-
in Vietnam, began to use CS Gas as early thylene chloride as a “potential occupa-
as 1965. Because of the deservedly hor- tional carcinogen.” Both methylene chlo-
rendous reputation chemical and gas ride and CN are classified as hazardous
warfare had acquired, the term “tear gas” materials that require notification of re-
was first coined as spin control. U.S. lease. U.S. Army research shows that
Troops were specifically trained to refer methylene chloride is, “reasonably ex-
to CS by that term and that term alone. pected to be a carcinogen.” Both the U.S.
Literally thousands of tons of CS gas Army and NATO have removed it from
were dumped by the U.S. forces on the their arsenals.
Vietnamese. Its purpose was to drive out


NEW TYPE OF WAR (cont.) pepper-spray manufacturer who was the
leading supplier to the FBI making the
entire certification of the substance suspect.
Some of the harshest criticisms of OC
have come form Prison Guards and Po-
lice Officers, most of who are required to
have it sprayed in their eyes as part of
their training.
OC may have some genuine utility for
law enforcement, for example it does pro-
vide an intermediary use of force that
might not otherwise be available. LA
Chief Willie Williams, for example, states
that had it been available at the time, it
would have been used to contain Rodney
King. But all objective criteria seem to
prove that its use is becoming all too
It is used routinely in prisons not only
to extract troublesome prisoners, but also
simply to quiet them.
In Northern California, it was applied
by swabs to protesters’ eyes. The Court
found that a reasonable person could con- discussion of these substances see the ar-
clude this was excessive use of force. ticles by Terry Allen in In These Times.)
In violation of basic protocol for safe use of these weapons, chemical
In Seattle, Philadelphia and other lo-
agents were used repeatedly without allowing for escape routes.
cations it was used repeatedly at close Methods of Dispersal – Varied
range on demonstrators on the street. It and Inaccurate
was also used in jail situations that from There are several methods of dispersal
OC bears, whose nasal systems are different some witnesses’ statements, seem to re- for all of these agents.
OC (oleoresin capsicum, cap-stun or from humans. Pepper spray was first en- semble third world torture scenes, more There were cartridges fired from the
pepper spray) is made from extract of cay- dorsed by the FBI in 1987 and trickled than traditional images of U.S. Justice 37mm launchers, and shotguns. These
enne pepper. The substance gained popu- down to most of the other law enforce- Like the other agents, OC has been seem to have been filled mostly with CS
larity, because unlike CN gas, it did not ment agencies in the country. Thomas linked to numerous fatalities. A 1995 gas, some CN Gas. The police seem to
merely incapacitate the person by caus- Ward the director of the FBI’s Quantico article by the Los Angeles Times noted a have used these to fire into the middle of
ing great discomfort, it caused involun- Firearms Training Unit, brought the minimum of 61 deaths linked with the crowds from a distance. Some of these
tary physical reactions. The fact that it weapon into the FBI’s arsenal and wrote use of OC by police in the U.S.A. A cartridges contained combinations of these
caused involuntary physical reactions the main study cited by law enforcement study by the ACLU in the same year and other “less lethal technologies.” For
made more effective on persons on drugs, to defend its use. documented 27 deaths in custody over example, the “barricade rounds” were de-
persons suffering from psychotic epi- In February of 1996 Ward pled guilty a two-year period because of the use of signed to penetrate a heavy barrier, then
sodes, and animals such as dogs and to accepting a $57,500 kickback from the OC in California alone. (For a further release the chemical agent on the other

WHAT’S HIDING (cont. from p. 10)

in Yosemite or drilling for oil in the Grand an aide to Colin Powell. She has the job of entered WWII the assets of these Wall Reich posed no problem for Dulles who
Canyon. explaining the basic elements of foreign Street companies were seized by the US became the first CIA director in 1947. In fact,
John Ashcroft, GW’s choice for Attor- policy to GW, about which Bush admits government under the Trading With The their relationship with the Nazis and Wall
ney General, is a self-styled moral cru- to knowing almost nothing. A large part Enemy Act. Street was exactly how Dulles, former Pres.
