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Seminar Report on DENSE WAVELENGTH DIVISION MULTIPLEXING ( DWDM ) A Report Submitted in Partial fulfillment of the Requirements For the

Degree of M.Sc- ELECTRONICS SCIENCE Of GAUHATI UNIVERSITY By ARINDAM DUTTA CHOUDHURY (Roll No- 93) Dept of Electronics Science Gauhati University Guwahati- 781014

CERTIFICATE Date/09/06 G u w ah ati -1 4 Prof (Mrs.) P. Dutta Head of the Department Dept. of Electronics Sc. Gauhati University External Examiner Internal Examiner Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing

Acknowledgement At the onset I would like to take this opportunity to express my sincere gratitude to Dr. (Mrs.) P. Dutta, Head of the Department, Electronics S cience Department, and Guwahati University for providing me with the facility an d guidance for preparing my seminar topic. I would also like to thank all my tea chers for providing valuable input to my seminar report. I would like to thank a ll my classmates for giving me moral support. I hope all the respected person wo uld forgive me for any mistake that is likely to be committed by me during the s eminar session.

Roll no.-93 Fourth Semester Department of Electronics Science Gauhati University Year- 2006

INDEX Section 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 T op ic Introduction DWDM-What is it ? Types of Multiplexing Optical Multiplexing Techno logy Optical Network Transmitters Modulator Network Routes & Regeneration Optica l Amplifiers Erbium Doped Amplifiers ITU-T Grid Receivers Conclusion Bibliograph y Page 1 2 3 4 7 8 10 11 11 12 13 13 14 15

INTRODUCTION The Changing ScenarioThe last two decades have seen a phenomenal increase in the transmission of electronic informationa trend that is growing exponentially. The se days we live in a global village and transfer information just by clicking an y computer key. The reason behind such a dramatic change is due to the renascenc e in the world of Telecommunication. We can define Telecommunication as the proc ess of exchange of information over a distance using some type of equipment. Peo ple have been using Copper wire for long years. But the advent of Optical Fibers changed the overall scenario. Since then Fiber Optic technology is growing at a furious pace. Optical fiber along with associated technology can carry information up to 50 Tb its/s, whereas todays commercial links have transmitted far fewer than 100 Gbits/ s ! Two major technological advances- Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) and Erbium Doped Fiber (EDFA) have boosted the capacity of optical fiber . The emer gence of Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) technology is one the mos t important phenomenon in the development of Fiber Optic Transmission technology . The DWDM technology is based on two cutting edge technologies mentioned above. In our following discussion we briefly define the DWDM. We then examine the fun ctions & components of it and conclude with a high level description of operatio n of DWDM system. It is the purpose of this text to present a brief but comprehe nsive aspect of DWDM technology. 1 Author: Arindam Dutta Choudhury

1.1 DWDM- WHAT IS IT ? DWDM is just an extension of WDM technology. Basically it is a form of FDM- Freq uency Division Multiplexing. The WDM is a technology which multiplexes multiple optical signals on a single Optical fiber by using different wavelengths(colors) of LASER/LED to carry different information or data. Fig(1) : A schematic diagram to describe DWDM system. From fig(1) we can get a o verview of working of DWDM system. The fiber optic cable guides the light/data f rom one end to other end. The signal/data is injected by LED or semiconductor LA SER. Lasers produce light in a range called Window. These windows occupy Near Infra Re d at wavelength 850 nm to 1630 nm. These regions, called windows, lie between ar eas of high absorption. The earliest systems were developed to operate around 85 0 nm, the first window in silica-based optical fiber. A second window (S band), at 1310 nm, soon proved to be superior because of its lower attenuation, followe d by a third window (C band) at 1550 nm with an even lower optical loss. Today, a fourth window (L band) near 1625 nm is under development and early deployment. Dense WDM common spacing may be 200, 100, 50, or 25 GHz with channel count reac hing up to 128 or more channels at distances of several thousand kilometers with amplification and regeneration along such a route. As mentioned before DWDM is just an extension of WDM technology in terms of wavelengths, number of channels, & ability to amplify the optical signal. From now onwards we will use the terms WDM & DWDM interchangeably for convenience of our discussion. 2 Author: Arindam Dutta Choudhury

