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recognition using 2D Gabor wavelet

transformation in Matlab

ABSTRACT:

decomposition allows efficient image analysis. It is widely used for varied applications such as

noise reduction, and data compression, etc. In this paper we have introduced and applied the

concept of 2 dimensional Gabor wavelet transform to Biometric Iris recognition system. The

application of this transform in encoding the iris image for pattern recognition proves to

achieve increased accuracy and processing speed compared to other methods. With a strong

scientific approach and mathematical background we have developed an algorithm to facilitate

the implementation of this method under the platforms of MATLAB.

IMAGES – An introduction:

A dictionary defines image as a “reproduction or representation of the form of a person or

thing”. The inherent association of a human with the visual senses, predisposes one to

conceive an image as a stimulus on the retina of the eye, in which case the mechanism of

optics govern the image formation resulting in continuos range, multi-tone images.

strictly to be sampled, quantized function of two dimensions which has been generated by

optical means, sampled in an equally spaced rectangular grid pattern, and quantized in equal

intervals of graylevel.

WHY BIOMETRICS:

The word is crying out for the simpler access controls to personal authentication systems

and it looks like biometrics may be the answer. Instead of carrying bunch of keys, all those

access cards or passwords you carry around with you, your body can be used to uniquely

identify you. Furthermore, when biometrics measures are applied in combination with other

controls, such as access cards or passwords, the reliability of authentication controls takes a

giant step forward.

BIOMETRICS-AN OVERVIEW:

Biometrics is best defined as measurable physiological and/or behavioral

characteristics that can be utilized to verify the identity of an indivisual. They include the

following:

Iris scanning

Facial recognition

Fingerprint verification

Hand geometry

Retinal scanning

Signature verification

Voice verification

Highly protected internal organ of the eye.

Iris patterns possess a high degree of randomness.

Variability: 244 degrees of freedom.

Entropy: 3.2 bits per square millimetre.

Uniqueness: set by combinatorial complexity.

Patterns apparently stable throughout life.

IRIS – An introduction:

The iris is a colored ring that surrounds the pupil and contains easily visible yet

complex and distinct combinations of corona, pits, filaments, crypts, striations, radial furrows

and more.

The iris is called the “Living password” because of its unique, random features. It’s

always with you and can’t be stolen or faked. As such it makes an excellent biometrics

identifier.

SCANNING MECHANISM:

Iris scanning is undoubtedly the less intrusive of the eye related biometrics. It utilizes a

fairly conventional CCD camera element and requires no intimate contact between user and

reader.

The iris scanning procedures as used on humans is simple and painless. The person stands

a foot or so away from the camera and looks into the scanning device. In iris scanning, the eye

is illuminated by the light emitting diodes that surround the camera. The diodes emit in the

visible light spectrum. The scanner is not a laser-rectinal scanner so there are no laser hazards.

It scans a a high-definition photograph of the person’s eyes (i.e., some of the characteristics of

the iris tissue, such as rings, furrows and freckles are scanned). It then analyzes 266 different

points of data (512-byte biometrics template) from the trabecular meshwork of the iris.

The scanned pattern is then digitized and compared to previously recorded patterns.

Identification is achieved in two seconds and verification in three.

ALGORITHM

Wavelet transforms have received significant attention because their multiresolution

decomposition allows efficient image analysis, noise reduction and data compression. Using

Discrete wavelet transform (DWT), the procedures of terrain segmentation and speckle noise

reduction can be effectively combined into a single process. We have applied Gabor Wavelet

transform in our algorithm to achieve iris image pattern recognition.

We have divided our entire Algorithm into three parts

2) CODE COMPARISON ALGORITHM

3) AUTHENTICATION ALGORITHM

1) IMAGE TO CODE CONVERSION ALGORITHM

Input:

Iris Image from a CCD camera and SSN of the user.

Output:

Iris code for Iris Image.

ALGORITHM:

1) Test the resolution of the captured image.

