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1. (a) 2, 2, 2, 2 p. 158

(b) 3, 3, 3, 3

1. (a) T(1) = 5(1) = 5

(c) 5, 5, 5, 5

T(2) = 5(2) = 10

(d) –5, –5, –5, –5 T(3) = 5(3) = 15

2. They are equal. T(4) = 5(4) = 20

1. (a) S(10) = 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 + 7 + 8 + 9 + 10 T(2) = 22 – 1 = 3

(b) S(10) = 55 T(3) = 32 – 1 = 8

T(4) = 42 – 1= 15

2. No

1

Activity 14.3 (p. 198) 1 1

(c) T(1) = =

3 3

1 Range of R R n Rn

2

. 256 1 1

(or any other T(2) = =

8 3 9

reasonable

–2 3

answers) 1 1

(or any T(3) = =

–32 768

R < –1 other 3 27

(or any other

reasonable 15 4

reasonable 1 1

answers) T(4) = =

answers) 3 81

very very large or

large very small

2. (a) (i) 21, 26

1

(or any

8 256 (ii) ∵ T(1) = 1 = 5(1) – 4

1 other reasonable T(2) = 6 = 5(2) – 4

2 answers) T(3) = 11 = 5(3) – 4

(or any 1 T(4) = 16 = 5(4) – 4

–1 < R < 1 (or any

other

15

32 768 ∴ T(n) = 5n − 4

reasonable other reasonable

answers) answers) (iii) ∵ T(n) = 5n – 4

very very close to ∴ T(10) = 5(10) – 4 = 46

large zero and T(15) = 5(15) – 4 = 71

256 (or any ∴ The 10th term and the 15th term of the

8 other reasonable sequence are 46 and 71 respectively.

2

answers)

(or any

32 768 (or any (b) (i) 81, 243

R>1 other

15 other reasonable

reasonable

answers) (ii) ∵ T(1) = 1 = 31 – 1

answers)

very T(2) = 3 = 32 – 1

very large T(3) = 9 = 33 – 1

large

T(4) = 27 = 34 – 1

2. (a) very large or very small n −1

∴ T(n) = 3

(b) very close to zero

(iii) ∵ T(n) = 3n – 1

Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 5A

and T(15) = 315 – 1 = 314 = log 2

∴ The 10th term and the 15th term of the ∴ It is an arithmetic sequence with common

sequence are 39 and 314 respectively. difference log 2.

(c) (i) , difference respectively.

32 64

∵ a = 2 and d = 5 – 2 = 3

∴ T(n) = a + (n – 1)d

1 1

(ii) ∵ T(1) = = = 2 + (n – 1)(3)

2 21 = 3n – 1

1 1 ∴ T(12) = 3(12) – 1

T(2) = = 2

4 2 = 35

1 1

T(3) = = 3

8 2 (b) Let a and d be the first term and the common

1 1 difference respectively.

T(4) = = ∵ a = 10 and d = 14 – 10 = 4

16 2 4

∴ T(n) = a + (n – 1)d

1 = 10 + (n – 1)(4)

∴ T(n) = n

2 = 6 + 4n

∴ T(12) = 6 + 4(12)

1 = 54

(iii) ∵ T(n) =

2n

1 1 (c) Let a and d be the first term and the common

∴ T(10) = 10 = difference respectively.

2 1024

∵ a = 6 and d = 4 – 6 = –2

1 1 ∴ T(n) = a + (n – 1)d

and T(15) = 15 =

2 32 768 = 6 + (n – 1)(–2)

∴ The 10th term and the 15th term of the = 8 – 2n

1 1 ∴ T(12) = 8 – 2(12)

sequence are and

1024 32 768 = −16

respectively.

(d) Let a and d be the first term and the common

p. 165 difference respectively.

∵ a = –25 and d = –22 – (–25) = 3

1. (a) T(2) – T(1) = 3 – 1 = 2

T(3) – T(2) = 5 – 3 = 2 ∴ T(n) = a + (n – 1)d

T(4) – T(3) = 7 – 5 = 2 = –25 + (n – 1)(3)

∴ It is an arithmetic sequence with common = 3n – 28

difference 2. ∴ T(12) = 3(12) – 28

=8

(b) T(2) – T(1) = –10 – (–13) = 3

T(3) – T(2) = –7 – (–10) = 3 3. (a) Let a and d be the first term and the common

T(4) – T(3) = –4 – (–7) = 3 difference respectively.

∴ It is an arithmetic sequence with common T(9) = a + 8d = 22 ……(1)

difference 3. T(13) = a + 12d = 34 ……(2)

(2) – (1), 4d = 12

(c) T(2) – T(1) = 4 – 2 = 2 d=3

T(3) – T(2) = 8 – 4 = 4 ≠ 2 By substituting d = 3 into (1), we have

∴ It is not an arithmetic sequence. a + 8(3) = 22

a = –2

(d) T(2) – T(1) = log 4 – log 2 ∴ The first term and the common difference are –2

= 2 log 2 – log 2 and 3 respectively.

= log 2

T(3) – T(2) = log 8 – log 4 (b) T(n) = a + (n – 1)d

= 3 log 2 – 2 log 2 = –2 + (n – 1)(3)

= log 2 = −5 + 3n

T(4) – T(3) = log 16 – log 8

(c) ∵ T(k) = 73

14 Arithmetic and Geometric Sequences and their Summation

k = 26 13 and 15.

4. (a) T(n) = a + (n – 1)d

and 18 is the arithmetic mean between y and 22.

= –24 + (n – 1)(5)

6 + y .........(1)

= −29 + 5n x= 2

∴

y + 22

(b) T(7) = – 29 + 5(7) 18 = .........(2)

2

=6 From (2), we have

T(12) = – 29 + 5(12) 36 = y + 22

= 31 y = 14

By substituting y = 14 into (1), we have

(c) ∵ The mth term is the first positive term of the 6 + 14

sequence. x= 2

∴ T(m) > 0 = 10

i.e. – 29 + 5m > 0

29 p. 176

m>

5

∵ m is the number of terms, it must be an integer. T (2) 4

1. (a) = =2

∴ m =6 T (1) 2

T (3) 6 3

= = ≠2

p. 170 T (2) 4 2

∴ It is not a geometric sequence.

− 10 + (−2)

1. (a) Arithmetic mean = 2 T (2) −4 1

= –6 (b) = =

T (1) − 8 2

137 + 27 T (3) −2 1

= =

(b) Arithmetic mean = 2 T (2) − 4 2

= 82 T (4) −1 1

= =

T (3) − 2 2

2. (a) Let d1 be the common difference of the arithmetic ∴ It is a geometric sequence with common ratio

sequence to be formed.

1

The arithmetic sequence formed is: .

5, 5 + d1, 5 + 2d1, 17 2

∵ The 4th term is also given by 5 + 3d1.

∴ 5 + 3d1 = 17 T (2) 0.22 11

(c) = =

d1 = 4 T (1) 0.2 10

∴ The two required arithmetic means are 9 and 13. T (3) 0.222 111 11

= = ≠

T (2) 0.22 110 10

(b) Let d2 be the common difference of the arithmetic

sequence to be formed. ∴ It is not a geometric sequence.

The arithmetic sequence formed is:

5, 5 + d2, 5 + 2d2, 5 + 3d2, 17 T (2) log 9

(d) = =2

∵ The 5th term is also given by 5 + 4d2. T (1) log 3

∴ 5 + 4d2 = 17 T (3) log 27 3

d2 = 3 = = ≠2

∴ The three required arithmetic means are 8, 11 and T (2) log 9 2

14. ∴ It is not a geometric sequence.

(c) Let d3 be the common difference of the arithmetic 2. (a) Let a and R be the first term and the common

sequence to be formed. ratio respectively.

The arithmetic sequence formed is: 2

∵ a = 1 and R = = 2

5, 5 + d3, 5 + 2d3, 5 + 3d3, 5 + 4d3, 5 + 5d3, 17 1

∵ The 7th term is also given by 5 + 6d2. ∴ T(n) = aRn – 1

∴ 5 + 6d3 = 17 = 1(2)n – 1

d3 = 2 = 2n – 1

80

Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 5A

∴ T(6) = 26 – 1

= 32 4. (a) Let a and R be the first term and the common

ratio respectively.

T(3) = aR2 = 1 ………(1)

(b) Let a and R be the first term and the common

T(8) = aR7 = 243 ………(2)

ratio respectively.

(2) ÷ (1), R5 = 243

9

∵ a = 3 and R = = 3 R=3

3 By substituting R = 3 into (1), we have

∴ T(n) = aRn – 1 a(3)2 = 1

= 3(3)n – 1 1

= 3n a=

∴ T(6) = 36 9

1

= 729 ∴ The first term and the common ratio are and 3

9

(c) Let a and R be the first term and the common respectively.

ratio respectively.

(b) T(n) = aRn – 1

6

∵ a = –3 and R = = –2 1

−3 = ⋅ 3n – 1

n–1 9

∴ T(n) = aR

n −3

= –3(–2)n – 1 =3

3

= (–2)n

2 (c) T(7) + T(9) = 37 – 3 + 39 – 3

3 = 810

∴ T(6) = (–2)6

2

= 96 p. 181

1. (a) Geometric mean = 5 × 45

(d) Let a and R be the first term and the common

ratio respectively. = 15

−64 1

∵ a = 128 and R = =− (b) Geometric mean = − 12 × (−147)

128 2

∴ T(n) = aRn – 1 = 42

n −1

1 2. (a) Let R be the common ratio of the geometric

= 128 −

2 sequence to be formed.

n The geometric sequence formed is:

1

= –256 − 1 1 1 2 27

2 , R, R ,

2 2 2 16

6

1 1

∴ T(6) = –256 − ∵ The 4th term is also given by R3.

2 2

= −4 1 3 27

∴ R =

2 16

3. (a) Let a and R be the first term and the common 3

ratio respectively. R=

2

1 3 9

∵ a = –8, R = and T(n) = aRn – 1 ∴ The two required geometric means are and .

2 4 8

n −1

1

∴ T(n) = − 8

2 (b) Let r be the common ratio of the geometric sequence

= − 2 4− n to be formed.

The geometric sequence formed is:

3 3 3 2 3 3 2

(b) T(4) = –24 – 4 , r, r , r ,

8 8 8 8 27

= −1

3

T(6) = –24 – 6 ∵ The 5th term is also given by r4.

1 8

=− 3 4 2

4 ∴ r =

8 27

14 Arithmetic and Geometric Sequences and their Summation

r=± ∵ a = –7, d = –2 – (–7) = 5 and l = T(n) = 103

3

and T(n) = a + (n – 1)d

1 1

∴ The three required geometric means are , ∴ 103 = –7 + (n – 1)(5)

4 6 n – 1 = 22

1 1 1 1 n = 23

and or − , and − .

9 4 6 9 23(−7 + 103)

∴ S(23) =

2

3. ∵ x, x + 3, x + 9 are in geometric sequence. = 1104

∴ x + 3 is the geometric mean between x and x + 9.

∴ (x + 3)2 = x(x + 9)

(b) Let N be the number of terms that must be taken.

x + 6x + 9 = x2 + 9x

2

∵ a = –9, d = –2 – (–9) = 7 and S(n) = 1564

3x = 9

N

x =3 and S(n) = [2a + (N – 1)d]

2

N

p. 183 ∴ 1564 = [2(–9) + (N – 1)(7)]

2

1. (a) 1 + 3 + 5 + 7 + 9 3128 = 7N2 – 25N

7N2 – 25N – 3128 = 0

(b) 25

(N – 23)(7N + 136) = 0

136

2. (a) 2 + 4 + 8 + 16 + 32 + 64 N = 23 or − (rejected)

7

(b) 126 ∴ 23 terms of the arithmetic series must be taken.

3. (a) 1 + 4 + 9 + 16 + 25 + 36 + 49 4. (a) ∵ a = 1, l = 100 and n = 100

(b) 140 100(1 + 100)

∴ 1 + 2 + … + 100 = 2

p. 188 = 5050

1. (a) ∵ a = 1, d = 5 – 1 = 4 and n = 10 (b) Let n be the number of terms of the given series.

10 ∵ a = 3, d = 6 – 3 = 3 and l = T(n) = 99

∴ S(10) = [2(1) + (10 – 1)(4)]

2 and T(n) = a + (n – 1)d

= 190 ∴ 99 = 3 + (n – 1)(3)

n = 33

33(3 + 99)

(b) ∵ a = 3, d = 8 – 3 = 5 and n = 12 ∴ The required sum =

12 2

∴ S(12) = [2(3) + (12 – 1)(5)] = 1683

2

= 366 (c) The required sum

= sum of integers between 1 and 100 inclusive – sum

(c) ∵ a = 28, d = 26 – 28 = –2 and n = 15 of integers between 1 and 100 that are multiples of 3

15 = 5050 – 1683 (from (a) and (b))

∴ S(15) = [2(28) + (15 – 1)( –2)]

2 = 3367

= 210

p. 195

2. (a) ∵ a = –5, l = 9 and n = 8 1. (a) ∵ a = 3, R = 2 and n = 6

8( −5 + 9) 3( 2 6 − 1)

∴ S(8) =

2 ∴ S(6) =

2 −1

= 16 = 189

1

(b) ∵ a = 100, d = –4 and n = 12 (b) ∵ a = 39, R = and n = 8

3

12

∴ S(12) = [2(100) + (12 – 1)( –4)]

2

= 936

80

Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 5A

1 8 1

N

1

39 1 − <

3 3

19 683

∴ S(8) = 1 1

1

1− <

3 3 N 39

= 29 520 3 N > 39

N >9

2. (a) Let n be the number of terms of the given series. ∵ N is the least number and it is an integer.

512 1 ∴ N = 10

∵ a = 1024, R = = and T(n) = aRn – 1 = 8

1024 2 ∴ There should be at least 10 terms.

n −1

1

∴ 8 = 1024 p. 202

2

n −1

1 1 1

= 1. (a) ∵ a = 1 and R = 2 1

128 2 =

n=8 1 2

1

1 8 S (∞ ) = =2

1024 1 − ∴

1−

1

2 2

∴ S(8) = 1

1−

2 − 1

= 2040 1

(b) ∵ a = 1, R = 3

=−

1 3

(b) Let N be the number of terms that must be taken.

1 3

1 a (1 − R N ) 7 S (∞ ) = =

∵ a = 1024, R = and S(N) = = 2047 ∴ 1 4

2 1− R 8 1− −

3

1 N

1024 1 −

7 2 2. (a) 0.2 = 2222…

∴ 2047 =

8 1 − 12 = 0.2 + 0.02 + 0.002 + 0.0002 + …

0.2

1 1

N

=

2048 = 1 − 0.1

2

8 2

N = 14 =

9

∴ 14 terms of arithmetic series must be taken.