1.2 Types of Multiplexing Multiplexing is sending multiple signals or streams of information through a circuit at the same time in the form of a single, complex signal and then recovering the separate signals at the receiving end. Basic typ es of multiplexing include frequency division (FDM), time division (TDM), and wa velength division (WDM), with TDM and WDM being widely utilized by telephone and data service providers over optical circuits. Time Division Multiplexing Time-division multiplexing (TDM), as represented in Figure 3, is a method of com bining multiple independent data streams into a single data stream by merging th e signals according to a defined sequence. Each independent data stream is reass embled at the receiving end based on the sequence and timing. Synchronous Optica l Network (SONET), Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) and Internet Protocol (IP) u tilize TDM techniques. In modern telecommunications networks, TDM signals are co nverted from electrical to optical signals by the SONET network element, for tra nsport over optical fiber. Figure 2: Time Division Multiplexing Wavelength Division Multiplexing WDM combines multiple optical TDM data streams onto one fiber through the use of multiple wavelengths of light. Each individual TDM data stream is sent over an individual laser transmitting a unique wavelength of light. Figure 3: Wavelength Division Multiplexing 3 Author: Arindam Dutta Choudhury

1.3 Optical Multiplexing Technology Optical multiplexing technologies, such as D WDM and WDM systems, have revolutionized the use of optical fiber networks. Diff erent colors of light, called wavelengths, are combined into one optical signal and sent over a fiber-optic cable to a far-end optical multiplexing system. Optical Multiplexing Filters Figure 5 illustrates that a filter is a physical device that combines each wavel ength with other wavelengths. Many technologies are used in multiplexing, includ ing: Thin-film filters Bragg gratings Arrayed waveguide gratings (AWGs) Interlea vers, periodic filters, and frequency slicers) Figure 4: WDM Filters Thin-Film Filter The thin-film filter (TFF) is a device used in some optical net works to multiplex and demultiplex optical signals. The TFFs are devices that us e many ultrathin layers of dielectric material coating deposited on a glass or p olymer substrate. This substrate can be made to let only photons of a specific w avelength pass through, while all others are reflected. By integrating several o f these components, you can then demultiplex several wavelengths. Figure 6 shows what happens with four wavelengths Release. Figure 5: Thin-Film Filter Concept 4 Author: Arindam Dutta Choudhury

The first TFF section passes wavelength 1 and reflects 2, 3 and 4 to the second, which then passes 2 and reflects 3 and 4. This allows for demultiplexing or mul tiplexing of optical signals. Fiber Bragg Gratings A Bragg Grating is made of a small section of fiber that has been modified by exposure to ultraviolet radiati on to create periodic changes in the refractive index of the fiber. The result, shown in Figure 7, is that light traveling through the Bragg Grating is refracte d and then reflected back slightly, usually occurring at one particular waveleng th. Figure: 6 & 7: Fiber Bragg Grating R.I Time Delay Grating Length Wavelength Figure 8:(a)Grating Reflection Profile, (b)Time Delay Vs Wavelength Arrayed Waveguides In the transmit direction, the AWG mixes individual wavelengths, also called lam bdas () from different ines etched into the AWG substrate (the base materia tha t supports the waveguides) into one etched ine ca ed the output waveguide, the reby acting as a mu tip exer. In the opposite direction, the AWG can demu tip ex the composite s onto individua etched ines. Usua y one AWG is for transmit an d a second one is for receive. AWG provides mu tip exing and demu tip exing of w ave ength channe s with spacing as ow as 0.4 nm (50 GHz). Figure 8 i ustrates the demu tip exing action or receive. 5 Author: Arindam Dutta Choudhury

