Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 10

Ingles how to use a dictionary

how that you are in the advanced course, you will have to get used to consulting a dictionary. the dictionary will be your <<best friend>> while you learn english. there, you will find all the words that you do not know.

a dictionary is arranged in alphabetical order and you know the alphabet, you will be able to find the words that you are looking for, very quickly. if you look at any page in your dictionary, you will find that it is divided into two or three columns. at the top of each page, there are two words that are called guide words ---one over the left hand column which is the first word on that page, and one the right hand column which is the last word on the same page. the guide words are for you to know whwthwr or not the word that you want is on that particular page.

the division of words in english is made by syllables, and the dictionary does it for you. a word that is pronounced as a single syllable cannot be separated. you will notice that in the dictionary, the syllable of a word are separated by hyphens or periods. for example. pro-jec-tor. you will also notice the accent mark on the syllable that is stressed when the word is pronounced. words of many syllables may have more than one stressed syllable. for example: pro-leta-rian. the syllable that has a dark accent mark receives the strongest stress. the one that has light accent mark receives an intermediate stress.the unmarked syllables receive the weakest stress in the word. beside each word, you will find its phonetic spelling. at the beginning of your dictionary, there is a section called.<<pronunciation key>>, that you must study to become familiar with the marks used. this will enable you to produce the correct pronunciation. in english, some sondonants have several sounds, and all the vowels have more than one sound. immediately following the pronunciation, you will find symbols which indicate the parts of speech:-n. for a noun, adj. for an adjetive; v. for a verb; adv. for an adverb; etc. there are words that may be more than one part of speech, depending on how we use them often, a word has more than one definition or is defined by synonyms. when you look up the meaning of a word, you should choose the definition which agrees with the use that you want to give to that particular word.

the dictionary indicates the plural of irregular nouns which do not follow any rules. for example: if you look up the pliral of the word goose, you will find it as follows: ps. geese.

we hope that these helpful clues on how to use a dictionary, will lead you to a better cpmmand of the english language. questions

are you used to consulting a dictionary? is it difficult for you to use a dictionary? why or why not? how are the words in the dictionary arranged? wha do you see at the top of each page in a dictionary? how do they help you? how are words divided in english? name some ways in which the dictionary can help us? what can we find at the beginningof the dictionary and what is it for? what comes after it?

questions

how are the syllable of a word separated in a dictionay? is it possible to consult the pronunciation of a wordin the dictionary? if so, explain how. do the words in english have only one meaning? explain. what should we do when we look up the meaning of a word? when learning ESL, should a bilingual or an english dictionary be used? why? how does a dictionary help you when learning a foreign language?

grammar

adjective + -ity =noun humid + -ity = humidity elastic + -ity = elasticity

note: a) if the adjective ends in able, the noun is formed with -ability: advisable - advisability b) some words have other spelling changes before - ity: curious---curiosity

nouns in-NESS: sadness the suffix -NESS changes an adjetive to a noun meaning <<the state or condition of being that is described by the adjetive'':

adjetive + -NESS = noun sad + -ness = sadness (the state of being sad) glad + - ness = gladness (the of being glad) nouns in - ITY : humidity the suffix - ITY changes adjetives to nouns. the stress always shifts to the syllable immediately preceding - ITY:

Nouns in - ER, -OR: singer, inventor the suffix - ER chanqes many verbs to nouns meaning <<the person ( or thing) who does the action>>

verb + - ER = NOUN SING + - ER = SINGER ( PERSON WHO SINGS)

BUY + -ER = buyer (one who buys)

some other verbs add -OR to form nouns verb + -OR = NOUN invent + - or = invetor ( person who invents) esit + - or = editor ( one who edits)

nouns in - ence , - ance: difference, appearance the suffix - ence, - ance change verbd to nouns meaning << an action or state resulting from the verb>>:

verb + - ence = noun differ i - ence = difference insist + -ence = insistence verb + ance = noun appea + - ance = appearance maintain + -ance = maintainance

nouns in -ure : departure the suffix -ure changes some verbs to nouns: verb + -ure =noun depart + - ure =departure expose + -ure =exposure

