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PROJEECT REPORT Project

machine

Development of PLC program for a lathe


Name-Amit Kumar Section-RE28T3B41 Regd.No.-10800433

CONTENT
BHEL- AN Overview

Introduction to manual lathe

Operation of a lathe

Disadvantage of hard wired logic

CNC machine

Introduction to PLC

I/O devices

BHEL AN OVERVIEW
BHEL is the largest engineering and manufacturing enterprise in India in the energy related infrastructure sector today. BHEL was established more than 40 years ago when its first plant was setup in Bhopal ushering in the indigenous Heavy Electrical Equipment Industry in India a dream which has been more than realized with a well recognized track record of performance it has been earning profits continuously since 1971-72. BHEL caters to core sectors of the Indian Economy viz., Power Generation's & Transmission, Industry, Transportation, Telecommunication, Renewable Energy, Defense, etc. The wide network of BHEL's 14 manufacturing division, four power Sector regional centres, over 150 project sites, eight service centres and 18 regional offices, enables the Company to promptly serve its customers and provide them with suitable products, systems and services efficiently and at competitive prices. BHEL has already attained ISO 9000 certification for quality management, and ISO 14001 certification for environment management.

POWER GENERATION
Power generation sector comprises thermal, gas, hydro and nuclear power plant business as of 31.03.2001, BHEL supplied sets account for nearly 64737 MW or 65% of the total installed capacity of 99,146 MW in the country, as against nil till 1969-70. BHEL has proven turnkey capabilities for executing power projects from concept to commissioning, it possesses the technology and capability to produce thermal sets with super critical parameters up to 1000 MW unit rating and gas turbine generator sets of up to 240 MW unit rating. Co-generation and combined-cycle plants have been introduced to achieve

higher plant efficiencies. to make efficient use of the high-ash-content coal available
in India, BHEL supplies circulating fluidized bed combustion boilers to both thermal and combined cycle power plants. The company manufactures 235 MW nuclear turbine generator sets and has commenced

production of 500 MW nuclear turbine generator sets. Custom made hydro sets of Francis, Pelton and Kapian types for different head discharge combination are also engineering and manufactured by BHEL. In all, orders for more than 700 utility sets of thermal, hydro, gas and nuclear have been placed on the Company as on date. The power plant equipment manufactured by BHEL is based on contemporary technology comparable to the best in the world and is also internationally competitive. The Company has proven expertise in Plant Performance Improvement through renovation modernisation and uprating of a variety of power plant equipment besides specialised know how of residual life assessment, health diagnostics and life extension of plants.

POWER TRANSMISSION & DISTRIBUTION (T & D)


BHEL offer wide ranging products and systems for T & D applications. Products manufactured include power transformers, instrument transformers, dry type transformers, series and stunt reactor, capacitor tanks, vacuum and SF circuit breakers gas insulated switch gears and insulators. A strong engineering base enables the Company to undertake turnkey delivery of electric substances up to 400 kV level series compensation systems (for increasing power transfer capacity of transmission lines and improving system stability and voltage regulation), shunt compensation systems (for power factor and voltage improvement) and HVDC systems (for economic transfer of bulk power). BHEL has indigenously developed the state-of-the-art controlled shunt reactor (for reactive power management on long transmission lines). Presently a 400 kV Facts (Flexible AC Transmission System) project under execution.

INDUSTRIES
BHEL is a major contributor of equipment and systems to industries, cement, sugar, fertilizer, refinances, petrochemicals, paper, oil and gas, metallurgical and other process industries. The range of system & equipment supplied includes: captive power plants, co-generation plants DG power plants, industrial steam turbines, industrial boilers and auxiliaries. Wate heat recovery

boilers, gas turbines, heat exchangers and pressure vessels, centrifugal compressors, electrical machines, pumps, valves, seamless steel tubes, electrostatic precipitators, fabric filters, reactors, fluidized bed combustion boilers, chemical recovery boilers and process controls. The Company is a major producer of large-size thruster devices. It also supplies digital distributed control systems for process industries, and control & instrumentation systems for power plant and industrial applications. BHEL is the only company in India with the capability to make simulators for power plants, defense and other applications. The Company has commenced manufacture of large desalination plants to help augment the supply of drinking water to people.