sader as strongly against abortion as he is of her career was involved in administer- Bush and William Casey all became CIA
enthusiastic about the death penalty. He ing the CIA’s foreign policy objectives. She Dulles was the legal counsel for both directors. GW’s father was made CIA direc-
lost his Senate seat in the 2000 election to serves on the board of Chevron Oil- Standard Oil and for Nazi Germany’s I.G. tor in 1976. Shortly after creating the Man-
an opponent who died during the cam- known as one of the African continents Farben-one of the world’s largest indus- hattan Institute, William Casey was made
paign. Last year, Ashcroft received an hon- most violent human rights abusers. A trial powerhouses-which was co-owned CIA director by Ronald Reagan.
orary degree from Bob Jones University grateful Chevron recently named an oil by the Rockefeller family-the main In 1954 Casey put together a consor-
and is closely aligned with the Christian tanker after her. funders of the Manhattan Institute. tium of investors including top US intelli-
Coalition and Pat Robertson. Ashcroft is The emerging profile of the Bush ad- The US ambassador to Germany at the gence experts who had made fortunes on
also an outspoken fan of Supreme Court ministration-moderately conservative and time had this to say about The Wall Street to form Capital Cities. In the
Justice Clarence Thomas. He is known multi-racial-is a facade. To see their real Rockefellers, the Bush’s, the Mellons interim, Casey served as Chairman of the
among lobbyists as an advocate for drug agenda one has to examine the (owners of Alcoa) and the other wealthy Securities and Exchange Commission from
companies and the automotive industry administration’s ideological source-the Americans who were backing Hitler and 1969 to 1977. By 1985 Casey’s Capital Cit-
and for preventing consumers from suing Manhattan Institute. GW may cultivate promoting Eugenics, or scientific racism: ies had so much cash it was able to buy
HMO’s. the image of a plain-talkin’ good ole boy ABC (an act that took place shortly after
Mitchell E. Daniels Jr., nominated as di- who prefers barbecuing to making policy, “A clique of U.S. industrialists is hell- ABC ran a documentary considered criti-
rector of the Office of Management and but virtually every idea presented as cen- bent to bring a fascist state to supplant cal by the CIA) and operate it as a propa-
Budget was senior executive of the Eli tral to his agenda comes from this elite east our democratic government and is work- ganda arm of the US government-which
Lilly drug company-which Bush’s father coast institution. ing closely with the fascist regime in Ger- it continues to be today.
headed from 1977-79. Daniels was also many. I have had plenty of opportunity Casey was the top stockholder in ABC
previously the president of the arch con- A little background in Berlin to witness how close some of our while he was director of the CIA under the
servative think tank Hudson Institute. MI (The Manhattan Institute) was American ruling families are to the Nazi Reagan and Bush administrations. ABC,
Daniels, who advocates strict enforcement started in 1978 by William Casey, one of regime. . .They extended aid to help Fas- CNN and Rupert Murdoch’s rabidly right
of laws against casual drug users, was the top intelligence operatives in US his- cism occupy the seat of power, and they wing network FOX were instrumental in
arrested for marijuana possession in 1970. tory. During WWII Casey worked with are helping to keep it there.” - William fabricating GW Bush’s illegitimate presi-
Secretary of State designee Colin Powell OSS chief William Donavan and Allen Dodd, U.S. Ambassador to Germany, dency, the myth that Colin Powell is a hero
is a lifelong operative of the CIA/military- Dulles to bring top level Nazi officials to 1937.-Facts and Fascism, G Seldes, p. 122 and the idea that the Gulf War was a mili-
industrial complex. While working for the the US where they were recruited into the Also, Trading with the Enemy, Charles tary victory-rather than a human and eco-
Pentagon he helped cover up the Mai Lai newly-formed CIA, the military, govern- Higham, p.167 logical disaster fought solely to benefit the
massacre, the contra/arms deal and Gulf ment-connected medical research institu- When IG Farben was broken up after oil industry.
