Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 12

Background information

What do stomach juice and anti-acid tablet contain?


Stomach juice mainly contains Hydrochloric acid.
Anti-acid tablet mainly contains Aluminium Hydroxide and Magnesium Hydroxide.

Why Aluminium and Magnesium Hydroxide are being commonly used instead of other
hydroxides?
Other hydroxides may be poisonous(e.g. Zinc Hydroxide)or acts as a very strong alkali(e.g.
Potassium Hydroxide). Since the neutralization between strong acid(Hydrochloric acid) and
strong alkali is a exothermic reaction, it may cause even more serious burn in the patient's
body.

What is happening when we are getting a stomachache?


When too much stomach juice(containing mostly acid) is secreted, heartburn will present
and burns the esophagus.

How does the anti-acid tablet work?


When the tablet is taken in, molecules in the tablet soak up the hydrogen ions(produced
from the ionization of the Hydrochloric acid) in stomach juice, and relieve the pain of
heartburn. Antacids soak up hydrogen ions, so are “against acid”. We say they “neutralize”
the acid.

What is neutralization?
Neutralization is a chemical reaction (also called a water forming reaction since a water
molecule is formed during the process) in which an acid and a base or alkali (soluble base)
react to produce salt and water (H2O). During the process, hydrogen ions H+ (a bare proton)
from the acid or a hydroxide ion OH− or oxide ions O2− from the base react together to form
a water molecule H2O. In the process, a salt is also formed when the anion from acid and the
cation from base react together.

For example, the reaction between Hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide solutions:
hydrochloric acid + sodium hydroxide → sodium chloride + water
HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq) → NaCl(aq) + H2O(l)
Ionic equation is:
H+(aq) + Cl−(aq) + Na+(aq) + OH−(aq) → Na+(aq) + Cl−(aq) + H2O(l)

1
Objective for the experiment
To decide which brand of anti-acid tablets is the best buy, the price is considered first of
all. As everyone knows, the cheapest one is brought for most as most people want to pay
less. However, the price, of course, is not the only aspect to think of, the amount of anti acid
in the tablets can also determine which one is the best buy.
There is one thing we should learn that anti-acid tablets actually contain substances be-
sides anti-acid which is alkaline hydroxide. If a tablet has more mole of alkaline hydroxide,
the reaction rate of the tablet with the hydrochloric acid in the stomach can be faster and
more acid can be neutralized which can help the patient to relieve the painfulness faster and
more efficient. The efficiency of tablets is therefore proportional to the amount of anti acid.
On the other hand, we would like to consider the ingredient too. As some active ingredi-
ent like carbonate, would cause the patient to have some gases produced in the stomach.
(Equation: CO3- + H+  H20 + CO2) So we would like to consider this part also.
It the last word, the brand of anti-acid tablets with the lowest price and largest amount of
anti acid would be the best buy with the active ingredient that won’t cause the patient any
other troubles.
On the other hand, we would then find out the experimental error, improvement and the
problem we’ve meet in it so that we can perform better for the next time.

Information for the three brands of the anti-acid tablet


2
Fedra-Gel-S Chewable Tablet
Each tablet contains:
Aluminium Hydroxide Dried Gel 200mg, Magnesium Hydroxide
200mg, Simethicone 30mg
Maalox Plus
Each tablet contains:
In this experiment, we are going to
Mg(OH)2 200 mg,We first dissolved the
dried Then we carry out titration, by
Al(OH)3 gel 225 mg, simethicone 25 mg
find
Mas out which brand, among 3 anti-acid tablet powder adding NaOH to the remains
brands, Each
is the best buycontains:
tablet anti-acid in 25cm3 HCL, which HCl, to find out how much acid
tablet. delivered
Aluminium Hydroxide by a 25cm3
200mg, is Hydroxide
Magnesium needed for reacting
150mg, with
Simethicone 25mgpipette. And boil it to hydroxide in tablet.
let it dissolved more
efficiently.