Arrayed Waveguides Output S ab Waveguide Composite Signa Individua

Channe Signa

Figure 9: Arrayed Waveguide (Demu tip exer) Demu tip exers With signa s as precise and as dense as those used in DWDM, there needed to be a way to provide accurate signa separation, or fi tration, on the optica receiv er. Such a so ution a so needed to be easy to imp ement and essentia y maintena nce free. Ear y fi tering techno ogy was either too imprecise for DWDM, too sens itive to temperature variations and po arization, too vu nerab e to crossta k fr om neighboring channe s, or too cost y. This restricted the evo ution of DWDM. T o meet the requirements for higher performance, a more robust fi tering techno o gy was deve oped that makes DWDM possib e on a cost effective basisthe Arrayed W aveguide Grating whose operation have been discussed a ready. The AWG can rep ac e mu tip e Bragg Gratings, each Bragg Grating on y supports one wave ength and o ccupies the same physica space as an 8- AWG. Mu tip e Bragg Gratings a so cost m ore than a sing e AWG. For some app ications, AWG offers a higher channe capaci ty at a ower cost per channe with a sma er footprint. This resu ts in fewer c omponents and provides for component integration (e.g., switching, variab e opti ca attenuator). In The next chapter we first describe the components of DWDM ne twork. Then we move to the detai ana ysis of each components ro e in the network . 6 Author: Arindam Dutta Choudhury

1.4 Optica Network Figure 10 shows an optica network using DWDM techniques tha t consists of five main components:

1. Transmitter (transmit transponder) : Changes e ectrica bits to optica pu ses Is frequency specif d aser to generate the optica pu se Combines/separates discrete wave engths Wo rks as a Add/Drop component Pre-amp ifier boosts signa pu ses at the receive si de Post-amp ifier boosts signa pu ses at the transmit side (post amp ifier) and on the receive side (preamp ifier) In ine amp ifiers (ILA) are p aced at diffe rent distances from the source to provide recovery of the signa before it is de graded by oss. Transmission media to carry optica pu ses Many different kinds of fiber are used Often dep oyed in sheaths of 144256 fibers Combines the pump an d signa wave engths into the fiber Iso ator prevents the amp ifier fiber from b ack ref ected ight 2. Mu tip exer / Demu tip exer : 3. Amp ifier : 4. Optica

fiber (EDFA as media) :

5. Coup ers/ Sp itters 6. Iso ators 7. Optica Fi ters F attens the fiber gain a nd removes the pump wave ength from the transmission fiber 8. Receiver (receive transponder) : Changes optica pu ses back to e ectrica e optica pu se. bits Uses wideband aser to provide th

Author: Arindam Dutta Choudhury

Figure 10: DWDM Network Fig 10 gives a detai picture of DWDM system. In the next chapter we wi s about the transmitter Section in detai . 7