War Syndrome. Powell’s fame derives from tions and the media. The stated rational Germany lost the war its parts became the Many Americans didn’t seem to mind
presiding over a war in which US troops for importing Hitler’s top intelligence op- top pharmaceutical companies in the seeing the CIA ruthlessly manipulate the
were used as guinea pigs for experimental eratives, social scientists and propagan- world- BASF, Hoechst, Bayer AG, Agfa- political and social fabric of other nations
vaccines so that they could “safely” fight dists to the US was that they would be Gevaert and Cassella AG. Today these for the second half of the 20th century.
George Bush’s friend Sadamn Hussein- employed in fighting Communism-ex- companies, along with Pfizer and Eli How they will feel about America being
who had been given the go ahead to at- actly what Hitler claimed he used them Lilly-which former President George openly run by the CIA and this circle of
tack Kuwait after being supplied with for. In reality they were brought here to Bush headed from 1977-1979-are the larg- racist corporate gangsters may well deter-
chemical and biological weapons by the help establish fascism in America-a goal est manufacturers of prescription and mine the history of the next century.
Bush administration. Like many of GW’s which they are increasingly succeeding at. over the counter drugs sold in the U.S.
appointees of color, Powell proudly ad- Before WWII started Dulles was in- Both the Pfizer and Eli Lilly drug compa- Robert Lederman 12/23/2000
mits he owes his career in large part to volved with GW’s grandfather Prescott nies are sponsors of MI.
affirmative action while joining an admin- Bush on Wall Street where, along with These oil, pharmaceutical and Wall Robert Lederman, President of A.R.T.I.S.T.
istration that considers ending affirmative George Herbert Walker (Prescott Bush’s Street investment banking elites are the (Artists’ Response To Illegal State Tactics)
action one of its topmost priorities. father-in-law) they operated banks and foundations of the Rockefeller and Bush ARTISTpres@aol.com (718) 743-3722
Condolezza Rice, Bush’s National Se- shipping companies that were later de- dynasties and are the real constituents of for much more detailed info on all of the above
curity advisor was formerly a security ad- clared by the US Congress to be fronts for the new Bush administration. see
visor under President George Bush and the Nazis. In 1942 shortly after the US Being a business partner with the Third http://Baltech.org/lederman/spray/


Though there is some variation with the many types of
cartridges and projectiles used, as a general rule they
shouldn’t be striking anything closer than fifteen feet, or
you’re risking serious injury, trauma and possible death.

side. Other cartridges combined the re- Lethal Agents + Inaccurate

lease of the chemical agents with that of Dispersal Techniques =
rubber projectiles. Yet others released mul- Bad News
tiple containers that dispersed the agents In the months leading up to the WTO
to minimize the chance that they could be Ministerial, Seattle officials explicitly
thrown back at the police. played down the use of their weaponry.
There were grenades that could be Mayor Paul Schell had even encouraged
thrown. These contained similar compo- people to come do their holiday shopping
nents to the cartridges. Many would scat- downtown on November 30th. Speaking
ter “rubber” bullets and chemical agents weeks before the WTO Ministerial, he had
simultaneously. stated that downtown would be the saf-
There were paint-ball guns. These shot est place in Washington to be that day.
rubber containers filled with OC powder. In considering the effects these weap-
There were canisters the size of small ons had, look also at who some of the most From Armor Holdings, Inc., on the prospects for injuries or death from
fire extinguishers that were carried by of- vulnerable people subjected to these their “Specialty Impact Munitions.”
ficers. These seem to have been carrying weapons were:
OC, and sometimes a combination of OC There were children and pregnant
and CN. The OC was dispersed in both women.
