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Environment and Natural Resources The term sustainable development was first brought into common usage by United

d Nations World Commission on Environment and Development. The report Our Common Future (1987), defined the notion of sustainable development through global cooperation and was a major catalyst for the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development. According to Kyoto Protocol, the major nations abide to reduce concentration of green house gases was by 2012. The major feature of the Kyoto Protocol is that it sets binding targets for 37 industrialised countries and the European community for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. It will reduce the emissions by five per cent over the five-year period 2008-2012. 1 mark Which among the following are TRUE about the global commons? (a) The global commons are outside sovereign jurisdiction. (b) The countries of North are more concerned about the protection of teh global commons than the countries of the South. (c) The Earth's atmosphere, Antarctica, ocean floor and outer space are considered as part of the global commons. (c) The Earth's atmosphere, Antarctica, ocean floor and outer space are considered as part of the global commons. When was Antarctic Treaty signed? The Antarctic Treaty was signed in Washington on 1 December 1959 and entered into force on 23 June 1961. What are included in the global commons? Global commons requires common governance by the international community. It includes the Earths Atmosphere, Antarctica, the ocean floor and outer space. Which book did the "Club of Rome" publish in 1972? The Club of Rome, a global think tank, published a book titled Limits to Growth in 1972, dramatising the potential depletion of the Earth's resources against the backdrop of rapidly growing world population. What is the objective of UNEP? UNEP stands for United Nations Environment Programme. Its objective is to provide leadership and encourage nations and peoples to improve their quality of life without compromising that of future generations. Which conference was held at Rio de Janeiro in Brazil? The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), also known as the Earth Summit, took place in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from June 2-14, 1992. The Conference laid emphasis on the concept of sustainable development. What do you mean by the term commons? Commons are those resources that are not owned by anyone but rather shared by a community. This could be a park or a river, a community centre, a common room, etc. What is Kyoto protocol?

The Kyoto protocol is an international agreement setting targets for industrialised countries to cut their greenhouse gas emissions. It covers more than 160 countries at present. When was the World Council of Indigenous Peoples formed? The World Council of Indigenous Peoples was formed in 1975. The Council became subsequently the first of 11 indigenous NGOs to receive consultative status in the UN. What was the significance of the 1992 Earth Summit? The 1992 Earth Summit has brought environmental issues to the centre-stage of global politics. It deals with climate change, biodiversity, forestry and recommended a list of development practices called "Agenda 21". Which protocol is based on the principles set out in UNFCCC? The Kyoto Protocol was agreed upon in Kyoto, Japan in 1997, based on principles set out in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) signed in 1992. Correct the sentence: UNFCCC stands for United Nations Framework Conference on Climate Club. UNFCCC stands for United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. India signed and ratified the __________Kyoto Protocol in _________. India signed and ratified the 1997 Kyoto Protocol in August 2002. Define Indigenous Populations. Indigenous populations comprise the descendant of peoples who inhabited the present territory of a country at the time when persons of a different culture or ethnic origin arrived there from other parts of the world and over come them. 2 marks Define Global commons. The areas or regions of the world, which are located outside the sovereign jurisdiction of any one state and require common governance by the international community, are known as Global Commons. These include the earth atmosphere, Antarctic Ocean floor and outer space. What is Agenda 21? Agenda 21 was a convention of earth Summit of 1992. It deals with the environmental development programme. It includes climatic change, biodiversity forestry, developmental practices etc. Under this list there was consensus on combining economic growth with ecological responsibility. Who are Indigenous Peoples? Indigenous peoples are those who have historically belonged to a particular region or country, before its colonization or transformation into a nation state, and may have differentoften uniquecultural, linguistic, traditional, and other characteristics to those of the dominant culture of that region or state. What are the consequences of global warming? The consequences of global warming are as follows:-