TELECOMMUNICATION
BHEL also caters to Telecommunication sector by way of small, medium and large switching systems.

RENEWABLE ENERGY
Technologies that can be offered by BHEL for exploiting non-conventional and renewable sources of energy include: wind electric generators, solar photovoltaic systems, solar lanterns and battery-powered road vehicles. The Company has taken up R&D efforts for development of multi-junction amorphous silicon solar cells and fuel based systems.

INTERNATIONAL OPERATIONS
BHEL has, over the years, established its references in around 60 countries of the world, ranging for the United States in the West to New Zealand in the Far East. These references encompass almost the entire product range of BHEL, covering turnkey power projects of thermal, hydro and gas-based types, substation projects, rehabilitation projects, besides a wide variety of products, like transformers, insulators, switchgears, heat exchangers, castings and forgings, valves, well-head equipment, centrifugal compressors, photo-voltaic equipment etc. Apart from over 1110MW of boiler capacity contributed in Malaysia, and execution of four prestigious power projects in Oman, Some of the other major successes achieved by the Company have been in Australia, Saudi Arabia, Libya, Greece, Cyprus, Malta, Egypt, Bangladesh, Azerbaijan, Sri

Lanka, Iraq etc. The Company has been successful in meeting demanding customer's requirements in terms of complexity of the works as well as technological, quality and other requirements viz extended warrantees, associated O&M, financing packages etc. BHEL has proved its capability to undertake projects on fast-track basis. The company has been successful in meeting varying needs of the industry, be it captive power plants, utility power generation or for the oil sector requirements. Executing of Overseas projects has also provided BHEL the experience of working with world renowned Consulting Organisations and inspection Agencies. In addition to demonstrated capability to undertake turnkey projects on its own, BHEL possesses the requisite flexibility to interface and complement with International companies for large projects by supplying complementary equipment and meeting their production needs for intermediate as well as finished products. The success in the area of rehabilitation and life extension of power projects has established BHEL as a comparable alternative to the original equipment manufactures (OEMs) for such plants.

TECHNOLOGY UPGRADATION AND RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT


To remain competitive and meet customers' expectations, BHEL lays great emphasis on the continuous upgradation of products and related technologies, and development of new products. The Company has upgraded its products to contemporary levels through continuous in house efforts as well as through acquisition of new technologies from leading engineering organizations of the world. The Corporate R&D Division at Hyderabad, spread over a 140 acre complex, leads BHEL's research efforts in a number of areas of importance to BHEL's product range. Research and product development centers at each of the manufacturing divisions play a complementary role. BHEL's Investment in R&D is amongst the largest in the corporate sector in India. Products developed in-house during the last five years contributed about 8.6% to the revenues in 20002001.

BHEL has introduced, in the recent past, several state-of-the-art products developed in-house: low-NQx oil / gas burners, circulating fluidized bed combustion boilers, high-efficiency Pelton hydro turbines, petroleum depot automation systems, 36 kV gas-insulated sub-stations, etc. The Company has also transferred a few technologies developed in-house to other Indian companies for commercialisation. Some of the on-going development & demonstration projects include: Smant wall blowing system for cleaning boiler soot deposits, and micro-controller based governor for diesel-electric locomotives. The company is also engaged in research in futuristic areas, such as application of super conducting materials in power generations and industry, and fuel cells for distributed, environment-friendly power generation.

POWER TRANSMISSION & DISTRIBUTION


In the T&D sector, BHEL is both a leading equipment-manufacturer and a systemintegrator. BHEL-manufactured T&D products have a proven track record in India and abroad. In the area of T&D systems, BHEL provides turnkey solutions to utilities. Substations and shunt compensation installations set up by BHEL are in operation all over the country. EHV level series compensation schemes have been installed in KSEB, MSEB, SMPSEB and POWERGRID networks. Complete HVDC systems can be delivered by BHEL. The technology for state-of-theart Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS) is being developed.

