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Introduction

The history of Chinese garden begin since Shang Dynasty (16th-11th century BC ) and follow by Zhou Dynasty (11th 221 BC ) . At the first time, the king and the nobilities began the practice of developing forest and wood for hunting purpose. Those forest and wood cover through a large area until dozen of square of kilometer or even hundreds of square of kilometer, call You . At Han Dynasty, the concept of Nature Garden have been developed by adding animals and living quarter which consider as the basic of Chinese garden architecture. Actually, the traditional Chinese garden architecture we talk about was first appeared at Tang Dynasty somewhere 618 907 AD. At that time, the beautiful architecture evolved into man-made hill, fountain and pool. The man made beauty finally can combine with nature beauty and enchant each other. The architecture continue to evolve at Ming Dynasty (1368- 1644 AD ) and Qing Dynasty(1644 1911 AD ). Especially in Qing Dynasty, the emperor summon all the skillful craftsman from over the country to create a more beautiful garden. Garden in this period no longer only the place for fun, but also work as a place for more formal ceremonies. Base on the geographical factor, Chinese garden can classify into two category : northern imperial garden and southern private garden. Other kinds of garden architecture contain monastic gardens which are located in temples, symbolizing a sort of spiritual peace and harmony. Different with Western, Architecture takes a important role in all kind of garden. We can say that architecture is equal important with other three elements in Chinese garden : water, rock, plant.

Chinese Garden
The original Chinese word for garden is yuan (). Actually we can assume the meaning of Chinese word by looking to it. As you can see, the word is surrounding mean that garden is surrounding by wall. It show the important of architecture (wall and other) in Chinese garden.

Chinese Garden and Architecture Integration


Yin Yang Theory
The aim of design in Chinese garden is to imitate nature. In order to achieve the aim, a Chinese garden designers try to avoid all rigidly, geometrically layout that would recall the sense of order. Inside the garden, zigzag paths , asymmetrically bridge and irregular pond all display the nature, and chaos. However, in architecture design, Chinese use symmetry to indicate their own character and faith, and to express their own moral value and social relationship. The private was built as a place for their owner to away the busy life, relax and fulfill their desire to freedom and romantic spirit. The symmetry, geometrical form of architecture serves to their owners serious mood while the irregular form, random pattern in the garden serve to their owners easy mood. These two thing look totally contrast to each other. However, when the visitor pass through the building into courtyard and experience the changing from formal to informal, they will feel that harmony and balance between those two character.

Chinese people influence heavily by the philosophy of Confucism and Taoism. The relationship of Chinese house and its garden apply a Chinese traditional philosophy, the YinYang principle. Yin-Yan was regarded as a universal principle pervading all things, whether in the realm of physical nature or in the human spirit. This philosophical principle expresses itself in two opposite aspects: the negative and the positive force, the passive and the active

element, the voids and the solids, the water and the rock. These two opposites harmoniously juxtapose themselves inside all things. The Chinese architecture, which is ordered, unmoving, restrained and solid, presents the Yan character. The Chinese garden, which is free, irregular, changing and voidness, displays the Yin character. The private Chinese garden is not a subsidiary place, but a necessary counterpart to the house.

Scale
A Chinese garden was enclosed by the architectural structures, creating a limit to the outside. On the inside, there is no obvious boundary between the Chinese garden and the Chinese architecture; in other words, there is no limit between the Chinese garden space and the Chinese architecture space. The garden become part of the architecture. There is no Chinese garden without architecture, and there is no architecture without garden. Chinese architecture and its garden are dependent on each other. A Chinese is enclosed and defined by the walls, the pavilions, the covered walking galleries and other architectural features. Chinese garden is a space to accommodate the various functional requirements. The structures were arranged at ground level, they have more opportunities to directly contact the garden. Chinese architecture was not so impressive as that of a great edifice because it is low, small, and light gray in color. Chinese architecture and Chinese garden are enclosed inside a limited space. In order to avoid the feeling of confinement, Chinese architecture presents a carefully calculated layout. Buildings are often arranged along the boundary of the site to conceal the boundary walls. In addition, this kind of layout prevents the architecture from separating the entire Chinese garden into several disconnected sections. Instead it creates a relatively more concentrated and larger garden area to match the scale of the architecture.

Transitional Space

Passing from the interior of a Chinese architecture to its garden, one experiences an ordered sequence of spaces, from fully enclosed, to sheltered, to hall sheltered, and finally, to open. The changing is gradually through the transition area to avoid sudden interrupt. The first transitional space from the Chinese architecture to the Chinese garden is the verandah. Almost all Chinese architecture as surrounded by verandahs. The verandah is the open area under a broad eave around a building. The structure belong both the exterior and interior space so that it become transition area. The function of verandah is to connect the Chinese building with the outside natural world, the garden. Since it expose directly to outside on all side, verandah can also consider as exterior area. By the way verandah protect from sunshine and rain so it can consider as interior space as well. As a space that is either interior or exterior, the verandah blurs the boundary between architectural and garden space.