3. Let the least number of terms of the geometric series be N. (b) 0.2 4 = 0.242 424…

37 1 a (1 − R N ) = 0.24 + 0.0024 + 0.000 024 + …

∵ a = 38, R = 8 = and S ( N ) = > 9841 0.24

3 3 1− R =

1 N 1 − 0.01

38 1 − 8

3 =

> 9841 33

1

1−

3

1

39 1

N

∴ > 9841 3. (a) C2B2 = C1B1 (mid-pt. theorem)

1− 2

2 3

1

N B2A2 = B1A1 (mid-pt. theorem)

1 19 682 2

1− >

3

19 683 1

A2C2 = A1C1(mid-pt. theorem)

N 2

1 1

− > − ∴ Perimeter of △A2B2C2

3 19 683 1

= × perimeter of △A1B1C1

2

1

= (16 cm)

2

14 Arithmetic and Geometric Sequences and their Summation

= 8 cm T(2) = 2(2) + 3 = 7

Similarly, perimeter of △A3B3C3 T(3) = 2(3) + 3 = 9

1

= × perimeter of △A2B2C2 T(4) = 2(4) + 3 = 11

2

1

= (8 cm) 1 1

2 2. T(1) = =

= 4 cm 1

1

T(2) = 2

(b) Perimeter of △A2B2C2

1 1

= × perimeter of △A1B1C1

2 T(3) = 3

1

= × 16 cm 1

2 T(4) = 4

Perimeter of △A3B3C3

1

= × perimeter of △A2B2C2

2 3. T(1) = 12 – 3 = −2

1 1

= × × perimeter of △A1B1C1 T(2) = 22 – 3 = 1

2 2

1 1 T(3) = 32 – 3 = 6

= × × 16 cm

2 2 T(4) = 42 – 3 = 13

2

1

= × 16 cm

2 3(1) − 2 1

4. T(1) = =

∴ Perimeter of △AkBkCk 9 9

k −1

1 3( 2) − 2 4

= × 16 cm T(2) = =

2 9 9

5− k

=2 cm 3(3) − 2 7

T(3) = =

9 9

(c) From (b), the perimeters of the triangles formed are in

3( 4) − 2 10

1 T(4) = =

geometric sequence with common ratio . 9 9

2

16

= cm

∴ Sum of the perimeters 1 − 1 5. T(1) = (–2)1 – 1 + 3 = 4

T(2) = (–2)2 – 1 + 3 = 1

2

= 32 cm

T(3) = (–2)3 – 1 + 3 = 7

p. 207 T(4) = (–2)4 – 1 + 3 = −5

7+5 6+7

1. X1 = 5, X2 = 7, X3 = = 6, X4 = = 6.5,

2 2 6. T(1) = 32(1) – 1 = 3

6.5 + 6

X5 = = 6.25 T(2) = 32(2) – 1 = 27

2

T(3) = 32(3) – 1 = 243

2. Y1 = 3, Y2 = 3(2 – 3) = –3, Y 3 = –3[2 – (–3)] = –15, T(4) = 32(4) – 1 = 2187

Y 4 = –15[2 – (–15)] = –255,

Y 5 = –255[2 – (–255)] = –65 535

7. (a) 64, 128

T(2) = 8 = 22 + 1

Exercise 14A (p. 159) T(3) = 16 = 23 + 1

Level 1 T(4) = 32 = 24 + 1

n +1

∴ T(n) = 2

1. T(1) = 2(1) + 3 = 5

80

Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 5A

(c) ∵ T(n) = 2n + 1 9 11

∴ T(8) = 28 + 1 = 512 are and respectively.

10 12

and T(10) = 210 + 1 = 2048

∴ The 8th term and the 10th term of the sequence

Level 2

are 512 and 2048 respectively.

31 1 37 311

8. (a) 27, 33 11. T(1) = = , T(7) = = 3 , T(11) = = 243

729 243 729 729

(b) ∵ T(1) = 3 = 6(1) – 3

T(2) = 9 = 6(2) – 3 2(1) 2 − 1 1

T(3) = 15 = 6(3) – 3 12. T(1) = =

1+1 2

T(4) = 21 = 6(4) – 3

∴ T(n) = 6n − 3 2(7) 2 − 1 97

=

T(7) =

7 +1 8

(c) ∵ T(n) = 6n – 3

2(11) 2 − 1 241

∴ T(8) = 6(8) – 3 = 45 T(11) = =

and T(10) = 6(10) – 3 = 57 11 + 1 12

∴ The 8th term and the 10th term of the sequence

are 45 and 57 respectively. (1 − 1)(1 − 2) 0

13. T(1) = =

1

9. (a) –1, 1

(7 − 1)(7 − 2) 30

T(7) = =

(b) ∵ T(1) = –1 = (–1)1 7 7

T(2) = 1 = (–1)2

(11 − 1)(11 − 2) 90

T(3) = –1 = (–1)3 T(11) = =

T(4) = 1 = (–1)4 11 11

n

∴ T(n) = (−1)

31 3

14. T(1) = =

(c) ∵ T(n) = (–1) n

13

∴ T(8) = (–1)8 = 1 37 2187

and T(10) = (–1)10 = 1 T(7) = 3 =

7 343

∴ The 8th term and the 10th term of the sequence

are 1 and 1 respectively. 311 177 147

T(11) = =

113 1331

6 7

10. (a) ,

7 8 15. (a) –5, 6

(b) ∵ T(1) = =

3 1+ 2 T(2) = 2 = (–1)2 × 2

3 2 +1 T(3) = –3 = (–1)3 × 3

T(2) = =

4 2+2 T(4) = 4 = (–1)4 × 4

4 3 +1 n

T(3) = = ∴ T(n) = (−1) n

5 3+ 2

5 4 +1

T(4) = = 16. (a) log 80, log 160

6 4+2

n +1 (b) ∵ T(1) = log 5 = log (5 ⋅ 21 – 1)

∴ T(n) =

n+2 T(2) = log 10 = log (5 ⋅ 22 – 1)

T(3) = log 20 = log (5 ⋅ 23 – 1)

n +1 T(4) = log 40 = log (5 ⋅ 24 – 1)

(c) ∵ T(n) =

∴ T(n) = log (5 ⋅ 2 )

n −1

n+2

8 +1 9

∴ T(8) = =

8 + 2 10 17. (a) 30, 42

10 + 1 11

and T(10) = =

10 + 2 12 (b) ∵ T(1) = 2 = 1 × (1 + 1)

∴ The 8th term and the 10th term of the sequence T(2) = 6 = 2 × (2 + 1)

14 Arithmetic and Geometric Sequences and their Summation

T(4) = 20 = 4 × (4 + 1)

∴ T(n) = n( n + 1) 6. (a) ∵ a = –3 and d = 9

and T(n) = a + (n – 1)d

25 36 ∴ T(n) = –3 + (n – 1)(9) = −12 + 9n

18. (a) ,

36 49

(b) T(10) = –12 + 9(10) = 78

2

1 1

(b) ∵ T(1) = = 3

4 (1 + 1) 2 7. (a) ∵ a = and d = –2

2

4 22 and T(n) = a + (n – 1)d

T(2) = =

9 (2 + 1) 2 3 7

∴ T(n) = + (n – 1)(–2) = − 2n

9 32 2 2

T(3) = =

16 (3 + 1) 2

7 33

16 42 (b) T(10) = – 2(10) = −

T(4) = = 2 2

25 ( 4 + 1) 2

n2

∴ T(n) = 3

(n + 1) 2 8. (a) ∵ a = –2 and d =

2

and T(n) = a + (n – 1)d

Exercise 14B (p. 166) 3 1

∴ T(n) = –2+ (n – 1)( ) = (3n − 7)

2 2

Level 1

1. T(2) – T(1) = 12 – 16 = –4 1 23

T(3) – T(2) = 8 – 12 = –4 (b) T(10) = [3(10) – 7] =

2 2

T(4) – T(3) = 4 – 8 = –4

∴ It is an arithmetic sequence with common difference –

4.

9. d = 6 – 1 =5

2. T(2) – T(1) = 2 − 1 = 2 − 1 T(n) = a + (n – 1)d = 1 + (n – 1)(5) = 5n − 4

T(3) – T(2) = 3 − 2 ≠ 2 − 1

∴ It is not an arithmetic sequence. 10. d = 17 – 19 = −2

T(n) = a + (n – 1)d = 19 + (n – 1)(–2) = 21− 2n

5 1 1

3. T(2) – T(1) = − =

6 3 2

11. d = log 9 – log 3 = 2 log 3 – log 3 = log 3

4 5 1

T(3) – T(2) = − = T(n) = a + (n – 1)d = log 3 + (n – 1)(log 3)

3 6 2

= n log 3

11 4 1

T(4) – T(3) = − =

6 3 2

∴ It is an arithmetic sequence with common difference 12. d = (2a – 3c) – (a – 2c) = a − c

1 T(n) = a + (n – 1)d = (a – 2c) + (n – 1)(a – c) =

.

2 −c + n ( a − c )

2 1 1 13. Let a and d be the first term and the common difference

4. T(2) – T(1) = − =

3 2 6 respectively.

3 2 1 1 ∵ a = 7 and d = 11 – 7 = 4

T(3) – T(2) = − = ≠ ∴ T(n) = a + (n – 1)d = 7 + (n – 1)(4) = 3 + 4n

4 3 12 6

∴ It is not an arithmetic sequence. Let 83 be the kth term.

i.e. T(k) = 83

5. (a) ∵ a = 5 and d = 2 ∴ 3 + 4k = 83

and T(n) = a + (n – 1)d k = 20

∴ There are 20 terms in the sequence.

∴ T(n) = 5 + (n – 1)(2) = 3 + 2n

80

Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 5A

14. Let a and d be the first term and the common difference Level 2

respectively.

∵ a = –93 and d = –86 – (–93) = 7 20. Let a and d be the first term and the common difference

∴ T(n) = a + (n – 1)d = –93 + (n – 1)(7) = –100 + 7n respectively.

Let 5 be the kth term. a = –101,d = –98 – (–101) = 3

i.e. T(k) = 5 ∴ T(n) = a + (n – 1)d

∴ –100 + 7k = 5 = –101 + (n – 1)(3)

k = 15 = –104 + 3n

∴ There are 15 terms in the sequence. ∵ The kth term is the first positive term of the sequence.

∴ T(k) > 0

15. Let a and d be the first term and the common difference i.e. –104 + 3k > 0

respectively. 104

k>

T(2) = a + d = 18 ……(1) 3

T(6) = a + 5d = 30 ……(2) ∵ k is the number of terms, it must be an integer.

(2) – (1), 4d = 12 ∴ k = 35

d=3

By substituting d = 3 into (1), we have

21. Let a and d be the first term and the common difference

a + 3 = 18

respectively.

a = 15

a = 999, d = 992 – 999 = –7

∴ T(n) = a + (n – 1)d = 15 + (n – 1)(3) = 12 + 3n ∴ T(n) = a + (n – 1)d

= 999 + (n – 1)(–7)

16. Let a and d be the first term and the common difference = 1006 – 7n

respectively. Let the kth term be the last positive term.

T(4) = a + 3d = –2 ……(1) ∴ T(k) > 0

T(9) = a + 8d = –32 ……(2) i.e. 1006 – 7k > 0

(2) – (1), 5d = –30 1006

d = –6 k<

7

By substituting d = –6 into (1), we have

∵ k is the number of terms, it must be an integer.

a + 3(–6) = –2

∴ k = 143

a = 16

∴ There are 143 positive terms.

∴ T(n) = a + (n – 1)d = 16 + (n – 1)(–6) = 22 − 6n

17. Let a and d be the first term and the common difference

respectively. 22. Let a, (a + d) and (a + 2d) be the interior angles of the

T(3) = a + 2d = 60 ……(1) triangle respectively.

T(7) = a + 6d = 40 ……(2) ∵ a = 15°

(2) – (1), 4d = –20 ∴ The other two angles are 15° + d and 15° + 2d.

d = –5 15° + (15° + d) + (15° + 2d) = 180° (∠s sum of triangle)

By substituting d = –5 into (1), we have d = 45°

a + 2(–5) = 60 ∴ The largest angle is 105°.

a = 70

∴ T(n) = a + (n – 1)d = 70 + (n – 1)(–5) = 75 − 5n 23. The multiples of 13 form an arithmetic sequence with

a = 13 and d = 13.

18. Let a and d be the first term and the common difference ∴ T(n) = a + (n – 1)d = 13 + (n – 1)(13) = 13n

respectively. Consider the term that is less than 1000.

T(3) = a + 2d = 82 ……(1) i.e. T(n) < 1000

T(10) = a + 9d = 250 ……(2) 13n < 1000

(2) – (1), 7d = 168 1000

n<

d = 24 13

By substituting d = 24 into (1), we have ∵ Among the terms that is less than 1000, the 76th term

a + 2(24) = 82 is the greatest.

a = 34 ∴ The greatest integer which is a multiple of 13 and less

∴ T(n) = a + (n – 1)d = 34 + (n – 1)(24) = 10 + 24n than 1000 is 13(76) = 988.

19. (a) 1, 2; 2, 4; 3, 6 (or any other reasonable answers) 24. (a) Let a and d be the first term and the common

difference respectively.

(b) –1, 1; –2, 2; –3, 3 (or any other reasonable answers) T(5) = 4T(1)

a + 4d = 4a

3a – 4d = 0 ……(1)

14 Arithmetic and Geometric Sequences and their Summation

a + 5d = 2(a + 2d) – 1 a – d = 5 – 3 = 2 and a + d = 5 + 3 = 8

a–d=1 ……(2) ∴ The terms are 2, 5, 8.

(2) × 4 – (1), a = 4

By substituting a = 4 into (2), we have 28. Let a and d be the first term and the common difference

4–d=1 respectively.

d=3 aT(6) = –38

∴ T(n) = a + (n – 1)d = 4 + (n – 1)(3) = 1+ 3n a(a + 5d) = –38 ………(1)

T(3) + T(4) = 17

(b) T(m) – T(25) = 81 (a + 2d) + (a + 3d) = 17

[1 + 3m] – [1 + 3(25)] = 81 17 − 2a

d= ………(2)

m = 52 5

By substituting (2) into (1), we have

25. Let (a – d) cm, a cm and (a + d) cm be the lengths of the 17 − 2a

sides of the right-angled triangle respectively. a[a + 5 ] = –38

∵ The perimeter is 27 cm. 5

∴ (a – d) + a + (a + d) = 27 a2 – 17a – 38 = 0

a=9 (a – 19)(a + 2) = 0

(a – d)2 + a2 = (a + d)2 (Pyth. theorem) a = 19 or a = –2(rejected)

a2 – 2ad + d2 + a2 = a2 + 2ad + d2 By substituting a = 19 into (2), we have

a2 = 4ad 17 − 2(19) 21

a = 4d ( a ≠ 0) d= =−

5 5

1 ∴ The first term and the common difference are 19 and

d = a………(1)

4 21

By substituting a = 9 into (1), we have d = 2.25. − respectively.