nouns in- Ment : payment the suffix - ment changes verbs to nouns:

verb + - ment =noun pay + -ment =payment agree + -ment = agreement

nouns in - ION (- TION, - SION,- ITION, - ATION): selection, discussion, proposition, representation, the suffix -ION changes verbs to nouns meaning <<an act, process, or state resulting from the verb>>:

a) many verbs ending in -t or - the form nouns with the suffix - (T) ION verb + - ion = noun predict + - ion = prediction react + - ion = reaction

exceptions: verbs ending in - M IT emit + - ion = emission permit + - ion = permission

b) verbs ending in - CE often drop the E and ADD t before - ion introduce + - ion =introduction produce + - ion = production

c) verbs ending in - S, -D, OR -DE OFTEN HAVE NOUN FORMS WITH - ( s) ION oppress + - ion = oppression extend + - ion = extension provide + - ion = provision

exception: intend + - ion = intention

d) some verbs form nouns with - ition propose + - ition = proppsition add + - ation = addition

e) other verbs form nouns with - ation amagine + - ation = imagination admire + - ation = admiration

anguage is the human act or manner of speaking or writing. it enables man to communicate with others and to express his thoughts and ideas. language comes from the latin word <<lingua>> which means tongue. in every place where man exists, there is language; even the monst primitive human being speaks a language.

many studies have been made concerning the origin of language. exprerts believe that primitive men had to use their voice in an effort to communicate with each other when gestures couldn't be used, as in case of darkness. at first, this ability was perhaps exploited by imitating sounds such as groans, grunts and barks. or it might have been an accompaniment to gestures or other body motions.

the best way to learn a language is by listening adn imitating. this is the natural method by which children gradually learn to speak. at first, they imitate sounds made by older persons. the, they learn to connect individual words with objects, ideas and actions. later they also learn by imitation, to arrange the words in certain ways and finally, they get to schieve certain effec and communicate their ideas.

this is also the way in which modern methods to learn a foreign language work. the students learn by listening and imitating, and by associating sounds withobjects. grammar patterns are simplified and to enable him to acquire fluency.

by learning a foreign language, a person has the opportunity to increase his general stock of information because he learns about the customs and ways of life of other nations another advantage of learning a foreign language is that it increases the range of communication. in addition there are many job opportunities for those who speak more than one language.

for a long time, people have been interested in having an international anguage that could be spoken throughout the world. perhaps. someday there will be an international lenguage. until the, international communication will have to depend on people who speak more,. than one language

questions what do experts believe concerning the origin of language? which is the best way tolearn a foreing language? does it take long for children to learn to speak?

what do you understand by language? explain in your own words the importance of language in every aspect of life? how has language developed?

have foreing language influenced the business field? what's your opinion? how does the natural method to learn a language work? is it importante to master more than one language? if so, explain why. in what have people been interested for a long time? describe the relation between language and culture? what would happen if we used an existing language as an international language? name two advantages of learning english try to explain in your own words how the knowledge of a foreingn language may act as selfconfidence source? is it possible for people who don't follow a specific profession, but master the english language, to make a good amount of money per month? give a complete opinion thereon.

grammar

adjectives in -ous: dangerous the siffix -ous changes nouns to adjetives:

noun + - ous = adjetive danger + - ous = dangerous humor + - ous = humorous

some nouns ending in-ce change the E to l before -ous grace + - ous = gracious space + - ous = spacious change -y (preceded by a consonant) to l before -ous industry + - ous = industrious victory + - ous = visctorious

adjectives in - T: VIOLENT MANY (BUT NOT ALL) nouns ending in - CE or -CY have an adjetive from ending -T: -CE / - CY noun T adjective violence - violent frequency - frequent

adjectives in- FUL: colorful the suffix - ful changes a noun to an adjective meaning <<full of>> Noun + - FUL = adjective color + - ful = colorful ( full of color)

law + - ful = lawful ( full of law)

the suffix -full may be added to some nouns to form other nouns these nouns usually indicate amount, size, or measurement

Noun + - ful = noun spoon + - ful = spoonful ( a full spoon) arm + - ful = armful ( a full arm) hand + - ful = handful ( a full hand)