the form of a mist and in the form of foam Capital Hill arguably the community merous chemical agents. Some months and in law enforcement must look hard
that according to training officers was far most affected by these weapons of war, is after the WTO he developed swelling in and honestly at the dynamic that is taking
more potent. home to several retirement homes. the areas where he was struck. He died place in the streets after the Seattle WTO
There were portable fogger units. Perhaps most vulnerable, were the shortly after this. Some of those who Ministerial. They must look at the ever
All of these methods of disposal en- people with AIDs, there to protest the were close to him attributed his recent more militarized force they are creating,
countered problems during the WTO policies of the WTO – an organization that death to complications resulting from the effect it has on the citizens right to free
Ministerial.. prevented the manufacture of less expen- the injuries he suffered from these weap- speech, the effect it has on the safety of
Police officers fired at themselves, sive treatments and vaccines. These may ons. That Key Martin had these pre-ex- those who enforce the policies and the
dropped canisters at their feet, had gas have been the people who suffered the isting conditions does not make his effect it is having on the very fabric of
blow back at them on the street and in worst effects from these agents. Many death reasonable or even legally justi- democracy.
buses of prisoners, and had at least one with this stigmatizing disease were forced fied. Under the most basic precepts of There is a moral and legal obligation
grenade explode in an officer’s hands. not only to take time off of work because tort liability, a defendant takes a victim to set up long term monitoring facilities
The problems in dispersing these of the effects the gas had on them, but also as they are. for those who were exposed to these le-
agents among large crowds were even to offer explanations to their employers The implications of Martin’s death are thal substances. This includes protesters,
worse. There was no way the police could and acquaintances. far reaching. It is well known that those bystanders and members of law enforce-
separate who was being hit with these There seems to be at least one fatality with AIDs are already in a weakened and ment.
agents with any accuracy. They could not as a result of deployment of these “less- vulnerable state. Consider that among the If these modest recommendations can-
separate the old, the invalids, and the in- lethal” technologies during the WTO Min- leaders of those activist groups the police not be implemented then it is perhaps
fants. They could not separate out those isterial. had met with were leaders of AIDs groups time to openly acknowledge that we have
with heart conditions, diabetes, asthma or Key Martin was a long time activist including ACT-UP. Perhaps Martin’s a government that is there to protect the
AIDs. They could not separate the by- and video producer. He suffered from death can be excused as a case of cogni- rights of its largest corporations and to
standers from the demonstrators. asthma and AIDS. This put him in a tive dissonance. Future deaths cannot be further acknowledge that the citizenry has
And they could not offer the medical more vulnerable position during the Se- excused this way. Knowingly using these become a disposable commodity that may
aid they were required to once the gas was attle WTO Ministerial. Martin was shot chemical agents and other weapons on an be swept aside with lethal force when it
launched in large quantities. with rubber bullets and exposed to nu- infected population has to be recognized infringes on that corporate interest.
for what it is, a lethal use of force. It must
also be acknowledged that if these chemi-
cal agents can be expected to be deployed Paul Richmond is the main author of the
with minimal warning those suffering Seattle NLG’s Report on the WTO Ministe-
from AIDs have effectively lost their right rial. He served as co-coordinator for the NLG’s
to free speech. So too have many of the legal observer program during the Ministe-
elderly and the physically disabled. rial in 1999 and its anniversary in November
Given the numbers of children, old 2000. He was also a founding member of the
people and disabled present at this event first Independent Media Center established to
the numbers could also have been far cover the WTO Ministerial. He has worked
higher and indeed they may be. What has for over a decade on the issues of police ac-
kept many of these people from coming countability and the militarization of law en-
out with their stories is that they them- forcement as both an activist and a reporter.
selves are undergoing feelings of post- He returned to school to get a law degree when
traumatic-stress-disorder usually as- he was unable to find an attorney to take these
signed to survivors of wars. The legal matters on. He was elected NW Regional Vice
system itself also presents massive President of the National Lawyers Guild in
hurdles, hurdles few people have the re- November of 2,000.