5

∴ The lengths of the three sides of the triangle are 6.75

cm, 9 cm and 11.25 cm.

29. (a) T(2) – T(1) = log 10k2 – log 10k

26. (a) ∵ T(9) = 3T(4) 10k 2

= log

∴ a + 8d = 3(a + 3d) 10k

a + 8d = 3a + 9d = log k

d T(3) – T(2) = log 10k3 – log 10k2

a=−

2

10k 3

= log

d 10k 2

∴ T(n) = a + (n – 1)d = − + (n – 1)d

2 = log k

3 T(4) – T(3) = log 10k4 – log 10k3

= − 2 + nd

10k 4

= log

10k 3

(b) ∵ T(k) = 5T(5) = log k

3 3 ∴ It is an arithmetic sequence.

− + k d = 5 − + 5 d

2 2 ∵ a = log 10k and d = log k

k = 19 ∴ T(n) = a + (n – 1)d

= log 10k + (n – 1)(log k)

= 1 + n log k

27. Let the three terms be a – d, a and a + d respectively.

∴ The general term is 1 + n log k.

∵ The sum is 15.

∴ (a – d) + a + (a + d) = 15

(b) T(2) – T(1) = log (10k2)2 – log (10k)2

a=5

= 2(log 10k2 – log 10k)

∵ The product is 80.

= 2 log k

∴ (a – d)(a)(a + d) = 80 ………(1)

T(3) – T(2) = log (10k3)2 – log (10k2)2

By substituting a = 5 into (1), we have

= 2(log 10k3 – log 10k2)

(5 – d)(5)(5 + d) = 80

= 2 log k

d = ±3 T(4) – T(3) = log (10k4)2 – log (10k3)2

When d = –3, = 2(log 10k4 – log 10k3)

a – d = 5 – (–3) = 8 and a + d = 5 + (–3) = 2 = 2 log k

80

Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 5A

∴ It is an arithmetic sequence.

∵ a = log (10k)2 and d = 2 log k Exercise 14C (p. 170)

∴ T(n) = a + (n – 1)d

Level 1

= log (10k)2 + (n – 1)(2 log k)

= 2 + 2n log k −8 + 4

1. (a) Arithmetic mean = = −2

∴ The general term is 2 + 2n log k. 2

7 + 25

30. (a) Let the three terms be a , a + d and a + 2d (b) Arithmetic mean = = 16

respectively. 2

a(a + d)(a + 2d) = a + (a + d) + (a + 2d) 42 + 104

(c) Arithmetic mean = = 73

a(a + d)(a + 2d) = 3(a + d) 2

[a(a + 2d) – 3] (a + d) = 0

8+ x

a(a + 2d) – 3 = 0 or a = −d = 25

2. ∵ 2

a2 + 2ad – 3 = 0

x = 42

− 2d ± (2d ) 2 − 4(−3)

a=

2(1) 3. (a) Let d1 be the common difference of the arithmetic

sequence to be formed.

a =−d ± d2 +3 The arithmetic sequence formed is:

–4, –4 + d1, –4 + 2d1, 8

∵ The 4th term is also given by –4 + 3d1.

(b) If a = − d + d 2 + 3 , then a = − 1 + 12 + 3 = 1. ∴ –4 + 3d1 = 8

∴ The terms are 1, 2, 3. d1 = 4

∴ The two required arithmetic means are 0 and 4.

If a = − d − d 2 + 3 , then a = − 1 − 12 + 3 = –3.

(b) Let d2 be the common difference of the arithmetic

∴ The terms are –3, –2, –1.

sequence to be formed.

If a = –d, then a = –1. The arithmetic sequence formed is:

∴ The terms are –1, 0, 1. –4, –4 + d2, –4 + 2d2, –4 + 3d2, 8

∵ The 5th term is also given by –4 + 4d2.

31. Let the three integers be a – d, a and a + d respectively, ∴ –4 + 4d2 = 8

and their sum be k. d2 = 3

(a – d) + a + (a + d) = k ∴ The three required arithmetic means are –1, 2 and 5.

3a = k………(1)

(c) Let d3 be the common difference of the arithmetic

(a – d)(a)(a + d) = 11k………(2)

sequence to be formed.

By substituting (1) into (2), we have The arithmetic sequence formed is:

(a – d)(a)(a + d) = 11(3a) –4, –4 + d3, –4 + 2d3, –4 + 3d3, –4 + 4d3,

(a – d)(a + d) = 33 ( a ≠ 0) –4 + 5d3, –4 + 6d3, –4 + 7d3, 8

∵ The 9th term is also given by –4 + 8d3.

∵ a and d are integers.

∴ –4 + 8d3 = 8

∴ Possible solutions are: d3 = 1.5

a + d = 33 a + d = 11 a + d = 3 ∴ The seven required arithmetic means are –2.5, –

or or or 1, 0.5, 2, 3.5, 5 and 6.5.

a − d = 1 a − d = 3 a − d = 11

a + d = 1 4. Let d be the common difference of the arithmetic

sequence.

a − d = 33

∵ a = 18 and T(5) = 36

a = 17 a = 7 a = 7 a = 17 ∴ 36 = 18 + 4d

i.e. or or or

d = 16 d = 4 d = −4 d = −16 d=

9

If a = 17 and d = 16, the three integers are 1, 17, 33. 2

If a = 7 and d = 4, the three integers are 3, 7, 11. 9

∴ a = 18 + = 22.5

If a = 7 and d = –4, the three integers are 11, 7, 3. 2

If a = 17 and d = –16, the three integers are 33, 17, 1. 9

b = 18 + 2 = 27

∴ The three integers are 1, 17, 33 or 3, 7, 11. 2

14 Arithmetic and Geometric Sequences and their Summation

2

9 arithmetic mean = 13

c = 18 + 3 = 31.5

2

5. 1, 2, 4, 5; –1, 1, 5, 7; –3, 0, 6, 9 (or any other reasonable 10. (a) (i) The arithmetic sequence formed is:

answers) x, x + d1, x + 2d1, x + 3d1, …, x + nd1, y

∴ The arithmetic means are

Level 2 x + d1, x + 2d1, x + 3d1, …, x + nd1

6. ∵ 2x + 1 is the arithmetic mean between x and 14. (ii) ∵ The (n +2)th term is also given by

x + 14 x + (n +1)d1.

∴ 2x + 1 =

2 ∴ x + (n +1)d1 = y

4x + 2 = 14 + x y−x

x=4 d1 =

n +1

∴ a = 4 and d = (2x + 1) – x = x + 1 = 5

T(n) = a + (n – 1)d = 4 + (n – 1)(5) = 5n − 1 (b) (i) The arithmetic sequence formed is:

x, x + d2, x + 2d2, x + 3d2, …, x + md2, y

7. ∵ x is the arithmetic mean between 8 and y, ∴ The arithmetic means are

and 21 is the arithmetic mean between y and 26. x + d2, x + 2d2, x + 3d2, …, x + md2

8 + y .........(1)

x= 2 (ii) ∵ The (m +2)th term is also given by

∴ x + (m +1)d2.

y + 26

21 = .........(2) ∴ x + (m +1)d2 = y

2

y−x

From (2), we have d2 =

42 = y + 26 m +1

y = 16

By substituting y = 16 into (1), we have y−x y−x

(c) d1 : d2 = : = (m + 1) : ( n + 1)

8 + 16 n +1 m +1

x= = 12

2

Exercise 14D (p. 176)

8. (a) Let d be the common difference of the arithmetic Level 1

sequence to be formed.

The arithmetic sequence formed is: T (2) 10

1, 1 + d, 1 + 2d, 1 + 3d, p 1. = =2

T (1) 5

∵ The 5th term is also given by 1 + 4d.

T (3) 15 3

∴ 1 + 4d = p = = ≠2

p −1 T (2) 10 2

d= ∴ It is not a geometric sequence.

4

∴ The three required arithmetic means are

T (2) −8

p + 3 p +1 3p +1 2. = = –4

, and . T (1) 2

4 2 4

T (3) 32

= = –4

p −1 T (2) − 8

(b) common difference = 4 (from (a)) T (4) −128

= = –4

T (3) 32

p −1

T(n) = a + (n – 1)d = 1 + (n – 1) ∴ It is a geometric sequence with common ratio –4.

4

(n − 1)( p − 1) T (2) −10

=1+ 3. = = –5

4 T (1) 2

( n − 1)( p − 1) T (3) −50

∴ The general term is 1 + . = = 5 ≠ −5

4 T (2) − 10

∴ It is not a geometric sequence.

( a − d ) + (a + d ) 2a

9. (a) Arithmetic mean = = =a

2 2 T (2) 0.1

(b) By substituting a = 132 and d = 92 into (a), we have 4. = = 0.5

T (1) 0.2

80

Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 5A

n −1

T (3) 0.05 1

= = 0.5 = 6

T (2) 0.1 3

T (4) 0.025 2

= = 0.5 = n−2

T (3) 0.5 3

∴ It is a geometric sequence with common ratio 0.5.

11. Let a be the first term.

5. (a) ∵ a = 2 and R = 3 and T(n) = aRn – 1

2 3 3

∴ T(n) = 2 ⋅ 3

n−1

∵ a = 2 2 and R = =

2 2 2

∴ T(n) = aRn – 1

(b) T(8) = 2 ⋅ 38−1 n −1

3 4−n n−1

= 4374 (or 2 ⋅ 3 )

7

or 2 2 ⋅ 3 2

= 2 2 2

1

6. (a) ∵ a = –3 and R = and T(n) = aRn – 1

3 12. Let k be the first term.

1

n −1

a2r

= (−3) ∵ k = a and R = = ar

∴ T(n) 3 ar

n–1

2− n ∴ T(n) = kR

= −3

= a ⋅r

n n−1

1 1 13. Let a and R be the first term and the common ratio

= − 729 or − 36 respectively.

243 1

a = 729, R = =

729 3

3 ∴ T(n) = aR n–1

7. (a) ∵ a = –4 and R = − and T(n) = aRn – 1 n −1

2 1

n −1 = 729

3 3

∴ T(n) = ( −4) − (or ( −1) n ⋅ 23−n ⋅ 3n−1 )

2 = 37 – n

Let 1 be the kth term.

i.e. T(k) = 1

8−1

3 2187 37 ∴ 37 – k = 1

(b) T(8) = ( −4) − 2 = or

32 25 ∴ 7–k=0

k=7

∴ There are 7 terms in the sequence.

8. (a) ∵ a = 2 and R = − 2 and T(n) = aRn – 1

14. Let a and R be the first term and the common ratio

∴ T(n) = 2 (− 2 ) n−1 respectively.

n

−3

= ( −1) n−1 ( 2 ) n or (−1) n−1 ⋅ 2 2 a = 1.5, R = = –2

1.5

n–1

∴ T(n) = aR

= 1.5(–2)n – 1

(b) T(8) = ( −1) ( 2 ) = − 16

8−1 8

Let 96 be the kth term.

i.e. T(k) = 96

9. Let a be the first term. ∴ 1.5(–2)k – 1 = 96

(–2)k – 1 = 64

6

∵ a = 2 and R = = 3 (–2)k – 1 = (–2)6

2 ∴ k–1=6

∴ T(n) = aRn – 1 k=7

= 2⋅3

n −1

∴ There are 7 terms in the sequence.

10. Let a be the first term. 15. Let a and R be the first term and the common ratio

2 1 respectively.

∵ a = 6 and R = = 1

6 3 T(2) = aR = ………(1)

4

∴ T(n) = aRn – 1

14 Arithmetic and Geometric Sequences and their Summation

(2) ÷ (1), R5 = 32 (2) ÷ (1), R3 =

729

R=2 1

By substituting R = 2 into (1), we have R=

9

1

a(2) = 1

4 By substituting R = into (1), we have

1 9

a= 1

8 a = 243

∴ T(n) = aRn – 1 9

1 a = 2187

= ⋅ 2n – 1 ∴ T(n) = aRn – 1

8

n −1

=2

n −4 1

= 2187 ⋅

9

16. Let a and R be the first term and the common ratio = 39−2 n

respectively.

T(3) = aR2 = –27 ………(1) 19. (a) 2, 4; 3, 9; 4, 16 (or any other reasonable answers)

T(6) = aR5 = 1 ………(2)

1 1 1 1

(2) ÷ (1), R3 = − (b) , 3; , 2; − , –3

27 3 2 3

1 (or any other reasonable answers)

R=−

3

1 Level 2

By substituting R = − into (1), we have

3 20. Let a and R be the first term and the common ratio

2 respectively.

1

a − = –27 T(2) = aR = 6 ………(1)

3 T(6) = aR5 = 96 ………(2)

a = –243 (2) ÷ (1), R4 = 16

∴ T(n) = aRn – 1 R = ±2

n −1

1 By substituting R = 2 into (1), we have

= − 243 − a(2) = 6

3

( −1) n

⋅ 36− n a=3

= ∴ T(n) = aRn – 1

= 3 ⋅ 2n–1

17. Let a and R be the first term and the common ratio By substituting R = –2 into (1), we have

respectively. a(–2) = 6

T(2) = aR = 5 ………(1) a = –3

T(7) = aR6 = 160 ………(2) ∴ T(n) = aRn – 1

(2) ÷ (1), R5 = 32 = –3(–2)n – 1

R=2 ∴ The general term is 3 ⋅ 2n – 1 or –3(–2)n – 1.