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1.5 Transmitters From so far we have discussed about the DWDM Systems it is c ea r that we need Individua transmitters that generates specific wave engths and t hese wave engths are combined for transmission over a Optica fiber by a mu tip exer . This is how todays DWDM system works . Transmitters use asers as the sign a source. It Is desirab e To have a sing e aser modu e tunab e over the range of wave engths Instead of having an array of asers . Before going deep into thi s matter Lets ana yze the requirements of transmitter system . Transmitter requirements in DWDM Networks : Qua ity Of generated Light The Linewidth has to be as narrow as a possib e. Inde ed, to attain 40 channe Mu tip exing we need a Channe spacing of hundred GHz. Thus, The inewidth Cannot be more than one GHz To avoid Channe crossta k . The sidemode Suppression ratio (SMR) Has to be as high as Possib e. A these Side Modes and have to be suppressed to avoid any Channe crossta k . A aser has to operate in a sing e Longitudina mode. Chirp Has to be e iminated . This is unac ceptab e in DWDM System . Direct modu ation is unsuitab e In DWDM System . Stabi ity Variation in output power resu t in variation in inewidth a detrimenta phe nomenon. In addition, Power instabi ity Causes severa hidden prob ems associate d with such non inear effects in sing e mode optica fiber as Four- wave Mixing( FWM) And Stimu ated scattering . Variation in peak wave ength are unacceptab e b ecause we need to keep the channe spacing stap e, Otherwise we wi mix Channe and ose information . More precise y the instabi ity of a Peak wave ength caus es variation in the channe crossta k eve . The Re ative Intensity nice (RIN) Has to be minimized because this is another form of output- power instabi ity. S ince one of the major reasons for RIN is Beck- ref ection, a aser has to be sui tab y protected . Re iabi ity Laser source must be re iab e . Power consumption We want to minimize power consumption to reduce the heat radiated by a Laser dio de . But This requirement becomes critica for DWDM Transmitters, Where many as er diodes operates under very congested conditions . Tunabi ity Having 128 - cha nne s Systems commercia y avai ab e - It becomes necessary to have a Laser whi ch has high tuning Capacity . this is the most crucia issue in todays DWDM Netwo rk . The Transmitters use asers as the signa source The key features of tunab e asers are The tuning speeds and the abi ity to emit severa wave engths simu taneous y. We have to bear in mind that ight sources are necessary for DWDM Net works not on y as Transmitters but a so as e ements of Add/ Drop Components . 8 Author: Arindam Dutta Choudhury

There are various types of Lasers that have been deve oped optica network trans mission. We have1. Fabry-Parot aser diode, 2.Distributed- Feedback (DFB) Laser diode, 3. Vertica cavity-surface-emitting Lasers (VCSEL), 4. Sectiona distribu ted Bragg Ref ection tunab e Lasers, 5. Integrated cavity Lasers as an option Wh ich can be app ied in DWDM system . In our discussion we wi ana yze the distri buted feedback aser- DFB as it is wide y used today. Figure 11: Tunab e Laser Figure 11 shows a schematic diagram of a DFB aser. To reduce the spectra width , we need to make a diode that mere y radiate on y one ongitudina mode. This h as been done with distributed feedback aser( DFB) diodes. Such asers have tuni ng speeds in the orders of tens of nanoseconds which is needed in DWDM communica tion. The princip e of their operation is as fo owsThe injection current change s the carrier densities in the active region of Laser and, in so doing, a ters t he Refractive Index of the active medium. Variation in RI is equiva ent to a ter ing the optica path of a aser cavity. Thus, a change in the driving current e ads to variation in the radiating wave ength because it changes the resonant con dition of the aser diode. This is the basic mechanism eading to the tenabi ity of the Semiconductor aser diode. 9 Author: Arindam Dutta Choudhury

1.6 Modu ator The modu ator changes the aser signa by either pu sing it off an d on or by changing the phase of the signa so that it carries information. DWDM systems typica y use phase modu ation. Each variation represents a 1 or a 0. Figure 12: Laser Signa Sources Amp ifiers and Regeneration Amp ifiers are defined as type 1R, 2R, or 3R. 1RReamp ify 2RReamp ify and reshape 3RReamp ify, reshape, and retime Figure 13 i ustrates the effect on a degraded o ptica signa once it has been 1R, 2R, or 3R regenerated. Figure 13: Regeneration 10 Author: Arindam Dutta Choudhury