TRANSPORTATION
In the transportation filed, product range covers: AC locomotives, AC/DC dual-voltage locomotives, diesel-electric shunting locomotives, traction motors and transformers, traction elections and controls for AC, DC and dual voltage EMUs, diesel-electric multiple units, diesel power car and diesel electric locomotives, battery-powered vehicles. A high percentage of the trains operated by Indian Railways are equipped with traction equipment and controls manufactured and supplied by BHEL.

TURBINE AND AUXILIARY BLOCK-III


1.0
1.1

GENERAL
Block-III manufactures Steam Turbines, Hydro Turbines, Gas Turbines and Turbines Blades. Special Toolings for all products are also manufactured in the Tool Room located in the same block. Equipment layout plan is a per Drawing appended in Section III. Details of facilities are given in Section II.

1.2

The Block consists of four Bays, namely, Bay-I and II of size 36x378 metres and 36x400 metres respectively and Bay-III and IV of size 24x402 metres and 24x381 metres respectively. The Block is equipped with the facilities of EOT Cranes, compressed air, Steam, Overspeed Balancing Tunnel, indicating stands for steam turbine, rotors, one Test stand for testing 210 MW steam turbines Russian Design, one Test Stand for Hydro Turbine Guide Apparatus and two separate Test Stands for the testing of Governing Assemblies of Steam and Hydro Turbines.

1.3

All the parts are conserved, painted and packed before dispatch.

2.0

MANUFACTURING FACILITIES HYDRO TURBINES


For manufacturing of Hydro Turbines, Bay-I has the following sections:

2.1

(a)

Circular Components Machining Section This section is equipped with a


number of large/ heavy size Horizontal and Vertical Boring Machines, Drilling Machines, Centre Lathes, Marking Table and Assembly Bed. The major components machined in this section are Spiral Casing with Stay Ring, Spherical and Disc Valve bodies and Rotors.

(b)

Runner and Servo Motor Housing Machining Section This section is


equipped with NC/CNC and conventional machines comprising Heavy and Medium size vertical and Horizontal Boring Machines, Centre Lathes, Grinding machines and Drilling Machines, Marking Table, Assembly Bed, Assembly Stands for Steam Turbine and Gas Turbine assemblies and Wooden Platform for overturning heavy components. Hydro Turbine Runners Servomotors, cylinders, Labyrinth Ring, Regulating Ring, Stay Ring, Turbine Cover, Lower Ring, Kaplan Turbine Runner Body and Blades are machined here.

(c)

Guide Vanes and Shaft Machining Section This section is equipped with
Heavy duty Lathe machines upto 16 metres bed, CNC turning machines, Horizontal Boring Machine, Heavy planer, Deep Drilling Machine, Boring Machines, marking Table, Marking Machines and Assembly Beds. Turbine shafts, Guide Vanes, Journals and Rotors of Spherical and Disc Valves are machined here. Rotors of Steam Turbines are also machined in this section.

(d)

Assembly Section In this section, assembly and testing of Guide Apparatus, Disc
Valve, Spherical Valves, Servo motor shaft and combined Boring of coupling holes are

done.

(e)

Preservation and Packing Section Final preservation and packing of all the
Hydro Turbine components / assemblies is done here.

(f)

Small components Machining Section This is equipped with Planetary Grinding


Machine, Cylindrical Grinding Machines, small size Lathes, Planers, Vertical and Horizontal Boring Machines. Small components like Bushes, Levers, Flanges etc. and Governing assemblies and machines here.

(g)

Governing Elements Assembly and Test Stand Section This section is


equipped with facilities like oil Pumping Unit, Pressure Receiver, Servomotors etc. for assembly and Testing of Governing Elements.

2.2

STEAM TURBINES
as follows:

The facilities and parts manufactured in the various sections of Steam Turbine manufacture are

(a)

Turbine casing Machining Section It is equipped with large size Planer, Drilling,
Horizontal Boring, Vertical Boring, CNC Horizontal and Vertical Boring machines etc. Fabrication work like casings, Pedestals etc. are received from Fabrication Block-II.