alters weather patterns species extinction influence the length of seasons cause coastal flooding Increases in the frequency and intensity of extreme climate events such as hurricanes and cyclones. What is Antarctic Treaty? Antarctic treaty was signed by twelve nations in 1959. The treaty was ratified in 1961 and had an initial period of thirty years. There are now a total of 42 nations which have become members of the Antarctic Treaty system. The treaty states that Antarctica shall be used for peaceful purposes only. The freedom of scientific investigation in Antarctica and cooperation among the countries will continue. State some of the reasons of the decline of wildlife. Some of the important reasons of the declining of wildlife are as follows: Industrial and technological advancement brought about a rapid increase in the exploitation of forest resources. More and more lands were cleared for agriculture, human settlement, roads, mining etc. Grazing by domestic cattle caused an adverse effect on wildlife and its habitat. Define Deforestation. What are its causes? Deforestation is the falling down or removal of forest trees. The major causes of deforestation are: Jhuming ( shifting cultivation) construction of hydroelectric projects forest fires construction of roads and railways and canals Overgrazing of cattles in forest area and requirement of wood. How is afforestation helpful in maintaining ecological balance? Afforestation plays a major role in enhancing the quality of environment. They modify the local climate. They influence air temperature and reduce wind force. it helps in controlling soil erosion. It provides natural environment for wild life. It helps in enhancing the quantity of rainfall. When did environment emerge as a significant issue of global politics? The Club of Rome, a global think tank, published a book in 1972 entitled Limits to Growth dramatizing the potential depletion of the earths resources. International agencies began holding international conferences and promoting detailed studies regarding environmental problems. Since then, the environment has emerged as a significant issue of global politics. Briefly state ant two programmes through which Indian government is participating in global efforts to protect the environment. The Indian Government is participating in global efforts through a number of programmes. Indias National Auto fuel policy mandates clean fuels for vehicles.

The Energy Conservation Act passed in 2001, outlines initiatives to improve energy efficiency. Recent trends in importing natural gas and encouraging the adoption of clean coal technologies show that India has been making real efforts in renewable energy programmes. What are common property resources? Common property resources (environmental) are natural resources owned and managed collectively by a community or society rather than by individuals. A combination of factors, including privatisation, agricultural intensification, population growth and ecosystem degradation have caused common property to dwindle in size and quality. One such example is sacred groves. Who are "Environmental Refugees"? Environmental refugees are people who have been forced to leave their traditional habitat, temporarily or permanently because of a marked environmental disruption (natural and/or triggered by people) that disrupted their existence and seriously affected the quality of their life. It may be due to political instability, economic tensions, ethnic conflict and environmental degradation. What is Earth Summit? The Earth Summit was the largest environmental conference ever held, attracting over 30,000 people including more than 100 heads of states. The objective of the conference was to respond to the pressing global environmental problems and to agree major treaties on biodiversity, climate change and forest management. Define Sustainable Development. Sustainable development refers to Development that meets the need of the present without compromising the ability of the future generation to meet their own needs. It is the harmonious integration of: A sound and viable economy Responsible governance Social Cohesion Ecology Integration To ensure development is a life-sustaining process. Explain resource geopolitics It is the geographical political affairs which are concerned with the allocation and distribution of natural resources among the nation states of global arena. It deals with who gets what, when and how. What is difference in the environmental agenda of the countries of north from that of south? The rich and developed countries of the first world or global north pursue a different environmental agenda than the poor and developing countries of the Third world or Global South. The Northern states are concerned with the ozone depletion and global warming where as the southern states is anxious to address the relationship between economic development and environmental management. Mention the methods adopted by the countries of the North to ensure a steady flow of resources throughout the cold war?