By substituting R = 2 into (1), we have

a(2) = 5 21. Let a and R be the first term and the common ratio

5 respectively.

a=

2 T(3) = aR2 = 1 ………(1)

∴ T(n) = aRn – 1 6

1

T(7) = aR = ………(2)

5 16

= ⋅ 2n – 1

2 1

(2) ÷ (1), R4 =

= ⋅2

n−2

5 16

1

R=±

18. Let a and R be the first term and the common ratio 2

respectively. 1

T(2) = aR = 243 ………(1) By substituting R = into (1), we have

2

1 2

T(5) = aR4 = ………(2) 1

3 a = 1

2

a=4

80

Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 5A

n −1

1 R=± 6

= 4

2 By substituting R = 6 into (1), we have

= 23 – n

1 a( 6 ) 2 = 6 3

By substituting R = − into (1), we have

2 a= 3

1

2 ∴ T(n) = aRn – 1

a − = 1

2 = 3 ( 6 ) n−1

a=4 By substituting R = − 6 into (1), we have

∴ T(n) = aRn – 1

n −1 a (− 6 ) 2 = 6 3

1

= 4 − a= 3

2

∴ T(n) = aRn – 1

= (–1)n – 1 ⋅ 23 – n

∴ The general term is 23 – n or (–1)n – 1 ⋅ 23 – n. = 3 ( − 6 ) n−1

n −1 n

3 ( 6 ) n−1 or 2 ⋅ 3

2 2

22. Let a and R be the first term and the common ratio

respectively. ∴ The general term is or

T(2) = aR = –9 ………(1) n −1 n

3 ( − 6 ) n−1 or (−1) ⋅ 2 ⋅ 3 .

n−1 2 2

729

T(6) = aR5 = − ………(2)

256

81 24. Let n be the number of years taken.

(2) ÷ (1), R4 =

256 Consider the salary of Leo,

3 a = $10 000, R = 1 + 10.25% = 1.1025

R=±

4 ∴ The salary of Leo after n years = $10 000 × 1.1025n

3 Consider the salary of Michael,

By substituting R = into (1), we have a = $12 000, R = 1 + 5% = 1.05

4

∴ The salary of Michael after n years

3 = $12 000 × 1.05n

a = –9

4 For Leo to have a salary higher than that of Michael, we

a = –12 have

∴ T(n) = aRn – 1 $10 000 × 1.1025n > $12 000 × 1.05n

n −1

3 5 × 1.1025n > 6 × 1.05n

= (–12)

4 log (5 × 1.1025n) > log (6 × 1.05n)

3 log 5 + n log 1.1025 > log 6 + n log 1.05

By substituting R = − into (1), we have n (log 1.1025 – log 1.05) > log 6 – log 5

4

log 6 − log 5

3 n>

a − = –9 log1.1025 − log1.05

4

n > 3.7

a = 12

∴ The number of years taken is 4.

∴ T(n) = aRn – 1

n −1

3 25. Let A be the surface area of the pond and a be the area

= 12 −

4 covered by the lotus leaves after 1 week.

n −1 ∵ R=2

3 and after 16 weeks, area covered = A

∴ The general term is (–12) (or –24–2n ⋅ 3n) or 12

4 ∴ a(216 – 1) = A

n −1

3 A

− (or (–1)n–1 ⋅ 24 – 2n ⋅ 3n). a = 15

4 2

Let it takes k weeks to cover one eighth of the pond.

23. Let a and R be the first term and the common ratio A

∴ a(2k – 1) =

respectively. 8

T(3) = aR2 = 6 3 ………(1) A k −1 A

(2 ) =

T(5) = aR4 = 36 3 ………(2) 215 8

2k – 1= 212

14 Arithmetic and Geometric Sequences and their Summation

k = 13 h = 12.5

∴ It takes 13 weeks to cover one eighth of the pond. ∴ The height of the building is 12.5 m.

26. (a) Let the vertices of the kth triangle be Ak, Bk and Ck, 28. (a) At the end of 2001,

k = 1, 2, 3,… population = 5 000 000 × (1 + 4%)

= 5 200 000

At the end of 2002,

population = 5 200 000 × (1 + 4%)

= 5 000 000 × (1 + 4%)2

= 5 408 000

nth year.

5 000 000 × (1 + 4%)n > 2 × 5 000 000

n log 1.04 > log 2

1 n > 17.7

C 2B 2 = C1B1 (mid-pt. theorem) ∴ At the end of 2018, the population will be

2

doubled.

1

B2A2 = B1A1 (mid-pt. theorem)

2 29. Let the original numbers be k, 5k and 11k respectively.

1 ∵ k + 3, 5k + 3, 11k + 3 is a geometric sequence.

A2C2 = A1C1(mid-point theorem)

2 11k + 3 5k + 3

∴ =

∴ Perimeter of second triangle 5k + 3 k +3

= C2B2 + B2A2 + A2C2 2

(5k + 3) = (11k + 3)(k + 3)

1 1 1 25k2 + 30k + 9 = 11k2 + 36k + 9

= C1B1 + B1A1 + A1C1 14k2 – 6k = 0

2 2 2

1 k(7k – 3) = 0

= × perimeter of first triangle 3

2 k = or k = 0(rejected)

Perimeter of second traingle 1 7

∴ = 3 15 33

Perimeter of first traingle 2 ∴ The original numbers are , and .

7 7 7

(b) By an argument similar to (a),

Exercise 14E (p. 181)

Perimeter of third triangle

1 Level 1

= × perimeter of second triangle

2

1 1 1. (a) Geometric mean = 9 × 27 = 9 3

= × × perimeter of first triangle

2 2

2 (b) Geometric mean = − 4 × 16 = − 8

1

= x

2

4

(c) Geometric mean = ± − 4 × (−36) = 12 or − 12

1

∴ Perimeter of fifth triangle = x

2 2. ∵ The geometric mean between x and 48 is 12.

1

4 ∴ 122 = 48x

i.e. 1.5 = x

2 x =3

x = 24

3. (a) Let R be the common ratio of the geometric

sequence to be formed.

27. Let the height of the building be h m. The geometric sequence formed is:

3 243, 243R, 243R2, 9

∵ R=

5 ∵ The 4th term is also given by 243R3.

4

3 ∴ 243R3 = 9

∴ After the 4th rebound, the height = h

5 1

R=

4 3

3

i.e. 1.62 = h ∴ The two required geometric means are 81 and 27.

5

80

Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 5A

(b) Let r be the common ratio of the geometric sequence (b) ∵ The geometric mean between a and 2 is 3 2 .

to be formed.

The geometric sequence formed is: ∴ (3 2 ) 2 = 2a

–16, –16r, –16r2, –16r3, –81 a =9

∵ The 5th term is also given by –16r4.

∴ –16r4 = –81 8. ∵ m, –2, n are in geometric sequence.

3 ∴ –2 is the geometric mean between m and n.

r=± ∴ (–2)2 = mn

2

∴ The three required geometric means are 24, –36 mn = 4 ……(1)

and 54 or –24, –36 and –54. ∵ –2, n, m are in arithmetic sequence.

∴ n is the arithmetic mean between –2 and m.

(c) Let r be the common ratio of the geometric sequence ∴ 2n = m + (–2)

to be formed. m = 2n + 2 ……(2)

The geometric sequence formed is: By substituting (2) into (1), we have

1, r, r2, r3, r4, 32 (2n + 2)n = 4

n2 + n – 2 = 0

∵ The 6th term is also given by r5.

(n – 1)(n + 2) = 0

∴ r5 = 32

r=2 n = 1 or n = –2 (rejected)

∴ The four required geometric means are 2, 4, 8 By substituting n = 1 into (2), we have

and 16. m = 2(1) + 2 = 4

The geometric sequence is: 54, 54R, 54R2, 2

c = b + b tan θ = b(1 + tan θ)

∵ The 4th term is also given by 54R3. ac = a[b(1 + tan θ)] = b[a(1 + tan θ)] = b2

∴ 54R3 = 2 ∴ b is a geometric mean between a and c.

1

R=

3 b a (1 + tan θ )

(b) ∵ = = 1 + tan θ

∴ The value of a and b are 18 and 6 respectively. a a

∴ The common ratio is 1 + tan θ.

5. 2, 18 or 3, 12 or –2, –18 or –3, –12

If θ = 30°,

(or any other reasonable answers)

1 + tan θ = 1 + tan 30°

Level 2 1

= +1

3

6. ∵ x + 1, x + 5, 2x + 4 are in geometric sequence.

∴ x + 5 is the geometric mean between x + 1 and 2x + 4.

Exercise 14F (p. 189)

∴ (x + 5)2 = (x +1)(2x + 4)

x + 10x + 25 = 2x2 + 6x + 4

2

Level 1

x2 – 4x – 21 = 0

1. (a) ∵ a = 1, d = 3 – 1 = 2 and n = 20

(x + 3) (x – 7) = 0

20

x = −3 or 7 ∴ S(20) = [2(1) + (20 – 1)(2)]

2

= 400

7. (a) Let R be the common ratio of the geometric

sequence to be formed.

The geometric sequence formed is: (b) ∵ a = –5, d = –2 – (–5) = 3 and n = 25

25

a2 a2 a2 2 4 ∴ S(25) = [2(–5) + (25 – 1)(3)]

, R, R , 2

2 2 2 a

= 775

a2 3

∵ The 4th term is also given by R .

2 (c) ∵ a = 78, d = 72 – 78 = –6 and n = 27

a2 3 4 27

R = ∴ S(27) = [2(78) + (27 – 1)(–6)]

∴ 2 a 2

2 =0

R=

a

∴ The two geometric means are a and 2. (d) ∵ first term = (a + b),

d = (3a – b) – (a + b) = 2a – 2b and n = 10

14 Arithmetic and Geometric Sequences and their Summation

10

∴ S(10) = [2(a + b) + (10 – 1)(2a – 2b)] (d) Let a and d be the first term and the common

2

difference respectively.

= 100a − 80b

1 1 1 1

∵ a = and d = − =

3 2 3 6

2. (a) Let a and d be the first term and the common

difference respectively. ∴ T(n) = a + (n – 1)d

∵ a = 1 and d = 9 – 1 = 8 1 1

= 3 + ( n − 1) 6

∴ T(n) = a + (n – 1)d

= 1 + (n – 1)(8) 1 1

= 8n – 7 =6+6n

Let 97 be the kth term. 5

i.e. T(k) = 97 Let 1 be the kth term.

6

∴ 8k – 7 = 97

k = 13 5

i.e. T(k) = 1

∴ There are 13 terms in the sequence. 6

13(1 + 97) 1 1 5

∴ S(13) = ∴ + k =1

2 6 6 6

= 637 k = 10

∴ There are 10 terms in the sequence.

(b) Let a and d be the first term and the common 1 5

difference respectively. 10 + 1

∵ a = –1 and d = 2 – (–1) = 3 ∴ S(10) = 3 6

∴ T(n) = a + (n – 1)d 2

= –1 + (n – 1)(3) 5

= 3n – 4 = 10 6

Let 95 be the kth term.

i.e. T(k) = 95 3. (a) Let N be the number of terms that must be taken.

∴ 3k – 4 = 95 ∵ a = 7, d = 10 – 7 = 3 and S(n) = 920

k = 33 N

∴ There are 33 terms in the sequence. and S(n) = [2a + (N – 1)d]

2

33( −1 + 95)

∴ S(33) = N

2 ∴ 920 = [2(7) + (N – 1)(3)]

= 1551 2

1840 = 3N2 – 11N

(c) Let a and d be the first term and the common 3N2 – 11N – 1840 = 0

difference respectively. (N – 23)(3N + 80) = 0

3 1 3 3 80

∵ a = 5 and d = 6 − 5 = N = 23 or − (rejected)

4 2 4 4 3

∴ T(n) = a + (n – 1)d ∴ 23 terms of arithmetic series must be taken.

3 3

= 5 4 + ( n − 1) 4 (b) Let N be the number of terms that must be taken.

∵ a = 21, d = 15 – 21 = –6 and S(n) = –60

4

=5 + 3 n and

N

S(n) = [2a + (N – 1)d]

2

Let 32 be the kth term.

i.e. T(k) = 32 N

∴ –60 = [2(21) + (N – 1)(–6)]

3 2

∴ 5 + k = 32 –120 = –6N2 + 48N

4

N2 – 8N – 20 = 0

k = 36

(N – 10)(N + 2) = 0

∴ There are 36 terms in the sequence.

N = 10 or –2(rejected)

3

36 5 + 32 ∴ 10 terms of arithmetic series must be taken.

∴ S(36) = 4

2 (c) Let N be the number of terms that must be taken.

1 ∵ a = 27, d = 24 – 27 = –3 and S(n) = 126

= 679

2 N

and S(n) = [2a + (N – 1)d]

2

80

Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 5A

N 7. ∵ a = 100, d = –10

∴ 126 = [2(27) + (N – 1)(–3)]

2 7

∴ S(7) = $ [2(100) + (7 – 1)(–10)]

252 = –3N2 + 57N 2

N2 – 19N + 84 = 0 = $490

(N – 7)(N – 12) = 0 > $480

N = 7 or 12 ∴ She has enough money to buy the watch.

∴ 7 or 12 terms of arithmetic series must be taken.

8. (a) ∵ a = 1, l = 200 and n = 200

(d) Let N be the number of terms that must be taken. 200(1 + 200)

1 4 ∴ 1 + 2 + … + 200 = 2

∵ a = 6, d = 7 − 6 = and S(n) = 2470

3 3 = 20100

N

and S(n) = [2a + (N – 1)d] (b) Let n be the number of terms of the given series.

2

∵ a = 6, d = 12 – 6 = 6 and l = T(n) = 198

N 4 and T(n) = a + (n – 1)d

∴ 2470 = [2(6) + (N – 1) ]

2 3 ∴ 198 = 6 + (n – 1)(6)

14 820 = 4N2 + 32N n = 33

N2 + 8N – 3705 = 0 33(6 + 198)

(N – 57)(N + 65) = 0 ∴ The required sum = 2

N = 57 or –65(rejected) = 3366

∴ 57 terms of arithmetic series must be taken.

(c) The required sum

4. ∵ d = 2 and T(4) = 10 = sum of integers between 1 and 200 inclusive – sum

∴ a + 3(2) = 10 of integers between 1 and 200 that are multiples of 6

a=4 = 20 100 – 3366 (from (a) and (b))

10 = 16 734

∴ S(10) = [2(4) + (10 – 1)2]

2

= 130 9. (a) For a common difference of 6, the arithmetic

sequence is 2, 8, 14, …, 98.

5. (a) ∵ S(14) = 406 Let 98 be the kth term.

14 i.e. T(k) = 98

∴ [2(a) + (14 – 1)d] = 406 2 + (k – 1)(6) = 98

2 k = 17

2a +13d = 58 ………(1) ∴ 2 + 8 + 14 + … + 98 = S(17)

∵ T(4) + T(5) = 34 17(2 + 98)

∴ (a + 3d) + (a + 4d) = 34 = 2

2a +7d = 34 ………(2)

= 850

(1) – (2), 6d = 24

∴ The sum of the corresponding series is 850.

d=4

For a common difference of 16, the arithmetic

By substituting d = 4 into (2), we have

sequence is 2, 18, 34, …, 98.

