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Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 5A

14 Arithmetic and Geometric Sequences and their Summation


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Activity (c) very large

Activity 14.1 (p. 161) Follow-up Exercise


1. (a) 2, 2, 2, 2 p. 158
(b) 3, 3, 3, 3
1. (a) T(1) = 5(1) = 5
(c) 5, 5, 5, 5
T(2) = 5(2) = 10
(d) –5, –5, –5, –5 T(3) = 5(3) = 15
2. They are equal. T(4) = 5(4) = 20

Activity 14.2 (p. 184) (b) T(1) = 12 – 1 = 0


1. (a) S(10) = 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 + 7 + 8 + 9 + 10 T(2) = 22 – 1 = 3
(b) S(10) = 55 T(3) = 32 – 1 = 8
T(4) = 42 – 1= 15
2. No
1
Activity 14.3 (p. 198) 1 1
(c) T(1) =   =
3 3
1 Range of R R n Rn
2
. 256 1 1
(or any other T(2) =   =
8 3 9
reasonable
–2 3
answers) 1 1
(or any T(3) =   =
–32 768
R < –1 other 3 27
(or any other
reasonable 15 4
reasonable 1 1
answers) T(4) =   =
answers) 3 81
 
very very large or
large very small
2. (a) (i) 21, 26
1
(or any
8 256 (ii) ∵ T(1) = 1 = 5(1) – 4
1 other reasonable T(2) = 6 = 5(2) – 4
2 answers) T(3) = 11 = 5(3) – 4
(or any 1 T(4) = 16 = 5(4) – 4
–1 < R < 1 (or any
other
15
32 768 ∴ T(n) = 5n − 4
reasonable other reasonable
answers) answers) (iii) ∵ T(n) = 5n – 4
very very close to ∴ T(10) = 5(10) – 4 = 46
large zero and T(15) = 5(15) – 4 = 71
256 (or any ∴ The 10th term and the 15th term of the
8 other reasonable sequence are 46 and 71 respectively.
2
answers)
(or any
32 768 (or any (b) (i) 81, 243
R>1 other
15 other reasonable
reasonable
answers) (ii) ∵ T(1) = 1 = 31 – 1
answers)
very T(2) = 3 = 32 – 1
very large T(3) = 9 = 33 – 1
large
T(4) = 27 = 34 – 1
2. (a) very large or very small n −1
∴ T(n) = 3
(b) very close to zero
(iii) ∵ T(n) = 3n – 1
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 5A

∴ T(10) = 310 – 1 = 39 = 4 log 2 – 3 log 2


and T(15) = 315 – 1 = 314 = log 2
∴ The 10th term and the 15th term of the ∴ It is an arithmetic sequence with common
sequence are 39 and 314 respectively. difference log 2.

1 1 2. (a) Let a and d be the first term and the common


(c) (i) , difference respectively.
32 64
∵ a = 2 and d = 5 – 2 = 3
∴ T(n) = a + (n – 1)d
1 1
(ii) ∵ T(1) = = = 2 + (n – 1)(3)
2 21 = 3n – 1
1 1 ∴ T(12) = 3(12) – 1
T(2) = = 2
4 2 = 35
1 1
T(3) = = 3
8 2 (b) Let a and d be the first term and the common
1 1 difference respectively.
T(4) = = ∵ a = 10 and d = 14 – 10 = 4
16 2 4
∴ T(n) = a + (n – 1)d
1 = 10 + (n – 1)(4)
∴ T(n) = n
2 = 6 + 4n
∴ T(12) = 6 + 4(12)
1 = 54
(iii) ∵ T(n) =
2n
1 1 (c) Let a and d be the first term and the common
∴ T(10) = 10 = difference respectively.
2 1024
∵ a = 6 and d = 4 – 6 = –2
1 1 ∴ T(n) = a + (n – 1)d
and T(15) = 15 =
2 32 768 = 6 + (n – 1)(–2)
∴ The 10th term and the 15th term of the = 8 – 2n
1 1 ∴ T(12) = 8 – 2(12)
sequence are and
1024 32 768 = −16
respectively.
(d) Let a and d be the first term and the common
p. 165 difference respectively.
∵ a = –25 and d = –22 – (–25) = 3
1. (a) T(2) – T(1) = 3 – 1 = 2
T(3) – T(2) = 5 – 3 = 2 ∴ T(n) = a + (n – 1)d
T(4) – T(3) = 7 – 5 = 2 = –25 + (n – 1)(3)
∴ It is an arithmetic sequence with common = 3n – 28
difference 2. ∴ T(12) = 3(12) – 28
=8
(b) T(2) – T(1) = –10 – (–13) = 3
T(3) – T(2) = –7 – (–10) = 3 3. (a) Let a and d be the first term and the common
T(4) – T(3) = –4 – (–7) = 3 difference respectively.
∴ It is an arithmetic sequence with common T(9) = a + 8d = 22 ……(1)
difference 3. T(13) = a + 12d = 34 ……(2)
(2) – (1), 4d = 12
(c) T(2) – T(1) = 4 – 2 = 2 d=3
T(3) – T(2) = 8 – 4 = 4 ≠ 2 By substituting d = 3 into (1), we have
∴ It is not an arithmetic sequence. a + 8(3) = 22
a = –2
(d) T(2) – T(1) = log 4 – log 2 ∴ The first term and the common difference are –2
= 2 log 2 – log 2 and 3 respectively.
= log 2
T(3) – T(2) = log 8 – log 4 (b) T(n) = a + (n – 1)d
= 3 log 2 – 2 log 2 = –2 + (n – 1)(3)
= log 2 = −5 + 3n
T(4) – T(3) = log 16 – log 8
(c) ∵ T(k) = 73
14 Arithmetic and Geometric Sequences and their Summation

∴ –5 + 3k = 73 ∴ The five required arithmetic means are 7, 9, 11,


k = 26 13 and 15.

3. ∵ x is the arithmetic mean between 6 and y,


4. (a) T(n) = a + (n – 1)d
and 18 is the arithmetic mean between y and 22.
= –24 + (n – 1)(5)
 6 + y .........(1)
= −29 + 5n  x= 2
∴
y + 22
(b) T(7) = – 29 + 5(7) 18 = .........(2)
 2
=6 From (2), we have
T(12) = – 29 + 5(12) 36 = y + 22
= 31 y = 14
By substituting y = 14 into (1), we have
(c) ∵ The mth term is the first positive term of the 6 + 14
sequence. x= 2
∴ T(m) > 0 = 10
i.e. – 29 + 5m > 0
29 p. 176
m>
5
∵ m is the number of terms, it must be an integer. T (2) 4
1. (a) = =2
∴ m =6 T (1) 2
T (3) 6 3
= = ≠2
p. 170 T (2) 4 2
∴ It is not a geometric sequence.
− 10 + (−2)
1. (a) Arithmetic mean = 2 T (2) −4 1
= –6 (b) = =
T (1) − 8 2
137 + 27 T (3) −2 1
= =
(b) Arithmetic mean = 2 T (2) − 4 2
= 82 T (4) −1 1
= =
T (3) − 2 2
2. (a) Let d1 be the common difference of the arithmetic ∴ It is a geometric sequence with common ratio
sequence to be formed.
1
The arithmetic sequence formed is: .
5, 5 + d1, 5 + 2d1, 17 2
∵ The 4th term is also given by 5 + 3d1.
∴ 5 + 3d1 = 17 T (2) 0.22 11
(c) = =
d1 = 4 T (1) 0.2 10
∴ The two required arithmetic means are 9 and 13. T (3) 0.222 111 11
= = ≠
T (2) 0.22 110 10
(b) Let d2 be the common difference of the arithmetic
sequence to be formed. ∴ It is not a geometric sequence.
The arithmetic sequence formed is:
5, 5 + d2, 5 + 2d2, 5 + 3d2, 17 T (2) log 9
(d) = =2
∵ The 5th term is also given by 5 + 4d2. T (1) log 3
∴ 5 + 4d2 = 17 T (3) log 27 3
d2 = 3 = = ≠2
∴ The three required arithmetic means are 8, 11 and T (2) log 9 2
14. ∴ It is not a geometric sequence.

(c) Let d3 be the common difference of the arithmetic 2. (a) Let a and R be the first term and the common
sequence to be formed. ratio respectively.
The arithmetic sequence formed is: 2
∵ a = 1 and R = = 2
5, 5 + d3, 5 + 2d3, 5 + 3d3, 5 + 4d3, 5 + 5d3, 17 1
∵ The 7th term is also given by 5 + 6d2. ∴ T(n) = aRn – 1
∴ 5 + 6d3 = 17 = 1(2)n – 1
d3 = 2 = 2n – 1