sources to overcome. Some state frankly,
that they fear retribution. He plans to establish a center for the
In the aftermath of the exposure to study of the militarization of law enforce-
these weapons, questions are being raised ment. For other information contact PO
about the origin and toxicity of agents that Box 1773, Everett, WA, 98206, or
were employed. Some of these are ques- nopolicestate@yahoo. com or (206) 989-
tions that may yield quicker answers such 2673; website: www.nlgseattle.org

as where did the tear gas used after the

SPD exhausted their initial supply come
from and what was in it? Thanks to the hundreds of legal
The other thing to consider is that observers, people who filled out
many of the effects of these weapons are
simply not known, especially since they declarations, and otherwise contrib-
have not been widely studied. Matters uted information that was used in
concerning the lethality of these materi- this report.
als may emerge over time as happened
with symptoms associated Agent Orange Excerpts from The Washington
and is happening now with the Gulf War Post, The Oregonian, In These Times,
syndrome. Ironically, should this occur, Village Voice, The Guardian, Chicago
police officers that were affected may find Sun Times, The Atlantic, Seattle Times,
themselves in a position similar to that of Honolulu Weekly, Herald Tribune,
“Spin Control”: From Armor Holdings, Inc., training manual for law
the veterans of these wars, relying on the Michael Moore and others are used
enforcement personnel.
protesters for information and support. in conjunction with applicable fair
Ultimately, those in both the military use laws.


This report details the unfortunate trend of militarization in law enforcement. Cops aren’t getting killed because they’re outgunned; they’re getting killed because
The problem is obvious. Police are being trained as if they were soldiers. Soldiers they’re getting put out on the street without adequate training.
are being utilized as if they were police.
Without another superpower to fight, the military industrial complex, still a cor- This report was titled the war on dissent. In closing it’s important to note what
nerstone of the U.S. economy is reaching into law enforcement every chance it gets. dissent is. Most political struggle is based on survival. As a bottom line, dissent is
Major military contractors such as Bechtel are making enormous profits from the out often just trying to survive. The black person who can’t drive a car without being
of control prison building industry. Major military research facilities such as Los Alamos pulled over, or even walk down certain streets, as happens routinely in Seattle, is forced
lab are designing many of the new generation of “less lethal” weapons. to dissent. So is the logger who’s got nothing left to cut and finds the only way they
Police aren’t Soldiers and Soldiers aren’t Police. can keep their home is to grow certain herbs in the backwoods, inviting the wrath of
George Bush Senior, former C.I.A. director, destroyer of many democracies and the local sheriff and the national guard. So is the person who crawls into a sleeping
father of our current, semi-elected President, described the United States as “the po- bag in some out of the way place downtown.
licemen of the free world.” What this declaration represented was a series of military The corporate and colonial powers have always responded more brutally the fur-
actions and invasions toting democracy, while overthrowing legitimate leaders and ther they were operating away from their home base. The sort of actions routinely
killing literally millions of civilians. George Bush Sr. created more corpses than Pol performed by the Central Intelligence Agency, the rigging of elections and the open
Pot’s Cambodian Killing Fields. assassination of opposition leaders, would be almost unthinkable domestically (re-
The goals and purposes of soldiers and police are incompatible. Police are there to cent developments in Florida and Cointelpro notwithstanding.) The sort of bombing
preserve life. Soldiers are trained to take it. perpetrated by the U.S. military on Viet Nam or Iraq, would also in most cases be
Yet as we see happening in Fort Lewis Washington, soldiers are being trained for unthinkable (MOVE and Waco not withstanding.)