(b)

Rotor Machining Section It is equipped with large size machining tools like
Turning Lathe, CNC Lathes, Horizontal Boring Machines, special purpose Fir tree Groove Milling Machine etc. Some rotor forgings are imported from Russia and Germany and some are indigenously manufactured at CFFP, BHEL, Hardwar.

(c)

Rotor Assembly Section This is equipped with Indicating Stand, Small size
Grinding, Milling, Drilling, machines, Press and other devices for fitting Rotors and Discs. Machined Rotor, Discs and Blades are assembled here. Balancing and over speeding of Rotor is done on the dynamic balancing machine.

(d)

Turbine casing Assembly Section Machined casings are assembled and


hydraulically tested by Reciprocating Pumps at two times the operating pressure.

Introduction to manual lathe


A lathe is a machine tool which rotates the workpiece on its axis to perform various operations such as cutting, sanding, knurling, drilling, or deformation with tools that are applied to the workpiece to create an object which has symmetry about an axis of rotation. It depend on hard wired logic. Lathes are used in woodturning, metalworking, metal spinning, and glass working. Lathes can be used to shape pottery, the best-known design being the potter's wheel. Most suitably equipped metalworking lathes can also be used to produce most solids of revolution, plane surfaces and screw threads or helices. Ornamental lathes can produce three-dimensional solids of incredible complexity. The material can be held in place by either one or two centers, at least one of which can be moved horizontally to accommodate varying material lengths. Other work holding methods include clamping the work about the axis of rotation using a chuck or collet, or to a faceplate, using clamps.

Operations of lathe Turning:


This is most basic and important lathe operation. It can be said that, Turning is the operation which has brought lathe into existence. Job is held at chuck and rotates at particular RPM. Tool held at tool post. With carriage assembly tool is fed into job parallel to axis of rotation of job. This operation is used to make job circular and to reduce the diameter of the job as per need.

Taper Turning:
This is similar to turning. Apart from turning, tool path cuts the axis of rotation of tool at a particular angle. This motion of tool is achieved through combined motions of carriage assembly and cross slide.

Facing Operation
Facing is the process of removing metal from the end of a workpiece to produce a flat surface. Most often, the workpiece is cylindrical, but using a 4-jaw chuck you can face rectangular or odd-shaped work to form cubes and other non-cylindrical shapes. When a lathe cutting tool removes metal it applies considerable tangential (i.e. lateral or sideways) force to the workpiece. To safely perform a facing operation the end of the workpiece must be positioned close to the jaws of the chuck. The workpiece should not extend more than 23 times its diameter from the chuck jaws unless a steady rest is used to support the free end.

Knurling
Knurling is not a cutting operation. Knurling is achieved using knurling tool. This tool has two wheels with slashed lines on it. This tool is pressed against rotating job to get knurled part. Knurling is achieved using plastic deformation of job material.

Drilling
Drilling at the lathe machine is achieved in bit different way than other lathe operations. Drilling tool is held in the tail stock and fed into job using handle on tailstock.

Threading
For threading operations to be done accurately, tool must be fed into job with constant speed. This constant motion is achieved by attaching carriage assembly with lead screw. Lead screw is connected to the driving mechanism through gear trains. So, for particular rpm of job there is constant rpm of lead screw. Threading is of two types viz. External Threading, Internal Threading.

a. External Threading
External threading is done by V shaped tool. It is easier than internal threading.

b. Internal Threading
Internal threading is also done by V shaped tool. But in this case tool is mounted on thin bar which can be able to go into bore of the workpiece where threading is to be done. Shaping tool for this operation is work of skilled worker.

Chamfering
Chamfering is slash cutting of the edges of the workpiece. It can be called as very small taper turning but still taper turning needs a lot more accuracy and skill than chamfering. Also, both have very different sets of uses.

Grooving
Grooving is generally needed to be done before external threading. In this, grooving tool is fed perpendicular to axis of rotation of job.

Parting
Parting is like that of grooving. Parting is done for cutting of job into part.

Disadvantage of hard wired logic


There are too many wiring work in the control panel. Modification can be quite difficult. Troubleshooting can be quite troublesome as you reauire a skillful person. Power consumption can be quite high as coils consume power. Machine downtime is usually long when problem occur, as it take the long time to troubleshoot the problem.