80
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 5A

∴ T(6) = 26 – 1
= 32 4. (a) Let a and R be the first term and the common
ratio respectively.
T(3) = aR2 = 1 ………(1)
(b) Let a and R be the first term and the common
T(8) = aR7 = 243 ………(2)
ratio respectively.
(2) ÷ (1), R5 = 243
9
∵ a = 3 and R = = 3 R=3
3 By substituting R = 3 into (1), we have
∴ T(n) = aRn – 1 a(3)2 = 1
= 3(3)n – 1 1
= 3n a=
∴ T(6) = 36 9
1
= 729 ∴ The first term and the common ratio are and 3
9
(c) Let a and R be the first term and the common respectively.
ratio respectively.
(b) T(n) = aRn – 1
6
∵ a = –3 and R = = –2 1
−3 = ⋅ 3n – 1
n–1 9
∴ T(n) = aR
n −3
= –3(–2)n – 1 =3
3
= (–2)n
2 (c) T(7) + T(9) = 37 – 3 + 39 – 3
3 = 810
∴ T(6) = (–2)6
2
= 96 p. 181
1. (a) Geometric mean = 5 × 45
(d) Let a and R be the first term and the common
ratio respectively. = 15
−64 1
∵ a = 128 and R = =− (b) Geometric mean = − 12 × (−147)
128 2
∴ T(n) = aRn – 1 = 42
n −1
 1 2. (a) Let R be the common ratio of the geometric
= 128  − 
 2 sequence to be formed.
n The geometric sequence formed is:
 1
= –256  −  1 1 1 2 27
 2 , R, R ,
2 2 2 16
6
 1 1
∴ T(6) = –256  −  ∵ The 4th term is also given by R3.
 2 2
= −4 1 3 27
∴ R =
2 16
3. (a) Let a and R be the first term and the common 3
ratio respectively. R=
2
1 3 9
∵ a = –8, R = and T(n) = aRn – 1 ∴ The two required geometric means are and .
2 4 8
n −1
1
∴ T(n) = − 8 
2 (b) Let r be the common ratio of the geometric sequence
= − 2 4− n to be formed.
The geometric sequence formed is:
3 3 3 2 3 3 2
(b) T(4) = –24 – 4 , r, r , r ,
8 8 8 8 27
= −1
3
T(6) = –24 – 6 ∵ The 5th term is also given by r4.
1 8
=− 3 4 2
4 ∴ r =
8 27
14 Arithmetic and Geometric Sequences and their Summation

2 3. (a) Let n be the number of terms of the given series.


r=± ∵ a = –7, d = –2 – (–7) = 5 and l = T(n) = 103
3
and T(n) = a + (n – 1)d
1 1
∴ The three required geometric means are , ∴ 103 = –7 + (n – 1)(5)
4 6 n – 1 = 22
1 1 1 1 n = 23
and or − , and − .
9 4 6 9 23(−7 + 103)
∴ S(23) =
2
3. ∵ x, x + 3, x + 9 are in geometric sequence. = 1104
∴ x + 3 is the geometric mean between x and x + 9.
∴ (x + 3)2 = x(x + 9)
(b) Let N be the number of terms that must be taken.
x + 6x + 9 = x2 + 9x
2
∵ a = –9, d = –2 – (–9) = 7 and S(n) = 1564
3x = 9
N
x =3 and S(n) = [2a + (N – 1)d]
2
N
p. 183 ∴ 1564 = [2(–9) + (N – 1)(7)]
2
1. (a) 1 + 3 + 5 + 7 + 9 3128 = 7N2 – 25N
7N2 – 25N – 3128 = 0
(b) 25
(N – 23)(7N + 136) = 0
136
2. (a) 2 + 4 + 8 + 16 + 32 + 64 N = 23 or − (rejected)
7
(b) 126 ∴ 23 terms of the arithmetic series must be taken.
3. (a) 1 + 4 + 9 + 16 + 25 + 36 + 49 4. (a) ∵ a = 1, l = 100 and n = 100
(b) 140 100(1 + 100)
∴ 1 + 2 + … + 100 = 2
p. 188 = 5050

1. (a) ∵ a = 1, d = 5 – 1 = 4 and n = 10 (b) Let n be the number of terms of the given series.
10 ∵ a = 3, d = 6 – 3 = 3 and l = T(n) = 99
∴ S(10) = [2(1) + (10 – 1)(4)]
2 and T(n) = a + (n – 1)d
= 190 ∴ 99 = 3 + (n – 1)(3)
n = 33
33(3 + 99)
(b) ∵ a = 3, d = 8 – 3 = 5 and n = 12 ∴ The required sum =
12 2
∴ S(12) = [2(3) + (12 – 1)(5)] = 1683
2
= 366 (c) The required sum
= sum of integers between 1 and 100 inclusive – sum
(c) ∵ a = 28, d = 26 – 28 = –2 and n = 15 of integers between 1 and 100 that are multiples of 3
15 = 5050 – 1683 (from (a) and (b))
∴ S(15) = [2(28) + (15 – 1)( –2)]
2 = 3367
= 210
p. 195
2. (a) ∵ a = –5, l = 9 and n = 8 1. (a) ∵ a = 3, R = 2 and n = 6
8( −5 + 9) 3( 2 6 − 1)
∴ S(8) =
2 ∴ S(6) =
2 −1
= 16 = 189

1
(b) ∵ a = 100, d = –4 and n = 12 (b) ∵ a = 39, R = and n = 8
3
12
∴ S(12) = [2(100) + (12 – 1)( –4)]
2
= 936

80
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 5A

  1 8  1
N
1
39 1 −      <
  3   3
  19 683
∴ S(8) = 1 1
1
1− <
3 3 N 39
= 29 520 3 N > 39
N >9
2. (a) Let n be the number of terms of the given series. ∵ N is the least number and it is an integer.
512 1 ∴ N = 10
∵ a = 1024, R = = and T(n) = aRn – 1 = 8
1024 2 ∴ There should be at least 10 terms.
n −1
1
∴ 8 = 1024   p. 202
2
n −1
1 1 1
=  1. (a) ∵ a = 1 and R =  2  1
128  2  =
n=8 1 2
1
  1 8  S (∞ ) = =2
1024 1 −    ∴
1−
1
  2   2
∴ S(8) = 1
1−
2 − 1
= 2040   1
(b) ∵ a = 1, R =  3 
=−
1 3
(b) Let N be the number of terms that must be taken.
1 3
1 a (1 − R N ) 7 S (∞ ) = =
∵ a = 1024, R = and S(N) = = 2047 ∴  1 4
2 1− R 8 1− − 
 3
  1 N 
1024 1 −   
7   2   2. (a) 0.2 = 2222…
∴ 2047 =
8 1 − 12 = 0.2 + 0.02 + 0.002 + 0.0002 + …
0.2
1 1
N
=
2048  = 1 − 0.1
2
  8 2
N = 14 =
9
∴ 14 terms of arithmetic series must be taken.

3. Let the least number of terms of the geometric series be N. (b) 0.2 4 = 0.242 424…
37 1 a (1 − R N ) = 0.24 + 0.0024 + 0.000 024 + …
∵ a = 38, R = 8 = and S ( N ) = > 9841 0.24
3 3 1− R =
  1 N  1 − 0.01
38 1 −    8
 3  =
  > 9841 33
1
1−
3
1
39   1  
N
∴  > 9841 3. (a) C2B2 = C1B1 (mid-pt. theorem)
1−   2
2   3  
 1
N B2A2 = B1A1 (mid-pt. theorem)
1 19 682 2
1−   >
3
  19 683 1
A2C2 = A1C1(mid-pt. theorem)
N 2
1 1
−  > − ∴ Perimeter of △A2B2C2
 
3 19 683 1
= × perimeter of △A1B1C1
2
1
= (16 cm)
2
14 Arithmetic and Geometric Sequences and their Summation

= 8 cm T(2) = 2(2) + 3 = 7
Similarly, perimeter of △A3B3C3 T(3) = 2(3) + 3 = 9
1
= × perimeter of △A2B2C2 T(4) = 2(4) + 3 = 11
2
1
= (8 cm) 1 1
2 2. T(1) = =
= 4 cm 1
1
T(2) = 2
(b) Perimeter of △A2B2C2
1 1
= × perimeter of △A1B1C1
2 T(3) = 3
1
= × 16 cm 1
2 T(4) = 4
Perimeter of △A3B3C3
1
= × perimeter of △A2B2C2
2 3. T(1) = 12 – 3 = −2
1 1
= × × perimeter of △A1B1C1 T(2) = 22 – 3 = 1
2 2
1 1 T(3) = 32 – 3 = 6
= × × 16 cm
2 2 T(4) = 42 – 3 = 13
2
1
=   × 16 cm
2 3(1) − 2 1
4. T(1) = =
∴ Perimeter of △AkBkCk 9 9
k −1
1 3( 2) − 2 4
=  × 16 cm T(2) = =
2 9 9
5− k
=2 cm 3(3) − 2 7
T(3) = =
9 9
(c) From (b), the perimeters of the triangles formed are in
3( 4) − 2 10
1 T(4) = =
geometric sequence with common ratio . 9 9
2
16
= cm
∴ Sum of the perimeters 1 − 1 5. T(1) = (–2)1 – 1 + 3 = 4
T(2) = (–2)2 – 1 + 3 = 1
2
= 32 cm
T(3) = (–2)3 – 1 + 3 = 7
p. 207 T(4) = (–2)4 – 1 + 3 = −5
7+5 6+7
1. X1 = 5, X2 = 7, X3 = = 6, X4 = = 6.5,
2 2 6. T(1) = 32(1) – 1 = 3
6.5 + 6
X5 = = 6.25 T(2) = 32(2) – 1 = 27
2
T(3) = 32(3) – 1 = 243
2. Y1 = 3, Y2 = 3(2 – 3) = –3, Y 3 = –3[2 – (–3)] = –15, T(4) = 32(4) – 1 = 2187
Y 4 = –15[2 – (–15)] = –255,
Y 5 = –255[2 – (–255)] = –65 535
7. (a) 64, 128

Exercise (b) ∵ T(1) = 4 = 21 + 1


T(2) = 8 = 22 + 1
Exercise 14A (p. 159) T(3) = 16 = 23 + 1
Level 1 T(4) = 32 = 24 + 1
n +1
∴ T(n) = 2
1. T(1) = 2(1) + 3 = 5