2) Convert the RGB image to the monochrome format.

3) Locate the Iris in the image.

4) Encode the iris pattern to the corresponding grayscale by using circular grid.

5) Each isolated iris pattern is then demodulated to extract its phase information using

quadrature 2D Gabor wavelets.

6) A 512-byte bar code is generated based on the distribution of black and white areas of the

iris inside the grid.

7) Store the iris code and the SSN in the source folder.

Algorithm in Detail:

Testing the resolution:

The image captured by a CCD camera (480 x 640) should be converted to RGB to

monochrome format. It is then resolved to a minimum of 70 pixels in iris radius for the rich

details of iris patterns. Now a days 100 to 140 pixels can be resolved easily.

To locate the iris in the image the center coordinates and radius of both the iris

and the pupil are determined using the operator explained below. A CCD camera captures the

image of the eye. Some imaging platforms deployed a wide-angle camera for coarse

localization of eyes in faces, to steer the optics of a narrow-angle pan/tilt camera that acquires

higher resolution images of eyes. In these trails, most imaging was done without active pan/tilt

camera optics, but instead exploited visual feedback via a mirror or video image to enable

cooperating subjects to position their own eyes within the fields of view of a single narrow-

angle camera.

Focus assessment is performed in real-time (faster than video frame rate) by measuring

the total high-frequency power in the 2D Fourier spectrum of each frame, and seeking to

maximize this quantity either by moving an active lens or by providing audio feedback to

subjects to adjust their range appropriately. Images passing a minimum focus criterion were

then analyzed to find the iris, with precise localization of its boundaries using a coarse-to-fine

strategy terminating in single-pixel precision estimates of the center coordinates and radius of

both the iris and the pupil. Although the results of the iris search greatly constrain the pupil

search, concentricity of these boundaries cannot be assumed. Very often the pupil center is

nasal, and inferior, to the iris center. Its radius can range from 0.1 to 0.8 of the iris radius.

Thus, all three parameters defining the pupillary circle must be estimated separately from those

of the iris. A differential operator for determining these parameters is:

Where I (x,y) is an image such as fig 1 containing an eye. The operator searches over

the image domain (x,y) for the maximum in the blurred partial derivative with respect to

increasing radius r, of the normalized contour integral of I (x, y) along a circular arc ds of

radius ‘ r’ and center co-ordinates ( Xo, Yo ) The symbol * denotes convolution and is

a smoothing function such as Gaussian of scale σ. The complete operator behaves in effect as

a circular edge detector, blurred at a scale set by σ 8, which searches iteratively for a

maximum contour integral derivative with increasing radius at successively finer scales of

analysis through the three parameter space of center coordinates and radius ( Xo, Yo, r)

defining a path of contour integration.

The operator in (1) serves to find both the pupillary boundary and the outer (limbus)

boundary of the iris, although the initial search for the limbus also incorporates evidence of an

interior pupil to improve its robustness since the limbic boundary itself usually has extremely

soft contrast when long wavelength NIR illumination is used. Once the coarse-to-fine iterative

searches for both these boundaries have reached single pixel precision, then a similar approach

have to detecting curvilinear edges is used to localize both upper and lower eyelid boundaries.

The path of contour integration in (1) is changed from circular to arcuate, with spline

parameters fitted by standard statistical estimation methods to describe optimally the available

evidence for each eyelid boundary. The result of all these localization operations is the

isolation of iris tissue from other image regions, as illustrated in fig 1 by graphical overlay on

the eye.

