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Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW)

Aim

To study the dependency of weld geometry on welding parameters.

Theory of Operation

Welding power sources used may be transformer or rectifier for AC or DC supply. Voltage is typically between 20-30 V. Welding is process of combining two or more metal parts together. Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) is one of them. The base material is attached to ve terminal of power supply and welding rod is attached to the +ve terminal of power supply. Whenever the welding rod is brought near the base plate, conduction starts. However this path of current passes through the air gap which produces enormous amount of heat. The heat produced melts the inner metal core and some part of surface metal as well as flux attached to it. The flux is lighter than the molten metal and floats on its surface.

is lighter than the molten metal and floats on its surface. Formation of slag Improve the

Formation of slag Improve the electric conductivity in the arc region to improve the arc ignition and stabilization of the arc. It also influences size of droplet, Protects the droplet during transfer and molten weld pool from atmospheric gases, Protects solidified hot metal from atmospheric gases, Reduces the cooling rate of weld seam. Various constituents of electrode coating are cellulose, calcium fluoride, calcium carbonate, titanium dioxide, clay, talc, iron oxide, asbestos, potassium / sodium silicate, iron powder, ferromanganese, powdered alloys, silica etc. Each constituent performs either one or more than one functions. Electrode metallic core wire is the same but the coating constituents give the different characteristics to the welds.

is the same but the coating constituents give the different characteristics to the welds. ME-311, IIT
is the same but the coating constituents give the different characteristics to the welds. ME-311, IIT

ME-311, IIT Gandhinagar

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Procedure  Produce weld bead on three different plates with three different current settings. 

Procedure

Produce weld bead on three different plates with three different current settings.

Record the mean voltage and current for each plate

Cut the transverse section of weld bead at different places and note down bead width (w), penetration (p), height (h).

Parametres

1. V oc = Open line voltage

2. I= Current

3. p= Penetration

4. w= Width

5. h= Height

6. T= Time

7. m= Mass

8. E= Energy

Observation Table

S.

Time for

Voltage

Current

Width

Height

Penetration(p)

mass of

no.

single pass

Vp

I

(w)

(h)

(mm)

electrode

(s)

(volt)

(A)

(mm)

(mm)

used(m)

(g)

1

16.1

23

110

6.535

1.855

3.74

4.69

2

12.92

22

120

5.99

1.46

3.3

4.32

3

14

24

132

7.74

1.28

1.82

5.61

Calculations:

E in (effective energy input) =ƞ process *V p *I

Where ƞ process= =0.55, Vp=voltage during welding, I= current during welding

E utilized =m 1 C(T

1 -T amb )+m 2 C(T 2 -T amb )+m 1 L+m 2 L

=m 1 C(T 1 -T a m b )+m 2 C(T 2 -T a m b
=m 1 C(T 1 -T a m b )+m 2 C(T 2 -T a m b

ME-311, IIT Gandhinagar

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Where, m 1 = Rate of melting of mass of bass material (we are considering m1=0 in our experiment) m 2 = Rate of melting of mass of electrode used, C= Specific heat 622 J/Kg K for steel)

T 1 ,T 2 = Melting temperature for base material and electrode ( T amb = Ambient temperature ( ̴300 K)

̴1800 K for steel)

ƞ melt =E utilized /E in

Cross sectional area of the weld= [ π*w*(h+p)]/4

Where , w, h, p are width, height and penetration of the weld.

Table for melt efficiency (ƞ melt ) and cross sectional area of weld

S.no.

Cross sectional

E

in

E

utilized

ƞ

melt

area

(J/s)

(J/s)

 

(mm

2 )

 
 

1 28.7168

1391.5

348.98

0.2508

 

2 22.3936

1452

400.47

0.2752

 

3 18.8448

1742.4

479.19

0.2754

Graphs

ƞ melt Vs Current (I)

  3 18.8448 1742.4 479.19 0.2754 Graphs ƞ m e l t Vs Current (I) ME-311,
  3 18.8448 1742.4 479.19 0.2754 Graphs ƞ m e l t Vs Current (I) ME-311,
  3 18.8448 1742.4 479.19 0.2754 Graphs ƞ m e l t Vs Current (I) ME-311,

ME-311, IIT Gandhinagar

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Cross sectional area of weld (A) Vs Current (I)

35

30

25

20

15

10

5

0

Cross sectio nal area (in mm 2 ) 105 110 115 120 125 130 135
Cross
sectio
nal
area
(in
mm
2 )
105
110
115
120
125
130
135

Current (in Ampere)

Possible Errors

Current was not constant.

Bead was not completely uniform.

Penetration was not completely visible.

Suggestion to improve the experiment

Make available machines for all three kind of power supply that is AC, DCEP and DCEN.

Some advantages of SMAW are:

Its Quick and Equipment is affordable.

Very portable, welder needs only to carry leads anywhere the weld needs to be done.

Can be used in all positions, and be used indoors our outside as wind doesn't usually affect weld pool.

Some disadvantages of SMAW are:

Only a few inches at a time can be welded before another electrode is needed.

Electrode ends (butts) are wasted.

can be welded before another electrode is needed.  Electrode ends (butts) are wasted. ME-311, IIT
can be welded before another electrode is needed.  Electrode ends (butts) are wasted. ME-311, IIT

ME-311, IIT Gandhinagar

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High level of skill needed to produce sound welds.

Conclusion

Efficiency increases with current.

As the current increases the cross sectional area of the weld geometry decreases.

The melt efficiency of experiment is 0.55.

-Vrushiket Patil(09003044) Mechanical B’tech 2009 Date: 19 / 8 / 2011

is 0.55. -Vrushiket Patil(09003044) Mechanical B’tech 2009 Date: 19 / 8 / 2011 ME-311, IIT Gandhinagar
is 0.55. -Vrushiket Patil(09003044) Mechanical B’tech 2009 Date: 19 / 8 / 2011 ME-311, IIT Gandhinagar

ME-311, IIT Gandhinagar

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