80
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 5A

(c) ∵ T(n) = 2n + 1 9 11
∴ T(8) = 28 + 1 = 512 are and respectively.
10 12
and T(10) = 210 + 1 = 2048
∴ The 8th term and the 10th term of the sequence
Level 2
are 512 and 2048 respectively.
31 1 37 311
8. (a) 27, 33 11. T(1) = = , T(7) = = 3 , T(11) = = 243
729 243 729 729
(b) ∵ T(1) = 3 = 6(1) – 3
T(2) = 9 = 6(2) – 3 2(1) 2 − 1 1
T(3) = 15 = 6(3) – 3 12. T(1) = =
1+1 2
T(4) = 21 = 6(4) – 3
∴ T(n) = 6n − 3 2(7) 2 − 1 97
=
T(7) =
7 +1 8
(c) ∵ T(n) = 6n – 3
2(11) 2 − 1 241
∴ T(8) = 6(8) – 3 = 45 T(11) = =
and T(10) = 6(10) – 3 = 57 11 + 1 12
∴ The 8th term and the 10th term of the sequence
are 45 and 57 respectively. (1 − 1)(1 − 2) 0
13. T(1) = =
1
9. (a) –1, 1
(7 − 1)(7 − 2) 30
T(7) = =
(b) ∵ T(1) = –1 = (–1)1 7 7
T(2) = 1 = (–1)2
(11 − 1)(11 − 2) 90
T(3) = –1 = (–1)3 T(11) = =
T(4) = 1 = (–1)4 11 11
n
∴ T(n) = (−1)
31 3
14. T(1) = =
(c) ∵ T(n) = (–1) n
13
∴ T(8) = (–1)8 = 1 37 2187
and T(10) = (–1)10 = 1 T(7) = 3 =
7 343
∴ The 8th term and the 10th term of the sequence
are 1 and 1 respectively. 311 177 147
T(11) = =
113 1331
6 7
10. (a) ,
7 8 15. (a) –5, 6

2 1+1 (b) ∵ T(1) = –1 = (–1)1 × 1


(b) ∵ T(1) = =
3 1+ 2 T(2) = 2 = (–1)2 × 2
3 2 +1 T(3) = –3 = (–1)3 × 3
T(2) = =
4 2+2 T(4) = 4 = (–1)4 × 4
4 3 +1 n
T(3) = = ∴ T(n) = (−1) n
5 3+ 2
5 4 +1
T(4) = = 16. (a) log 80, log 160
6 4+2
n +1 (b) ∵ T(1) = log 5 = log (5 ⋅ 21 – 1)
∴ T(n) =
n+2 T(2) = log 10 = log (5 ⋅ 22 – 1)
T(3) = log 20 = log (5 ⋅ 23 – 1)
n +1 T(4) = log 40 = log (5 ⋅ 24 – 1)
(c) ∵ T(n) =
∴ T(n) = log (5 ⋅ 2 )
n −1
n+2
8 +1 9
∴ T(8) = =
8 + 2 10 17. (a) 30, 42
10 + 1 11
and T(10) = =
10 + 2 12 (b) ∵ T(1) = 2 = 1 × (1 + 1)
∴ The 8th term and the 10th term of the sequence T(2) = 6 = 2 × (2 + 1)
14 Arithmetic and Geometric Sequences and their Summation

T(3) = 12 = 3 × (3 + 1) (b) T(10) = 3 + 2(10) = 23


T(4) = 20 = 4 × (4 + 1)
∴ T(n) = n( n + 1) 6. (a) ∵ a = –3 and d = 9
and T(n) = a + (n – 1)d
25 36 ∴ T(n) = –3 + (n – 1)(9) = −12 + 9n
18. (a) ,
36 49
(b) T(10) = –12 + 9(10) = 78
2
1 1
(b) ∵ T(1) = = 3
4 (1 + 1) 2 7. (a) ∵ a = and d = –2
2
4 22 and T(n) = a + (n – 1)d
T(2) = =
9 (2 + 1) 2 3 7
∴ T(n) = + (n – 1)(–2) = − 2n
9 32 2 2
T(3) = =
16 (3 + 1) 2
7 33
16 42 (b) T(10) = – 2(10) = −
T(4) = = 2 2
25 ( 4 + 1) 2
n2
∴ T(n) = 3
(n + 1) 2 8. (a) ∵ a = –2 and d =
2
and T(n) = a + (n – 1)d
Exercise 14B (p. 166) 3 1
∴ T(n) = –2+ (n – 1)( ) = (3n − 7)
2 2
Level 1
1. T(2) – T(1) = 12 – 16 = –4 1 23
T(3) – T(2) = 8 – 12 = –4 (b) T(10) = [3(10) – 7] =
2 2
T(4) – T(3) = 4 – 8 = –4
∴ It is an arithmetic sequence with common difference –
4.
9. d = 6 – 1 =5
2. T(2) – T(1) = 2 − 1 = 2 − 1 T(n) = a + (n – 1)d = 1 + (n – 1)(5) = 5n − 4
T(3) – T(2) = 3 − 2 ≠ 2 − 1
∴ It is not an arithmetic sequence. 10. d = 17 – 19 = −2
T(n) = a + (n – 1)d = 19 + (n – 1)(–2) = 21− 2n
5 1 1
3. T(2) – T(1) = − =
6 3 2
11. d = log 9 – log 3 = 2 log 3 – log 3 = log 3
4 5 1
T(3) – T(2) = − = T(n) = a + (n – 1)d = log 3 + (n – 1)(log 3)
3 6 2
= n log 3
11 4 1
T(4) – T(3) = − =
6 3 2
∴ It is an arithmetic sequence with common difference 12. d = (2a – 3c) – (a – 2c) = a − c
1 T(n) = a + (n – 1)d = (a – 2c) + (n – 1)(a – c) =
.
2 −c + n ( a − c )

2 1 1 13. Let a and d be the first term and the common difference
4. T(2) – T(1) = − =
3 2 6 respectively.
3 2 1 1 ∵ a = 7 and d = 11 – 7 = 4
T(3) – T(2) = − = ≠ ∴ T(n) = a + (n – 1)d = 7 + (n – 1)(4) = 3 + 4n
4 3 12 6
∴ It is not an arithmetic sequence. Let 83 be the kth term.
i.e. T(k) = 83
5. (a) ∵ a = 5 and d = 2 ∴ 3 + 4k = 83
and T(n) = a + (n – 1)d k = 20
∴ There are 20 terms in the sequence.
∴ T(n) = 5 + (n – 1)(2) = 3 + 2n

80
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 5A

14. Let a and d be the first term and the common difference Level 2
respectively.
∵ a = –93 and d = –86 – (–93) = 7 20. Let a and d be the first term and the common difference
∴ T(n) = a + (n – 1)d = –93 + (n – 1)(7) = –100 + 7n respectively.
Let 5 be the kth term. a = –101,d = –98 – (–101) = 3
i.e. T(k) = 5 ∴ T(n) = a + (n – 1)d
∴ –100 + 7k = 5 = –101 + (n – 1)(3)
k = 15 = –104 + 3n
∴ There are 15 terms in the sequence. ∵ The kth term is the first positive term of the sequence.
∴ T(k) > 0
15. Let a and d be the first term and the common difference i.e. –104 + 3k > 0
respectively. 104
k>
T(2) = a + d = 18 ……(1) 3
T(6) = a + 5d = 30 ……(2) ∵ k is the number of terms, it must be an integer.
(2) – (1), 4d = 12 ∴ k = 35
d=3
By substituting d = 3 into (1), we have
21. Let a and d be the first term and the common difference
a + 3 = 18
respectively.
a = 15
a = 999, d = 992 – 999 = –7
∴ T(n) = a + (n – 1)d = 15 + (n – 1)(3) = 12 + 3n ∴ T(n) = a + (n – 1)d
= 999 + (n – 1)(–7)
16. Let a and d be the first term and the common difference = 1006 – 7n
respectively. Let the kth term be the last positive term.
T(4) = a + 3d = –2 ……(1) ∴ T(k) > 0
T(9) = a + 8d = –32 ……(2) i.e. 1006 – 7k > 0
(2) – (1), 5d = –30 1006
d = –6 k<
7
By substituting d = –6 into (1), we have
∵ k is the number of terms, it must be an integer.
a + 3(–6) = –2
∴ k = 143
a = 16
∴ There are 143 positive terms.
∴ T(n) = a + (n – 1)d = 16 + (n – 1)(–6) = 22 − 6n
17. Let a and d be the first term and the common difference
respectively. 22. Let a, (a + d) and (a + 2d) be the interior angles of the
T(3) = a + 2d = 60 ……(1) triangle respectively.
T(7) = a + 6d = 40 ……(2) ∵ a = 15°
(2) – (1), 4d = –20 ∴ The other two angles are 15° + d and 15° + 2d.
d = –5 15° + (15° + d) + (15° + 2d) = 180° (∠s sum of triangle)
By substituting d = –5 into (1), we have d = 45°
a + 2(–5) = 60 ∴ The largest angle is 105°.
a = 70
∴ T(n) = a + (n – 1)d = 70 + (n – 1)(–5) = 75 − 5n 23. The multiples of 13 form an arithmetic sequence with
a = 13 and d = 13.
18. Let a and d be the first term and the common difference ∴ T(n) = a + (n – 1)d = 13 + (n – 1)(13) = 13n
respectively. Consider the term that is less than 1000.
T(3) = a + 2d = 82 ……(1) i.e. T(n) < 1000
T(10) = a + 9d = 250 ……(2) 13n < 1000
(2) – (1), 7d = 168 1000
n<
d = 24 13
By substituting d = 24 into (1), we have ∵ Among the terms that is less than 1000, the 76th term
a + 2(24) = 82 is the greatest.
a = 34 ∴ The greatest integer which is a multiple of 13 and less
∴ T(n) = a + (n – 1)d = 34 + (n – 1)(24) = 10 + 24n than 1000 is 13(76) = 988.