2a + 7(4) = 34

Let 98 be the jth term.

a=3

i.e. T(j) = 98

∴ The first term is 3 and the common difference is

2 + (j – 1)(16) = 98

4.

j=7

∴ 2 + 18 + 34 + … + 98 = S(7)

20

(b) S(20) = [2(3) + (20 – 1)(4)] 7(2 + 98)

2 = 2

= 820 = 350

∴ The sum of the corresponding series is 350.

6. ∵ d = –4 (or any other reasonable answers)

and S(8) = 336

8 (b) For a common difference of 8, the arithmetic

[2a + (8 – 1)(–4)] = 336 sequence is 2, 10, 18, …, 98.

2

Let 98 be the kth term.

a = 56

i.e. T(k) = 98

∴ The first term is 56.

2 + (k – 1)(8) = 98

k = 13

14 Arithmetic and Geometric Sequences and their Summation

∴ 2 + 10 + 18 + … + 98 = S(13) 3x 2

13( 2 + 98) m1 + m2 + m3 + … + mx =

= 2

2 ∴ The sum of the x arithmetic means between x and 2x

= 650

3x 2

∴ The sum of the corresponding series is 650. is .

For a common difference of 4, the arithmetic 2

sequence is 2, 6, 10, …, 98.

Let 98 be the kth term. 14. (a) first term = T(1) = 55 – 2(1) = 53

i.e. T(k) = 98 Common difference = T(n + 1) – T(n)

2 + (k – 1)(4) = 98 = [55 – 2(n + 1)] – (55 – 2n)

k = 25

= −2

∴ 2 + 6 + 10 + … + 98 = S(25)

25(2 + 98)

= (b) Let the kth term be the first negative term.

2

i.e. T(k) < 0

= 1250

∴ 55 – 2k < 0

∴ The sum of the corresponding series is 1250.

55

(or any other reasonable answers) k>

2

10. (a) (–2) + (–1) + 0 + 1 + 2 or (–6) + (–3) + 0 + 3 + 6 ∴ The first negative term is the 28th term.

(or any other reasonable answers) ∴ T(28) = 55 – 2(28)

= −1

(b) 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 or (–1) + 1 + 3 + 5 + 7

(or any other reasonable answers) (c) ∵ T(n) is negative for n ≥ 28.

∴ S(n) is maximum at n = 27.

Level 2 27

S(27) = [2(53) + (27 – 1)( –2)]

11. (a) Let k be the number of rows. 2

∵ a = 12, d = 3 = 729

and T(k) = 6a ∴ The maximum value of S(n) is 729.

∴ a + (k – 1)d = 6a

12 + (k – 1)(3) = 6(12) 15. ∵ a = –49, d = (–46) – (–49) = 3

k = 21 ∴ T(n) = –49 + (n – 1)(3) = 3n – 52

∴ The number of rows is 21. Let the kth term be the last negative term.

∴ T(k) < 0

n i.e. 3k – 52 < 0

(b) S(n) = [2a + (n – 1)d] 52

2 k<

21 3

S(21) = [2(12) + (21 – 1)(3)] ∴ The last negative term is the 17th term.

2

= 882 17

S(17) = [2(–49) + (17 – 1)(3)]

∴ The number of seats is 882. 2

= –425

12. Let m1, m2, m3, …, m25 be the arithmetic means. ∴ The sum of all negative terms is –425.

∵ a = 5, l = 120 and n = 27

27(5 + 120) 16. (a) The sum = 200 + 205 + 210 + … + 500

∴ S(27) = ∴ a = 200, d = 5 and l = 500

2

i.e. 5 + m1 + m2 + m3 + … + m25 + 120 = 1687.5 T(n) = 200 + (n – 1)(5) = 195 + 5n

m1 + m2 + m3 + … + m25 = 1562.5 Let k be the number of terms.

∴ The sum of the 25 arithmetic means between 5 and ∴ T(k) = 500

120 is 1562.5. i.e. 195 + 5k = 500

k = 61

13. Let m1, m2, m3, …, mx be the arithmetic means. 61( 200 + 500)

S(61) =

∵ a = x, l = 2x and n = x + 2 2

( x + 2)( x + 2 x) = 21 350

∴ S(x + 2) = ∴ The required sum is 21 350.

2

( x + 2)( x + 2 x)

i.e. x + m1 + m2 + m3 + … + mx + 2x = (b) The sum = 203 + 210 + 217 + … + 497

2 ∴ a = 203, d = 7 and l = 497

T(n) = 203 + (n – 1)(7) = 196 + 7n

Let k be the number of terms.

80 100

Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 5A

∴ T(k) = 497 n (1 + n )

n (1 + n )

i.e. 196 + 7k = 497 1 +

=

2 2

k = 43

2

43(203 + 497)

S(43) = n(1 + n) n

2 = 1 + (1 + n)

= 15 050 4 2

∴ The required sum is 15 050.

(d) The last term in the first (n – 1) brackets

(c) If the integers are divisible by both 5 and 7, then they = The total number of terms in the first (n – 1)

are divisible by 35. brackets

We are going to find the sum of integers divisible by ( n − 1)[1 + ( n − 1)]

35 between 200 and 500 inclusive. =

∴ The sum = 210 + 245 + 280 + … + 490 2

∴ a = 210, d = 35 and l = 490 n( n − 1)

=

T(n) = 210 + (n – 1)(35) = 175 + 35n 2

Let k be the number of terms. n(n − 1)

∴ T(k) = 490 Now, a = 1 and l =

2

i.e. 175 + 35k = 490 ∴ The sum of the terms in the first (n – 1)

k=9 brackets

9(210 + 490) ( n − 1)[1 + ( n − 1)] (n − 1)

S(9) =

2 = 1 + [1 + ( n − 1)]

4 2

= 3150

∴ The required sum is 3150. n(n − 1) n

= 1 + ( n − 1)

4 2

(d) The required sum ∴ The sum of the terms in the nth bracket

= sum of integers divisible by 5 + sum of integers = The sum of the terms in the first n brackets –

divisible by 7 – sum of integers divisible by both 5 the sum of the terms in the first (n – 1) brackets

and 7

n(1 + n) n n(n − 1) n

= 21 350 + 15 050 – 3150 = 1 + (1 + n) − 1 + ( n − 1)

4 2 4 2

= 33 250

n 2

= (1 + n )

17. 2 × 22 × 23 × …× 264 = 21 + 2 + 3 + …. + 64 2

64

(1+ 64 )

=22 Exercise 14G (p. 196)

2080

=2 Level 1

1. (a) ∵ a = 1, R = = 2 and n = 10

In the 2nd bracket, there are 2 terms. 2

In the 3rd bracket, there are 3 terms. 1( 2 − 1)

10

2 −1

= 1023

(b) The total number of terms = 1 + 2 + 3 + … + n

n(1 + n)

= 9 1

2 (b) ∵ a = 27, R = = and n = 7

27 3

(c) The last term in the first n brackets 1 7

27 1 −

= the total number of terms in the first n brackets 3

n(1 + n) ∴ S(7) =

1

= 1−

2 3

n(1 + n) 1093

Now, a = 1 and l = . =

2 27

∴ The sum of the terms in the first n brackets

−16

(c) ∵ a = 8, R = = –2 and n = 10

8

101

14 Arithmetic and Geometric Sequences and their Summation

∴ S(10) = 1 − (−2) 1

4 (2 6 − 1)

= − 2728 ∴ S(6) = 5

2 −1

3

0.6 = 264

(d) ∵ a = –1, R = = –0.6 and n = 7 5

−1

− 1[1 − (−0.6) 7 ]

∴ S(7) = 1 − ( −0.6) 3. (a) Let N be the number of terms that must be taken.

2 a ( R N − 1)

= − 0.642 496 ∵ a = 1, R = = 2 and S(N) = = 511

1 R −1

1(2 N − 1)

2. (a) Let n be the number of terms of the given series. ∴ 511 =

6 2 −1

∵ a = 2, R = = 3 and T(n) = aRn – 1 = 4374 N=9

2 ∴ 9 terms of geometric series must be taken.

∴ 4374 = 2(3n – 1)

n=8 (b) Let N be the number of terms that must be taken.

∴ The number of terms is 8.

1

2(38 − 1) 3

∴ S(8) = 1

3 −1 ∵ a= ,R= = 3 and

9 1

= 6560 9

S(N) = = 40

−8 R −1 9

∵ a = 2, R = = –4 and T(N) = aRN – 1 = –2048 1

2 N

(3 − 1)

∴ –2048 = 2(–4)N – 1 ∴ 4 9

40 =

N=6 9 3 −1

∴ The number of terms is 6. N=6

2[1 − ( −4) 6 ] ∴ 6 terms of geometric series must be taken.

∴ S(6) = 1 − (−4)

(c) Let N be the number of terms that must be taken.

= − 1638

24 1

∵ a = 48, R = =

48 2

(c) Let n be the number of terms of the given series.

1 a (1 − R N ) 29

1 and S(N) = = 95

∵ a = , R = 1 = 3 and T(n) = aRn – 1 = 729 1− R 32

3 3

1 N

481 −

1 29 2

∴ 729 = (3)n – 1

3

∴ 95 =

32 1−

1

n=8 2

∴ The number of terms is 8.

N = 10

1 8

(3 − 1) ∴ 10 terms of geometric series must be taken.

∴ S(8) = 3

3 −1 (d) Let N be the number of terms that must be taken.

3280 2

= 9

3 2

∵ a= ,R= =3

27 2

27

(d) Let n be the number of terms of the given series.

2

8 a ( R N − 1) 26

1 5 2 and S(N) = = 242

∵ a=4 ,R= = 2 and T(n) = aR n–1

= 134 R −1 27

5 1 5

4 2

N

5 (3 − 1)

∴ 26 27

2 1 242 =

∴ 134 = 4 (2) n −1 27 3 −1

5 5

N=8

n=6 ∴ 8 terms of geometric series must be taken.

80 102

Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 5A

5000(1.06)(1.0610 − 1)

4. ∵ T(3) = 27 S(10) =

2 1.06 − 1

2

∴ a − = 27 = 69 858 (cor. to the nearest dollar)

3 ∴ Peter will receive $69 858 at the end of the 10th year.

243

a=

4

243 2

10

1 − − Level 2

4 3

∴ S(10) = 8. At the end of the 1st year, he will get

2

1− − $1000(1.04).

3

At the end of the 2nd year, he will get

11 605

= $1000(1.04) + $1000(1.04)2.

324

At the end of the 3rd year, he will get

$1000(1.04) + $1000(1.04)2 + $1000(1.04)3.

5. Let the first term be a and the common ratio be R. ∴ a = 1000(1.04), R = 1.04

∵ S(3) = 12

Let n be the number of years needed.

a ( R 3 − 1) S(n) > 15 000

∴ = 12 ……(1)

R −1 1000(1.04)(1.04 n − 1)

∵ T(4) + T(5) + T(6) = –96 > 15 000

1.04 − 1

∴ S(6) – S(3) = –96

n > 11.6

a ( R 6 − 1) ∴ The minimum number of years needed is 12.

= –84 ……(2)

R −1

R6 −1 9. (a) Let N be the number of terms that must be taken.

(2) ÷ (1), = –7 1

R3 −1 1

∵ a= − , R = 1 = –3

R6 + 7R3 – 8 = 0 3 − 3

(R + 8)(R3 – 1) = 0

3

R3 = –8 or R3 = 1 a (1 − R N ) 2

and S(N) = = 60

R = –2 or R = 1(rejected) 1− R 3

By substituting R = –2 into (1), we have

a[(−2) 3 − 1] ∴ 2 3

1

[

− 1 − ( −3)

N

]

= 12 60 =

( −2) − 1 3 1 − (−3)

a=4 N=6

∴ The first term is 4 and the common ratio is –2. ∴ 6 terms of geometric series must be taken.

6. Let n be the least number of terms taken. (b) Let N be the number of terms that must be taken.

6 3 a ( R N − 1) −18 1

∵ a = 4, R = = and S(N) = > 800 ∵ a = 36, R = =−

4 2 R −1 36 2

3 N a (1 − R N ) 125

4 − 1 and S(N) = = 23

1− R 128

∴ 2

> 800 1 N

3

−1 36 1 − −

2

∴ 23 125 =

2

N > 11.38 128 1

∴ At least 12 terms of geometric series must be taken. 1− −

2

7. At the end of the 1st year, Peter will receive N = 10

$5000(1 + 6%)1 = $5000(1.06)1. ∴ 10 terms of geometric series must be taken.

At the end of the 2nd year, he will receive 10. (a) (i) In the 2nd second, the distance travels

$5000(1.06) + $5000(1.06)2.

= 20 × 0.8 m

At the end of the 3rd year, he will receive In the 3rd second, the distance travels

$5000(1.06) + $5000(1.06)2 + $5000(1.06)3. = 20 × 0.82 m

∴ a = 5000(1.06), R = 1.06 In the 4th second, the distance travels

103

14 Arithmetic and Geometric Sequences and their Summation

= 20 × 0.83 m ∴ d1 + d2 + d3 + d4 = S(4)

∴ In the nth second, the distance travels is

20 × 0.8n – 1 m. x sin θ [1 − cos 4 θ ]

=

(ii) ∵ a = 20, R = 0.8 1 − cosθ

20(1 − 0.8 n ) = x sin θ (1 + cosθ )(1 + cos 2 θ )

∴ S(n) = = 100(1 – 0.8n)

1 − 0.8

∴ The total distance travels in the first n

seconds is 100(1 – 0.8n) m.

(c) d1 + d2 + d3 + d4

(b) From (a), the distance travels in the first 18 seconds

= 20sin 30°(1 + cos 30°)(1 + cos230°)

= S(18)

35

= 100(1 – 0.818) m = (2 + 3 )

= 98.2 m 4

< 100 m

∴ The train cannot stop at the station successfully 13. (a) 99 – 9 = 90

in 18 seconds. 999 – 99 = 900 ≠ 90

∴ It is not an arithmetic sequence.

11. (a) After the 1st blow, the length driven is 2 m. 99

After the 2nd blow, the length driven is 2(0.9) m. = 11

… 9

After the 6th blow, the length driven is 2(0.9)5 m. 999 111

= ≠ 11

∴ a = 2 and R = 0.9 99 11

2(1 − 0.9 6 ) ∴ It is not a geometric sequence.

∴ S(6) = = 9.37, cor. to 2 d.p.

