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Introduction

Herbarium
Herbarium is collection of preserved, dried and mounted plant specimens systematically named and arranged for used in systematic botany. These specimens may be whole part of the plant or plant part. The plant usually in dried forms mounted on sheet or also kept in alcohol or other preservative such as formaldehyde. In mycology to describe an equivalent collection of preserved fungi is often used the same term. The term can also refer to the building where the specimens are stored or the scientific institute that not only stores but researches these specimens. Herbariums are often used as reference material in describing plant taxa. Herbaria utilize a standard system of organizing their specimen into herbarium cases. Herbaria are essential for the study of plant taxonomy, the study of geographic distribution and the stabilizing of nomenclature specimen housed in herbaria may be used to catalogue or identify the flora of an area. Herbaria also have proven very useful as source DNA for use in taxonomy and molecular systematic.

Weeds
Weed in general sense is plant that is considered by the user of the term to be a nuisance and normally applied to unwanted plant in humancontrolled settings especially farm field and garden but also lawns, park wood and other areas. More specifically the farm is often used to describe native or nonnative plant that grow and respond aggressively. Generally a weed is plant in an under sired place. Weed may be unwanted for a number of reasons they might be unsightly or crowd out or restrict light to more describe plants or use limited nutrients from the soil. They can harbor and spread plant pathogen that infect the quality of crop or horticultural plants. Some weeds are nuisance because they have thorns or pickle some have chemicals that cause skin irritation or are hazardous if eaten or have parts that come off and attach to fur or clothes.

CUCURBITACEAe

The Cucurbitaceae or cucurbit family (also commonly referred to as the cucumber,


gourd, melon, or pumpkin family) is a medium-sized plant family, primarily found in the warmer regions of the world. It is a major family for economically important species, particularly those with edible fruits. Some of these represent some of the earliest cultivated plants in both the Old and New Worlds. Some have medicinal and other uses. The family is distinct morphologically and biochemically from other families and is therefore considered monophyletic. General opinion is that it is closest allied phylogenetically with the Begoniaceae in the order Violales. A number of genera are not clearly defined and are in need of modern monographic treatments.

COMPOSITAE
Asteraceae or Compositae, (the aster, daisy, or sunflower family), comprise the largest family of vascular plants. The family has more than 22,750 currently accepted species, spread across 1620 genera, and 12 subfamilies. The largest genera are Senecio (1,500 species), Vernonia (1,000 species), Cousinia (600 species) and Centaurea (600 species). Most members of Asteraceae are herbaceous, but a significant number are also shrubs, vines and trees. The family is distributed throughout the world, and is most common in the arid and semi-arid regions of subtropical and lower temperate latitudes.[6] Many economically important products come from composites, including cooking oils, lettuce, sunflower seeds, artichokes, sweetening agents, and teas. Several genera are also very popular with the horticultural community, these include marigolds, chrysanthemums, dahlias, zinnias, and heleniums.

Eupatorium
Eupatorium is a genus of flowering plants in the aster family, Asteraceae, containing from 36
to 60 species depending on the classification system. Most are herbaceous perennial plants growing to 0.53 m tall. A few are shrubs. The genus is native to temperate regions of the

Northern Hemisphere. Most are commonly called bonesets, thoroughworts or snakeroots. The genus is named for Mithridates Eupator, king of Pontus.

Dennstaedtiaceae
Dennstaedtiaceae is one of fifteen families in the order Polypodiales, the most derived families within monilophytes (ferns). It includes the world's most abundant fern, Pteridium aquilinum (bracken). Members of the order generally have large, highly divided leaves and have either small, round intramarginal sori with cup-shaped indusia (e.g. Dennstaedtia) or linear marginal sori with a false indusium formed from the reflexed leaf margin (e.g. Pteridium). The morphological diversity among members of the order has confused past taxonomy, but recent molecular studies have supported the monophyly of the order and the family. The reclassification of Dennstaedtiaceae and the rest of the monilophytes was published in 2006, so most of the available

gramineae
(Poaceae) A monocotyledo-nous family containing the grasses, which number about 9000 species in about 620 genera. Grasses generally have long narrow parallel-veined leaves inserted distichously on a round hollow stem. The inconspicuous flowers are usually borne in a terminal panicle, spike, or raceme consisting of a number of spikelets. Each flower is surrounded by two bracts. The fruit is a *Grasses are the dominant vegetation in savannas, prairies, and steppes. Economically they are the most important family of plants as they contain all the cereals, which are man's staple diet. Wheats (Triticum), maize (Zea mays), rice (Oryza saliva), barley (Hordeum vulgare), oats (Avena sativa), rye (Secale cereale), sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum), and sorghums {Sorghum) are all grasses. They are also widely planted for pasture and fodder.

