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New Tools for

Project Management and


Control
Dr. Sarah Slaughter
MIT 1.040/1.401J
March 12, 2007
Project Management and
Control
1. Evaluate Different Options
1. Cost
2. Schedule
3. Resources
4. Quality
5. Safety
6. Environment
2. Select Best Option(s) and Establish Project Plan
3. Monitor and Control Progress
4. Establish Baseline for Operations and Later
Renovation
Cash Flow Over Life Cycle of
Built Facilities
Cash
Flow
5-50 yrs
+ Operation

Time
Design
_
Renovation

Construction
Impact of Alternatives on
Cash Flow
Cash
Flow

5-50 yrs
+ Operation

Time
Design
_
Renovation

Construction
Capital Programming
Need Budget Prioritization
Development and Planning
Determination

Provide Set Annual Set Priorities


Client Program Expenditure with Strategic
Descriptions Target Objectives

Proj Mgt Create preliminary Provide baseline Analyze combinations of


baseline(s) budgets with projects for total budget
With New achievable completion and revenue studies
Tools Analyze scope,
dates
phasing Model potential project
alternatives sequences and traffic
flow, etc.
Planning/Design
Detailed
Design Means and
Planning Contractor Methods
Selection

Provide Design/ Select Establish basic


Client Engineering Designer, performance
Documents Contractor parameters,
benchmarks
Manage Project Select best
Scope and alternatives
Budget

Create preliminary Analyze additional Update baseline(s) to


Proj Mgt baseline(s) design/construction reflect means & methods
With New alternatives
Analyze scope, Provide resource-loaded
Tools phasing, design Prepare final baseline(s) schedule as benchmark
and construction
Support contractor Provide benchmark
alternatives
selection schedule of values
Construction
Change
Progress Order Closeout
monitoring Analysis

Provide Design/ Approve Selected Update


Client Engineering Changes and Performance
Documents Options Benchmarks
Monitor
Progress

Audit Construction Analyze Create equipment


Proj Mgt Progress cost/schedule and material
With New Analyze Schedule
impact of change database
Tools orders
Deviations Provide
Analyze Recovery performance
Review Requests for
or Acceleration parameter report
Payment
Options
Operations
Condition Maint, Decomm,
monitoring Upgrade Re-Use

Monitor facility Maintain systems Identify use basis-


Client performance current, potential re-use
Select system,
Adjust systems to finish upgrades Decommission facility –
achieve system, component,
Monitor project
performance material disposition
performance
quality
Establish re-use basis
Monitor Progress

Proj Mgt Audit Progress Establish Transfer


With New Analyze Deviations
cost/schedule equipment and
Tools material database
Provide
performance Provide new
parameter report baseline
New Tools for Project
Management and Control
• Construction Micro-Simulation
• Computational Flow Dynamics Simulation
• 4D CAD Visualization
• GPS
• Radio-frequency Identifiers
New Tools: Construction
Micro-Simulation
• Automatically Integrate Cost, Schedule,
Resource and Safety
• Rapidly Assess the Impacts of Multiple
Options Under Different Scenarios
• Create Definitive and Reusable Baselines for
Each Scenario
• Incorporate Interactions Between Trades
Throughout Construction for Construction
Planning, Monitoring and Control
• Re-Use Baselines for Similar Facilities
MOCABuild™ Simulation System
•Research at MIT CEE 1995-1999
•MOCA Systems, Inc. founded June 1999, started operations April
2000
•Current selected clients – US Air Force, Real Estate Developers,
Hospitals

Time-Motion Studies Material Takeoff

Means and Methods Staffing Levels


MOCABuild: Detailed Cost
Estimates with Verifiable Quantities

MOCA Cost Estimate - Level 2 (Dallas)


Dallas Dallas Dallas
Level 1 Item Cost Material Total Material Dallas Labor Total Labor Dallas
# ate DescrCode Description Quantity Unit Unit Cost Cost Unit Cost Cost Total Cost
23 HVAC Labor -Sheetmetal Workers 773 hrs $0.00 $0.00 $19.14 $14,793.32 $14,793.32
23 Labor -Steamfitters 478 hrs $0.00 $0.00 $15.71 $7,506.76 $7,506.76
23 15107 Fittings(included in pipe) 599 each $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00
23 Hangers(included in pipe) 171 each $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00
23 Pipe Copper - 1 720 lnft $3.11 $2,239.20 $0.00 $0.00 $2,239.20
23 Pipe Copper - 1.5 990 lnft $4.89 $4,841.10 $0.00 $0.00 $4,841.10
23 Valves(included in pipe) 30 each $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00
23 15810 Hangers(included in duct) 2,556 each $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00
23 HVAC Ducting 36,492 lbs $3.13 $114,221.40 $0.00 $0.00 $114,221.40
23 15850 Diffusers - 18x18 61 each $136.85 $8,347.85 $0.00 $0.00 $8,347.85
23 Large VAV 2 each $225.00 $450.00 $0.00 $0.00 $450.00
23 Medium VAV 6 each $180.00 $1,080.00 $0.00 $0.00 $1,080.00
23 Return Air Registers - 22x22 36 each $71.30 $2,566.80 $0.00 $0.00 $2,566.80
23 Small VAV 16 each $175.00 $2,800.00 $0.00 $0.00 $2,800.00