INTRODUCTION OF CNC
Development of computer numerically controlled (CNC) machines is an outstanding contribution to the manufacturing industries. It has made possible the automation of the machining process with flexibility to handle small to medium batch of quantities in part production. Initially, the CNC technology was applied on basic metal cutting machine like lathes, milling machines, etc. Later, to increase the flexibility of the machines in handling a variety of components and to finish them in a single setup on the same machine, CNC machines capable of performing multiple operations were developed. To start with, this concept was applied to develop a CNC machining centre for machining prismatic components combining operations like

milling, drilling, boring and taping. Further, the concept of multi-operations was also extended for machining cylindrical components, which led to the development of turning centers.

ADVANTAGE OF CNC MACHINES


Higher flexibility Increased productivity Consistent quality Reduced scrap rate Reliable operation Reduced non productive time Reduced manpower Shorter cycle time High accuracy Reduced lead time Just in time (JIT) manufacture Automatic material handling Lesser floor space Increased operation safety Machining of advanced material

CNC SYSTEMS INTRODUCTION


Numerical control (NC) is a method employed for controlling the motions of a machine tool slide and its auxiliary functions with input in the form of numerical data. A computer numerical control (CNC) is a microprocessor-based system to store and process the data for the control of slide motions and auxiliary functions of the machine tools. The CNC system is the heart and brain of a CNC machine which enables the operation of various machine members such as slides, spindles, etc. as per the sequence programmed into it, depending on the machining operations. The main advantage of a CNC system lies in the fact that the skills of the operator hitherto required in the operation of a conventional machine is removed and the part production is made automatic.

The CNC systems are constructed with a NC unit integrated with a programmable logic controller (PLC) and some times with an additional external PLC (non-integrated). The NC controls the spindle movement and the speeds and feeds in machining. It calculates the traversing path of the axes as defined by the inputs. The PLC controls the peripheral actuating elements of the machine such as solenoids, relay coils, etc. Working together, the NC and PLC enable the machine tool to operate automatically. Positioning and part accuracy depend on the CNC system's computer control algorithms, the system resolution and the basic mechanical machine accuracy. Control algorithm may cause errors while computing, which will reflect during contouring, but they are very negligible. Though this does not cause point to point positioning error, but when mechanical machine inaccuracy are present, it will result in poorer part accuracy. This chapter gives an overview of the configuration of the CNC system, interfacing and introduction to PLC programming.

CONFIGURATION OF THE CNC SYSTEM


CNC system P L C Servo Command Drive value Servo Motor Spindle Head Encoder

N C

Velocity Feedback
Tape Reader Tape Punch Other Devices

Tacho Generator

Lead Screw

Work piece Table Position Feedback

Inputs Outpu ts Machine Elements

Proximity switches Limit switches Relay coils Pressure switches Float switches

Central Processing Unit (CPU)


The CPU is the heart and brain of a CNC system. It accepts the information stored in the memory as part program. This data is decoded and transformed into specific position control and velocity control signals. It also oversees the movement of the control axis or spindle whenever this does not match the programmed values, a corrective action is taken. All the compensations required for machine accuracy (like lead screw pitch error, tool wear out, backlash, etc.) are calculated by the CPU depending upon the corresponding inputs made available to the system. The same will be taken care of during the generation of control signals for the axis movement. Also, some safety checks are built into the system through this unit and the CPU unit will provide continuous necessary corrective actions. Whenever the situation goes beyond control of the CPU, it takes the final action of shutting down the system in turn the machine.

Speed Control Unit


This unit acts in unison with the CPU for the movement of the machine axes. The CPU sends the control signals generated for the movement of the axis to the servo control unit and the servo control unit convert these signals into the suitable digital or analog signal to be fed to the machine tool axis movement. This also checks whether machine tool axis movement is at the same speed as directed by the CPU. In case any safety conditions related to the axis are overruled during movement or otherwise they are reported to the CPU for corrective action.