“policing” functions. Their armament is more mobile. Their weapons and training The World Trade Organization policies signaled a change in the way business was
specifically targeted for use in heavily populated urban areas. conducted. Prior to the birth of the Ministerial, accusations of labor laws, human
Police are being trained in a military style. Small towns, college campuses, now rights, environmental protections all being trashed in the name trade would have been
routinely have their own military style units equipped with their own military style dismissed as wild-eyed conspiracy theory. This wouldn’t have meant that they weren’t
weapons. What is being built is not a force to protect the rights of people, but an happening, simply that there was a concerted effort to make them appear untrue. As
occupying army. is the way with these things, when they go on long enough, there’s an eventual effort
Though these forces have largely been limited in their use to marginalized commu- to formalize them as policy. The birth of the World Trade Organization was a way of
nities, the definition of a marginalized community is a moving target. the most powerful corporations on the planet saying, sovereignty doesn’t matter, and
History has shown that when the use of these tools and tactics get to a certain level we’re going to do what we want.
they can no longer be controlled, even by those who put them in place. The CIA, IMF, The Seattle WTO Ministerial signaled a change in the way domestic law enforce-
the businesses who work with them, think nothing of overthrowing governments and ment operated. Previously the targets of corporate directed law enforcement were
putting in their own dictatorial puppets – inevitably these dictatorial puppets get out isolated geographically, or socially. The scale of paramilitary police action in a Capi-
of control and have to be externally crushed. Yet what happens when the forces used tol Hill, a large, middle class neighborhood, during the evenings of the WTO Ministe-
to crush these puppets gets out of control? The answer is nothing. It’s too late. Hitler, rial, was a signal that with the shrinking of the middle class, the middle class is now a
Mussolini were put in power by big business, yet they themselves devoured many of legitimate target. In other words, as the middle class shrinks, then to simply survive
the businesses that created them. as a member of the middle class is to practice dissent.
Outfitting and training police as if they were members of the military needs to end. So as a final recommendation what is needed is people who will stand up not only
There is no reason for police on college campuses and small towns to be outfitted like for their own rights, but also for the rights of others, even those they may not entirely
SWAT units. There is little reason for all but the most highly trained specialist to have agree with. There is a tendency when someone has been labeled a criminal to allow
these weapons. The incidence that genuinely requires the response of these units is law enforcement to either figuratively or literally shoot, and have it sorted out later.
minimal. The police end up causing more property destruction and death than the Unfortunately, the laws are so stringently written, that better than 98% have probably
forces they are nominally supposed to contain. broken a federal law. At least that was the number I heard quoted by a DOJ spokes-
The arms currently possessed by law enforcement need to be evaluated. Esp-ecially person, before the enactment of either the crime bill or the terrorist bill. Doubtless the
with the influx of new hires and the drop in training that creates. The move to hand- number’s gone up.
guns with more rounds needs to be looked at more closely. This report has discussed In the 19th century, the French divided their government into two warring factions.
the way these higher capacity weapons, particularly in the hands of inexperienced One was the “left” side or “wing” of the chamber, and one was the “right.” Perhaps as
officers have led to increased numbers of shootings with many more bullets being we move to the 21st Century we can realize the dichotomy is not as much “left” and
fired. Part of the reason these guns gained prominence was fear of drugs such as PCP, “right” as much as it is an ever narrowing top and an ever-expanding bottom.
and part of it was talk that police are being outgunned. For the first, PCP has largely
disappeared form the streets. For the second, FBI statistics show you have four times Paul Richmond
as many officers killed by their own weapon as anything resembling an assault weapon. Seattle, Washington

Organizing in the Face of Increased Repression By Starhawk

Since the very first morning of the Se- ing that all who throw rocks are provoca- are fighting the same vested interests. We sure the system to drop or lower charges,
attle blockade a year ago, the police forces teurs. However, there is a growing body don’t have to do the same work they do, and helps to protect individuals at risk.