1 − 0. 9

(b) 9 = 10 – 1 = 101 – 1

∴ The length of the pile driven is 9.37 m.

99 = 100 – 1 = 102 – 1

999 = 1000 – 1 = 103 – 1

2(1 − 0.9 7 ) ∴ T(n) = 10n – 1

(b) S(7) = m

1 − 0. 9

= 10.43 m (cor. to 2 d.p.) (c) T(1) + T(2) + T(3) + … + T(n)

> 10 m = (101 – 1) + (102 – 1) + (103 – 1) + … + (10n – 1)

∴ The pile would be completely driven into the = 101 + 102 + 103 + … + 10n – n

ground. 10(10 n − 1)

= −n

10 − 1

12. (a) BD = ABsin θ 10

∴ d1 = x sin θ = (10 n − 1) − n

9

AD = ABcos θ = xcos θ

DE = ADsin θ = xcos θ sin θ 14. (a) First term in the 1st bracket = 1= 20

∴ d2 = x sin θ cosθ First term in the 2nd bracket = 2 = 20 + 1

First term in the 3rd bracket = 23 = 20 + 1 + 2

(b) (i) AE = ADcos θ = x(cos θ)2 First term in the 4th bracket = 26 = 20 + 1 + 2 + 3

d3 = EF = AEsin θ = xsin θ(cos θ)2 ∴ First term in the nth bracket

= 20 + 1 + 2 + … + (n – 1 )

AF = AEcos θ = x(cos θ)3 n ( n −1)

d4 = FG = AFsin θ = xsin θ(cos θ)3 =2 2

d 2 x sin θ cosθ

= = cosθ Last term in the nth bracket

d1 x sin θ 1

= × first term in the (n + 1)th bracket

d 3 x sin θ (cosθ ) 2 2

= = cosθ

d2 x sin θ cosθ 1 ( n+1)( n +1−1)

= ×2 2

d 4 x sin θ (cosθ ) 3 2

= = cosθ n2 +n−2

d 3 x sin θ (cosθ ) 2 = 2 2

d 2 d3 d 4

∴ = =

d1 d 2 d 3 (b) The number of terms in the 1st bracket = 1

∴ d1, d2, d3, d4 are in geometric sequence. The number of terms in the 2nd brackets = 2

The number of terms in the 3rd brackets = 3

(ii) ∵ a = xcos θ, R = cos θ ∴ The number of terms in the nth brackets = n

80 104

Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 5A

n ( n −1) 9

and a = 2 2 ,R=2

2

n ( n −1) ∴ S(∞) = 1 −

3

2 2

(2 n − 1)

∴ The sum = = 27

2 −1

n ( n −1)

= (2 n − 1)2 2

2 1

(b) ∵ a = –4, R = =−

−4 2

(c) The number of terms in the first bracket = 1 −4

The number of terms in the first 2 brackets 1

∴ S(∞) = 1 − −

=1+2 2

The number of terms in the first 3 brackets 8

=1+2+3 =−

3

∴ The number of terms in the first n brackets

= 1 + 2 + 3 +… + n

n2 + n 0.2

= (c) ∵ a = 1, R = = 0.2

2 1

and a = 1, R = 2 1

∴ S(∞) = 1 − 0.2

n 2 +n

2

− 1) 5

=

2 −1 4

n 2 +n

=2 2

−1

− 5

1

(d) ∵ a = 5, R = 3

=−

a (r n − 1) 5 3

15. S1 = a + ar + ar2 + … + arn – 1 =

r −1 5

S (∞ ) =

a 2 [(r 2 ) n − 1] ∴ 1

= 1− −

S =a +ar +ar +…+ar r 2 −1 3

2 2 2 2 4 2 2(n – 1)

2 a (r 2 n − 1)

2 15

= =

r 2 −1 4

(r – 1)S12 + 2aS1

2 2. (a) 0.7 = 0.7777…

a ( r n − 1) a( r n − 1)

= ( r − 1) + 2a = 0.7 + 0.07 + 0.007 + 0.0007 + …

r −1 r −1

0.7

=

a (r − 1)

2 n 2

2a ( r − 1)

2 n

1 − 0.1

= +

r −1 r −1 7

=

a 2 (r n − 1) n 9

= ( r + 1)

r −1

a (r − 1)

2 2n

(b) 0.4 7 = 0.474 747…

=

r −1 = 0.47 + 0.0047 + 0.000 047 + …

a 2 (r 2 n − 1) (r + 1) 0.47

= ⋅ =

r −1 (r + 1) 1 − 0.01

a 2 (r 2 n − 1) 47

= ( r + 1) =

r2 −1 99

= (r + 1)S2

(c) 0.23 4 = 0.234 343…

Exercise 14H (p. 203) = 0.2 + 0.034 + 0.000 34 + 0.000 0034 + …

Level 1 0.034

= 0.2 +

1 − 0.01

6 2 116

1. (a) ∵ a = 9 and R = = =

9 3 495

105

14 Arithmetic and Geometric Sequences and their Summation

a = 6

= 0.747 + 0.000 747 + 0.000 000 747 + … 2

0.747 a = 12

=

1 − 0.001 ∴ The first term is 12.

83

=

111 5. ∵ T(1) + T(2) + T(3) = 21

a (1 − R 3 )

= 21 ……(1)

3. (a) ∵ S (∞ ) = 5 1− R

2

∴ =5 and S (∞ ) = 24

1− R

a

3 = 24 ……(2)

R= 1− R

5

6 18 7

∴ The first 3 terms are 2, and . (1) ÷ (2), 1 – R3 =

5 25 8

1

R=

40 2

(b) ∵ S (∞ ) = 1

7 By substituting R = into (2), we have

10 40 2

= a

∴ 1− R 7

3 1 = 24

R=− 1−

2

4

a = 12

15 45

∴ The first 3 terms are 10, − and . ∴ The first 3 terms are 12, 6 and 3.

2 8

6. (a) ∵ a = 1, R = x

(c) ∵ S (∞ ) = 90 a 1

a ∴ S (∞ ) = 1 − R = 1 − x

∴ = 90

1− 0.2

a = 72 1

∴ The first 3 terms are 72, 14.4 and 2.88. (b) ∵ S (∞ ) = 1

8

(d) ∵ S (∞ ) = −5 1 1

=1

a ∴ 1− x 8

∴ = –5 1

1 − (−0.2) x=

9

a = –6

∴ The first 3 terms are –6, 1.2 and –0.24.

7. The total possible output of gold

4. ∵ T(2) = 6 = [1000 + 1000(80%) + 1000(80%)(80%) + ….] kg

aR = 6 ……(1) = [1000 + 1000(0.8) + 1000(0.8)(0.8) + ….] kg

and S (∞ ) = 24 1000

= kg

a 1 − 0.8

= 24 ……(2)

1− R = 5000 kg

1

(1) ÷ (2), R(1 – R) =

4 Level 2

2

1

R− = 0 80 2

2 8. (a) a = 120°, R =

=

120 3

1

R= ∴ Total angle swings through

2

= S (∞ )

1

By substituting R = into (1), we have

2

80 106

Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 5A

120 1

= =

2 3

1−

3

= 360 11. (a) ∵ The speed of Ken is twice that of Angel.

∴ The distance travelled by Ken is twice that of

Angel in the same time.

(b) ∵ Total angle swings through is 360°.

1 1

∴ Total distance swings through ∴ BC = AB = (24 m) = 12 m

2 2

360

= (2π)(10 cm)

1 1

360 Similarly, CD = BC = (12 m) = 6 m

2 2

= 20π cm 1 1

and DE = CD = (6 m) = 3 m

2 2

9. For the downwards distance travelled,

a = 10, R = 75% = 0.75 BC 6 1

a = =

∴ S (∞ ) = m (b) AB 12 2

1− R CD 3 1

10 = =

= m BC 6 2

1 − 0.75 ∴ AB, BC, CD, DE are in geometric sequence with

= 40 m 1

For the upwards distance travelled, common ratio .

2

a = 10(75%) = 7.5, R = 0.75

a 7.5 1

∴ S (∞ ) = m= m = 30 m (c) a = 24 m, R =

1− R 1 − 0.75 2

∴ The total distance travelled ∴ Total distance Ken must run

= (30 + 40) m = S (∞ )

= 70 m 24

= m

1

10. (a) (i) The fraction of the original piece of cake P 1−

2

1 = 48 m

gets the first time =

4

11 1

gets the second time alone = =

4 4 16

gets the nth time alone

n −1

1 1

=

4 4

1

= 2n

2

1

16 1 12. (a)

1 =

(b) ∵ a = , R =

4 1 4

4 ∵ △ABC is an equilateral triangle.

∴ ∠ABC = 60°

1 ∵ Area of △ABC = 3 × Area of △OAB

4 1 1

∴ S (∞) = 1 ∴ (AB)(BC)(sin ∠ABC) = 3 × (AB)(OD)

1− 2 2

4 1 1

(8)(8)(sin 60°) = 3 × (8)(r1)

2 2

107

14 Arithmetic and Geometric Sequences and their Summation

4 AC1 B1C1

r1= =

3 AC BC

3a − b b

Consider △OEF. =

∠FOE = 60° 3a a

3

OE = OF cos ∠FOE b= a

r1 – r2 = (r1 + r2)cos 60° 4

1

r2 = r1 3

3 (b) (i) From (a), we have B1C1 = BC

4 4

r2 = 3 3 Similarly, we have

3

4 B2C2 = B1C1

1 4

Similarly, r3 = r2 =

3 9 3 3

= b

(b) From (a), we know that r1, r2, r3, … are in geometric 4

4 1

sequence with first term and common ratio .

3 3

Sum of the circumferences

= (2πr1 + 2πr2 + 2πr3 + …) cm 3

(ii) B2C2 = b

= 2π(r1 + r2 + r3 + …) cm 4

4 33

= 4 4 a

= 2π cm

3

1 9

1 − = a

3 16

= 4 3π cm (c) (i) By considering triangles AB1C1, AB2C2, …and

using argument similar to (a) and (b), we have

(c) Consider the sequence r12, r22, r32, … B2 C 2 B3C3 3

= = ... =

r2 2 r

2

1 B1C1 B2 C 2 4

= 2 = ∴ B1C1, B2C2, B3C3, … are in geometric

r12 r1 9

sequence.

∴ r12, r22, r32, … are in geometric sequence with

16 1 3

4

first term and common ratio . (ii) B4C4 = a

3 9 4

Sum of areas of these circles 81

= a

= (πr21 + πr22 + πr32 + …) cm2 256

= π(r12 + r22 + r32 + …) cm2

(iii) The areas of the squares are in geometric

16

9 2

sequence with first term a and common

= π cm 2

3

16

1

1− 9 9

ratio .

16

= 6π cm 2

Sum of areas

= (B1C1)2 + (B2C2)2 + (B3C3)2 +…

13. (a) C1C = B1C1 = b 9 2

AC1 = AC – C1C = 3a – b a

= 16

By similar triangles, we have 9

1 −

16

9

= a2

7

80 108

Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 5A

3

A2B1 = A1B1 = 21 cm 2401

7 = cm 2

4 25

B1B2 = B1C1 = 28 cm 1 −

7 49

117 649

= A2 B12 + B1 B2 2 cm = cm 2

24

AB (Pyth. theorem)

2 2

= 212 + 28 2 cm

= 35 cm Revision Exercise 14 (p. 209)

Level 1

A2 B2 5

(b) Common ratio = = 1. (a) T(1) = 2(1) – 1 = 1 , T(2) = 2(2) – 1 = 3 ,

A1 B1 7

T(3) = 2(3) – 1 = 5 , T(4) = 2(4) – 1 = 7 ,

(c) (i) ∵ The sides of the squares are in

T(5) = 2(5) – 1 = 9

geometric sequence.

∴ The perimeters of the squares are also in

geometric sequence with the same common (b) T(1) = 31 – 1 = 1 , T(2) = 32 – 1 = 3 ,

ratio and first term 196 cm.

T(3) = 33 – 1 = 9 , T(4) = 34 – 1 = 27 ,

Sum of the perimeters

= (196 + 140 + … ) cm T(5) = 35 – 1 = 81

196

= cm (c) T(1) = (–1)1 + 1 ⋅ 2(1) = 2 ,

1− 5

T(2) = (–1)2 + 1 ⋅ 2(2) = −4 ,

7

T(4) = (–1)4 + 1 ⋅ 2(4) = −8

(ii) Notice that

4 T(5) = (–1)5 + 1 ⋅ 2(5) = 10

A1A2 = A1B1 = 28 cm

7

4 (d) T(1) = (1)1 + 1 = 1 , T(2) = (2)2 + 1 = 8 ,

A2A3 = A2B2 = 20 cm

7 T(3) = (3)3 + 1 = 81 , T(4) = (4)4 + 1 = 1024 ,

…

A1A2, A2A3, …are also in geometric sequence with T(5) = (5)5 + 1 = 15 625

the same common ratio as A1B1, A2B2, … and first

term 28 cm. 2. (a) (i) 6, 7

∴ Total distance travelled by the ant

= (28 + 20 + … ) cm (ii) ∵ T(1) = 2 = 1 + 1

T(2) = 3 = 2 + 1

28 T(3) = 4 = 3 + 1

= cm

T(4) = 5 = 4 + 1

5

1− ∴ T(n) = n + 1

7

= 98 cm

(b) (i) 20, 24

2

A2 B2 (ii) ∵ T(1) = 4 = 4(1)

(d) Common ratio = 2

A1 B1 T(2) = 8 = 4(2)

T(3) = 12 = 4(3)

352

= T(4) = 16 = 4(4)

49 2

25 ∴ T(n) = 4n

=

49

First term = A1B12 (c) (i) 4, 2

= 492 cm2

= 2401 cm2 (ii) ∵ T(1) = 64 = 27 – 1

∴ The sum of areas T(2) = 32 = 27 – 2

109

14 Arithmetic and Geometric Sequences and their Summation

T(4) = 8 = 27 – 4 = 34

7−n

∴ T(n) = 2

(b) (i) T(n) = –5 + (n – 1)(–4)

3 3 = −4n − 1

(d) (i) ,

32 64

(ii) T(9) = –4(9) – 1

3 3 = −37

(ii) ∵ T(1) = =

2 21

3 3 1

T(2) = = 2 (c) (i) T(n) = –2 + (n – 1) 1

4 2 2

3 3 3n − 7

T(3) = = 3 =

8 2 2

3 3

T(4) = = 4

16 2 3(9) − 7

(ii) T(9) =

3 2

∴ T(n) = 2 n = 10

T(3) – T(2) = 7 – 4 = 3 (d) (i) T(n) = 4 + (n − 1) − 4

T(4) – T(3) = 10 – 7 = 3

∴ It is an arithmetic sequence with common 10 − 7 n

=

difference 3. 4

T(n) = 1 + (n – 1)(3) = 3n − 2

10 − 7(9)

(ii) T(9) = 4

(b) T(2) – T(1) = 7 – 9 = –2

T(3) – T(2) = 5 – 7 = –2 53

=−

T(4) – T(3) = 2 – 5 = –3 ≠ –2 4

∴ It is not an arithmetic sequence.