19. (a) 1, 2; 2, 4; 3, 6 (or any other reasonable answers) 24. (a) Let a and d be the first term and the common
difference respectively.
(b) –1, 1; –2, 2; –3, 3 (or any other reasonable answers) T(5) = 4T(1)
a + 4d = 4a
3a – 4d = 0 ……(1)
14 Arithmetic and Geometric Sequences and their Summation

T(6) = 2T(3) – 1 When d = 3,


a + 5d = 2(a + 2d) – 1 a – d = 5 – 3 = 2 and a + d = 5 + 3 = 8
a–d=1 ……(2) ∴ The terms are 2, 5, 8.
(2) × 4 – (1), a = 4
By substituting a = 4 into (2), we have 28. Let a and d be the first term and the common difference
4–d=1 respectively.
d=3 aT(6) = –38
∴ T(n) = a + (n – 1)d = 4 + (n – 1)(3) = 1+ 3n a(a + 5d) = –38 ………(1)
T(3) + T(4) = 17
(b) T(m) – T(25) = 81 (a + 2d) + (a + 3d) = 17
[1 + 3m] – [1 + 3(25)] = 81 17 − 2a
d= ………(2)
m = 52 5
By substituting (2) into (1), we have
25. Let (a – d) cm, a cm and (a + d) cm be the lengths of the  17 − 2a 
sides of the right-angled triangle respectively. a[a + 5   ] = –38
∵ The perimeter is 27 cm.  5 
∴ (a – d) + a + (a + d) = 27 a2 – 17a – 38 = 0
a=9 (a – 19)(a + 2) = 0
(a – d)2 + a2 = (a + d)2 (Pyth. theorem) a = 19 or a = –2(rejected)
a2 – 2ad + d2 + a2 = a2 + 2ad + d2 By substituting a = 19 into (2), we have
a2 = 4ad 17 − 2(19) 21
a = 4d ( a ≠ 0) d= =−
5 5
1 ∴ The first term and the common difference are 19 and
d = a………(1)
4 21
By substituting a = 9 into (1), we have d = 2.25. − respectively.
5
∴ The lengths of the three sides of the triangle are 6.75
cm, 9 cm and 11.25 cm.
29. (a) T(2) – T(1) = log 10k2 – log 10k
26. (a) ∵ T(9) = 3T(4) 10k 2
= log
∴ a + 8d = 3(a + 3d) 10k
a + 8d = 3a + 9d = log k
d T(3) – T(2) = log 10k3 – log 10k2
a=−
2
10k 3
= log
d 10k 2
∴ T(n) = a + (n – 1)d = − + (n – 1)d
2 = log k
 3  T(4) – T(3) = log 10k4 – log 10k3
=  − 2 + nd
  10k 4
= log
10k 3
(b) ∵ T(k) = 5T(5) = log k
 3   3  ∴ It is an arithmetic sequence.
 − + k d = 5 − + 5 d
 2   2  ∵ a = log 10k and d = log k
k = 19 ∴ T(n) = a + (n – 1)d
= log 10k + (n – 1)(log k)
= 1 + n log k
27. Let the three terms be a – d, a and a + d respectively.
∴ The general term is 1 + n log k.
∵ The sum is 15.
∴ (a – d) + a + (a + d) = 15
(b) T(2) – T(1) = log (10k2)2 – log (10k)2
a=5
= 2(log 10k2 – log 10k)
∵ The product is 80.
= 2 log k
∴ (a – d)(a)(a + d) = 80 ………(1)
T(3) – T(2) = log (10k3)2 – log (10k2)2
By substituting a = 5 into (1), we have
= 2(log 10k3 – log 10k2)
(5 – d)(5)(5 + d) = 80
= 2 log k
d = ±3 T(4) – T(3) = log (10k4)2 – log (10k3)2
When d = –3, = 2(log 10k4 – log 10k3)
a – d = 5 – (–3) = 8 and a + d = 5 + (–3) = 2 = 2 log k

80
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 5A

∴ It is an arithmetic sequence.
∵ a = log (10k)2 and d = 2 log k Exercise 14C (p. 170)
∴ T(n) = a + (n – 1)d
Level 1
= log (10k)2 + (n – 1)(2 log k)
= 2 + 2n log k −8 + 4
1. (a) Arithmetic mean = = −2
∴ The general term is 2 + 2n log k. 2
7 + 25
30. (a) Let the three terms be a , a + d and a + 2d (b) Arithmetic mean = = 16
respectively. 2
a(a + d)(a + 2d) = a + (a + d) + (a + 2d) 42 + 104
(c) Arithmetic mean = = 73
a(a + d)(a + 2d) = 3(a + d) 2
[a(a + 2d) – 3] (a + d) = 0
8+ x
a(a + 2d) – 3 = 0 or a = −d = 25
2. ∵ 2
a2 + 2ad – 3 = 0
x = 42
− 2d ± (2d ) 2 − 4(−3)
a=
2(1) 3. (a) Let d1 be the common difference of the arithmetic
sequence to be formed.
a =−d ± d2 +3 The arithmetic sequence formed is:
–4, –4 + d1, –4 + 2d1, 8
∵ The 4th term is also given by –4 + 3d1.
(b) If a = − d + d 2 + 3 , then a = − 1 + 12 + 3 = 1. ∴ –4 + 3d1 = 8
∴ The terms are 1, 2, 3. d1 = 4
∴ The two required arithmetic means are 0 and 4.
If a = − d − d 2 + 3 , then a = − 1 − 12 + 3 = –3.
(b) Let d2 be the common difference of the arithmetic
∴ The terms are –3, –2, –1.
sequence to be formed.
If a = –d, then a = –1. The arithmetic sequence formed is:
∴ The terms are –1, 0, 1. –4, –4 + d2, –4 + 2d2, –4 + 3d2, 8
∵ The 5th term is also given by –4 + 4d2.
31. Let the three integers be a – d, a and a + d respectively, ∴ –4 + 4d2 = 8
and their sum be k. d2 = 3
(a – d) + a + (a + d) = k ∴ The three required arithmetic means are –1, 2 and 5.
3a = k………(1)
(c) Let d3 be the common difference of the arithmetic
(a – d)(a)(a + d) = 11k………(2)
sequence to be formed.
By substituting (1) into (2), we have The arithmetic sequence formed is:
(a – d)(a)(a + d) = 11(3a) –4, –4 + d3, –4 + 2d3, –4 + 3d3, –4 + 4d3,
(a – d)(a + d) = 33 ( a ≠ 0) –4 + 5d3, –4 + 6d3, –4 + 7d3, 8
∵ The 9th term is also given by –4 + 8d3.
∵ a and d are integers.
∴ –4 + 8d3 = 8
∴ Possible solutions are: d3 = 1.5
a + d = 33 a + d = 11 a + d = 3 ∴ The seven required arithmetic means are –2.5, –
 or  or  or 1, 0.5, 2, 3.5, 5 and 6.5.
a − d = 1 a − d = 3 a − d = 11
a + d = 1 4. Let d be the common difference of the arithmetic
 sequence.
a − d = 33
∵ a = 18 and T(5) = 36
a = 17 a = 7 a = 7 a = 17 ∴ 36 = 18 + 4d
i.e.  or  or  or 
d = 16 d = 4 d = −4 d = −16 d=
9
If a = 17 and d = 16, the three integers are 1, 17, 33. 2
If a = 7 and d = 4, the three integers are 3, 7, 11. 9
∴ a = 18 +   = 22.5
If a = 7 and d = –4, the three integers are 11, 7, 3. 2
If a = 17 and d = –16, the three integers are 33, 17, 1. 9
b = 18 + 2   = 27
∴ The three integers are 1, 17, 33 or 3, 7, 11. 2
14 Arithmetic and Geometric Sequences and their Summation

2
9 arithmetic mean = 13
c = 18 + 3   = 31.5
2

5. 1, 2, 4, 5; –1, 1, 5, 7; –3, 0, 6, 9 (or any other reasonable 10. (a) (i) The arithmetic sequence formed is:
answers) x, x + d1, x + 2d1, x + 3d1, …, x + nd1, y
∴ The arithmetic means are
Level 2 x + d1, x + 2d1, x + 3d1, …, x + nd1
6. ∵ 2x + 1 is the arithmetic mean between x and 14. (ii) ∵ The (n +2)th term is also given by
x + 14 x + (n +1)d1.
∴ 2x + 1 =
2 ∴ x + (n +1)d1 = y
4x + 2 = 14 + x y−x
x=4 d1 =
n +1
∴ a = 4 and d = (2x + 1) – x = x + 1 = 5
T(n) = a + (n – 1)d = 4 + (n – 1)(5) = 5n − 1 (b) (i) The arithmetic sequence formed is:
x, x + d2, x + 2d2, x + 3d2, …, x + md2, y
7. ∵ x is the arithmetic mean between 8 and y, ∴ The arithmetic means are
and 21 is the arithmetic mean between y and 26. x + d2, x + 2d2, x + 3d2, …, x + md2
 8 + y .........(1)
 x= 2 (ii) ∵ The (m +2)th term is also given by
∴ x + (m +1)d2.
y + 26
21 = .........(2) ∴ x + (m +1)d2 = y
 2
y−x
From (2), we have d2 =
42 = y + 26 m +1
y = 16
By substituting y = 16 into (1), we have y−x y−x
(c) d1 : d2 = : = (m + 1) : ( n + 1)
8 + 16 n +1 m +1
x= = 12
2
Exercise 14D (p. 176)
8. (a) Let d be the common difference of the arithmetic Level 1
sequence to be formed.
The arithmetic sequence formed is: T (2) 10
1, 1 + d, 1 + 2d, 1 + 3d, p 1. = =2
T (1) 5
∵ The 5th term is also given by 1 + 4d.
T (3) 15 3
∴ 1 + 4d = p = = ≠2
p −1 T (2) 10 2
d= ∴ It is not a geometric sequence.
4
∴ The three required arithmetic means are
T (2) −8
p + 3 p +1 3p +1 2. = = –4
, and . T (1) 2
4 2 4
T (3) 32
= = –4
p −1 T (2) − 8
(b) common difference = 4 (from (a)) T (4) −128
= = –4
T (3) 32
 p −1
T(n) = a + (n – 1)d = 1 + (n – 1)   ∴ It is a geometric sequence with common ratio –4.
 4 
(n − 1)( p − 1) T (2) −10
=1+ 3. = = –5
4 T (1) 2
( n − 1)( p − 1) T (3) −50
∴ The general term is 1 + . = = 5 ≠ −5
4 T (2) − 10
∴ It is not a geometric sequence.
( a − d ) + (a + d ) 2a
9. (a) Arithmetic mean = = =a
2 2 T (2) 0.1
(b) By substituting a = 132 and d = 92 into (a), we have 4. = = 0.5
T (1) 0.2

