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Smith Chart Tutorial Part1

To begin with we start with the definition of VSWR, which is the ratio of the reflected voltage
over the incident voltage. The Reflection coefficient Γ is simply the complex (ie has phase)
version of VSWR:-

Define voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR)

Vmax V1 + V2
=
Vmin V1 − V2

Voltage reflection coefficient Γ - Complex

β
V1e+j. .l β
V2e-j. .l

T.L ZL

L
− j . β .l
V2 e V
Γ = + j .β .l
= 2 e − j 2 β .l
V1 e V1

V2
At the load Γ (l = 0) ; Γ = ⇒
V1

but this may be complex number if there is an instantaneous phase change which we’ll call
(φ) on reflection.

V2
V 2 V 2 j∅
= e ..... (a) L = 0
V1 V1

Phase Diagram V1
θ
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V2
At L > 0 Γ(L) = Γ( 0 )e − j .φ = e j (φ − 2 βl )
V1

V2
For a lossless line V1 & V2 do not vary with L ∴ Γ is constant =
V1
Γ = Γ e j (φ − 2 β .l ) represented on Crank Diagram

Crank Diagram

We use a crack diagram as a way of representing the reflection coefficient phasor.

V = V1 e + j .β .l + V2 e − j .β .l

V V
= 1 + 2 e − j 2 β .l = 1 + Γ e (
j φ − 2 β .l )
∴ + j . β .l
V1 e V1

V
At L = 0 = 1 + Γ e j.φ
V1
OP AP P

|Γ|
Between 0 & 1
φ
O L A

At the origin of argand diagram.OP = magnitude of total voltage/incident


voltage
P

Vmin = 1-|Γ|
|Γ| P’ φ-2β.L

C
O B A
Vmax = 1+|Γ|
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As we saw previously the crack diagram with a circle drawn between points A & C is the
beginnings of a Smith chart less the constant resistance and reactance circles/lines.

Vmax 1+ Γ VSWR - 1
VSWR = = or Γ =
Vmin 1- Γ VSWR + 1

|V|

C C
Vmax

Length OP’ -crank diagram


voltage
v
Vmin incident
B B

L 0
Lmin
At B φ - 2 β . l min = - π

4π . l min
φ = 2 β . l min - π = −π = φ
λg

∴From standing wave pattern measure VSWR ⇒ | Γ | @ lmin ⇒ φ at load.


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SmithChart - Impedance (Z) or Admittance Y chart

(1) Crank diagram + constant resistance & constant reactance circles.

(2) Graphical solution to the equation

Z ( in ) 1+ Γ
= Γ = Γ e j ( φ − 2 β .l )
Zo 1− Γ
complex

(3) Smith Chart is a reflection coefficient diagram

θ = φ-2.β.L
|Γ|

θ
A

|Γ| = 1
A = |Γ| = 0

Smith Chart

R=1 circle
A is the matched point |Γ| = 0
no reflection Const r
Const x
Short circuit v=0,x=0
Open circuit x ⇒ ∞

O
A F
X = 0 ∴ pure resistance

R=0 pure reactance circle


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Impedance is plotted on the smith chart by first normalising to the characteristic impedance of
the system (usually 50 ohms). In a 50 ohm system the centre of the smith chart is a pure 50
ohms.

For example say we wanted to plot an impedance of 150 + j75Ω

First normalise ie 150/50 = 3Ω ; 75/50 = 1.5Ω normalised impedance = 3+ j1.5Ω

So the real part of the impedance will lie somewhere along the r = 3 constant resistance circle
ie:-

R=3 circle

Next we follow the constant reactance line at 0.75 to find the intersection of the r = 3 circle to
get to our impedance point.

X=0.75 line R=3 circle

3+j1.5

3
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Using the Smith Chart

(1) Moving along the T.L = rotating around the Smith Chart.

FORWARDS

ZL

L
FORWARDS (TO LOAD)

BACKWARDS
BACKWARDS (FROM LOAD)

(2) Constant |Γ| or VSWR circles

For a lossless line |Γ| & VSWR do not vary with L.

Constant |Γ| or VSWR


1+ Γ Vmin circles
VSWR =
1- Γ
S
|Γ| = 0
VSWR = 1
Z(max)
Vmax = = S (real VSWR)
Zo
Vmax

Z(min) 1
Vmin = =
Zo S |Γ| = 1
VSWR = ∞
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(3) Measure Lmin/λg ..... determines φ (at load).

lmin
φ = 4π −π
|V| λg
B

angle of reflection coefficient


L

Lmin
FORWARD by Lmin/λg takes us the
load.

Vmin

B φ

Lmin/λg

ZL/Zo

(4) Reading Z from chart also can get |Γ| & φ

ZL

φ
r
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(5)

Z/Zo
Z 1+ Γ
=
Zo 1 − Γ |Γ|
1 φ

Admittance = Y/Y0 = 1
φ
-|Γ|
Y/Yo
Z Y
On a Smith chart point diametrically opposite gives
Zo Yo

1
Note Y0 =
Zo

Y = G + j. β

Conductance Susceptance

On admittance chart r circles → g circles &


x circles → b circles.

G B
Note g = and b =
Yo Yo
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(6) To transform an impedance along a T.L, rotate around the VSWR circle:-

Z(in) Zo ZL

Lmin

BACKWARDS by Lmin/λg takes us to


Zin. l/λg

ZL/Zo

B
Vmin

Lmin/λg
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(7) Represent a series inductance on a smith chart.

Read values off the reactance scale


0.5

0.20

Therefore, assuming a frequency of say 1GHz the value of series inductance represented on
the above Smith Chart is given by:-

Reactance (XL ) read from Smith chart = 0.5 - 0.2 Ω = 0.3Ω wrt 50Ω

N.XL 50 * 0.3
L = = = 2.38nH
2πf 2π * 1E 9

Similarly for a series capacitor


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(8) Represent a series capacitance on a smith chart.

Read values off the reactance scale


1.0
0.5

Therefore, assuming a frequency of say 1GHz the value of series capacitance represented on
the above Smith Chart is given by:-

Reactance(XC ) read from Smith chart = 1.0 - 0.5 Ω = 0.5Ω w.r.t 50Ω

1 1
C = = = 6.36pF
2πf .N.XC 2π * 1E9 * 50 * 0.5

Where N is the normalising factor (usually 50 ohms)

To represent shunt reactance we need to plot admittance onto the Smith Chart. It is easiest to
use a Smith chart with both impedance (usually in black) lines and admittance lines (usually in
red) on the same chart. Or you can rotate the Smith chart 180 degrees.
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(9) Represent a shunt inductance on a smith chart.

Read values off the admittance scale


0.8

0.2

Therefore, assuming a frequency of say 1GHz the value of shunt inductance represented on
the above Smith Chart is given by:-

Admittance(YL ) read from Smith chart = (0.8 - 0.2) Ω = 0.6mhos w.r.t 50Ω

N 50
L = = = 13.26nH
2πf * YL 2π * 1E9 * 0.6

N = normaisation factor (usually 50 ohms)


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(10) Represent a shunt capacitance on a smith chart.

Read values off the admittance scale


1.0

0.2

Therefore, assuming a frequency of say 1GHz the value of shunt inductance represented on
the above Smith Chart is given by:-

Admittance (YC ) read from Smith chart = (1.0 - 0.2) Ω = 0.8mhos w.r.t 50Ω

YC 0.8
C = = = 2.5pF
2πf * N 2π *1E 9 * 50

N = normaisation factor (usually 50 ohms)