Ideas behind the experiment


As we know that, the active ingredient in the tablet is aluminum hydroxide and magnesium
hydroxide. They are insoluble in water that we can’t make a complete solution just by adding water.
So we added the excess HCl to react with it.
Equation: Mg(OH)2 + HCl → MgCl + H2O
Al(OH)3 + 3HCl → AlCl3 + 3H2O
After they become soluble, the left H+ ions with then react with NaOH.
Equation: HCl + NaOH → NaCl + H2O
Then we can find the mole number of excess HCl after the reaction between the HCl and NaOH
by titration. Which in turn we can find out the mole number of the active ingredient.

Summary of the procedures in experiment

3
An orange colour of methyl By the result of NaOH used and the amount of anti-acid tablet
orange indicates the end point. used , we can find out the mole of hydroxide in tablet. So we can
determine which one is the best buy brand by looking for the
largest mole among 3 different brands’ tablets.

4
Result in the experiment
For the brand Fedra-Gel-S Chewable Tablet,

5
Reading\Trial 1 2 3
Initial 2.5 16.7 31.5
Final 15.4 30.9 44.9
Volume decrease (cm3) 12.9 14.2 13.4
Amount of anti-acid(g) 0.76 0.81 0.79
Average volume of NaOH used = 13.50cm3
Average amount of tablet used = 0.79g

An ionic equation for the reaction in the conical flask during titration:
OH − + H + → H 2 O
Number of mole of NaOH = 1*13.5/1000 = 0.0135mole
Number of mole of OH − = 0.0135mole
Mole of OH − : mole of H+ = 1:1
Number of mole of H+ = 0.0135mole
An ionic equation for the reaction in the conical flask when the anti-acid tablet dissolves in the HCl:
OH − + nH + → H 2 O + (n − 1) H +
Number of mole of H+ in HCl = 1*25/1000 = 0.025mole
Number of mole of (n-1)H+ = 0.0135mole
Number of mole of H+ being neutralized = 0.025-0.0135 = 0.0115mole
Number of mole of H+: number of mole of H2O = 1:1
Number of mole of H2O = 0.0115mole
Number of mole of OH − : number of mole of H2O = 1:1
Number of mole of OH − = 0.0115mole
According to the label of the tablet,
Amount of Al(OH)3: Amount of Mg(OH)2 = 200mg:200mg = 1:1
Al (OH ) 3 + Mg (OH ) 2 + 5 HCl → AlCl 3 + MgCl3 + 5 H 2 O
Number of mole of Al(OH)3: Number of mole of H2O = 1:5
Number of mole of Al(OH)3 = 0.0023mole
Amount of Aluminium Hydroxide = 0.0023*(27+(16+1)*3) = 0.0023*78
= 0.1794g
Number of mole of Mg(OH)2: Number of mole of H2O = 1:5
Number of mole of Mg(OH)2 = 0.0023mole
Amount of Magnesium Hydroxide = 0.0023*(24.3+(16+1)*2) = 0.0023*58.3
= 0.1341g
Total amount of active ingredient = 0.1794g + 0.1341g = 0.3135g
Amount of active ingredient per gram of tablet = 0.3135g/0.79g = 0.397g
Number of mole of OH − per gram of tablet = 0.0115mole/0.79g = 0.0146moleg-1

For the brand Maalox Plus Tablet,

6
Reading\Trial 1 2 3
Initial 23.5 28.5 0.2
Final 38.3 43.1 15
Volume decrease(cm3) 14.8 14.6 14.7
Amount of anti-acid(g) 1.22 1.17 1.2
Average volume of NaOH used = 14.7cm3
Average amount of tablet used = 1.20g