LEGUMINOSAE
This is one of the largest and most useful plant families. - 17,000 species, distributed almost throughout the world. It includes many well-known vegetables particularly of temperate regions (Beans, Peas), ornamental trees in tropical regions (Bauhinia, Flamboyant, Cassia), fodder crops (Clover, Lucerne) and weeds (Vetches and Trefoils), and their growth habits vary from ground cover and aquatic to shrubs, climbers and trees. Many species of trees in this family are important for their timber

CHARACTERISTICS OF THIS PLANT FAMILY: Leaves, Stem & Roots ~ The leaves of this plant family are placed alternately up the stem, and are pinnate or bipinnate. In some species, the leaves are able to close together at night (nyctinasty), and in some species of Mimosa they close when touched. The roots are one of the most easily recognisable features of this plant family. Most species have irregular nodules on the roots which enable the plant to absorb nitrogen from the air in the soil and convert it into the nitrogen the plant needs for growth. This enables the species to grow and produce crops in poor soil. Flowers ~ Many members of the Leguminosae family have flowers of the typical 'pea' type. These are composed of one large back petal (the standard), two side petals called wings and two lower petals fused together to form a 'keel'. In members of the family which have other flower shapes, there are still five petals. The flowers may occur individually, or in large clusters. Recently, the international panel of botanists who rule on these things decided that all plant families ought to have the same ending (-aceae), and be named after a plant typical of the family. This has resulted in several groups which were previously sub-families of the Leguminosae being elevated to family status. These new plant families include Caesalpiniaceae, Fabaceae and Papilionaceae. The differences which separate the members of these new families may be unidentifiable to the non-botanist, and the similarities which they share as members of the Leguminosae family are still the easiest way to identify these plants. Seeds ~ It is the seedpods that give this family its original name. The typical pea-pod shape is a legume. It is always a single chamber, although it may be constricted between the individual seeds. The pod may contain just one or several seeds, and they are usually large, and sometimes brightly coloured. The coat of the individual seed is often watertight. Each seed contains a large embryo and little endosperm, so they often germinate quickly once the seedcoat is punctured.

Cyperaceae
name for this plant, cyperus edge, referring to the sharp edges on the leaves of many species. Cyperus, from the Greek Sedges are herbs usually found in moist areas. Stems maybe angular, often 3-sided, internodes solid. The grass-like leaves have a leaf-sheath which is usually closed unlike grasses and there is no ligule. Spikelets are subtended by one or more glumes, perianth is absent or replaced by bristles etc. Stamens 1-3, anthers basifixed, connective often forms an appendage. Fruit is an achene or nut, style often persistent.

Melastomataceae
Melastoma, from the Greek words melas black and stoma mouth because the mouth is stained
black or dark purple by the berries. Trees, shrubs and herbs sometimes climbing; leaves opposite and decussate, simple, palmately-nerved, no dominant midrib but cross veins prominent. Flowers 4-5-merous, hypanthium formed by the basal fusion of floral parts, appendages usually present on the staminal filaments, dehiscence by pores, staminodes common. Ovary superior to inferior; fruit a capsule or a berry.Ornamentals and several serious weeds in this family.

Moraceae
The Moraceae are monoecious or dioecious trees shrubs, lianas, or rarely herbs comprising 40 genera and 1,000 species, nearly all with milky sap. The leaves are simple and alternate or rarely opposite. The stipules are small and lateral or sometimes they form a cap over the bud and leave a cylindrical scar. The flowers are unisexual and minute, and are usually densely aggregated. These aggregations frequently take the form of pendulous aments or catkins. Usually, the perianth consists of 4 or 5 undifferentiated tepals, but sometimes fewer or no perianth segments are present. A typical male flower has four stamens, one opposite each perianth segment. The female flowers have a bicarpellate pistil, generally with two styles, although one may be suppressed. The ovary is superior or inferior and contains a single pendulous ovule in a solitary locule. Fruit types include drupes and achenes that are often coalesced or otherwise aggregated into a multiple accessory fruit

GLEICHENIACEAE
The forked ferns are the family Gleicheniaceae. They are sometimes like all ferns and the related horsetails placed in an infradivision Monilophytes of subdivision Euphyllophytina, allowing for more precise phylogenetic arrangement of the tracheophytes. More conventionally, the name Pteridophyta, ranked as a division, is used in lieu of the Monilophytes. The formerly independent families Dicranopteridaceae and Stromatopteridaceae are nowadays generally included in the Gleicheniaceae, whereas the Dipteridaceae and Matoniaceae, though closely related, are considered spearate families by most authors. These tropical ferns are the most widespread living lineage of Gleicheniales. Their rhizomes have a "vitalized" protostele or in some taxa a solenostele. The leaves are indeterminate, with pseudodichotomously forked leaves except in Stromatopteris, and free veins. The sori are abaxial but not marginal and carry 5-15 exindusiate round sporangia each. These have a transverse-oblique annulus and contain 128 to 800 bilateral or globose-tetrahedral spores. The

sori and sporangia mature at the same time, and the spores grow into surface-dwelling green prothalliums beset with club-shaped hairs.