Servo-Control Unit
The decoded position and velocity control signals, generated by the CPU for the axis movement forms the input to the servo-control unit. This unit in turn generates suitable signals as command values. The servo-drive unit converts the command values, which are interfaced with the axis and the spindle motors The servo-control unit receives the position feedback signals for actual movement of the machine tool axes from the feedback devices (like linear scales, rotary encoders, resolves, etc.). The velocity feedback is generally obtained through tacho generators. The feedback signals are

passed on to the CPU for further processing. Thus the servo-control unit performs the data communication between the machine tool and the CPU. As explained earlier, the actual movements of the slides on the machine tool is achieved through servo drives. The amount of movement and the rate of movement are controlled by the CNC system depending upon the type of feedback system used, i.e. closed-loop or open-loop system

Closed-loop System
The closed-loop system is characterized by the presence of feedback. In this system, the CNC system send out commands for movement and the result is continuously monitored by the system through various feedback devices. There are generally two types of feedback to a CNC system -position feedback and velocity feedback.

DIFERENT CNC MACHINES USED AT BHEL FOR MILLING, TURNING, FACING, BORING, DRILLING AND OTHER MANUFACTURING TECHNIQUES OF THEIR PRODUTS. 1) CNC MILLING MACHINES
Item Description Model Supplier CNC Control System Table Traverse : : : : : : CNC Horz. Milling M/c (6 Nos.) BFH-15 BATLIBOI, INDIA SINUMERIK 810 M 1500 x 400 mm X=1170 mm Y=420 mm Z=420 mm

Spindle Speed Power Rating Max. Load Capacity Weight of the m/c

: : : :

45 to 2000 RPM 11 KW 630 Kg 4200 Kg

2) CNC HORIZONTAL BORERS: Item Description Model Supplier CNC Control System Spindle Dia. Table Max. Load on Table Travers Ram traverse Swing Over Bed Spindle Speed Power Rating Weight of the Job Weight of the m/c : : : : : : : : : : : : : : CNC Horz. Borer RAPID 6C WOTN, GERMANY FANUC 12M 200mm 4000 x 4000 mm 100 T X=20000, Y=5000, X=1400mm W = 1000 mm 2400 mm 0 125 RPM 92 KW 110 TON 124 TON

3) CNC SURFACE BROACHING M/C


Make : Marbaix Lapointe, UK

Model CNC System

: :

Champion 32 /10, 300 SINUMERIC 850 M 320 KN 10.3 mm 1500 mm 9650 mm 1-25 M/min 60 M/min 135 KW

Broaching capacity (pulling force) : Broaching slide stroke Broaching slide width : :

Max tool length (continuous /row) : Broaching Speed (cutting stroke) : Broaching Speed (return stroke) Drive power rating : :

4)

CNC VERTICAL BORERS Item Description Model Supplier CNC Control System Table dia Turning dia Turning Height Spindle Speed No. of Ram Power Rating Max. Load Capacity Machine Weight : : : : : : : : : : : : CNC Vertical Borer TMD 40 / 50 OSAKA MACHINES, JAPAN FANUC 6TB, 3TC 4000 mm 5000 mm 4200 mm 0.23-30 RPM 2 75 KW 70T 100 T : 2200 mm

Max. Ram Travel (Vertical)

5)

CNC LATHES Items Description Model Supplier CNC Control System Centre Distance Swing Over Carriage Swing Over Bed Spindle Speed Power Rating : : : : : : : : : CNC Centre Lathe D-1800 NYF HOESCH MFD, GERMANY SINUMERIK 3T 8000 mm 1800 mm 2400 mm 0 125 RPM 92 KW

Programmable Logic Controller (PLC)


A PLC matches the NC to the machine. PLCs were basically introduced as replacement for hard wired relay control panels. They were developed to be reprogrammed without hardware changes when requirements were altered and thus are reusable. PLCs are now available with incresed functions, more memory and large input/output capabilities. In the CPU, all the decisions are made relative to controlling a machine or a process. The CPU receives input data, performs logical decisions based upon stored programs and drives the outputs. Connections to a computer for hierarchical control are done via the CPU. The I/O structure of the PLCs is one of their major strengths. The inputs can be push buttons, limit switches, relay contacts, analog sensor, selector switches, proximity switches, float switches, etc. The outputs can be motor starters, solenoid valves, position valves, relay coils, indicator lights, LED displays, etc. The field devices are typically selected, supplied and installed by the machine tool builder or the end user. The voltage level of the field devices thus normally determines the type of I/O. So, power to actuate these devices must also be supplied external to the PLC. The PLC power supply is designated and rated only to operate the

internal portions of the I/O structures, and not the field devices. A wide variety of voltages, current capacities and types of I/O modules are available.