80
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 5A

n −1
T (3) 0.05 1
= = 0.5 = 6 
T (2) 0.1 3
T (4) 0.025 2
= = 0.5 = n−2
T (3) 0.5 3
∴ It is a geometric sequence with common ratio 0.5.
11. Let a be the first term.
5. (a) ∵ a = 2 and R = 3 and T(n) = aRn – 1
2 3 3
∴ T(n) = 2 ⋅ 3
n−1
∵ a = 2 2 and R = =
2 2 2
∴ T(n) = aRn – 1
(b) T(8) = 2 ⋅ 38−1 n −1
 3  4−n n−1 
= 4374 (or 2 ⋅ 3 )
7
  or  2 2 ⋅ 3 2 
= 2 2 2 
   
1
6. (a) ∵ a = –3 and R = and T(n) = aRn – 1
3 12. Let k be the first term.
1
n −1
a2r
= (−3)  ∵ k = a and R = = ar
∴ T(n) 3 ar
n–1
2− n ∴ T(n) = kR
= −3
= a ⋅r
n n−1

(b) T(8) = –32 – 8


1  1 13. Let a and R be the first term and the common ratio
= − 729  or − 36  respectively.
  243 1
a = 729, R = =
729 3
3 ∴ T(n) = aR n–1
7. (a) ∵ a = –4 and R = − and T(n) = aRn – 1 n −1
2 1
n −1 = 729 
 3  3
∴ T(n) = ( −4) −  (or ( −1) n ⋅ 23−n ⋅ 3n−1 )
 2 = 37 – n
Let 1 be the kth term.
i.e. T(k) = 1
8−1
 3 2187  37  ∴ 37 – k = 1
(b) T(8) = ( −4) − 2  =  or 
  32  25  ∴ 7–k=0
k=7
∴ There are 7 terms in the sequence.
8. (a) ∵ a = 2 and R = − 2 and T(n) = aRn – 1
14. Let a and R be the first term and the common ratio
∴ T(n) = 2 (− 2 ) n−1 respectively.
 n
 −3
= ( −1) n−1 ( 2 ) n  or (−1) n−1 ⋅ 2 2  a = 1.5, R = = –2
1.5
  n–1
∴ T(n) = aR
= 1.5(–2)n – 1
(b) T(8) = ( −1) ( 2 ) = − 16
8−1 8
Let 96 be the kth term.
i.e. T(k) = 96
9. Let a be the first term. ∴ 1.5(–2)k – 1 = 96
(–2)k – 1 = 64
6
∵ a = 2 and R = = 3 (–2)k – 1 = (–2)6
2 ∴ k–1=6
∴ T(n) = aRn – 1 k=7
= 2⋅3
n −1
∴ There are 7 terms in the sequence.

10. Let a be the first term. 15. Let a and R be the first term and the common ratio
2 1 respectively.
∵ a = 6 and R = = 1
6 3 T(2) = aR = ………(1)
4
∴ T(n) = aRn – 1
14 Arithmetic and Geometric Sequences and their Summation

T(7) = aR6 = 8 ………(2) 1


(2) ÷ (1), R5 = 32 (2) ÷ (1), R3 =
729
R=2 1
By substituting R = 2 into (1), we have R=
9
1
a(2) = 1
4 By substituting R = into (1), we have
1 9
a= 1
8 a   = 243
∴ T(n) = aRn – 1 9
1 a = 2187
= ⋅ 2n – 1 ∴ T(n) = aRn – 1
8
n −1
=2
n −4 1
= 2187 ⋅  
9
16. Let a and R be the first term and the common ratio = 39−2 n
respectively.
T(3) = aR2 = –27 ………(1) 19. (a) 2, 4; 3, 9; 4, 16 (or any other reasonable answers)
T(6) = aR5 = 1 ………(2)
1 1 1 1
(2) ÷ (1), R3 = − (b) , 3; , 2; − , –3
27 3 2 3
1 (or any other reasonable answers)
R=−
3
1 Level 2
By substituting R = − into (1), we have
3 20. Let a and R be the first term and the common ratio
2 respectively.
 1
a  −  = –27 T(2) = aR = 6 ………(1)
 3 T(6) = aR5 = 96 ………(2)
a = –243 (2) ÷ (1), R4 = 16
∴ T(n) = aRn – 1 R = ±2
n −1
 1 By substituting R = 2 into (1), we have
= − 243 −  a(2) = 6
 3
( −1) n
⋅ 36− n a=3
= ∴ T(n) = aRn – 1
= 3 ⋅ 2n–1
17. Let a and R be the first term and the common ratio By substituting R = –2 into (1), we have
respectively. a(–2) = 6
T(2) = aR = 5 ………(1) a = –3
T(7) = aR6 = 160 ………(2) ∴ T(n) = aRn – 1
(2) ÷ (1), R5 = 32 = –3(–2)n – 1
R=2 ∴ The general term is 3 ⋅ 2n – 1 or –3(–2)n – 1.
By substituting R = 2 into (1), we have
a(2) = 5 21. Let a and R be the first term and the common ratio
5 respectively.
a=
2 T(3) = aR2 = 1 ………(1)
∴ T(n) = aRn – 1 6
1
T(7) = aR = ………(2)
5 16
= ⋅ 2n – 1
2 1
(2) ÷ (1), R4 =
= ⋅2
n−2
5 16
1
R=±
18. Let a and R be the first term and the common ratio 2
respectively. 1
T(2) = aR = 243 ………(1) By substituting R = into (1), we have
2
1 2
T(5) = aR4 = ………(2) 1
3 a  = 1
2
a=4

80
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 5A

∴ T(n) = aRn – 1 (2) ÷ (1), R2 = 6


n −1
1 R=± 6
= 4 
2 By substituting R = 6 into (1), we have
= 23 – n
1 a( 6 ) 2 = 6 3
By substituting R = − into (1), we have
2 a= 3
 1
2 ∴ T(n) = aRn – 1
a −  = 1
 2 = 3 ( 6 ) n−1
a=4 By substituting R = − 6 into (1), we have
∴ T(n) = aRn – 1
n −1 a (− 6 ) 2 = 6 3
 1
= 4 −  a= 3
 2
∴ T(n) = aRn – 1
= (–1)n – 1 ⋅ 23 – n
∴ The general term is 23 – n or (–1)n – 1 ⋅ 23 – n. = 3 ( − 6 ) n−1
 n −1 n

3 ( 6 ) n−1  or 2 ⋅ 3 
2 2
22. Let a and R be the first term and the common ratio
respectively. ∴ The general term is   or
T(2) = aR = –9 ………(1)  n −1 n

3 ( − 6 ) n−1  or (−1) ⋅ 2 ⋅ 3  .
n−1 2 2
729
T(6) = aR5 = − ………(2)  
256
81 24. Let n be the number of years taken.
(2) ÷ (1), R4 =
256 Consider the salary of Leo,
3 a = $10 000, R = 1 + 10.25% = 1.1025
R=±
4 ∴ The salary of Leo after n years = $10 000 × 1.1025n
3 Consider the salary of Michael,
By substituting R = into (1), we have a = $12 000, R = 1 + 5% = 1.05
4
∴ The salary of Michael after n years
3 = $12 000 × 1.05n
a   = –9
4 For Leo to have a salary higher than that of Michael, we
a = –12 have
∴ T(n) = aRn – 1 $10 000 × 1.1025n > $12 000 × 1.05n
n −1
3 5 × 1.1025n > 6 × 1.05n
= (–12)  
4 log (5 × 1.1025n) > log (6 × 1.05n)
3 log 5 + n log 1.1025 > log 6 + n log 1.05
By substituting R = − into (1), we have n (log 1.1025 – log 1.05) > log 6 – log 5
4
log 6 − log 5
 3 n>
a  −  = –9 log1.1025 − log1.05
 4
n > 3.7
a = 12
∴ The number of years taken is 4.
∴ T(n) = aRn – 1
n −1
 3 25. Let A be the surface area of the pond and a be the area
= 12  − 
 4 covered by the lotus leaves after 1 week.
n −1 ∵ R=2
3 and after 16 weeks, area covered = A
∴ The general term is (–12)   (or –24–2n ⋅ 3n) or 12
4 ∴ a(216 – 1) = A
n −1
 3 A
−  (or (–1)n–1 ⋅ 24 – 2n ⋅ 3n). a = 15
 4 2
Let it takes k weeks to cover one eighth of the pond.
23. Let a and R be the first term and the common ratio A
∴ a(2k – 1) =
respectively. 8
T(3) = aR2 = 6 3 ………(1) A k −1 A
(2 ) =
T(5) = aR4 = 36 3 ………(2) 215 8
2k – 1= 212
14 Arithmetic and Geometric Sequences and their Summation

k = 13 h = 12.5
∴ It takes 13 weeks to cover one eighth of the pond. ∴ The height of the building is 12.5 m.
26. (a) Let the vertices of the kth triangle be Ak, Bk and Ck, 28. (a) At the end of 2001,
k = 1, 2, 3,… population = 5 000 000 × (1 + 4%)
= 5 200 000
At the end of 2002,
population = 5 200 000 × (1 + 4%)
= 5 000 000 × (1 + 4%)2
= 5 408 000