Objectives
There are three objectives in this experiment. First, is learning how to prepare a herbarium. Student should collect 20 or more than specimens. Those specimens must press and preserved. Student should prepare a pair of press wood and newspaper. The specimen is place on a piece of newspaper and cover by other newspaper. Place at the middle of the press wood and clamp it. After that, is labeling the specimens with detailed

information on where and when the plant was collected,habitat,local name,scienticic name and family name. Second, is to study about the weeds. Weed is plant that is considered by the user of the term to be a nuisance and normally applied to unwanted plants in human-controlled setting especially farm field and garden. Generally, weed is plant in an undesired place. Lastly the objective, is to appreciate all organisms especially plant (weed). All specimens have advantage. All specimens had make things. Specimens very important to reduce the degree Celsius of our world.

Appreciation
ASSALAMMUALAIKUM, Praise God because with his blessing, I can finish this assignment on time that lecturer given to me with successful. Firstly, bigger thank you for my AGR lecturer, Sir Mohd Firdaus bin Abdul Aziz. He teaching and helping me doing and finishing this assignment. Sir Firdaus always spend their time when I need his advice when doing this assignment. He helps me when searching scientific name and he teach me many about it. I also want say thank you to my family because they support me time I do this assignment. My family help me when I search weeds at home. They also

give me idea to do this assignment. They also give money for me to buy things that important for this assignment. My parent always supports me. Besides that, I would like to extend my special thank you to my entire classmate and my friends in Diploma in Plantation and Management (DPIM) for

Appreciation

all precious time, support and help me to find the weeds. They also explain to me how to create the assignment. They very kindness heart to help me. Finally, I hope this assignment can give me some knowledge and experience about the weeds. This assignment can give me more information. Lastly, once again I would like to say thank you to everyone.

Contents

Objectives Introduction
Herbarium Weeds Weeds family

Specimens Summary

SUMMARY

Alhamdulillah, finally I have finishing this assignment. I have got much knowledge from this assignment. I now know about their functions, scientific names, common name, their family and their habitat location is natural. From this assignment, I have study about family weeds. I found from Curcurbitaceae, Compositae ,Melastomaceae, Leguminosae, Gleicheniaceae, Moraceae, Graminaeae, Cyperaceae, Dennstaedtiaceace , and Eupatorium. The family of weeds is vast and these are a few from each of them. I also know how to recognize one weed from another by only looking at their stems,leaves and roots.

References

People
1. 2. 3. 4. Mr. Mohd Firdaus bin Abdul Aziz Miss Adib Nafisah bt Jamiran Friends Family members

Books
1. Sterns Introductory To Plant Biology Authers : James E. Bidlack and Shelly H. Jansky Published by : McGraw-Hill(2008) 2. Plant Structure And Function Authers : Satrr And Taggart Published by: Publisher Biology Jack C.Carey(2001) 3. Rumpai, Panduan Berilustrasi Published by : Dewan Bahasa Dan Pustaka,Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia Authers : Ahmad Azly Bin Mohd Yusof

Internet
1. http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/weeds 2. http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herbarium 3. http//www_public.jcu.edu.au/discovernature/plantfamily/index,htm