Throughout the cold war the industrialized countries of the North adopted a number of methods to ensure a steady flow of resources. These included the deployment of military forces war exploitation sites and along sea-lanes of communication, the stockpiling of strategic resources, efforts to prop up friendly governments in producing countries, as well as support, to multinational companies and favourable international agreements. 4 marks When did the environmental concern emerge as a significant issue in global politics? Environmental concerns have a long history but it acquired political character from economic character in 1960. The club of Rome, a global think tank, published a book in 1972 entitled Limits to Growth dramatizing the potential depletion of the earths resources against the backdrop of rapidly growing world population international agencies, including the United Nations environment Programme (UNEP) which began holding international conferences and promoting detailed studies to get a more coordinated and effective response to environmental problems. Since then, the environment has emerged as a significant issue of global politics. What are the Human Rights of Indigenous Peoples? Human Rights are universal, civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights belong to all human beings, including indigenous people. Every indigenous woman, man, youth and child is entitled to the realization of all human rights and fundamental freedoms on equal terms with others in society, without discrimination of any kind. Indigenous people also enjoy certain human rights specifically linked to their identity, including rights to maintain and enjoy their culture and language free from discrimination, rights of access to ancestral lands and land relied upon for subsistence, rights to decide their own patterns of development, and rights to autonomy over indigenous affairs. Why have issues related to Global environmental protection become the priority concern of states since the 1900s? Issues related to global environmental protection have become the priority concern of states since the 1990s because the growing focus on environmental issues within the arena of global politics was firmly consolidated at the united Nations conference on Environment and development held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in June 1992, in Agenda 21. The Environmental protection issue was also discussed in Kyoto protocol of 1992. Rio Summit Agenda 21 Kyoto protocol All these conferences and summits therefore, raised the issue regarding environmental protection. Examine the concept of common property. The term common property signifies that natural resources are common property for the group of countries. The underlying norm here is that member of the group has both rights and duties with respect to the nature, levels of use, and the maintenance of a given resource. Through mutual understanding and centuries of practice, many village communities in India, for example, have defined members rights and responsibilities.

A combination of factors, including privatization, agricultural intensification, population growth and ecosystem degradation have caused common property to dwindle in size, quality and availability to the poor. The institutional arrangement for the actual management of sacred groves on state-owned forestland appropriately fit the description of a common property. List out the major problem of ecological issues. A major problem underlying all ecological issues relates to the difficulty of achieving consensus on common environmental agenda on the basis of vague scientific evidence and time frame. In that sense the discovery of the ozone hole over the Antarctic in the mid 1980s revealed the opportunity as well as dangers inherent in tackling global environment problems. At the same time, the history of outer space as a global commons shows that the management of these areas is thoroughly influenced by North-South inequalities. As with the earths atmosphere and the ocean floor, the crucial issue here is technology and industrial development. This is important because the benefits of exploitative activities in outer space are far from being equal either for the present or future generations. When and how environmental concern for economic growth acquired political character? The economic growth acquired an increasingly political character from 1960s onwards. Following steps followed up towards that: The Club of Rome, a global think tank, published a book in 1972 entitled limits to growth. Dramatizing the potential depletion of the Earths resources against the backdrop of rapidly growing world population. To follow up international agencies, the United Nations Environment Programme [UNEP] began holding international conferences and promoting detailed studies to get a more coordinated and effective response to environmental problems. Thus, since then, the environment has emerged as a significant issue of global politics. What distinguishes the forest movements of the South from those of the North? The forest movement of the South is different from those of the North as the former are still peopled, whilst the forests of the latter are more or less devoid of human habitat. This explains to some of the extent the prevailing notion of wilderness in the North as a "wild place" where people do not live. In this perspective, humans are not seen as part of nature. "Environment" is perceived as something that should be protected from humans through the creation of parks and reserves. On the other hand, most environmental issues in the South are based on the assumption that people live in the forests. Why are developing countries exempt from emissions targets? Developing countries, including India and China, do not have to commit to reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the first phase of Kyoto reductions because their percapita emissions are much lower than those of developed countries. As a result they are exempted from the emission targets. However, the industrialized nations have created the climate change problem by producing over 84 per cent of fossil fuel