(b) Let the population will be doubled at the end of the


nth year.
5 000 000 × (1 + 4%)n > 2 × 5 000 000
n log 1.04 > log 2
1 n > 17.7
C 2B 2 = C1B1 (mid-pt. theorem) ∴ At the end of 2018, the population will be
2
doubled.
1
B2A2 = B1A1 (mid-pt. theorem)
2 29. Let the original numbers be k, 5k and 11k respectively.
1 ∵ k + 3, 5k + 3, 11k + 3 is a geometric sequence.
A2C2 = A1C1(mid-point theorem)
2 11k + 3 5k + 3
∴ =
∴ Perimeter of second triangle 5k + 3 k +3
= C2B2 + B2A2 + A2C2 2
(5k + 3) = (11k + 3)(k + 3)
1 1 1 25k2 + 30k + 9 = 11k2 + 36k + 9
= C1B1 + B1A1 + A1C1 14k2 – 6k = 0
2 2 2
1 k(7k – 3) = 0
= × perimeter of first triangle 3
2 k = or k = 0(rejected)
Perimeter of second traingle 1 7
∴ = 3 15 33
Perimeter of first traingle 2 ∴ The original numbers are , and .
7 7 7
(b) By an argument similar to (a),
Exercise 14E (p. 181)
Perimeter of third triangle
1 Level 1
= × perimeter of second triangle
2
1 1 1. (a) Geometric mean = 9 × 27 = 9 3
= × × perimeter of first triangle
2 2
2 (b) Geometric mean = − 4 × 16 = − 8
1
=  x
2
4
(c) Geometric mean = ± − 4 × (−36) = 12 or − 12
1
∴ Perimeter of fifth triangle =   x
2 2. ∵ The geometric mean between x and 48 is 12.
1
4 ∴ 122 = 48x
i.e. 1.5 =   x
2 x =3
x = 24
3. (a) Let R be the common ratio of the geometric
sequence to be formed.
27. Let the height of the building be h m. The geometric sequence formed is:
3 243, 243R, 243R2, 9
∵ R=
5 ∵ The 4th term is also given by 243R3.
4
 3 ∴ 243R3 = 9
∴ After the 4th rebound, the height =   h
5 1
R=
4 3
 3
i.e. 1.62 =   h ∴ The two required geometric means are 81 and 27.
5

80
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 5A

(b) Let r be the common ratio of the geometric sequence (b) ∵ The geometric mean between a and 2 is 3 2 .
to be formed.
The geometric sequence formed is: ∴ (3 2 ) 2 = 2a
–16, –16r, –16r2, –16r3, –81 a =9
∵ The 5th term is also given by –16r4.
∴ –16r4 = –81 8. ∵ m, –2, n are in geometric sequence.
3 ∴ –2 is the geometric mean between m and n.
r=± ∴ (–2)2 = mn
2
∴ The three required geometric means are 24, –36 mn = 4 ……(1)
and 54 or –24, –36 and –54. ∵ –2, n, m are in arithmetic sequence.
∴ n is the arithmetic mean between –2 and m.
(c) Let r be the common ratio of the geometric sequence ∴ 2n = m + (–2)
to be formed. m = 2n + 2 ……(2)
The geometric sequence formed is: By substituting (2) into (1), we have
1, r, r2, r3, r4, 32 (2n + 2)n = 4
n2 + n – 2 = 0
∵ The 6th term is also given by r5.
(n – 1)(n + 2) = 0
∴ r5 = 32
r=2 n = 1 or n = –2 (rejected)
∴ The four required geometric means are 2, 4, 8 By substituting n = 1 into (2), we have
and 16. m = 2(1) + 2 = 4

4. Let R be the common ratio. 9. (a) b = a + a tan θ = a(1 + tan θ)


The geometric sequence is: 54, 54R, 54R2, 2
c = b + b tan θ = b(1 + tan θ)
∵ The 4th term is also given by 54R3. ac = a[b(1 + tan θ)] = b[a(1 + tan θ)] = b2
∴ 54R3 = 2 ∴ b is a geometric mean between a and c.
1
R=
3 b a (1 + tan θ )
(b) ∵ = = 1 + tan θ
∴ The value of a and b are 18 and 6 respectively. a a
∴ The common ratio is 1 + tan θ.
5. 2, 18 or 3, 12 or –2, –18 or –3, –12
If θ = 30°,
(or any other reasonable answers)
1 + tan θ = 1 + tan 30°
Level 2 1
= +1
3
6. ∵ x + 1, x + 5, 2x + 4 are in geometric sequence.
∴ x + 5 is the geometric mean between x + 1 and 2x + 4.
Exercise 14F (p. 189)
∴ (x + 5)2 = (x +1)(2x + 4)
x + 10x + 25 = 2x2 + 6x + 4
2
Level 1
x2 – 4x – 21 = 0
1. (a) ∵ a = 1, d = 3 – 1 = 2 and n = 20
(x + 3) (x – 7) = 0
20
x = −3 or 7 ∴ S(20) = [2(1) + (20 – 1)(2)]
2
= 400
7. (a) Let R be the common ratio of the geometric
sequence to be formed.
The geometric sequence formed is: (b) ∵ a = –5, d = –2 – (–5) = 3 and n = 25
25
a2 a2 a2 2 4 ∴ S(25) = [2(–5) + (25 – 1)(3)]
, R, R , 2
2 2 2 a
= 775
a2 3
∵ The 4th term is also given by R .
2 (c) ∵ a = 78, d = 72 – 78 = –6 and n = 27
a2 3 4 27
R = ∴ S(27) = [2(78) + (27 – 1)(–6)]
∴ 2 a 2
2 =0
R=
a
∴ The two geometric means are a and 2. (d) ∵ first term = (a + b),
d = (3a – b) – (a + b) = 2a – 2b and n = 10
14 Arithmetic and Geometric Sequences and their Summation

10
∴ S(10) = [2(a + b) + (10 – 1)(2a – 2b)] (d) Let a and d be the first term and the common
2
difference respectively.
= 100a − 80b
1 1 1 1
∵ a = and d = − =
3 2 3 6
2. (a) Let a and d be the first term and the common
difference respectively. ∴ T(n) = a + (n – 1)d
∵ a = 1 and d = 9 – 1 = 8 1 1
= 3 + ( n − 1) 6
∴ T(n) = a + (n – 1)d
= 1 + (n – 1)(8) 1 1
= 8n – 7 =6+6n
Let 97 be the kth term. 5
i.e. T(k) = 97 Let 1 be the kth term.
6
∴ 8k – 7 = 97
k = 13 5
i.e. T(k) = 1
∴ There are 13 terms in the sequence. 6
13(1 + 97) 1 1 5
∴ S(13) = ∴ + k =1
2 6 6 6
= 637 k = 10
∴ There are 10 terms in the sequence.
(b) Let a and d be the first term and the common 1 5
difference respectively. 10 + 1 
∵ a = –1 and d = 2 – (–1) = 3 ∴ S(10) =  3 6
∴ T(n) = a + (n – 1)d 2
= –1 + (n – 1)(3) 5
= 3n – 4 = 10 6
Let 95 be the kth term.
i.e. T(k) = 95 3. (a) Let N be the number of terms that must be taken.
∴ 3k – 4 = 95 ∵ a = 7, d = 10 – 7 = 3 and S(n) = 920
k = 33 N
∴ There are 33 terms in the sequence. and S(n) = [2a + (N – 1)d]
2
33( −1 + 95)
∴ S(33) = N
2 ∴ 920 = [2(7) + (N – 1)(3)]
= 1551 2
1840 = 3N2 – 11N
(c) Let a and d be the first term and the common 3N2 – 11N – 1840 = 0
difference respectively. (N – 23)(3N + 80) = 0
3 1 3 3 80
∵ a = 5 and d = 6 − 5 = N = 23 or − (rejected)
4 2 4 4 3
∴ T(n) = a + (n – 1)d ∴ 23 terms of arithmetic series must be taken.
3 3
= 5 4 + ( n − 1) 4 (b) Let N be the number of terms that must be taken.
∵ a = 21, d = 15 – 21 = –6 and S(n) = –60
4
=5 + 3 n and
N
S(n) = [2a + (N – 1)d]
2
Let 32 be the kth term.
i.e. T(k) = 32 N
∴ –60 = [2(21) + (N – 1)(–6)]
3 2
∴ 5 + k = 32 –120 = –6N2 + 48N
4
N2 – 8N – 20 = 0
k = 36
(N – 10)(N + 2) = 0
∴ There are 36 terms in the sequence.
N = 10 or –2(rejected)
 3 
36 5 + 32  ∴ 10 terms of arithmetic series must be taken.
∴ S(36) =  4 
2 (c) Let N be the number of terms that must be taken.
1 ∵ a = 27, d = 24 – 27 = –3 and S(n) = 126
= 679
2 N
and S(n) = [2a + (N – 1)d]
2