of the world have greeted the of eyewitnesses and stories of “protestors” we don’t have to change our hairstyles or These tactics were developed, however, in
antiglobalization movement with a high seen one moment throwing a rock at a analysis to accommodate them, but we do a very different time, when the authorities
level of violence and repression. As the window and the next, being sheltered be- need to build bridges so that we can call often were interested in releasing most and
international movement has continued hind a police line to indicate that provo- on them to defend our and their civil rights, when jail experiences were often hard and
on, the repression has fallen into a pattern cateurs are being used. Along with them, at the border, on the streets or in jail. uncomfortable but relatively decent. At
discernible from DC to Prague and be- we can suspect the whole range of fun 3. We need to train and prepare as many times those conditions still prevail and that
yond. This pattern involves: cointelpro tactics. people as possible. The more people have kind of jail solidarity has been effective in
1. A concerted media campaign by the 7. Intimidation and brutality in jail, had a chance to play out a dangerous situa- Seattle and DC. However, if people are
police and government forces that begins which reached levels of outright torture tion, to think out possible responses and try being chained to the wall and beaten, the
long before the demonstration, painting in Prague. out different tactics, the calmer and more focus needs to shift to getting them out of
the activists as violent terrorists. All pre- 8. Some sporadic attempts to identify resilient they’ll be on the streets. Even a few jail. Solidarity then becomes what people
vious demos are equally characterized as and neutralize “leaders,” i.e. holding John centered people in a crowd can be enough outside jail do to put political pressure on
violent, regardless of the actual facts. Sellers of Ruckus on a million dollars bail to prevent panic and spark an effective the system, from calling on allies, phoning,
2. Surveillance of meetings, email lists, for charges that were all later dropped. moment of resistance. Trainings need to faxing and emailing the authorities, to
phones, listserves, etc. What fun! It’s enough to make you stress flexibility and developing a range of blockading the jail itself.
3. Attempts at pre-emptive control, think we’re being effective, especially possible responses to widely varied situa- 6. Organizing an action needs to include
which range from mass illegal arrests in DC when, as in Prague, the protestors still tions, so activists are prepared in the mo- planning post-action and post-jail support,
the night before the action, shut downs of managed to disrupt the meeting and send ment to make choices about what to do. debriefing, trauma counseling, etc.
convergence centers and IndyMedia cen- the banksters home a day early. 4. We also need ever more flexible and 7. We need to continue building a
ters, and border closures, to declaring a 5- creative tactics. The more we can plan for broader, larger movement, to find ways
kilometer no-protest zone five months be- What can we do about it? Are we orchestrated spontaneity, the harder we’ll to encourage participation at varied lev-
fore the planned action in Quebec. doomed to have these actions become more be to stop. For example, in Prague part of els of risk, to support a wide variety of
4. Less obvious violence on the street. and more dangerous, and smaller and the plan was for smaller marches led by forms of protest that can mobilize differ-
Seattle taught them that tear gassing smaller? Or can we succeed in building a flags of different colors to break away ent groups of people, to confront the rac-
whole sections of the city was a bad idea. mass movement in spite of repression? from the main march and go in different ism, sexism, classism etc. in our own
However, tear gas, pepper spray, beatings, 1. The greatest restraint to police vio- directions. While this tactic had been dis- groups and reach out to more diversity.
projectile weapons, water cannon and lence during an action is the organizing cussed at open meetings for at least a Most of all, we need to clarify our vision
concussion grenades, etc. are routinely and alliance building we’ve done before month before the action, it still seemed to of the world we want to create, so we can
used now from Prague to Cincinnati. the action ever happens. We need to confuse the authorities. mobilize peoples’ hopes and desires as
5. Random arrests and targeting of counter their disinformation campaigns 5. We may need to focus more on well as their outrage. And we need to be
peaceful protestors, while those throwing with our own community outreach, to preparation for surviving jail, for resisting creative, visionary, wild, sexy, colorful,
rocks are often let go. Maybe nonviolent leaflet, to talk to people, to go door to door, intimidation and being prepared for inter- humorous, and fun in the face of the vio-
protestors are easier to catch? Or maybe to explain to the community what we’re rogation, than on the classic jail solidarity lence directed against us. ■
this is a concerted effort to discourage doing and why long before we do it. tactics we’ve used in the U.S. Those tactics
wider participation in these actions? 2. We need to build alliances with la- focus on attempting to stay in jail where Starhawk is an author and trainer in non-
6. Use of provocateurs. I am not say- bor, churches, NGOs, all the groups who our strength of numbers allows us to pres- violent direct action.