An ionic equation for the reaction in the conical flask during titration:
OH − + H + → H 2 O
Number of mole of NaOH = 1*14.7/1000 = 0.0147mole
Number of mole of OH − = 0.0147mole
Mole of OH − : mole of H+ = 1:1
Number of mole of H+ = 0.0147mole
An ionic equation for the reaction in the conical flask when the anti-acid tablet dissolves in the HCl:
OH − + nH + → H 2 O + (n − 1) H +
Number of mole of nH+ in HCl = 1*25/1000 = 0.025mole
Number of mole of (n-1)H+ = 0.0147mole
Number of mole of H+ being neutralized = 0.025-0.0147 = 0.0103mole
Number of mole of H+: number of mole of H2O = 1:1
Number of mole of H2O = 0.0103mole
Number of mole of OH − : number of mole of H2O = 1:1
Number of mole of OH − = 0.0103mole
According to the label of the tablet,
Amount of Al(OH)3: Amount of Mg(OH)2 = 225mg:200mg = 9:8
9 Al (OH ) 3 + 8Mg (OH ) 2 + 42 HCl → 9 AlCl 3 + 8MgCl 2 + 42 H 2 O
Number of mole of Al(OH)3: Number of mole of H2O = 9:42
Number of mole of Al(OH)3 = 0.00221mole
Amount of Aluminium Hydroxide = 0.00221*(27+(16+1)*3) = 0.00221*78
= 0.1722g
Number of mole of Mg(OH)2: Number of mole of H2O = 8:42
Number of mole of Mg(OH)2 = 0.00196mole
Amount of Magnesium Hydroxide = 0.00196*(24.3+(16+1)*2) = 0.00196*58.3
= 0.1144g
Total amount of active ingredient = 0.1722g + 0.1144g = 0.2866g
Amount of active ingredient per gram of tablet = 0.2866g/1.20g = 0.239g
Number of mole of OH − per gram of tablet = 0.0103mole/1.20g = 0.00858moleg-1

For the brand Mas Tablet,

7
Reading\Trial 1 2 3
Initial 18 14.8 15
Final 29 28.7 31.5
Volume decrease(cm3) 14.2 16.5 14.9
Amount of anti-acid(g) 0.58 0.62 0.59
Average volume of NaOH used = 15.2cm3
Average amount of tablet used = 0.60g

An ionic equation for the reaction in the conical flask during titration:
OH − + H + → H 2 O
Number of mole of NaOH = 1*15.2/1000 = 0.0152mole
Number of mole of OH − = 0.0152mole
Mole of OH − : mole of H+ = 1:1
Number of mole of H+ = 0.0152mole
An ionic equation for the reaction in the conical flask when the anti-acid tablet dissolves in the HCl:
OH − + nH + → H 2 O + (n − 1) H +
Number of mole of H+ in HCl = 1*25/1000 = 0.025mole
Number of mole of (n-1)H+ = 0.0147mole
Number of mole of H+ being neutralized = 0.025-0.0147 = 0.0103mole
Number of mole of H+: number of mole of H2O = 1:1
Number of mole of H2O = 0.0103mole
Number of mole of OH − : number of mole of H2O = 1:1
Number of mole of OH − = 0.0103mole
According to the label of the tablet,
Amount of Al(OH)3: Amount of Mg(OH)2 =200mg:150mg = 4:3
4 Al (OH ) 3 + 3Mg (OH ) 2 + 18 HCl → 4 AlCl 3 + 3MgCl 2 + 18 H 2 O
Number of mole of Al(OH)3: Number of mole of H2O = 4:18
Number of mole of Al(OH)3 = 0.00229mole
Amount of Aluminium Hydroxide = 0.00229*(27+(16+1)*3) = 0.00229*78
= 0.1785g
Number of mole of Mg(OH)2: Number of mole of H2O = 3:18
Number of mole of Mg(OH)2 = 0.00172
Amount of Magnesium Hydroxide = 0.00172*(24.3+(16+1)*2) = 0.00172*58.3
= 0.1003g
Total amount of active ingredient = 0.1785g + 0.1003g = 0.2788g
Amount of active ingredient per gram of tablet = 0.2788g/0.60g = 0.465g
Number of mole of OH − per gram of tablet = 0.0103mole/0.60g = 0.0172moleg-1

Results and comparisons

8
After calculations, the results are organized and presented into table.
Brand Fedra Gel-S Maalox Plus Mas
Amount of tablet used (g) 0.79 1.20 0.60
Number of mole of OH − in amount 0.0115 0.0103 0.0103
used
Number of mole of OH − per gram of 0.0146 0.00858 0.0172
tablet (moleg-1)
Amount of active ingredient (g) 0.3135 0.2866 0.2788
Amount of active ingredient per gram 0.397 0.239 0.465
of tablet (g)
Price of one tablet ($) 1 2 0.5
Number of mole of OH − per one dollar 0.0115 0.00515 0.0206
(mole per dollar)
Amount of active ingredient per one 0.3135 0.1433 0.5576
dollar (g per dollar)

From the above table, we may easily find the amount of the active ingredient in different brands
of anti-acid tablets are not the same as labeled. It may due to the experimental error, but now we are
going to discuss how they are different from the label.