5. (a) Let a and d be the first term and the common

(c) T(2) – T(1) = log 25 – log 5 difference respectively.

= 2 log 5 – log 5 ∵ a = 101 and d = 99 – 101 = –2

= log 5 ∴ T(n) = 101 + (n – 1)(–2)

T(3) – T(2) = log 125 – log 25 = 103 – 2n

= 3 log 5 – 2 log 5 Let –1 be the kth term.

= log 5 i.e. T(k) = –1

T(4) – T(3) = log 625 – log 125 ∴ 103 – 2k = –1

= 4 log 5 – 3 log 5 k = 52

= log 5 ∴ There are 52 terms in the sequence.

∴ It is an arithmetic sequence with common

difference log 5. (b) Let a and d be the first term and the common

T(n) = log 5 + (n – 1)(log 5) difference respectively.

= n log 5 ∵ a = 3 and d = 1 – 3 = –2

∴ T(n) = 3 + (n – 1)(–2)

(d) T(2) – T(1) = (x + 3) – (x + 1) = 2 = 5 – 2n

T(3) – T(2) = (x + 5) – (x + 3) = 2 Let –15 be the kth term.

T(4) – T(3) = (x + 7) – (x + 5) = 2 i.e. T(k) = –15

∴ It is an arithmetic sequence with common ∴ 5 – 2k = –15

difference 2. k = 10

T(n) = (x + 1) + (n – 1)(2) ∴ There are 10 terms in the sequence.

= x + 2n − 1

(c) Let a and d be the first term and the common

difference respectively.

4. (a) (i) T(n) = 2 + (n – 1)(4) 1 1 1

= 4n − 2 ∵ a = and d = 1 − =

2 2 2

80 110

Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 5A

∴ T(n) = + (n – 1)

2 2 125 5

= + (n − 1) −

1 2 2

= n

2 5

= 65 − n

Let 10 be the kth term. 2

i.e. T(k) = 10

1 (c) Let a and d be the first term and the common

∴ k = 10

2 difference respectively.

k = 20 T(4) = a + 3d = 75 ……(1)

∴ There are 20 terms in the sequence. T(10) = a + 9d = 117 ……(2)

(2) – (1), 6d = 42

(d) Let a and d be the first term and the common d=7

difference respectively. By substituting d = 7 into (1), we have

1 2 1 a + 3(7) = 75

∵ a = and d = − − = –1

3 3 3 a = 54

1 ∴ T(n) = a + (n – 1)d

∴ T(n) = + (n – 1)(–1) = 54 + (n – 1)(7)

3

= 47 + 7 n

4

= –n

3

(d) Let a and d be the first term and the common

2 difference respectively.

Let − 18 be the kth term.

3 T(7) = a + 6d = 62 ……(1)

2 T(19) = a + 18d = 2 ……(2)

i.e. T(k) = − 18

3 (2) – (1), 12d = –60

4 2 d = –5

∴ − k = −18 By substituting d = –5 into (1), we have

3 3

a + 6(–5) = 62

k = 20

a = 92

∴ There are 20 terms in the sequence. ∴ T(n) = a + (n – 1)d

= 92 + (n – 1)(–5)

6. (a) Let a and d be the first term and the common

difference respectively. = 97 − 5n

T(7) = a + 6d = 20 ……(1)

T(19) = a + 18d = 56 ……(2) − 8 + ( −2)

7. (a) Arithmetic mean = 2

(2) – (1), 12d = 36

d=3 = –5

By substituting d = 3 into (1), we have

a + 6(3) = 20 117 + 49

a=2 (b) Arithmetic mean = 2

∴ T(n) = a + (n – 1)d = 83

= 2 + (n – 1)(3)

= 3n − 1 − 13 + 13

(c) Arithmetic mean = 2

(b) Let a and d be the first term and the common =0

difference respectively.

T(10) = a + 9d = 40 ……(1) 8. (a) Let d1 be the common difference of the arithmetic

T(16) = a + 15d = 25 ……(2) sequence to be formed.

(2) – (1), 6d = –15 The arithmetic sequence formed is:

5 5, 5 + d1, 5 + 2d1, 17

d=− ∵ The 4th term is also given by 5 + 3d1.

2

∴ 5 + 3d1 = 17

5 d1 = 4

By substituting d = − into (1), we have

2 ∴ The two required arithmetic means are 9 and 13.

5

a + 9 − = 40

2 (b) Let d2 be the common difference of the arithmetic

sequence to be formed.

125

a= The arithmetic sequence formed is:

2

14 Arithmetic and Geometric Sequences and their Summation

∵ The 5th term is also given by 3 + 4d2.

∴ 3 + 4d2 = 19 T (2) x 3 y 2 x

d2 = 4 (d) = =

T (1) x 2 y 3 y

∴ The three required arithmetic means are 7, 11 and

15. T (3) x4 y x

= 3 2 =

T (2) x y y

(c) Let d be the common difference of the arithmetic

sequence. T (4) x5 x

= 4 =

∵ T(1) = a and T(4) = b T (3) x y y

∴ b = a + 3d

∴ It is a geometric sequence with common

b−a

d= x

3 ratio .

y

n−1

(i) x = T(2)

2 3 x

=a+d ∴ T(n) = x y

y

b−a

= a + 3 = x ⋅ y 4− n

n+1

2a + b

=

3

(ii) y = T(3) 10. (a) (i) ∵ a = 1 and R = 2 and T(n) = aRn – 1

= a + 2d ∴ T(n) = 1(2)n – 1

b−a n −1

= a + 2 3 =2

a + 2b

= (ii) T(10) = 210−1

3 9

= 512 (or 2 )

T ( 2) −2 1

9. (a) = = (b) (i) ∵ a = 2 and R = –3 and T(n) = aRn – 1

T (1) − 4 2

∴ T(n) = 2 ⋅ ( −3)

n −1

T (3) −1 1

= =

T ( 2) − 2 2

(ii) T(10) = 2(–3)10 – 1

− 1

T ( 4) 2 1 −39 366 (or − 2 ⋅ 39 )

= = =

T (3) −1 2

∴ It is a geometric sequence with common (c) (i) ∵ a = 1 and R = –1 and T(n) = aRn – 1

1 ∴ T(n) = 1(–1) n – 1

ratio . n−1

2 = ( −1)

n −1

1

∴ T(n) = − 4 (ii) T(10) = (–1)10 – 1

2

= − 2 3− n = −1

T (2) 5 1

(b) = (d) (i) ∵ a = − and R = –2 and T(n) = aRn – 1

T (1) 2 4

1 n −1

T (3) 11 5

= ≠ ∴ T(n) = − 4 (−2)

T ( 2) 5 2

= (−1) n ⋅ 2 n−3

∴ It is not a geometric sequence.

(c) = = 7

T (1) 0.3 10 = 128 (or 2 )

T (3) 0.333 111 11

= = ≠ 11. (a) Let a and R be the first term and the common

T ( 2) 0.33 110 10

ratio respectively.

80 112

Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 5A

∵ a = 1 and R = =2

1 R=3

∴ T(n) = aRn – 1 By substituting R = 3 into (1), we have

= 1(2)n – 1 1

a(3) =

= 2n – 1 9

Let 2048 be the kth term. 1

i.e. T(k) = 2048 a=

27

2k – 1 = 2048 ∴ T(n) = aRn – 1

k = 12 1

∴ The number of terms is 12. = ⋅ 3n – 1

27

n−4

(b) Let a and R be the first term and the common ratio =3

respectively.

−10 (b) Let a and R be the first term and the common ratio

∵ a = –2 and R = =5 respectively.

−2

∴ T(n) = aRn – 1 T(4) = aR3 = 2 ………(1)

= –2(5)n – 1 1

T(5) = aR4 = ………(2)

Let –6250 be the kth term. 2

i.e. T(k) = –6250 1

(2) ÷ (1), R=

–2(5)k – 1 = –6250 4

k=6 1

By substituting R = into (1), we have

∴ The number of terms is 6. 4

3

1

(c) Let a and R be the first term and the common ratio a = 2

respectively. 4

1.6 1 a = 128

∵ a = 3.2 and R = = ∴ T(n) = aRn – 1

3.2 2 n −1

∴ T(n) = aR n–1 1

= 128

1

n −1 4

= 3.2 9−2 n

2 =2

Let 0.006 25 be the kth term.

i.e. T(k) = 0.006 25 (c) Let a and R be the first term and the common ratio

k −1 respectively.

1 T(3) = aR2 = –8 ………(1)

3.2 = 0.006 25

2 T(6) = aR5 = 1 ………(2)

k = 10 1

∴ The number of terms is 10. (2) ÷ (1), R3 = −

8

1

(d) Let a and R be the first term and the common ratio R=−

respectively. 2

−12 1

∵ a = 3 and R = = –4 By substituting R = − into (1), we have

3 2

2

∴ T(n) = aR n–1

1

a − = –8

= 3(–4)n – 1 2

Let 12 288 be the kth term. a = –32

i.e. T(k) = 12 288 ∴ T(n) = aRn – 1

3(–4)k – 1 = 12 288 n −1

k=7 1

= –32 −

∴ The number of terms is 7. 2

= ( −1) n

⋅ 26− n

12. (a) Let a and R be the first term and the common

ratio respectively.

1 (d) Let a and R be the first term and the common ratio

T(2) = aR = ………(1) respectively.

9

T(2) = aR = 6 ………(1)

T(7) = aR6 = 27 ………(2)

T(7) = aR6 = 192 ………(2)

113

14 Arithmetic and Geometric Sequences and their Summation

R=2 d = (3a + b) – (a – b) = 2a + 2b and n = 10

By substituting R = 2 into (1), we have 10

a(2) = 6 ∴ S(10) = [2(a – b) + (10 – 1)(2a + 2b)]

2

a=3

= 100a + 80b

∴ T(n) = aRn – 1

= 3⋅ 2

n−1

series.

13. (a) Geometric mean = 4 × 64 = 16 ∵ a = 200, l = 2

and S(n) = 10 100

n( 200 + 2)

(b) Geometric mean = ± − 3 × (−27) = 9 or − 9 ∴ = 10 100

2

n = 100

(c) Let R be the common ratio of the geometric ∴ There are 100 terms in the given series.

sequence to be formed.

The geometric sequence formed is: (ii) Let d be the common difference.

1 1 1 2 27 ∵ l = T(100) = 2

, R, R , ∴ 200 + 99d = 2

4 4 4 32

d = –2

1 ∴ The common difference is –2.

∵ The 4th term is also given by R3.

4

1 3 27 (b) (i) Let a be the first term and d be the common

∴ R =

4 32 difference.

3 ∵ S(9) = 90

R= 9

2 ∴ (2a + 8d) = 90

3 2

∴ The two required geometric means are and a + 4d = 10 ………(1)

8

∵ T(11) = 14

9 a + 10d = 14 ………(2)

.

16 (2) – (1), 6d = 4

2

(d) Let r be the common ratio of the geometric sequence d=

3

to be formed.

2

The geometric sequence formed is: ∴ The common difference is .

3, 3r, 3r2, 24 3

∵ The 4th term is also given by 3r3.

∴ 3r3 = 24 2

(ii) By substituting d = into (1), we have

r=2 3

∴ a = 6 and b = 12 22

a=

3

14. (a) ∵ a = –3, d = 2 – (–3) = 5 and n = 20 50 22 2

20 ∴ S(50) = 2 2 3 + 49 3

∴ S(20) = [2(–3) + (20 – 1)(5)]

2

3550

= 890 =

3

16. (a) ∵ a = 1, l = 50

15

∴ S(15) = [2(65) + (15 – 1)(–3)] 50

2 ∴ S(50) = [1 + 50]

2

= 660

= 1275

(c) ∵ a = 7, d = 4 – 7 = –3 and n = 12

(b) The sum of even integers

12

∴ S(12) = [2(7) + (12 – 1)( –3)] = 2 + 4 + 6 +…. + 100

2 = 2( 1 + 2 + 3 + … + 50)

= −114 = 2(1275) (from (a))

= 2550

80 114

Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 5A

4n – 1 > 16425

6 n > 7.002

17. (a) ∵ a = 3, R = = 2 and n = 8 ∴ 8 terms of geometric series must be taken.

3

3( 28 − 1)

∴ S(8) = 14 1

2 −1 19. (a) ∵ a = 28 and R = =

28 2

= 765

28

S (∞ ) =

∴ 1

5 1 1−

(b) ∵ a = 10, R = = and n = 6 2

10 2 = 56

1 6

101 − −18 2

2 (b) ∵ a = 27, R = =−

∴ S(6) = 1 27 3

1− 27

2 S (∞ ) =

11 2

= 19 ∴ 1− −

16 3

81

=

−24 5

(c) ∵ a = 8, R = = –3 and n = 8

8 − 9

25

3 =−3

(c) ∵ a = , R =

8[1 − (−3)8 ] 5 3 5

5

∴ S(8) = 1 − ( −3)

= − 13 120 3

S (∞ ) =

5

6 1 ∴ 3

(d) ∵ a = –18, R = = − and n = 12 1− −

− 18 3 5

1 12 3

=

− 181 − − 8

3

∴ S(12) =

1

1− − 20. (a) 0.5 = 0.5555…

3

= 0.5 + 0.05 + 0.005 + 0.0005 + …

265 720

=− 0.5

19 683 =

1 − 0.1

5

18. (a) Let N be the number of terms of the given series. =

9

3

∵ a = 1, R = = 1

1

and S(N) > 2000 (b) 0.41 4 = 0.414 1414…

1(3 N − 1) = 0.4 + 0.014 + 0.000 14 + …

∴ > 2000 0.014

3 −1 = 0.4 +

3N – 1 > 4000 1 − 0.01

N > 7.55 41

=

∴ 8 terms of geometric series must be taken. 99

(c) 0.4 14 = 0.414 414…

8

3 = 0.414 + 0.000 414 + 0.000 000 414 + …

2

∵ a= ,R= =4 0.414

3 2 =

3 1 − 0.001

46

and S(N) > 3650 =

2

111

(4 n − 1)

∴ 3 > 3650

4 −1 Level 2

115

14 Arithmetic and Geometric Sequences and their Summation

∴ ∆=0

i.e. (2b)2 – 4ac = 0 n

(ii) S(n) = [2 log a + (n – 1)(1)]

b2 = ac 2

c b n(n − 1)

= = n log a +

b a 2

∴ a, b, c are in geometric sequence.