80
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 5A

N 7. ∵ a = 100, d = –10
∴ 126 = [2(27) + (N – 1)(–3)]
2 7
∴ S(7) = $ [2(100) + (7 – 1)(–10)]
252 = –3N2 + 57N 2
N2 – 19N + 84 = 0 = $490
(N – 7)(N – 12) = 0 > $480
N = 7 or 12 ∴ She has enough money to buy the watch.
∴ 7 or 12 terms of arithmetic series must be taken.
8. (a) ∵ a = 1, l = 200 and n = 200
(d) Let N be the number of terms that must be taken. 200(1 + 200)
1 4 ∴ 1 + 2 + … + 200 = 2
∵ a = 6, d = 7 − 6 = and S(n) = 2470
3 3 = 20100
N
and S(n) = [2a + (N – 1)d] (b) Let n be the number of terms of the given series.
2
∵ a = 6, d = 12 – 6 = 6 and l = T(n) = 198
N 4 and T(n) = a + (n – 1)d
∴ 2470 = [2(6) + (N – 1)   ]
2 3 ∴ 198 = 6 + (n – 1)(6)
14 820 = 4N2 + 32N n = 33
N2 + 8N – 3705 = 0 33(6 + 198)
(N – 57)(N + 65) = 0 ∴ The required sum = 2
N = 57 or –65(rejected) = 3366
∴ 57 terms of arithmetic series must be taken.
(c) The required sum
4. ∵ d = 2 and T(4) = 10 = sum of integers between 1 and 200 inclusive – sum
∴ a + 3(2) = 10 of integers between 1 and 200 that are multiples of 6
a=4 = 20 100 – 3366 (from (a) and (b))
10 = 16 734
∴ S(10) = [2(4) + (10 – 1)2]
2
= 130 9. (a) For a common difference of 6, the arithmetic
sequence is 2, 8, 14, …, 98.
5. (a) ∵ S(14) = 406 Let 98 be the kth term.
14 i.e. T(k) = 98
∴ [2(a) + (14 – 1)d] = 406 2 + (k – 1)(6) = 98
2 k = 17
2a +13d = 58 ………(1) ∴ 2 + 8 + 14 + … + 98 = S(17)
∵ T(4) + T(5) = 34 17(2 + 98)
∴ (a + 3d) + (a + 4d) = 34 = 2
2a +7d = 34 ………(2)
= 850
(1) – (2), 6d = 24
∴ The sum of the corresponding series is 850.
d=4
For a common difference of 16, the arithmetic
By substituting d = 4 into (2), we have
sequence is 2, 18, 34, …, 98.
2a + 7(4) = 34
Let 98 be the jth term.
a=3
i.e. T(j) = 98
∴ The first term is 3 and the common difference is
2 + (j – 1)(16) = 98
4.
j=7
∴ 2 + 18 + 34 + … + 98 = S(7)
20
(b) S(20) = [2(3) + (20 – 1)(4)] 7(2 + 98)
2 = 2
= 820 = 350
∴ The sum of the corresponding series is 350.
6. ∵ d = –4 (or any other reasonable answers)
and S(8) = 336
8 (b) For a common difference of 8, the arithmetic
[2a + (8 – 1)(–4)] = 336 sequence is 2, 10, 18, …, 98.
2
Let 98 be the kth term.
a = 56
i.e. T(k) = 98
∴ The first term is 56.
2 + (k – 1)(8) = 98
k = 13
14 Arithmetic and Geometric Sequences and their Summation

∴ 2 + 10 + 18 + … + 98 = S(13) 3x 2
13( 2 + 98) m1 + m2 + m3 + … + mx =
= 2
2 ∴ The sum of the x arithmetic means between x and 2x
= 650
3x 2
∴ The sum of the corresponding series is 650. is .
For a common difference of 4, the arithmetic 2
sequence is 2, 6, 10, …, 98.
Let 98 be the kth term. 14. (a) first term = T(1) = 55 – 2(1) = 53
i.e. T(k) = 98 Common difference = T(n + 1) – T(n)
2 + (k – 1)(4) = 98 = [55 – 2(n + 1)] – (55 – 2n)
k = 25
= −2
∴ 2 + 6 + 10 + … + 98 = S(25)
25(2 + 98)
= (b) Let the kth term be the first negative term.
2
i.e. T(k) < 0
= 1250
∴ 55 – 2k < 0
∴ The sum of the corresponding series is 1250.
55
(or any other reasonable answers) k>
2
10. (a) (–2) + (–1) + 0 + 1 + 2 or (–6) + (–3) + 0 + 3 + 6 ∴ The first negative term is the 28th term.
(or any other reasonable answers) ∴ T(28) = 55 – 2(28)
= −1
(b) 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 or (–1) + 1 + 3 + 5 + 7
(or any other reasonable answers) (c) ∵ T(n) is negative for n ≥ 28.
∴ S(n) is maximum at n = 27.
Level 2 27
S(27) = [2(53) + (27 – 1)( –2)]
11. (a) Let k be the number of rows. 2
∵ a = 12, d = 3 = 729
and T(k) = 6a ∴ The maximum value of S(n) is 729.
∴ a + (k – 1)d = 6a
12 + (k – 1)(3) = 6(12) 15. ∵ a = –49, d = (–46) – (–49) = 3
k = 21 ∴ T(n) = –49 + (n – 1)(3) = 3n – 52
∴ The number of rows is 21. Let the kth term be the last negative term.
∴ T(k) < 0
n i.e. 3k – 52 < 0
(b) S(n) = [2a + (n – 1)d] 52
2 k<
21 3
S(21) = [2(12) + (21 – 1)(3)] ∴ The last negative term is the 17th term.
2
= 882 17
S(17) = [2(–49) + (17 – 1)(3)]
∴ The number of seats is 882. 2
= –425
12. Let m1, m2, m3, …, m25 be the arithmetic means. ∴ The sum of all negative terms is –425.
∵ a = 5, l = 120 and n = 27
27(5 + 120) 16. (a) The sum = 200 + 205 + 210 + … + 500
∴ S(27) = ∴ a = 200, d = 5 and l = 500
2
i.e. 5 + m1 + m2 + m3 + … + m25 + 120 = 1687.5 T(n) = 200 + (n – 1)(5) = 195 + 5n
m1 + m2 + m3 + … + m25 = 1562.5 Let k be the number of terms.
∴ The sum of the 25 arithmetic means between 5 and ∴ T(k) = 500
120 is 1562.5. i.e. 195 + 5k = 500
k = 61
13. Let m1, m2, m3, …, mx be the arithmetic means. 61( 200 + 500)
S(61) =
∵ a = x, l = 2x and n = x + 2 2
( x + 2)( x + 2 x) = 21 350
∴ S(x + 2) = ∴ The required sum is 21 350.
2
( x + 2)( x + 2 x)
i.e. x + m1 + m2 + m3 + … + mx + 2x = (b) The sum = 203 + 210 + 217 + … + 497
2 ∴ a = 203, d = 7 and l = 497
T(n) = 203 + (n – 1)(7) = 196 + 7n
Let k be the number of terms.

80 100
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 5A

∴ T(k) = 497 n (1 + n ) 
n (1 + n ) 
i.e. 196 + 7k = 497 1 + 
=
2 2 
k = 43
2
43(203 + 497)
S(43) = n(1 + n)  n 
2 = 1 + (1 + n)
= 15 050 4  2 
∴ The required sum is 15 050.
(d) The last term in the first (n – 1) brackets
(c) If the integers are divisible by both 5 and 7, then they = The total number of terms in the first (n – 1)
are divisible by 35. brackets
We are going to find the sum of integers divisible by ( n − 1)[1 + ( n − 1)]
35 between 200 and 500 inclusive. =
∴ The sum = 210 + 245 + 280 + … + 490 2
∴ a = 210, d = 35 and l = 490 n( n − 1)
=
T(n) = 210 + (n – 1)(35) = 175 + 35n 2
Let k be the number of terms. n(n − 1)
∴ T(k) = 490 Now, a = 1 and l =
2
i.e. 175 + 35k = 490 ∴ The sum of the terms in the first (n – 1)
k=9 brackets
9(210 + 490) ( n − 1)[1 + ( n − 1)]  (n − 1)
S(9) = 
2 = 1 + [1 + ( n − 1)] 
4  2 
= 3150
∴ The required sum is 3150. n(n − 1)  n 
= 1 + ( n − 1) 
4  2 
(d) The required sum ∴ The sum of the terms in the nth bracket
= sum of integers divisible by 5 + sum of integers = The sum of the terms in the first n brackets –
divisible by 7 – sum of integers divisible by both 5 the sum of the terms in the first (n – 1) brackets
and 7
n(1 + n)  n  n(n − 1)  n 
= 21 350 + 15 050 – 3150 = 1 + (1 + n)  − 1 + ( n − 1) 
4  2  4  2 
= 33 250
n 2
= (1 + n )
17. 2 × 22 × 23 × …× 264 = 21 + 2 + 3 + …. + 64 2
64
(1+ 64 )
=22 Exercise 14G (p. 196)
2080
=2 Level 1

18. (a) In the 1st bracket, there is 1 term. 4


1. (a) ∵ a = 1, R = = 2 and n = 10
In the 2nd bracket, there are 2 terms. 2
In the 3rd bracket, there are 3 terms. 1( 2 − 1)
10

∴ Number of terms in the nth bracket is n. ∴ S(10) =


2 −1
= 1023
(b) The total number of terms = 1 + 2 + 3 + … + n
n(1 + n)
= 9 1
2 (b) ∵ a = 27, R = = and n = 7
27 3
(c) The last term in the first n brackets   1 7 
27 1 −   
= the total number of terms in the first n brackets   3  
n(1 + n) ∴ S(7) =
1
= 1−
2 3
n(1 + n) 1093
Now, a = 1 and l = . =
2 27
∴ The sum of the terms in the first n brackets
−16
(c) ∵ a = 8, R = = –2 and n = 10
8

101
14 Arithmetic and Geometric Sequences and their Summation

8[1 − (−2)10 ] ∴ The number of terms is 6.