In the brand Fedra Gel-S Chewable tablet, the manufacturer claimed that there are 200mg of
aluminium hydroxide dried gel and 200mg of magnesium hydroxide as the active ingredients.
However, based on our experimental result, there are only 179.4mg (0.1794g) of aluminium
hydroxide and 134.1mg (0.1341g) of magnesium hydroxide. There is totally 313.5mg (0.3135g) of
active ingredient in the tablet, not as claimed 400mg.

In the brand Maalox Plus tablet, the manufacturer claimed that there are 225mg of dried
aluminium hydroxide gel and 200mg of magnesium hydroxide as the active ingredients in the
tablet. However, based on experimental result, there are only 172.2mg (0.1722g) of aluminium
hydroxide and 114.4mg (0.1144g) of magnesium hydroxide. There are totally 286.6mg (0.2866g) of
active ingredient in the tablet, not as claimed 425mg of active ingredients.

In the brand Mas tablet, the manufacturer claimed that there are 200mg of aluminium hydroxide
and 150mg of magnesium hydroxide as the active ingredients in the tablet. However, based on our
experimental result, there are only 178.5mg (0.1785g) of aluminium hydroxide and 100.3mg
(0.1003g) of magnesium hydroxide. There are totally 278.8mg (0.2788g) of active ingredients in the
tablet, not as claimed 350mg of active ingredients.

In conclusion, it seems Fedra Gel-S Chewable tablet has more amounts of active ingredients in
the tablet, but we need to consider the brands with their sizes and prices. Fedra Gel-S has more
amounts of active ingredients in the tablet with medium size and price. Maalox Plus has the
medium amounts of active ingredients but larger in size and cost more. Mas has the least amounts
of active ingredients with the smallest size and cost less. By comparing with the sizes and prices of
them (you may refer to the above table), it is easily to determine that Mas is the best buy.

Conclusion

9
As what we said in the objective, we would based on three
things to find out the best-buy brand which is: Price of one tablet ($)
1) price
As we can see in the chart, the cheapest brand is Mas. 2
It only courses 0.5 dollars for one tablet. While the 1.5
highest one is Maalox Plus that it couses 2 dollars. If
1
we look at the size, we would find that the size of Mas Price of one tablet
is the smallest. This could be the reason why it is so 0.5 ($)
cheap. Therefore we can still determine whether it is 0
best buy or yet. Fedra Maalox Mas
Gel-S Plus

2) The amount of active ingrediant


If the price can’t help us to make the right choice, then we compare the amount of the active
ingredient per one dollar. From the chart we can see that the highest amount of active ingredient is Mas
again while the smallest one is Maalox Plus. The amount of the active ingredient is important as this
ingredient would react with HCl in our stomach. So the highest amount of active ingredient mean our
painfulness could be treated at a faster rate.
If we compare the price with the number of the mole of active ingredient per one dollars, we could still
find that Mas has the highest of all with Maalox Plus the lowest again.

Amount of active ingredient per one dollar (g per dollar) Number of mole of per one dollar (mole per dollar)

0.6 0.025

0.5 0.02
0.4
0.015
0.3 Amount of active Number of mole of
ingredient per one 0.01 per one dollar (mole
0.2 dollar (g per dollar) per dollar)
0.1 0.005

0 0
Fedra Maalox Mas Fedra Maalox Mas
Gel-S Plus Gel-S Plus

3) the side effect ingredient


in the three brands, the active ingredient is the same with Aluminium hydroxide and Magnesium
Hydroxide. The alkaline hydroxide has no side effect to the human body as product produced is
not poisonous nor would produce any gases or solid too. But there are two brands has other
component for Maalox Plus and Fedra-gel-S. they are yellow in colur as they has added some
chemical to give out smell like lemon. But they are not harmful to human body.
Final comparison of the three brands( = the best)
Fedra-gel-S Maalox Plus Mas
price
The amount of active ingrediant
the side effect ingredient
From the table, we can then determine that Mas has the cheapest price and the
largest amount of the active ingredient. So the best-buy brand is: Mas!