emissions. As a result they bear the greater responsibility in controlling the greenhouse gas emissions. What was the outcome of the Rio summit? With an objective to grow focus on environmental issues within the arena of global politics, United Nations Conference on Environment and development was held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in June 1992. This conference is also known as Earth Summit. The summit was attended by 170 states, thousands of NGOs and many multinational corporations. The Earth Summit produced a number of outcomes including: The Convention on Biological Diversity The Framework Convention on Climate Change Principles of Forest Management The Rio Declaration on Environment and Development Agenda 21. What do you understand by the principle of common by differentiated responsibilities? OR What is meant by Common, but differentiated responsibilities in relation to environment? The principle of common but differentiated responsibilities is related to the approach relating to environment of the countries of the north and the south. The developed countries of the north want to discuss the environment issue as it stands now and want everyone to be equally responsible for ecological conservation. The developing countries of the south feel that much of the ecological degradation in the world is due to the product of industrial development undertaken by the developed countries. So, the developed countries should take more responsibility. Moreover the developing countries are in the process of industrialization and they must not be subjected to the same restrictions, which is applied to the developed countries. Thus, the special needs of the developing countries must be taken into account in the development, application and interpretation of rules of international environmental law. This argument was accepted in the Rio Declaration at the earth summit in 1992 and is called the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities. Oil as an important resource in global strategy affects the geopolitics and Global economy Comment. Oil is the most important resource in Global politics. Throughout the cold war the industrialized countries of the north adopted a number of methods to ensure a steady flow of resources (oil). These included deployment of military forces near exploitation sites, along seaplanes of communication. The stockpiling of strategic resources. Efforts to prop up friendly governments in producing countries as well as support to multinational companies. Favourable international agreements. At the Global Era during the cold war a particular concern was western control of oil in the gulf and strategic in south and central Africa. Briefly state the programmes through which Indian government is participating in global efforts?

The Indian government is participating in global efforts through a number of programmes. Indias National Auto fuel policy mandate cleaner fuels for vehicles. The energy conservation Act passed in 2001, out times initiatives to improve energy efficiency. Similarly, the Electricity Act of 2003 encourages the use of renewable energy. Recent trends in importing natural gas and encouraging the adoption of clean coal technologies show that India has been making real efforts. The government is also keen to launch a National Mission on Bio diesel by using about 11 million hectares of land to produce bio diesel by 2011-1012. And India has one of the largest renewable energy programmes in the world. Write a short note on Sustainable Development. Sustainable Development: - Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs'. The concept of sustainable development was first used prominently in the 1987 Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development (the Brundtland Commission) and at the subsequent UN Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro in 1992.Sustainable Development (SD) is a sound approach to policy making as it looks at the long term and at interlink ages between different developments and policy actions. Write a short note on Agenda 21. Agenda 21:-Agenda 21, the Programme of Action for Sustainable Development adopted by UNCED in Rio in 1992, contains a series of recommendations about the relevance of sustainable development policies and programmes. It includes a wide range of sustainable development issues: human health, land resources, deforestation, desertification and drought, sustainable agriculture and rural development, marine resources, freshwater resources, the role of farmers, the role of science, education, public awareness and information, and information for decision-making. 6 marks Explain the concept of water wars with examples. OR Analyses water as a crucial resource to global politics. Water is one of the crucial resources that is relevant to global politics. In todays world regional variations and the increasing scarcity of fresh water in some parts of the world increase the possibility of disagreements over shared water resources as a leading source of conflicts in the 21st century. This conflict is often referred to the water wars. Water wars, therefore, describe the possibility of violent conflict over this life sustaining resource. Countries that share rivers can disagree over many things. For instance, a typical disagreement is a downstream states objection to pollution, excessive irrigation or construction of dams by an upstream state, which might decrease or degrade the quality of water available to the downstream state. Sometimes, states have used force to protect or seize fresh water resources. Example The threats between turkey, Syria and Iraq over the construction of dams on the Euphrates River. A number of studies show that countries that share rivers are sometimes involved in military conflicts with each other. The best solution to the problem of water wars is mutual understanding and negotiations among the countries.