COMMON NAME SCIENTIFIC NAME FAMILY NAME HABITAT LOCATION FOUND DATE FOUND

Pokok Kapal Terbang

Chromolaena adorata
Compositeae Dry area UiTM N9 1 July 2011

COMMON NAME SCIENTIFIC NAME FAMILY NAME HABITAT LOCATION FOUND DATE FOUND

Rumput Tahi Ayam

Ageratum conyzoides
Asteraceae Dry area UiTM N9 23 June 2011

COMMON NAME SCIENTIFIC NAME FAMILY NAME HABITAT LOCATION FOUND DATE FOUND

Pokok Senduduk

Melastoma malabathricum
Melastomaceae Dry area UiTM N9 1 July 2011

COMMON NAME SCIENTIFIC NAME FAMILY NAME HABITAT LOCATION FOUND DATE FOUND

SENDUDUK BULU

Clidemia hirta
MELASTOMACEAE DRY AREA UITM FARM 23 JUNE 2011

COMMON NAME SCIENTIFIC NAME FAMILY NAME HABITAT LOCATION FOUND DATE FOUND

KACANG KANABALIA DARAT

Canovila maritime
LEGUMINOSAE Dry Area Farm 23 June 2011

COMMON NAME SCIENTIFIC NAME FAMILY NAME HABITAT LOCATION FOUND DATE FOUND

PAKU SERANI

Lycopodium cernuum
LYCOPODIACEAE Dry Area Farm 23 June 2011

COMMON NAME SCIENTIFIC NAME FAMILY NAME HABITAT LOCATION FOUND DATE FOUND

RUMPUT HAKISAN

Zoysea matrella
GRAMINEAE Dry Area Farm 23 June 2011

COMMON NAME SCIENTIFIC NAME FAMILY NAME HABITAT LOCATION FOUND DATE FOUND

RUMPUT LEMBU

Axonopus compressus
GRAMINEAE Dry Area Farm 23 June 2011

COMMON NAME SCIENTIFIC NAME FAMILY NAME HABITAT LOCATION FOUND DATE FOUND

RUMPUT DUNGA JAUH

Cyperus distans
CYPERACEAE Dry Area Farm 23 June 2011

COMMON NAME SCIENTIFIC NAME FAMILY NAME HABITAT LOCATION FOUND DATE FOUND

KEMUNCUP CACAK Chrysopogon Aciculatus GRAMINAE Open Area Farm 23 June 2011

COMMON NAME SCIENTIFIC NAME FAMILY NAME HABITAT LOCATION FOUND DATE FOUND

TIMUN CICAK

Melothria affinis king


CUCURBITACEAE Open Area Farm 23 June 2011

COMMON NAME SCIENTIFIC NAME FAMILY NAME HABITAT LOCATION FOUND DATE FOUND

PAKU RESAM

Dicranopferis linearis
GLEICHENIACEAE Dry Area Kampung Hulu 23 June 2011

COMMON NAME SCIENTIFIC NAME FAMILY NAME HABITAT LOCATION FOUND DATE FOUND

KACANG KASIA LELEKAT

Cassia viscose H.B.K


LEGUMINOSAE Open Area Farm 23 June 2011

COMMON NAME SCIENTIFIC NAME FAMILY NAME HABITAT LOCATION FOUND DATE FOUND

RUMPUT MENDERUNG

Cyperus iria
CYPERACEAE Open Area Farm 23 June 2011

COMMON NAME SCIENTIFIC NAME FAMILY NAME HABITAT LOCATION FOUND DATE FOUND

RUMPUT KARAU

Fimbristylis miliacea
CYPERAEAE Open Area Farm 23 June 2011

COMMON NAME SCIENTIFIC NAME FAMILY NAME HABITAT LOCATION FOUND DATE FOUND

RUMPUT GANDA

Cyperus aromaticus
CYPERACEAE Dry Area Farm 23 June 2011

COMMON NAME SCIENTIFIC NAME FAMILY NAME HABITAT LOCATION FOUND DATE FOUND

POKOK PAYUNG TERJUN

Eupatorium odoratum
COMPOSITAE Open Area Farm 23 June 2011

COMMON NAME SCIENTIFIC NAME FAMILY NAME HABITAT LOCATION FOUND DATE FOUND

PAKU MELAKA

Athyrium malaccense
DENNSTAEDTIACEAE Open Area Farm 23 June 2011

COMMON NAME SCIENTIFIC NAME FAMILY NAME HABITAT LOCATION FOUND DATE FOUND

PAKU RESAM

Dicranopteris linearis burm.f


GLEICHENIACEAE Open Area Farm 23 June 2011

COMMON NAME SCIENTIFIC NAME FAMILY NAME HABITAT LOCATION FOUND DATE FOUND

RUMPUT TEMBAGA JANTAN

Ischaemum muticum linn


GRAMINEAE OPEN AREA UITM FARM 23 June 2011

UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA KUALA PILAH negeri sembilan

AGR 122 PLANT SCIENCE


HERBARIUM
NAME STUDENT NO GROUP LECTURER DATE OF : NOR DARINA BINTI KAMARUDIN : 2011896192 : AT11O 1C2 : Sir MOHD FIRDAUS BIN ABDUL AZIZ : 26 August 2011

SUBMISSION

UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA KUALA PILAH negeri sembilan

AGR 122 PLANT SCIENCE


HERBARIUM
NAME STUDENT NO GROUP LECTURER DATE OF : LUQMANUL HAKIM BIN ZULKIFLI : 2011808802 : AT11O 1C1 : Sir MOHD FIRDAUS BIN ABDUL AZIZ : 26 AUGUST 2011

SUBMISSION