25. (a) The weight loss in a month is a geometric

22. tan θ cosθ = 2 sin θ sequence with a = 2 and R = 80% = 0.8.

tan θ cos θ = 2 sin2θ ∴ In the nth month, weight loss = 2 ⋅ 0.8 kg

n −1

sin θ = 2 sin2θ

sin θ (2 sinθ – 1) = 0

(b) Total weight loss = S (∞)

1

sin θ = 0 or sinθ = 2

2 = kg

1 − 0.8

θ = 30 or 150 = 10 kg

∴ Her ultimate weight = (80 – 10) kg

= 70 kg

23. (a) a ⋅ a2 ⋅ a3 ⋅ a3 ⋅ …⋅ a100 26. ∵ The diameters of the semi-circles are in geometric

= a1 + 2 + 3 + … + 100 sequence with a = 8 mm, R = 60% = 0.6

100 (1+100 )

∴ The lengths of the semi-circles are in geometric

=a 2

8

sequence with a = π mm = 4π mm, R = 0.6

= a 5050 2

Maximum length = S (∞ )

(b) (2 + log 2) + (4 + log 4) + (8 + log 8) + … 4π

= mm

= (2 + 4 + 8 + …) + (log 2 + log 4 + log 8 + …) 1 − 0.6

Then we have a geometric sequence 2, 4, 8, … and an = 10π mm

arithmetic sequence log 2, log 4, log 8, …

For the geometric sequence 2, 4, 8, …,

a = 2, R = 2, sin 2 α cos 2 α

27. (a) Common ratio =

2(210 − 1) sin 2 α

S(10) =

2 −1 = cos α

2

= 2046

For the arithmetic sequence log 2, log 4, log 8, … sin 2 α

a = log 2, d = log 2, (b) S(∞) =

1 − cos 2 α

10

S(10) = (log 2 + 10 log 2) =1

2

= 55 log 2

3 1

∴ The required sum = 2046 + 55 log 2 28. (a) a = 9, R = =

9 3

9 27

10a = =

24. (a) (i) Common ratio = a S(∞) = 1 2

1−

3

= 10

5

1

9 1 −

a(10 n − 1) 3

(ii) S(n) = S(5) = 121

10 − 1 =

1 9

a 1−

= (10 n − 1) 3

9 ∴ Error = S(5) – S (∞)

121 27

(b) (i) T(2) – T(1) = log 10a – log a = log 10 = 1 = −

2 9

T(3) – T(2) = log 100a – log 10a = log 10 = 1 1

… =−

∴ log a, log 10a, log 100a, … are in arithmetic 18

80 116

Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 5A

a

=

1 1− R

−

18

= × 100% =

256

cm 2

(b) Percentage error 27 1

1−

2 2

= –0.412% = 512 cm 2

2 2

30. (a) (i) From 1st January 2010 to 31st December 2019,

= + cm

16 16 there are 20 half-years.

2 2 The 1st deposit will amount to x(1.03)20.

The 2nd deposit will amount to x(1.03)19.

= 8 2 cm

The 3rd deposit will amount to x(1.03)18.

Side of the 3rd square ∴ The required sum

2 2

8 2 8 2 = $[x(1.03)20 + x(1.03)19 + x(1.03)18]

=

2 + 2 cm = $ x (1.03 + 1.03 + 1.03 )

20 19 18

= 8 cm

(ii) The last deposit will amount to 1.03x.

Side of the 1st square = 16 cm

The total sum

Side of the 2nd square = 8 2 cm = $[x(1.03)20 + x(1.03)19 +… + 1.03x]

1.03 x(1.0320 − 1)

1 =$

= 16 cm 1.03 − 1

2

103x (1.0320 − 1)

Side of the 3rd square = 8 cm =$

2 3

1

= 16 cm

2 (b) The sum = 500 000

103 x(1.0320 − 1)

1

k-1 = 500 000

∴ Side of the kth square = 16 cm 3

2 x = 18 066 (cor. to the nearest integer)

(b) The lengths of each side of the squares are in 31. ∵ a, b, c are in arithmetic sequence.

1 ∴ b–a=c–b

geometric sequence with a = 16 cm, R = .

2 b2(c + a) – a2(b + c) = b2c + b2a – a2b – a2c

The perimeter of the squares are also in geometric = c(b2 – a2) + ab(b – a)

1 = (b – a)[c(b + a) + ab]

sequence with a = 4 × 16 cm = 64 cm, R = .

2 = (b – a)(cb + ca + ab)

c2(a + b) – b2(c + a) = c2a + c2b – b2c – b2a

1 10 = a(c2 – b2) + bc(c – b)

641 − = (c – b)[a(c + b) + bc]

2

∴ S(10) = 1 cm = (c – b)(ac + ab + bc)

1− = (b – a)(cb + ca + ab)

2

= b2(c + a) – a2(b + c)

= 62(2 + 2 ) cm

∴ a (b + c), b (c + a), c2(a + b) are in arithmetic

2 2

sequence.

(c) The areas of the squares are in geometric sequence

1 32. (a) OA2 = OB1cos θ

with a = (16 × 16) cm2 = 256 cm2 and R = .

2 = kcos θ

Total area of the infinite number of squares formed OA3 = OB2cos θ

= kcos θ

2

117

14 Arithmetic and Geometric Sequences and their Summation

∩ πθ 1

A1 B1 = OA1 k 2 cosθ sin θ

(b) (i) 180 = 2

kπθ 1 − cos 2 θ

=

180 k cosθ sin θ

2

=

∩ πθ 2 sin 2 θ

A2 B2 = OA2

180 k cosθ

2

=

πkθ cos θ 2 sin θ

=

180 k2

=

∩ πθ 2 tan θ

A3 B3 = OA3

180

πkθ cos 2 θ 8 8 8

= 33. (a) 8 = (9) = (10 – 1) = (101 – 1)

180 9 9 9

8 8 8

88 = (99) = (100 – 1) = (102 – 1)

(ii) The sum is a geometric series with 9 9 9

kπθ 8 8 8

a= and R = cos θ. 888 = (999) = (1000 – 1) = (103 – 1)

180 9 9 9

∩ ∩ ∩

∴ A1 B1 + A2 B2 + A3 B3 + ... 8

∴ T(n) = 9 (10 − 1)

n

kπθ

= 180

(b) T(1) + T(2) + T(3) + … + T(n)

1 − cosθ

8 8 8

kπθ = (101 – 1) + (102 – 1) + … + (10n – 1)

= 9 9 9

180 (1 − cosθ )

8 1 2 n

= [10 – 1 + 10 – 1 + … + 10 – 1]

9

1 8

(c) Area of △OA2B1 = (OB1)(OA2)sin θ = [101 + 102 + … + 10n – n]

2 9

1

= (k)(kcos θ)sin θ 8 10(10 n − 1)

2 = − n

9 (10 − 1)

1 2

= 2 k cos θ sin θ 8 10(10 n − 1)

= − n

9 9

1

Area of △OA3B2 = (OB2)(OA3)sin θ

2

1 34. (a) (i) a4 = 1 + 2(1) + 2(2) + 2(3)

= (kcos θ)(kcos2θ)sin θ

2 = 13

1 2 3 a5 = 1 + 2(1) + 2(2) + 2(3) + 2(4)

= 2 k cos θsin θ

= 21

1

Area of △OA4B3 = (OB3)(OA4)sin θ

2 (ii) l = 2(n − 1)

1 an = 1 + 2(1) + 2(2) + … + l

= (kcos2θ)(OB3cos θ)sin θ

2 = 1 + 2(1) + 2(2) + … + 2(n – 1)

1 = 1 + 2[1 + 2 + … + (n – 1)]

= (kcos2θ)(kcos2θcos θ)sin θ

2 n( n − 1)

1 2 5 = 1 + 2

2

= 2 k cos θsin θ

= 1 + n( n − 1)

(b) (i) 1 = 2(1) – 1

1 5 = 2(1 + 2) – 1

with a = k2cos θsin θ and R = cos2θ.

2 11 = 2(1 + 2 + 3) – 1

∴ The sum to infinity of the series 19 = 2(1 + 2 + 3 + 4) – 1

∴ L = 2(1 + 2 + 3 + … + n) – 1

80 118

Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 5A

= 2 –1

2 1. Answer: B

= n( n + 1) − 1 Let d be the common difference of the arithmetic sequence

to be formed.

(ii) The terms in bn are in arithmetic sequence with The arithmetic sequence formed is:

a = an = 1 + n(n – 1) and d = 2. x, x + d, x + 2d, x + 3d, x + 4d, x + 5d, y

The number of terms = n ∵ The 7th term is also given by x + 6d.

∴ The sum of terms in bn ∴ x + 6d = y

= an + (an + 2) + (an + 4) + … + L y−x

d=

n 6

= [(1 + n(n – 1)) + (n(n + 1) – 1)]

2 x+ y

∴ The 3rd arithmetic mean is .

=n

3

2

2. Answer: B

35. No

Let the speed of the tortoise be v m/s, then that of Achilles d = n2 – n1

be 5v m/s. Common difference of the new arithmetic sequence

∵ The speed of Achilles is 5 times that of the tortoise. = (3n2 + 1) – (3n1 + 1)

∴ Distance travelled by Achilles is 5 times that of the = 3(n2 – n1)

tortoise. = 3d

∴ When Achilles reaches B, the tortoise move 2 m.

i.e. BC = 2 m 3. Answer: C

1 T(7) = S(7) – S(6)

Similarly, CD = BC m = [3(7)2 – 2(7)] – [3(6)2 – 2(6)]

5

= 133 – 96

2 = 37

=m

5

∴ AB, BC, CD, … are in geometric sequence with a = 4. Answer: C

1 10 ⋅ 102 ⋅ 103 ⋅…⋅ 10n > 1050

10 m and R = .

5 101 + 2 + 3 + … + n > 1050

∴ Total distance travelled by Achilles when he reaches 1 + 2 + 3 + … + n > 50

the tortoise n( n + 1)

> 50

10 2

m

= 1 n(n + 1) > 100

1−

5 ∴ (n + 1)(n + 1) > 100

= 12.5 m n + 1 > 10 or n + 1 < –10

12.5 5 ∴ n > 9 or n < –11(rejected)

∴ The time needed = = s , which is finite. The smallest value of n is 10.

5v 2v

5. Answer: A

36. (a) 1, 2, 3 or 2, 4, 6 or 3, 6, 9

(or any other reasonable answers) Let d1 and d2 be the common differences of the arithmetic

sequences respectively.

(b) By adding the corresponding terms of 1, 2, 3 and 2, 4, Then b = a + 3d1 and b = a + 4d2

6, we have 3, 6, 9, which is an arithmetic sequence m1 + m2 a + d1 + a + 2d1

with a common difference 3. The common difference =

n1 + n3 a + d 2 + a + 3d 2

of the new sequence is the sum of that of the former

sequences. a + a + 3d1

=

a + a + 4d 2

37. (a) 1, 2, 4 or 1, 3, 9 or 1, 4, 16 a+b

(or any other reasonable answers) =

a+b

=1

(b) By multiplying the corresponding terms of 1, 2, 4 and

1, 3, 9, we have 1, 6, 36, which is a geometric 6. Answer: C

sequence with a common ratio 6.

The common ratio of the new sequence is the product Consider the sequence which terms that are multiples of 7:

of that of the former sequences. 7, 14, 21, …

Let n be the number of multiples of 7 less than 100.

119

14 Arithmetic and Geometric Sequences and their Summation

7 + (n – 1)(7) < 100 xy =

10

n < 14.29

1

∴ The number of multiples of 7 less than 100 is 14. xy =

100

∴ The number of positive integers less than 100 not

divisible by 7 log x + log y

= log xy

= 99 – 14

1

= 85 = log

100

7. Answer: C = –2

Consider the geometric sequence: 1, 2, 4

10. Answer: D

and 1 + 10, 2 + 10, 4 + 10 = 11, 12, 14 which is not a

geometric sequence. 1[(9 2 ) n+1 − 1]

=

∴ I is false. 92 − 1

2 2 n+2

1 + 9 + 9 + … +9 = (3 ) −1

∵ a, b , c are in geometric sequence. 2 4 2n

b c 80

∴ = =R 34 n + 4 − 1

a b =

10b b 80

∵ = =R

10a a

11. Answer: B

10c c

and = =R

10b b

∴ 10a, 10b , 10c are in geometric sequence.

∴ II is true.

b b 12. Answer: D

∵ = = R

a a S (∞ ) = 100

c c a

and = = R = 100

b b 1− 0.25

a = 75

∴ a , b , c are in geometric sequence.

∴ III is true.

HKMO (p. 217)

8. Answer: C

For I: 1. Consider the sequence of the denominator.

2, 3, 3, 4, 4, 4, … , n, n, … ,n, …

1 1

33 1 333 11 1 For each n,

= = ≠

and 1. there are (n – 1) terms.

1 11 1 111 11

3 33 2. the terms are from [1 + 2 + 3 +… + (n – 2) + 1]th to

[1 + 2 + 3 +… + (n – 1)]th

∴ I is not in geometric sequence.

( n − 1)(n − 2) n( n − 1)

i.e. from [ + 1 ]th to th

For II: 2 2

0.33 11 0.333 111 11 If the denominator is 46, the terms are from [

= and = ≠

0.3 10 0.33 110 10 ( 46 − 1)(46 − 2) 46(46 − 1)

+ 1 ]th to th

∴ II is not in geometric sequence. 2 2

i.e. from 991th to 1035th.

For III: For each denominator with value of n, the numerator runs

− 1 1 − 1 from 1 to n – 1.

6 24

= − 1 12 = − 1 =−1 By counting from the 991th term, the numerator of the

, and

1 2 − 1 2 1 2 1001th term is 11.

3 6 12

∴ III is in geometric sequence. 2. ∵ sin 30° + sin230° + … + sinQ30° = 1– cosR45°

9. Answer: D

80 120

Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 5A

sin 30 (1 − sin Q 30 )

= 1 − cos R 45

∴ 1 − sin 30

0.5(1 − sin Q 30 )

= 1 − cos R 45

0.5

1 – sinQ30° = 1– cosR45°

sinQ30° = cosR45°

Q R

1 1

=

2 2

2Q R

1 1

=

2

2

∴ R = 2Q

121

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