Each isolated iris pattern is then demodulated to extract its phase information using

quadrature 2D Gabor wavelets (Daugman 1985, 1988, 1994).This encoding process is

illustrated in Fig 2. It amounts to a patch-wise phase quantization of the iris pattern, by

identifying in which quadrant of the complex plane each resultant phasor lies when a given

area of the iris is projected onto complex-valued 2D Gabor wavelets:

Where h{Re, Im} can be regarded as a complex-valued bit whose, real and imaginary

parts are either 1 or 0 depending on the sign of the 2D integral; is the raw iris image in

a dimensionless polar coordinate system that is size- and translation-invariant, and which also

corrects for pupil dilation as explained in a later section; d and e are the multi-scale

2D wavelet size parameters, spanning an 8-fold range from 0.15mm to 1.2mm on the iris;

f is wavelet frequency, spanning 3 octaves in inverse proportion to ; and

represent the polar coordinates of each region of iris for which the phasor coordinates

are computed. Such a phase quadrant coding sequence is illustrated for one iris by

the bit stream shown graphically in Fig1.

A desirable feature of the phase code portrayed in Fig 2 is that it is a cyclic, or gray code:

in rotating between any adjacent quadrants, only a single bit changes, unlike a binary code in

which two bits may change, making some errors arbitrarily more costly than others. Altogether

2,048 such phase bits (256 bytes) are computed for each iris, but in a major improvement over

the earlier (Daugman 1993) algorithm, now an equal number of masking bits are also

computed to signify whether any iris region is obscured by eyelids, contains any eyelash

occlusions, specular reflections, boundary artifacts of hard contact lenses, or poor signal-to-

noise ratio and thus should be ignored in the demodulation code as artifact.

Only phase information is used for recognizing irises because amplitude information is not

very discriminating, and it depends upon extraneous factors such as imaging contrast,

illumination, and camera gain. The phase bit settings which code the sequence of projection

quadrants as shown in fig 2 capture the information of wavelet zero-crossing, as is clear from

the sign operator in (2). The extraction of phase has the further advantage that phase angle are

assigned regardless of how low the image contrast may be. Its phase bit stream has statistical

properties such as run lengths similar to those of the code for the properly focused eye image

in Fig 1. The benefit which arises from the fact that phase bits are set also for a poorly

focussed images as shown here, even if based only on random CCD noise, is that different

poorly focused irises never become confused with each other when their phase codes are

compared. By contrast, images of different faces look increasingly alike when poorly resolved,

and may be confused with each other by appearance-based recognition algorithms.

Input:

Current Iris code & SSN

Output:

Match in terms of hamming distance.

Algorithm:

1) Compare the Iris code (gray code) of the test image with that of the considered image in

the source folder.

2) The difference between the codes is expressed as Hamming distance.

3) Compute the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) of the Iris code

4) Find the Probability density function (PDF).

5) Compare the PDF of the test image with that of the considered image in the source

folder.

Algorithm in Detail:

The Current Iris code is compared with the iris code stored in the source folder

corresponding to the given SSN. The difference between the codes is expressed as a fraction of

mismatched bits termed as Hamming distance. The key to iris recognition is the failure of a

test of statistical independence, which involves so many degrees-of freedom that this test is

virtually guaranteed to be passed whenever the phase codes for two different eyes are

compared, but to be uniquely failed when any eye's phase code is compared with another

version of itself.

OR operator (XOR) applied to the 2,048 bit phase vectors that encode any two iris patterns,

masked (AND' ed) by both of their corresponding mask bit vectors to prevent non-iris artifacts

from influencing iris comparisons. The XOR operator ‘ j ’ detects disagreement between any

corresponding pair of bits, while the AND operator ‘ k ’ ensures that the compared bits are

both deemed to have been uncorrupted by eyelashes, eyelids, specular reflections, or other

noise. The norms of the resultant bit vector and of the AND'ed mask vectors are then measured

in order to compute a fractional Hamming Distance (HD) as the measure of the dissimilarity

between any two irises, whose two phase code bit vectors are denoted {codeA, codeB} and

whose mask bit vectors are denoted {maskA, maskB}:

Hamming Distance:

The denominator tallies the total number of phase bits that mattered in iris comparisons

after artifacts such as eyelashes and specular reflections were discounted, so the resulting HD

is a fractional measure of dissimilarity; 0 would represent a perfect match. The Boolean

operators ‘ j ’ and ‘ k ’ are applied in vector form to binary strings of length up to the word

length of the CPU, as a single machine instruction. Thus for example on an ordinary 32-bit

machine, any two integers between 0 and 4 billion can be XOR'ed in a single machine

instruction to generate a third such integer, each of whose bits in a binary expansion is the

XOR of the corresponding pair of bits of the original two integers. This implementation of (3)

in parallel 32-bit chunks enables extremely rapid comparisons of iris codes when searching

through a large database to find a match. On a 300 MHZ CPU, such exhaustive searches are

performed at a rate of about 100,000 irises per second. Because any given bit in the phase code

for an iris is equally likely to be 1 or 0, and because different irises are uncorrelated, the

expected proportion of agreeing bits between the codes for two different irises is HD=0.500.

The histogram in Fig 4 shows the distribution of HDs obtained from various samples of

images. The observed mean of HD was p=0.499 with standard deviation their

freedom, as shown by the solid curve.

The extremely close fit of the theoretical binomial to the observed distribution is a

consequence of the fact that each comparison between two phase code bits from two different

irises is essentially a Bernoulli trial, albeit with correlations between successive "coin tosses".

In the phase code for any given iris , only small subsets of bits are mutually independent due to

the internal correlations, especially radial, within an iris.

3) AUTHENTICATION ALGORITHM

Input:

Hamming Distance (HD) from the comparison Algorithm.

Output:

Whether the person is authorized or not.

Algorithm:

1) If HD is zero or below the threshold value of 0.32 then the PDF of the test image and the

PDF of the corresponding image in the source folder are compared.

2) If HD is above 0.32 then the person is rejected and is not authorized.

3) If the PDFs are equal then the person is accepted to login.

1) The iris recognition system requires an accuracy rate of almost 100% for pattern

recognition which can be achieved using Gabor wavelet transform.

2) Multi spectral analysis can be easily achieved.

3) This transform performs well even for the poorly focused eye images .

4) It can able to reconstruct bits of the demodulated phase sequence, set primarily by the

random CCD noise

5) The Harr Wavelet transform can be used for achieving still quicker processing of image

but the accuracy of the result is based on the clearness of the picture information we

encode.

MATLAB refers to ‘MATrix LABoratory’. It is used especially for mathematical

computation purposes. If we are considering a picture of a JPEG format, the picture as said

above will be represented as a matrix in MATLAB. When you are manipulating the same in

MATLAB, you are just going to manipulate the elements of the matrix, which wholly

represent that picture.

The group of images of the iris of the accessible person is first stored in a separate

folder. These images will be of RGB format. Using MATLAB, these RGB images are

converted to their respective monochrome formats, edge detected and their individual DCTs

and PDFs are taken. The RGB to monochrome conversion is handled as it will facilitate the

comparison and DCT helps for the image compression. Unlike textual data, we will most

likely not have a finite number of unique feature vectors that can occur in our data and

therefore a continuos PDF is calculated for the images. The test image is also manipulated as

said above. Now the manipulated test image is compared with the manipulated group. The

comparison can be made with least number of allowances. If the error is within the allowed

permit, the error is allowed and the person is permitted to access the system. If not, he will be

rejected.

• Accuracy rate is much higher than conventional methods.

• False rejection rate is less.

• Conversion from RGB to grayscale, edge detection, DCT transformations, HD & PDF are

easily accomplished with MATLAB.

• The comparison will be very quick and ease.

• External interfacing will be easier.

Conclusion:

Thus an Iris Biometric system can establish an higher level of authenticity for security

systems with high degree of accuracy and reliability. Hence such a system can be designed to

protect the high security systems against hacking and cracking.

REFERENCES :

By Michael Negin et al. IEEE Computer Feb 2000 vol:33 n0:2.

Independence” ,

IEEE Transaction pattern matching and machine Intelligence, Nov 1993.

IEEE Transaction on Signal Processing, Vol 41, Dec-1995.

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