Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 13

Sheet

1 of 13

Smith Chart Tutorial Part1

To begin with we start with the definition of VSWR, which is the ratio of the reflected voltage
over the incident voltage. The Reflection coefficient Γ is simply the complex (ie has phase)
version of VSWR:-

Vmax V1 + V2
=
Vmin V1 − V2

Voltage reflection coefficient Γ - Complex

β
V1e+j. .l β
V2e-j. .l

T.L ZL

L
− j . β .l
V2 e V
Γ = + j .β .l
= 2 e − j 2 β .l
V1 e V1

V2
At the load Γ (l = 0) ; Γ = ⇒
V1

but this may be complex number if there is an instantaneous phase change which we’ll call
(φ) on reflection.

V2
V 2 V 2 j∅
= e ..... (a) L = 0
V1 V1

Phase Diagram V1
θ
Sheet
2 of 13

V2
At L > 0 Γ(L) = Γ( 0 )e − j .φ = e j (φ − 2 βl )
V1

V2
For a lossless line V1 & V2 do not vary with L ∴ Γ is constant =
V1
Γ = Γ e j (φ − 2 β .l ) represented on Crank Diagram

Crank Diagram

We use a crack diagram as a way of representing the reflection coefficient phasor.

V = V1 e + j .β .l + V2 e − j .β .l

V V
= 1 + 2 e − j 2 β .l = 1 + Γ e (
j φ − 2 β .l )
∴ + j . β .l
V1 e V1

V
At L = 0 = 1 + Γ e j.φ
V1
OP AP P

|Γ|
Between 0 & 1
φ
O L A

At the origin of argand diagram.OP = magnitude of total voltage/incident

voltage
P

Vmin = 1-|Γ|
|Γ| P’ φ-2β.L

C
O B A
Vmax = 1+|Γ|
Sheet
3 of 13

As we saw previously the crack diagram with a circle drawn between points A & C is the
beginnings of a Smith chart less the constant resistance and reactance circles/lines.

Vmax 1+ Γ VSWR - 1
VSWR = = or Γ =
Vmin 1- Γ VSWR + 1

|V|

C C
Vmax

Length OP’ -crank diagram

voltage
v
Vmin incident
B B

L 0
Lmin
At B φ - 2 β . l min = - π

4π . l min
φ = 2 β . l min - π = −π = φ
λg

Sheet
4 of 13

(2) Graphical solution to the equation

Z ( in ) 1+ Γ
= Γ = Γ e j ( φ − 2 β .l )
Zo 1− Γ
complex

(3) Smith Chart is a reflection coefficient diagram

θ = φ-2.β.L
|Γ|

θ
A

|Γ| = 1
A = |Γ| = 0

Smith Chart

R=1 circle
A is the matched point |Γ| = 0
no reflection Const r
Const x
Short circuit v=0,x=0
Open circuit x ⇒ ∞

O
A F
X = 0 ∴ pure resistance

R=0 pure reactance circle

Sheet
5 of 13

Impedance is plotted on the smith chart by first normalising to the characteristic impedance of
the system (usually 50 ohms). In a 50 ohm system the centre of the smith chart is a pure 50
ohms.

First normalise ie 150/50 = 3Ω ; 75/50 = 1.5Ω normalised impedance = 3+ j1.5Ω

So the real part of the impedance will lie somewhere along the r = 3 constant resistance circle
ie:-

R=3 circle

Next we follow the constant reactance line at 0.75 to find the intersection of the r = 3 circle to
get to our impedance point.

3+j1.5

3
Sheet
6 of 13

Using the Smith Chart

(1) Moving along the T.L = rotating around the Smith Chart.

FORWARDS

ZL

L

BACKWARDS

Constant |Γ| or VSWR

1+ Γ Vmin circles
VSWR =
1- Γ
S
|Γ| = 0
VSWR = 1
Z(max)
Vmax = = S (real VSWR)
Zo
Vmax

Z(min) 1
Vmin = =
Zo S |Γ| = 1
VSWR = ∞
Sheet
7 of 13

lmin
φ = 4π −π
|V| λg
B

angle of reflection coefficient

L

Lmin
FORWARD by Lmin/λg takes us the

Vmin

B φ

Lmin/λg

ZL/Zo

(4) Reading Z from chart also can get |Γ| & φ

ZL

φ
r
Sheet
8 of 13

(5)

Z/Zo
Z 1+ Γ
=
Zo 1 − Γ |Γ|
1 φ

φ
-|Γ|
Y/Yo
Z Y
On a Smith chart point diametrically opposite gives
Zo Yo

1
Note Y0 =
Zo

Y = G + j. β

Conductance Susceptance

On admittance chart r circles → g circles &

x circles → b circles.

G B
Note g = and b =
Yo Yo
Sheet
9 of 13

(6) To transform an impedance along a T.L, rotate around the VSWR circle:-

Z(in) Zo ZL

Lmin

Zin. l/λg

ZL/Zo

B
Vmin

Lmin/λg
Sheet
10 of 13

Read values off the reactance scale

0.5

0.20

Therefore, assuming a frequency of say 1GHz the value of series inductance represented on
the above Smith Chart is given by:-

Reactance (XL ) read from Smith chart = 0.5 - 0.2 Ω = 0.3Ω wrt 50Ω

N.XL 50 * 0.3
L = = = 2.38nH
2πf 2π * 1E 9

Sheet
11 of 13

Read values off the reactance scale

1.0
0.5

Therefore, assuming a frequency of say 1GHz the value of series capacitance represented on
the above Smith Chart is given by:-

Reactance(XC ) read from Smith chart = 1.0 - 0.5 Ω = 0.5Ω w.r.t 50Ω

1 1
C = = = 6.36pF
2πf .N.XC 2π * 1E9 * 50 * 0.5

Where N is the normalising factor (usually 50 ohms)

To represent shunt reactance we need to plot admittance onto the Smith Chart. It is easiest to
use a Smith chart with both impedance (usually in black) lines and admittance lines (usually in
red) on the same chart. Or you can rotate the Smith chart 180 degrees.
Sheet
12 of 13

(9) Represent a shunt inductance on a smith chart.

0.8

0.2

Therefore, assuming a frequency of say 1GHz the value of shunt inductance represented on
the above Smith Chart is given by:-

Admittance(YL ) read from Smith chart = (0.8 - 0.2) Ω = 0.6mhos w.r.t 50Ω

N 50
L = = = 13.26nH
2πf * YL 2π * 1E9 * 0.6

Sheet
13 of 13

(10) Represent a shunt capacitance on a smith chart.

1.0

0.2

Therefore, assuming a frequency of say 1GHz the value of shunt inductance represented on
the above Smith Chart is given by:-

Admittance (YC ) read from Smith chart = (1.0 - 0.2) Ω = 0.8mhos w.r.t 50Ω

YC 0.8
C = = = 2.5pF
2πf * N 2π *1E 9 * 50