The walking gallery, or covered walk, or lang is the second transitional space between the Chinese architectural and Chinese gardens space. The function of walking gallery is connects different building below shelter. The walking gallery can be seen as the

extension of verandah. It also provide view to garden under the shelter. The walking gallery commonly build in irregular form rather than straight line and it cross over the garden area. In other word, visitor can directly touch with natural environment. One can look into garden in a close range, keep in touch and away from the disturbing of weather. We can say that it is a entrance from man made world into nature realm. Another architectural feature with which residents can touch their natural environment with cover is the pavilion. The pavilion, Chinese word Ting, originated phonetically from a Chinese word meaning stop. This etymology clearly indicates that a pavilion is a place to stop, and have a rest. Pavilion is often a completely open space, only pillars support the roof so that dont block the view. The pavilion is very interesting and freely architectural feature. The pavilion can be any shape: octagonal, square, half round, etc. It can attach to other architectural feature or freestanding. It is hard to define that whether pavilion is a sheltered garden or extension of other architectural feature. garden or extension of other architecture feature. The transition area serve as buffer between the building and garden so that the visitor wont feel sudden change. They play very important role in connection between building and garden to achieve balance and unity.

Boundlessness
In traditional Chinese garden, the supporting elements and enclosing elements are separate. The pillars support the weight of roof and that wall only serve as screening purpose and completely free. In other word, door and window of any size can pierced on the wall follow the will of designer. This kind of architectural structure enables architectural space to be penetrated by the garden space to a great extent.

In Chinese architecture , a window only open when the view outside is worth. The

outside window scene can be borrowed and framed with the window just like the landscape painting hanging in interior space. Inside Chinese garden, the architecture functions not only as garden viewing point but also essential component of garden. A landscape scene in Chinese garden without architecture will seem lack of something. Thus, looking through the open windows or doors, one will perceive the other buildings on the side of a artificial mountain, or on the water side, or at the other end of a walking gallery, instead of seeing just pure natural features. In addition, even though the shapes and settings of the architecture could be different, their repetition on the landscape creates a strong unity among the various garden scenes.

Courtyard
A courtyard inside Chinese architecture is the transition space from a building to garden space. A Chinese courtyard is regarded as the extension of the architectural interior space. Various halls, apartments, walking galleries and pavilions could be found anywhere inside a Chinese garden. It may seem at first that the architectural features are invading the natural beauty of the scene. However, the natural space, in turn, penetrates architectural spaces in different ways. The clearest and the most obvious example occur when the different sizes of Chinese courtyards are inserted inside the architectural space.

Stone table, benches, lantern are assembled in the courtyard to support the outdoor activities. The courtyard satisfy the owners functional need and show the sense of nature by rock and water at the same time. Thus, the courtyard can see as outdoor living area in garden space. After passing a few Chinese courtyard, one will not feel abrupt to enter the garden area. There are many tiny courtyard attach to the side of room that doesnt face the large courtyard. These tiny courtyard fulfill the requirement of ventilation and lighting of the building. Not only does the tiny courtyard provide beautiful views, but it also offers other satisfaction for the residents. The fragrance of the plant and the noise of raindrops coming from the tiny courtyard create a highly poetic atmosphere. Moreover, the slathering of the leaves swaying in the wind inside the tiny courtyard is reminiscent of the feeling of thatching in a remote mountain. The platter landscape was considered as necessary component of the interior space in China. The platter landscape is a recreated natural landscape on a greatly diminished scale. It is praised as living sculpture and treated as a miniature garden inside the room. From the five holy mountains, to accessible artificial mountains inside the Chinese garden, to the pieces of rock and plant inside the Chinese courtyard, and finally to the platter

landscape inside the room, nature was gradually incorporated into Chinese architecture.

Gray Tone
In Western garden design, colour consider as a essential medium to express their idea in their design. Different from that, colour is the least important element in Chinese garden. The Chinese landscape painters show a great capacity for presenting spiritualized landscape with one colour cover to other colour. Chinese landscape painting influence the design heavily so it is often see that gray tone also apply on all feature inside Chinese garden. The gray colour show the simplicity and modest of garden. Architectural feature also apply to this concept. The wall Masonry walls are always white, or light gray, roof tiles are blue black, and columns are painted dark brown. Thus, the building and its garden are harmoniously juxtaposed together under a restrained subtle gray tone.

The white wall serve as the background of the garden thus rocks and trees often arranged in front of it. In the morning mist, the white wall might seem to have unseen, leaving the rocks and trees in front of a misty blank background. The white wall function as the white paper using in landscape painting that capture the scene. The shadow of tree and rock look like the black ink brushes. The scene become more picturesque when view through a window or pivoting door or moon gate. Through its gray white color, masonry walls of

Chinese architecture merge into their natural environment and whole view just same as the Chinese landscape painting.

Feng Shui
Concepts from feng shui geomancy and mythic elements of daoism are usually present in the construction and layout of Chinese architecture, from common residences to imperial and religious structures. Base on their belief, a proper arrangement of elements will protect them from evil spirit and bring luck to them. The orientation, colour and other factor will effect the arrangement of architecture feature.

Conclusion
Architectural maybe not the crucial element for other type of garden, but it is an essential element of Chinese garden. Architectural represent the human intelligent to survive from nature since the ancient time. Human using various kind of material to construct a structure to make a man made environment, different from the nature. By the way, Chinese able to combine architectural feature with natural elements to achieve balance and produce a harmony in their garden.