1.7 Network Routers and RegenerationFigure 14 shows that optica networks can ha ve 1R, 2R, and 3R devices. The 1R device on y amp ifies the signa received. A 2 R device provides amp ification and reshaping of the waveform to provide some da ta recovery. The 3R device provides amp ification and reshaping and requires a t ime source so that it can provide retiming for the transponder. Asynchronous inp ut transponders do not depend on timing and cannot be retimed. Such transponders common y support non-SONET rates and have a SONET output that is interna y c o cked by the transponder. By observation you see that 3R devices inc ude 1R and 2 R as we as 3R. Figure 14: Network Regeneration DISADVANTAGESRepeaters are Acceptab e signa boosters for point to point ink , such as TAT-8 , If where bit rate and signa format are determined by use of a sing e transmit ter. However, repeaters dont work for Fiber-optic networks, where many transmitte rs send signa s to many Receivers at different bit-rate and in different formats . Thus the need for Optica Amp ifier arises. 1.8 OPTICAL AMPLIFIERS Optica amp ifiers simp y strengthens the optica signa s . Optica amp ifiers works without having to convert optica signa into e ectri ca from and back . this features eads to two great advantages . First, optica amp ifiers support any bit rate and signa format because again they simp y amp ify the received signa . Thus optica amp ifiers are Transparent to any Bitrate and signa format. Second y, they support not just a sing e wave ength, as repe aters do, but the entire range of wave engths. For examp e EDFA amp ifies a wa ve engths from 1530nm to 1660nm. The shift from TDM to DWDM inks and from point to point inks to a comp icated network cou dnt have been done without Optica a mp ifiers. 11 Author: Arindam Dutta Choudhury

Two major c asses of optica amp ifiers are in use today: Semiconductor Optica amp ifiers, and Fiber Optica amp ifiers. We wi discuss on y the Fiber Optica amp ifiers in this text. Fiber amp ifiers, specifica y EDFA, are the workhorse s in todays DWDM networks. Optica amp ifiers are categorized in terms of the fun ction they perform. These areBoosters, in- ine amp ifiers, pre-amp ifiers. It is shown in Fig-15 (a), (b), (c) be ow. 1.9 Erbium-Doped Fiber Amp ifiers Erbium-doped fiber amp ifiers (EDFAs) provide the gain mechanism for DWDM amp ification, depicted in Figure 15. DWDM systems u se erbium amp ifiers because they work we and are very efficient as amp ifiers in the 1500 nm range. On y a few parts per bi ion of erbium are needed. Light is pumped in at around 1400 nm (pump aser diode) to excite the erbium ions, and then the incoming 1500-nm ight signa from the source system is amp ified. Figure 16: EDFA Figure 16 shows an erbium-doped fiber amp ifier (EDFA) and is the ast active co mponent in the DWDM system. An EDFA is the heart of an erbium-doped amp ifier bu t its not the on y 12 Author: Arindam Dutta Choudhury

component. To make an EDFA work and to improve the gain and noise characteristic s of an active fiber, other components are needed. The other components are- Pum p diode aser, Coup er, Iso ator, optica fi ter. The genera configuration of E DFA system is given in the fig-16. The operation of components were discussed in page 7. Fiber Bands Three optica frequency bands are used today for fiber-optic DWDM networks. The bands are: C-band (conventiona ) has a range from 1530 nm to 1570 nm. L-band ( o ng wave ength) has a range from 1570 to 1625 nm. S-band (short wave ength) has a range from 1450 to 1500 nm. 1.10 ITU-T Grid One of the most important aspect is to ensure the compatibi ity of equipments from different Equipment-manufacturers with the service from diffe rent service providers. The Internationa Te ecommunications Union-Te ecommunica tions Standardization Sector (ITU-T) estab ished a set of standards for te ecomm unications that drives a optica DWDM systems today. Systems are based on an a bso ute reference to 193.10 THz that corresponds to a wave ength of 1552.52 nm w ith individua wave engths spaced in steps of 50 GHz or a wave ength step of 0.4 1 nm from the reference. A and-based DWDM systems fo ow this standard. This Frequency-Grid starts from 196100GHz (1528.77 nm) to 192100GHz (1560.61 nm). Not e that channe s can be spaced not on y equa y but a so unequa y because Four-W ave Mixing (FWM) is severe y detrimenta to equa y spaced channe s . 1.11 RECEIVERS The basic requirement for WDM receivers is the abi ity to operate within entire window of wave ength range used in todays WDM networks. The P-I-N photodiodes and APD photodiodes are said to have very high spectra characterist ics. The e ectronics associated with them are a so avai ab e with appropriate Ba ndwidth. But this statement is not fu y true. The prob em starts with a network where we have to obtain mu tip e access routes to WDM networks. In such a case, we need a receiver capab e of choosing an individua channe from the many tran smitted over the network. There are two approaches to se ecting a desired channe (wave ength) from a networks main steam : Tunab e Transmitter- Fixed Receiver (TTFR) and Fixed transmitter-tunab e Receiver (FTTR) In the second approach, the receiver is tuned to pick up d4esired wave ength whi e each transmitter emits a fixed wave ength. (Fig-17). This approach is used primari y in DWDM. Tx1 DWDM T x2 Network Rx2 Rx1 Fig- 17: DWDM network 13 Author: Arindam Dutta Choudhury