Discuss the concept of environmental movements. Examine its various categories. Environmental movements are the movements of groups of environmentally conscious volunteers to challenge the environmental degradations. These groups are working both at the international level and at the National or local level. These environmental movements are amongst the most vibrant diverse and powerful social movements across the globe today. It is within social movements that new forms of political actions are born or reinvented. It raises new ideas and long-term vision of what we should not do in our individual and collective lives. Diversity is also an important trait of contemporary environmental movement; for example, the forest movements of the south, in Mexico, Chile, Barzil, Malaysia, Indonesia, Continental Africa and India are faced with enormous pressure. Categories of Environmental movements There are various categories of Environmental movements in the global era like Forests Movements Movements against mining corporation and minerals industry for creating water pollution. Anti Dam movements i.e. against the construction of mega dams as they disturb the channels or rivers. Write a note on the protection of global commons? Those resources that are not owned by any one but rather shared by a community are referred as commons. This could be a common room, a community centre, a park or a river. Similarly, there are areas or regions of the world that are located outside the sovereign jurisdiction of any one state, and therefore require common governance by the international community. These are known as global commons. They include the earths atmosphere, Antarctica, the ocean floor and outer space. Cooperation over the global commons is not easy. They have many path breaking agreements such as the 1959 Antarctic Treaty, the 1987 Montreal Protocol and the 1991 Antarctic Environmental Protocol. A major problem underlying all ecological issues relates to the difficulty of achieving consensus on common environmental Agenda on the basis of vague scientific evidence and time frames. The history of outer space as a global commons shows that the management of these areas is thoroughly influenced by North south inequalities. As with the earths atmosphere and the ocean floor, the crucial issue here is technology and industrial development. This is important because the benefits of exploitative activities in outer space are for from being equal either for the present or future generations. States shall cooperate in the spirit of global partnership to conserve, protect and restore the health and integrity of the earths ecosystem. In view of the different contributions of the global environmental degradation, states have common but differentiated responsibilities. (a) Give three examples of the ecosystem being talked about here. Climatic change

Bio-diversity Ozone depletion Global warming.

(b) Which part of the world has greater responsibility for environmental protection? And why? The developed countries have greater responsibility for environmental protection because much of the ecological degradation in the world is the product of their industrial development. (c) To what extent was this spirit followed by the states in their action since the Rio Summit? Since the Rio summit, most of the States are making efforts to protect the environment and work on other global ecological problems depending upon their resources. With more awareness about the ecological degradation, a lot has been done, but much more also needs to be done. Describe the meaning of environment and environmental degradation. Environment includes all living and non-living objects. We live in the environment and use the environmental resources like air, land and water to meet our daily needs. While meeting the ever-growing needs, we put pressure on the environment. When the pressure exceeds the carrying capacity of the environment to repair or replace itself, it creates a serious problem of environmental degradation. When the environment becomes less valuable or damaged, environmental degradation is said to occur. All human activities have an impact on environment. There are many forms of environmental degradation. When habitats are destroyed, biodiversity is lost, or natural resources are depleted. Environmental degradation can occur naturally, or through human processes. The largest areas of concern at present are the loss of rainforests, air pollution, ozone depletion, and the destruction of the marine environment. Pollution is occurring all over the world and poisoning the planet's oceans. Even in remote areas, the effects of marine degradation are obvious. In some areas, the natural environment has been exposed to hazardous waste. In other places, major disasters such as oil spills have ruined the local environment. The environmental degradation poses a greatest threat to man's own survival. Write a note on the environmental movements. Environmental movements of various countries have emerged due to different reasons. It is basically due to prevailing environmental quality of the locality. The environmental movements in the north are basically on the issue of quality of life. Whereas the environment movements in the south arise due to some other reasons, such as due to conflicts for controlling of natural resources and many more. These movements raise new ideas and long-term vision of what we should do and what we should not do in our individual and collective lives. Some of the contemporary environmental movements are as follows The Forests Movement of the South in Mexico, Chile, Brazil, Malaysia, Indonesia, Continental Africa and India face enormous pressures for forest clearing in the third world countries at an alarming rate, despite three decades of environmental activism.

