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Orthogonal Machining (OM)

Aim

To study the orthogonal machining of different materials at different speeds and different depth of cuts. To formulate the shear angle φ.

Theory of Operation

Machining can be defined as the process of removing material from a work piece by the shearing action. Machining is characterized by chip formation. As the chip is removed, a new surface is exposed.

In orthogonal machining the cutting edge is perpendicular to cutting velocity vector. The process is a two-dimensional process. The cutting occurs by shearing of work piece material.

Orthogonal Machining

There are many theories which can be associated with orthogonal machining. Few of the important being Ernst-Merchant’s model, Lee-Shafer’s model, Hill’s model and Static Equilibrium model.

We are going to consider Ernst-Merchant’s model for explaining the chip formation. For the purpose of modeling chip formation, assumption is made that the shear process takes place on a single narrow plane rather than on the set of shear fronts that actually comprise a narrow shear zone. Further, it is assumed that the tool's cutting edge is perfectly sharp and no contact is being made between the flank of the tool and the new surface.

ME-311, IIT Gandhinagar

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The figure below shows the schematics of orthogonal machining.

Orthogonal Machining

In the above fig. t 1 , t 2 , γ, φ, τ, F c , F t , F n , F F , F N , F s and R are depth of cut, chip thickness, rake angle, shear angle, friction angle, cutting force, thrust force, force normal to shear surface, contact force between chip and tool tip, normal force on tool tip by chip, shear force and resultant force respectively. Tool geometry has also been incorporated into the figure. Relation between chip thickness and various angles can be derived from the geometry of the machining. i.e.

Procedure

Where,

= 2 1

Equation 1.

φ

= r c cos γ 1 r c sin γ

Mount the Aluminum work piece on table and adjust cutting edge such that it is in working plane of work piece.

Using the power feed of the lathe, cut the tube and collect the chips separately for three different speed and depth of cut

Repeat the procedure for mild steel and plastic

Estimate the value of shear angle φ.

ME-311, IIT Gandhinagar

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Observation Table(Rake angle of tool(α)= 17.83 degree)

Table 1:Plastic

 S.No. Ram stroke, strokes/min t 1 (mm) t 2 (mm) r c φ (Degrees) 1 20 0.25 0.11 2.27 82.00 2 0.75 0.19 3.95 -86.82 3 1.25 0.34 3.68 -87.94 4 36 0.25 0.09 2.78 86.77 5 0.75 0.20 3.75 -87.62 6 1.25 0.33 3.79 -87.46 7 50 0.25 0.14 1.79 75.07 8 0.75 0.20 3.75 -87.62 9 1.25 0.32 3.91 -86.98

Table 2: Aluminum

 S.No. Ram stroke, strokes/min t 1 (mm) t 2 (mm) r c φ (Degrees) 1 20 0.25 0.78 0.32 18.69 2 0.75 0.90 0.83 46.80 3 1.25 1.78 0.70 40.42 4 36 0.25 0.49 0.51 29.93 5 0.75 1.09 0.69 39.69 6 1.25 1.42 0.88 48.92 7 50 0.25 0.41 0.61 35.52 8 0.75 1.18 0.64 36.92 9 1.25 1.99 0.63 36.52 S.No. Ram stroke, strokes/min t 1 (mm) t 2 (mm) r c φ (Degrees) 1 20 0.25 0.50 0.50 29.34 2 0.50 0.92 0.54 31.83 3 0.75 0.92 0.82 45.96 4 36 0.25 0.33 0.76 43.20 5 0.50 0.66 0.76 43.20 6 0.75 0.68 1.10 57.76 7 50 0.25 0.32 0.78 44.35 8 0.50 0.68 0.74 42.09 9 0.75 0.75 1.00 53.92

Table 3: Mild steel

ME-311, IIT Gandhinagar

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Orthogonal machining is the most easiest way to learn machining. Its results can then be used for other higher levels of machining.

Material removal rate and efficiency of orthogonal machining are very low. Thus can be used only for experimental purpose.

Possible Errors

The chip ratio was found to be greater than one in many cases. This is because of segmented chips at higher RAM , the chip thickness could not be measured accurately.

Built up edges in aluminum made it difficult to measure the actual chip thickness.

Conclusion

Discontinuous chips were obtained both at very high or very low RAM stroke. This is because there is shear localization.

In the case of plastics continuous chips were obtained at all speeds.

Thickness of the chip increased with depth of cut.

-Vrushiket Patil(09003044) Mechanical B’tech 2009 Date: 16 / 9 / 2011

ME-311, IIT Gandhinagar

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