I/O Devices Input Devices PROXIMITY SWITCH-- A proximity switch is a sensor that can detect objects without
making physical contact. In order to effectively sense such objects, the switch must be in close proximity to the object.

PUSH BUTTON--

A manual control device that opens or closes a circuit when pressed.

Pushbuttons can be normally open or normally closed.

KEY OPERATED SWITCH-- A key switch is a switch that can be activated only by
a key. Key switches are usually used in situations where access needs to be restricted to the switch's functions.

FLOW SWITCH--

A type of switch that detects the movement of air or liquid in a duct

or pipe. The flow switch symbol has a flag or paddle shape that represents either an air flow switch or a liquid flow switch.

FLOAT SWITCH-- A type of switch that controls the action of a pump as it relates to the
level of liquid in a tank. The float switch symbol has a circle connected to a line that represents a ball float

PRESSURE SWITCH-- A type of switch that senses the pressure in a pneumatic or


hydraulic system. The pressure switch symbol has a semi-circle connected to a line that represents the diaphragm.

SELECTOR SWITCH-- A type of switch that can be turned to different positions to


make a connection with the contacts in that particular position.

LATCHING SWITCH-- A latching switch is a switch that maintains its state after being
activated. A push-to-make, push-to-break switch would therefore be a latching switch - each time you actuate it, whichever state the switch is left in will persist until the switch is actuated again.

NON LATCHING SWITCH-- A non-latching switch returns to the original state after
being pressed

Output Devices RELAY-- A relay is an electrically operated switch. Many relays use an electromagnet to
operate a switching mechanism mechanically, but other operating principles are also used. Relays are used where it is necessary to control a circuit by a low-power signal (with complete electrical isolation between control and controlled circuits), or where several circuits must be controlled by one signal.

CONTACTOR-- A contactor is an electrically controlled switch used for switching


a power circuit, similar to a relay except with higher current ratings.A contactor is controlled by a circuit which has a much lower power level than the switched circuit.

SOLENOID-- A solenoid is a coil wound into a tightly packed helix. In physics, the term
solenoid refers to a long, thin loop of wire, often wrapped around a metallic core, which produces a magnetic field when an electric current is passed through it. Solenoids are important because they can create controlled magnetic fields and can be used as electromagnets.

PLC Programming
The principle of operation of a PLC is determined essentially by the PLC program memory, processor, inputs and outputs. The program that determines PLC operation is stored in the internal PLC program memory. The PLC operates cyclically, i.e. when a complete program has been scanned, it starts again at the beginning of the program. At the beginning of each cycle, the processor examines the signal status at all inputs as well as the external timers and counters and are stored in a process image input (PII). During subsequent program scanning, the processor the accesses this process image. To execute the program, the processor fetches one statement after another from the programming memory and executes it. The results are constantly stored in the process image output (PIO) during the cycle. At the end of a scanning cycle, i.e. program completion, the processor transfers the contents of the process image output to the output modules and to the external timers and counters. The processor then begins a new program scan. STEP 5 programming language is used for writing user programs for SIMATIC S5 programmable controllers. The program can be written and entered into the programmable controller as in:

Statement list (STL), Fig.A (a) Control system flowchart (CSF), Fig.A (b) Ladder diagram (LAD), Fig.A (c) I 2.3 Statement list STL A I A I O I = Q A I 2.3 4.1 3.2 1.6 2.3 Statement (a) I 4.1 I 3.2 A N D O R (b) Control system flow chart CSF

Q 1.6

(c) Ladder diagram I 2.3LAD I 4.1

Operatio n

A I

2.3 2. 3

Operand Paramet er

I 3.2