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they are connected to each other. Behaviourist is the learning theory that only focuses on objectively observable behavior and discount any independent activity of the mind. Constructivism is the theory of learning based on the idea that knowledge is constructed by the knower based on mental activity .Learners are considered to be active organism seeking meaning. Cognitivism is the study in that focuses on mental processes including how people perceive, remember , learn solve problem and direct their attention to one stimulus rather than another.






Sequence of stimulus and Teacher centred Objectivist theory of learning

Describe learning in terms of Interrelationship between Environment and Personal factors

Process of matching skill objectives with test items Learners have the ability to construct Learners discover problems for themselves


To this Assignment I have started afresh all the implication of the theories and the online participation and I have improved my typing skills

Introduction Among the four language skills, reading is possible the most extensively and intensively studied by expect in the field of language teaching. The result of the reseachers conducted for many decades on nature of reading -how people learn to process textual information have contributed contrasting theories about what works best in the teaching of reading. As a result ,language educators can choose among a wide variety of teaching methods and techniques for students learning to read in their second language .For student who are learning second language reading is the most crucial skill to master due to several reasons. First the student can usually perform at a higher level in reading than in any other skills. Behaviourist theory So far ,there are three main theories which explain the nature of learning to read. First the behaviourist theory focus on the printed form of text .Second the cognitive theory processes enhanced the role of background knowledge in addition to and manipulate that reader can have on the act of comprehending a text , and thus emphasizes the involvement of the readers thinking about what he is doing while reading. The traditional approach claimed learning was based upon habit formation, brought about by the repeated association of stimulus and response where by the learner is given a question and is supposed to give the answer only and language learning was charecterised as a response system that human acquire through automatic processes,Behaviourist became the basis of the audio -lingual method ,which sought to form second language habit through drilling , repetition , and correction. When reading phonics, which requires the learner to match letters with sounds in defined sequence. According to this view ,reading is a linear process by which readers decode a text word by word ,linking the words into phrases and then sentences . Behaviourist treat reading as word -recognition response to the stimulus of the printed words ,where little attempt was made to explain what went on within the necesses of the mind that allowed the human to make sense of the printed page .In other words ,textual comprehension involves adding the meaning of words to get the meaning of clauses .These lower level skills are connected to the visual stimulus ,or print ,and are consequently concerned with recognizing and recalling. Phonics emphasizes on repetition and on drills using the sound that make up words .Information is received and processed beginning with the smallest sound units , and proceeded to letter blends , words ,phrases ,and sentences .Thus novice readers acquire a set of hierarchically ordered subskills that sequently build towards comprehension ability .Having mastered these skills ,readers are viewed as experts who comprehend what they read. Most activities are based on recognition and recal of lexical and grammatical forms with an emphasis on the perceptual and decoding dimension.

Cognitivist theory Behaviourist became somewhat discredited as the new cognitive theory represented the minds innate capacity for learning ,which gave new explanatory power to how human acquired their first language ; how much internal representations of the foreign language develop within the learners s mind .Meaningful learning on the other hand ,occurs when new information is represented in a relevant context and is cognitive structure. A learning that is not meaningful As Iam a teacher for second language in my school I use the following methods to teach my students Teacher direct pre-reading in which I use some key vocabulary ,ideas in the text ,and the type of the text are explained. In this approach I directly explain the information the students will need ,including key concepts, important vocabulary ,and appropriate conceptual frame work The interactive activities in which I lead a discussion in which he/she draws out the information student already have and interjects additional information deemed necessary to an understanding of the text to be read. Moreover ,I can make explicit links between prior knowledge and important information in the text Reflective activities where by students are guided to make themselves aware of the purpose and goal for reading a certain piece of written material. At the beginning stages this can be done by me ,but as the reader becomes more mature this strategy can be left to the reader .

The activities carried out in during -reading stage consist of taking notes ,reacting predicting , selecting significant information ,questioning the writers position , evaluating and placing a text within ones own experience Making prediction ;I teach the students to be on the watch to predict what is going to happen next in the text to be able to intergrate and combine what has come with what is to come Making selection ; Readers who are more proficiense read selectively, continually making decisions about their reading Intergration prior knowledge: The schemata that have been activated in the prereading section should be called upon to facilitate comprehension Skipping insignificant parts ; I ask good reader to l concentrate on significant pieces of information while skipping insignificant pieces Re reading :I encourage the student to become sensitive to the effect of reading on their comprehension Making use of context guessing: I do not encourage the student to define and understand every single unknown word in a text , Instead they should learn to make use of context to guess the meaning of unknown word

Reading in chunks; To ensure reading in speed , I encourage the students to get used to reading group of words together. This act will also enhance comprehension by focusing on group of meaning -conveying symbols simultaneously Pausing; Good readers will pause at certain places while reading a text to absorb and internalize the material being read and sort out information Paragraphing: While reading texts ,it may be necessary to paraphrase and interpret text sub vocabulory in order to verify what was comprehended and monitoring.