1.12 CONCLUSION Network Management ~ A critica yet often under appreciated part of any te ecommunications network is the management system whose re iabi ity is especia y vita in the comp ex and h igh capacity wor d of DWDM. Indeed, dependab e and easi y accessib e network man agement services increasing y wi become a distinguishing characteristic of hig h performance, high-capacity systems. Todays eading DWDM systems inc ude integra ted, network management programs that are designed to work in conjunction with o ther operations support systems (OSSs) and are comp iant with the standards the Internationa Te ecommunication Union (ITU) has estab ished. By meeting ITU stan dards and uti izing a Q3 interface, the system ensures that end users retain hig h Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning (OAM&P) service. App ications for DWDM ~ DWDM is ready made for ong-distance te ecommunications operators that use eithe r pointtopoint or ring topo ogies. The sudden avai abi ity of 16 new transmission channe s where there used to be one dramatica y improves an operators abi ity to expand capacity and simu taneous y set aside backup bandwidth without insta in g new fiber. This arge amount of capacity is critica to the deve opment of se f-hea ing rings, which characterize todays most sophisticated te ecom networks. B y dep oying DWDM termina s, an operator can construct a 100% protected, 40 Gb/s ring, with 16 separate communication signa s using on y two fibers. Operators th at are bui ding or expanding their networks wi a so find DWDM to be an economi ca way to incrementa y increase capacity, rapid y provision new equipment for needed expansion, and futureproof their infrastructure against unforeseen bandwid th demands. Network who esa ers can take advantage of DWDM to ease capacity, ra ther than entire fibers, either to existing operators or to new market entrants. DWDM wi be especia y attractive to companies that have ow fiber count cab e s that were insta ed primari y for interna operations but that cou d now be us ed to generate te ecommunications revenue. The Future of DWDM ~ In the space of two years, DWDM has become recognized as an industry standard th at wi find acceptance in any carrier environment. Dep oyment of DWDM wi a o w new services to come on- ine more quick y, he p contain costs so that prospect ive customers can more easi y afford new services, and readi y overcome techno o gica barriers associated with more traditiona so utions. Its acceptance wi d rive the expansion of the optica ayer throughout the te ecommunications networ k and a ow service operators to exp oit the enormous bandwidth capacity that is inherent in optica fiber but that has gone arge y untappedunti now. 14 Author: Arindam Dutta Choudhury

1.13 BIBLIOGRAPHY Fiber-Optic Communications Techno ogy -- Maynbaev and Scheiner Fiber Optic Communications -- Haro d Ko imbiris DWDM - ATGs Communications & Networking Techno ogy Guide Series DWDM Tutoria - FUJITSU Corporations study materia Fiber Optic Association Home Page. Linkitionary.com Wikipedia www.Goog e.com 15 Author: Arindam Dutta Choudhury