10
Problem meet in experiment
There are two main problems we have meted when we were doing the experiment.
1) The anti-acid tablet was not all dissolved in HCl.
As what we have planned to do was that we expected the tablet would react with excess HCl
and no solid should be left in the beaker. But it turns out that there were some little solid still in
the beaker. This may affect the result as the weight we measure is not the same as the weight of
tablet that underwent the reaction.
So starting from second trail, we added two more procedure. When we poured HCl into the
tablet, we added the distilled water at the same time and stirred it quickly. This can made the
powder to dissolve more easily and prevent the large solid formed. Then we heated it with
Bunsen burner. We didn’t heat it for a long time. We just heat it before the solution reaches the
boiling point. This was to dissolve the little solid left. After we doing this, the condition was
much better. Only a very small amount of it left. Maybe these are other substance in the tablet
other than hydroxide.

2) Colour of tablet
In two of the three types of the tablets, it has the yellow colour. The solution dissolved was
also yellowish. This made us hard to observe after dropping the 2 drops of methyl orange and
the end point was in the similar colour.
To make a better observation, 8 drops of methyl orange were added. The advantage was that 8
drops of methyl orange can cover the yellow colour and the colour change when titrating was
obvious.

3) Different mass of the same brand of the tablets


As we crushed the tablet and then measure the used amount of the tablet, it appeared as different
mass of it. We can’t just refer to the first trail to get the approximate amount of NaOH to be
used in the second trail. Based on this problem, we didn’t take the second and third trail for
calculation only, but also the first trail. so the average mass we get for the tablet is included with
all the trails.

Experimental error
Reading error
When we are taking the values in pipette and burette, the value that we took may not be the same as
the actual one. Therefore we tried to read the result by more than one person and read the result in
eye level.

Reaction time
It was hard to stop the running of NaOH right at the end point during titration. There will be the
time needed for us to react and turn the stopcock. However, the volume of excess NaOH was
approximately similar. That the error could cancel each other.

Solubility
The tablet powder was not totally disappeared when HCl was added. Although we have taken some
action to reduce the problem, the weight we took and the weight that reacted with was still different.
Improvement could be made next time. That all of the powder should not be added immediately.
Because the powder may float on the surface of HCl caused by tension. So we should add the
powder with the small amount each time and stir the solution frequently.

Improvement

11
1. when we add the HCl to the powder, we can add distilled water to it also. This is because distilled
water allowed anti-acid tablet to react with HCl better. And powder may float on the surface of the
HCl. So that we should pour distilled water and HCl and stir the solution to prevent the floating of
the powder and a large solid granule formed.

2. Take the reading of the liquid level in the pipette and burette at eye level because a small difference
between the reading and the actual value will cause an inaccurate result.

3. prepare more conical flasks. As we are doing the experiment, we may like to prepare the next tablet
at the same time. But the lack of the flask limits our action and we can’t save more times.

4. a little powder sticked on the wall of the beaker. This affect the accurate weight we take by the bal-
ance. The improvement method may refer to point 1.

Further investigation
In our three chosen brands, the active ingredient is the same. And they will work similarly. We
would like to investigate the other brands of the drugs which are having the different ingredient like
CaCO3 or Ca(OH)2. as they have the similar effect towards the neutralizing power, it will be better
for us to choose the different active ingredient for the investigation.
On the other hand, we may want to know the truth of the most expensive and most cheapest brand
and find out whether the price is directly proportional to the power. Because based on our result,
Mas with the cheapest has a more powerful ability. So we can show at the same time whether the
statement for the more expensive one has a better performance.

Duty list
Name Duty
Abby -write problem meet in experiment
- writing conclusion and further investigation
-editing the project
Isabella - writing the definition for what should be a best buy anti-
acid
- responsible for art decoration
Gloria -writing result and responsible for calculation
-write for the comparison of the three brands.

Peony - summary of the procedure


-write experimental error and improvement for it.

Christine -buying the 3 brands of anti-acid


- collect and writing the background information
-taking photographs

12