Source: www.mocasystems.com
MOCABuild: Automatic
Resource-Loaded Schedule

Source: www.mocasystems.com
Courtesy of MOCA Systems. Used with permission.
MOCABuild: Actual vs.Expected
Progress
Concrete In-Place by Day

18000
4. MOCA run with 50% more slab
16000 formwork (48,000 sf). Column (9,000 sf)
and wall (21,000 sf) forms set by MOCA.

14000

12000
Cumulative CY

10000

8000
2. MOCA run with Beacon-Skanska
6000 column (1,000 sf), wall (7,000 sf), &
slab (32,000 sf) form constraints
4000
1. Beacon-Skanska Schedule
2000

0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270
Workday
Source: www.mocasystems.com
MOCABuild: Analysis of
Alternatives
Construction Duration Project Cost
Simulation Description
Workdays % Increase $ % Increase
Case A: Standard Design 240 - $6,421,911 -
Case B: Standard Design
241 0% $6,540,849 2%
w/ Natural Light Enhancements
Case C: Green Design
243 1% $6,904,885 8%
(Dimella Shaffer Design)
Case C: Green Design
256 7% $6,924,385 8%
w/ IAQ Requirements
Source: www.mocasystems.com
New Tools: Computational
Flow Dynamics
• Analyze performance during
operation of complex
interdependent systems
– Air flow through a building
– Air pollution in an urban area
– Water flow through a terrain
• Track transport of pollutants and
biological agents
• Monitor and control air/water
flow to improve performance
New Tools: Computational
Flow Dynamics
• Research
– Penn State, course “CFD in Building Design”
(www.arche.psu.edu)
– National Research Council Canada

• Examples of use in buildings:


– Southwest Research Institute – large scale
engineered and natural systems (www.swri.org)
– Vipac – CFD for interior and exterior building
performance (www.vipac.com.au)
• Resources:
– www.cfd-online.com
New Tools: 4D CAD
Construction Animation
• Provide Visualization of Facility to
Client
• Check Clearances for Placement
of Equipment, Large Component,
and Equipment
• Check Construction Sequence
– Reach of Hoisting Equipment
– Relative Progress for Each System
and Location
• Communicate Construction
Schedule
New Tools: 4D CAD
Construction Animation
• Research
– Stanford University (www.stanford.edu)
– Bauhaus-Universitat Weimar (www.uni-
weimar.de)
– Yonsei University
(archmedia.yonsei.ac.kr)
• Examples of use:
– Motorway and Highway Development
(www.polyimage.co.uk)
– Building modeling (www.xscad.com)
– Equipment movement
(www.cadjapan.com)
New Tools: GPS for
Monitoring and Control
• Plan Exact Location of Equipment for
Optimum Performance
• Provide Real Time Feedback and
Control During Construction
– Earth Moving
– Equipment Location
– Large Component Location
• Monitor Over Long Term
– Movement Under Normal Load
Conditions
– Movement Under Extreme Load
Conditions
New Tools: GPS for
Monitoring and Control
• Research
– Field conditions (www.ars.usda.gov)
– Indiana University (www.indiana.edu)
• Examples of use
– Pipeline mapping (State of California,
osfm.fire.ca.gov)
– Surveying (www.forerunnercorp.com)
New Tools: Radio Frequency
Identifiers
• Tag Components, Material or Equipment
Tied to Computer-aided Design and
Manufacturing
• Track Throughout Fabrication and
Shipping
• Improve Speed and Accuracy of Inventory
On-site
• Reduce Theft and Loss
• Monitor Performance In-situ
New Tools: Radio Frequency
Identifiers
• Research
– In-situ sensors (Carnegie-Mellon
University, www.ce.cmu.edu)
• Examples of use
– Construction inventory control
(www.zebra.com)
• Resources
– ENR, “Researchers are getting
serious about electronic tracking
tags” (12/13/04)
– RFID Centre (www.rfidc.com)
Key Issues in Project
Management and Control
• Data Quality
• Speed of Analysis
• Speed of Decision Making*
• Clear Communications
• Accurate Tracking and Recording
Î New Tools Can Address Most (but Not
All*) Key Issues in Project Management