Anti-mining movements:- The mineral industrys extraction of earth, its use of chemicals, its pollution of waterways and land, its clearance of natural vegetation, its displacement of communities, amongst other factors, continue to invite criticism and resistance from various parts of the globe. The third group of movements are those who are involved in struggles against mega-dams. In every country where a mega dam is built, one is likely to find an environmental movement opposing it. Discuss Indias stand on Environmental Issues. India has a very positive stand on environmental issues and plays a dominating role among the Asian countries. India signed and ratified the 1997 Kyoto Protocol in August 2002, following the principle of common but differentiated responsibility. India is of the view that the major responsibility of curbing emissions rests with the developed countries, which have accumulated emissions over a long period of time. Actually Indias international negotiating position relies heavily on principles of historical responsibility as enshrined in UNFCCC. But India is wary of recent discussions with UNFCCC about introducing binding commitments on rapidly industrializing countries to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. India feels this contravenes the very sprit of UNFCCC. Neither does it seem fair to impose restrictions on India when the countrys rise in per capita carbon emissions by 2030 is likely to still represent less than half the world average. Besides, the Indian government is already participating in global efforts through a number of programmes. For example, Indias National Auto-fuel Policy mandates cleaner fuels for vehicles. The Electricity Act of 2003 encourages the use of renewable energy. Recent trends of importing natural gas and encouraging the adoption of clean coal technologies show that India has been making real efforts. Indian government is also keen to launch a National Mission on Bio diesel. In this way, India has one of the largest renewable energy programmes in the world. Write a note on the UNs definition and rights of Indigenous peoples. Indigenous people are the people who help to bring the issues of environment, resources and politics together. The UN defines Indigenous populations as comprising the descendants of peoples who inhabited the present territory of a country at the time when persons of a different culture or ethnic origin arrived there from other parts of the world and overcame them. Indigenous people today live more in conformity with their particular social, economic and cultural customs and traditions than the institutions of the country of which they now form a part. Rights of Indigenous People Like other social movements, indigenous people speak of their struggles, their agenda and their rights. Their voices in world politics call for the admission of indigenous people to the world community as equals. They occupy areas in central and South America, Africa, India and south East Asia. Many of the present day island states in the Oceania region (including Australia and New Zealand) were inhabited by various indigenous people over the course of thousands of years. Now they appeal to governments to come to terms with the continuing existence of indigenous nations as enduring communities with an identity of their own.

The worldviews on indigenous societies, irrespective of their geographical location are strikingly similar with respect to land and the variety of life systems. Examine the different nature of Environmental issues that fall within world politics. In the Global Era some recent environmental Issues have been considered as the Global Issues and considerably fall within the scope of contemporary world politics. The issues are as follows: Depletion of Natural Resources: Throughout the world cultivable area is barely expanding any more and a substantial portion of existing agricultural land is losing fertility, grasslands have been overgrazed and fisheries over harvested. Water bodies: Have suffered extensive depletion and pollution, severely restricting food production. Loss of Biodiversity: Natural forests, which help stabilize the climate, moderate water supplies and harbour a majority of the planet biodiversity on land, are being cut down and people are being displaced. The loss of biodiversity continues due to the destruction of habitats in areas, which are rich in species. Depletion of Ozone: A steady decline in the total amount of Ozone in the earths stratosphere poses a real danger to ecosystems and human health, hence included in the arena of global politics for global concerns. Coastal pollution: On the other side coastal pollution too is increasing globally. Although the open sea s relatively cleans, the coastal waters are becoming increasingly polluted largely due to land-based activities. If unchecked, intensive human settlement of coastal zones across the Globe will lead to further deterioration in the quality of marine environment.