∴ S(10) = 1 − (−2) 1
4 (2 6 − 1)
= − 2728 ∴ S(6) = 5
2 −1
3
0.6 = 264
(d) ∵ a = –1, R = = –0.6 and n = 7 5
−1
− 1[1 − (−0.6) 7 ]
∴ S(7) = 1 − ( −0.6) 3. (a) Let N be the number of terms that must be taken.
2 a ( R N − 1)
= − 0.642 496 ∵ a = 1, R = = 2 and S(N) = = 511
1 R −1
1(2 N − 1)
2. (a) Let n be the number of terms of the given series. ∴ 511 =
6 2 −1
∵ a = 2, R = = 3 and T(n) = aRn – 1 = 4374 N=9
2 ∴ 9 terms of geometric series must be taken.
∴ 4374 = 2(3n – 1)
n=8 (b) Let N be the number of terms that must be taken.
∴ The number of terms is 8.
1
2(38 − 1) 3
∴ S(8) = 1  
3 −1 ∵ a= ,R= = 3 and
9 1
= 6560 9
 

(b) Let N be the number of terms of the given series. a ( R N − 1) 4


S(N) = = 40
−8 R −1 9
∵ a = 2, R = = –4 and T(N) = aRN – 1 = –2048 1
2 N
(3 − 1)
∴ –2048 = 2(–4)N – 1 ∴ 4 9
40 =
N=6 9 3 −1
∴ The number of terms is 6. N=6
2[1 − ( −4) 6 ] ∴ 6 terms of geometric series must be taken.
∴ S(6) = 1 − (−4)
(c) Let N be the number of terms that must be taken.
= − 1638
24 1
∵ a = 48, R = =
48 2
(c) Let n be the number of terms of the given series.
1 a (1 − R N ) 29
1 and S(N) = = 95
∵ a = , R =  1  = 3 and T(n) = aRn – 1 = 729 1− R 32
3 3
    1 N 
481 −   
1 29  2 
∴ 729 = (3)n – 1
3
∴ 95 =  
32 1−
1
n=8 2
∴ The number of terms is 8.
N = 10
1 8
(3 − 1) ∴ 10 terms of geometric series must be taken.
∴ S(8) = 3
3 −1 (d) Let N be the number of terms that must be taken.
3280 2
= 9
3 2  
∵ a= ,R= =3
27  2
 27 
(d) Let n be the number of terms of the given series.  
2
8 a ( R N − 1) 26
1 5 2 and S(N) = = 242
∵ a=4 ,R= = 2 and T(n) = aR n–1
= 134 R −1 27
5 1 5
4 2
N
5 (3 − 1)
∴ 26 27
2 1 242 =
∴ 134 = 4 (2) n −1 27 3 −1
5 5
N=8
n=6 ∴ 8 terms of geometric series must be taken.

80 102
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 5A

 5000(1.06)(1.0610 − 1) 
4. ∵ T(3) = 27 S(10) =  
2  1.06 − 1 
 2
∴ a  −  = 27 = 69 858 (cor. to the nearest dollar)
 3 ∴ Peter will receive $69 858 at the end of the 10th year.
243
a=
4
243   2 
10

1 −  −   Level 2
4   3  
∴ S(10) = 8. At the end of the 1st year, he will get
 2
1− −  $1000(1.04).
 3
At the end of the 2nd year, he will get
11 605
= $1000(1.04) + $1000(1.04)2.
324
At the end of the 3rd year, he will get
$1000(1.04) + $1000(1.04)2 + $1000(1.04)3.
5. Let the first term be a and the common ratio be R. ∴ a = 1000(1.04), R = 1.04
∵ S(3) = 12
Let n be the number of years needed.
a ( R 3 − 1) S(n) > 15 000
∴ = 12 ……(1)
R −1 1000(1.04)(1.04 n − 1) 
∵ T(4) + T(5) + T(6) = –96   > 15 000
 1.04 − 1 
∴ S(6) – S(3) = –96
n > 11.6
a ( R 6 − 1) ∴ The minimum number of years needed is 12.
= –84 ……(2)
R −1
R6 −1 9. (a) Let N be the number of terms that must be taken.
(2) ÷ (1), = –7 1
R3 −1 1
∵ a= − , R =  1  = –3
R6 + 7R3 – 8 = 0 3 − 3
(R + 8)(R3 – 1) = 0
3  
R3 = –8 or R3 = 1 a (1 − R N ) 2
and S(N) = = 60
R = –2 or R = 1(rejected) 1− R 3
By substituting R = –2 into (1), we have
a[(−2) 3 − 1] ∴ 2 3
1
[
− 1 − ( −3)
N
]
= 12 60 =
( −2) − 1 3 1 − (−3)
a=4 N=6
∴ The first term is 4 and the common ratio is –2. ∴ 6 terms of geometric series must be taken.

6. Let n be the least number of terms taken. (b) Let N be the number of terms that must be taken.
6 3 a ( R N − 1) −18 1
∵ a = 4, R = = and S(N) = > 800 ∵ a = 36, R = =−
4 2 R −1 36 2
 3  N  a (1 − R N ) 125
4   − 1 and S(N) = = 23
1− R 128
∴  2  
> 800   1 N 
3
−1 36 1 −  −  
 2  
∴ 23 125 = 
2
N > 11.38 128  1
∴ At least 12 terms of geometric series must be taken. 1− − 
 2
7. At the end of the 1st year, Peter will receive N = 10
$5000(1 + 6%)1 = $5000(1.06)1. ∴ 10 terms of geometric series must be taken.
At the end of the 2nd year, he will receive 10. (a) (i) In the 2nd second, the distance travels
$5000(1.06) + $5000(1.06)2.
= 20 × 0.8 m
At the end of the 3rd year, he will receive In the 3rd second, the distance travels
$5000(1.06) + $5000(1.06)2 + $5000(1.06)3. = 20 × 0.82 m
∴ a = 5000(1.06), R = 1.06 In the 4th second, the distance travels

103
14 Arithmetic and Geometric Sequences and their Summation

= 20 × 0.83 m ∴ d1 + d2 + d3 + d4 = S(4)
∴ In the nth second, the distance travels is
20 × 0.8n – 1 m. x sin θ [1 − cos 4 θ ]
=
(ii) ∵ a = 20, R = 0.8 1 − cosθ
20(1 − 0.8 n ) = x sin θ (1 + cosθ )(1 + cos 2 θ )
∴ S(n) = = 100(1 – 0.8n)
1 − 0.8
∴ The total distance travels in the first n
seconds is 100(1 – 0.8n) m.
(c) d1 + d2 + d3 + d4
(b) From (a), the distance travels in the first 18 seconds
= 20sin 30°(1 + cos 30°)(1 + cos230°)
= S(18)
35
= 100(1 – 0.818) m = (2 + 3 )
= 98.2 m 4
< 100 m
∴ The train cannot stop at the station successfully 13. (a) 99 – 9 = 90
in 18 seconds. 999 – 99 = 900 ≠ 90
∴ It is not an arithmetic sequence.
11. (a) After the 1st blow, the length driven is 2 m. 99
After the 2nd blow, the length driven is 2(0.9) m. = 11
… 9
After the 6th blow, the length driven is 2(0.9)5 m. 999 111
= ≠ 11
∴ a = 2 and R = 0.9 99 11
2(1 − 0.9 6 ) ∴ It is not a geometric sequence.
∴ S(6) = = 9.37, cor. to 2 d.p.
1 − 0. 9
(b) 9 = 10 – 1 = 101 – 1
∴ The length of the pile driven is 9.37 m.
99 = 100 – 1 = 102 – 1
999 = 1000 – 1 = 103 – 1
2(1 − 0.9 7 ) ∴ T(n) = 10n – 1
(b) S(7) = m
1 − 0. 9
= 10.43 m (cor. to 2 d.p.) (c) T(1) + T(2) + T(3) + … + T(n)
> 10 m = (101 – 1) + (102 – 1) + (103 – 1) + … + (10n – 1)
∴ The pile would be completely driven into the = 101 + 102 + 103 + … + 10n – n
ground. 10(10 n − 1)
= −n
10 − 1
12. (a) BD = ABsin θ 10
∴ d1 = x sin θ = (10 n − 1) − n
9
AD = ABcos θ = xcos θ
DE = ADsin θ = xcos θ sin θ 14. (a) First term in the 1st bracket = 1= 20
∴ d2 = x sin θ cosθ First term in the 2nd bracket = 2 = 20 + 1
First term in the 3rd bracket = 23 = 20 + 1 + 2
(b) (i) AE = ADcos θ = x(cos θ)2 First term in the 4th bracket = 26 = 20 + 1 + 2 + 3
d3 = EF = AEsin θ = xsin θ(cos θ)2 ∴ First term in the nth bracket
= 20 + 1 + 2 + … + (n – 1 )
AF = AEcos θ = x(cos θ)3 n ( n −1)
d4 = FG = AFsin θ = xsin θ(cos θ)3 =2 2

d 2 x sin θ cosθ
= = cosθ Last term in the nth bracket
d1 x sin θ 1
= × first term in the (n + 1)th bracket
d 3 x sin θ (cosθ ) 2 2
= = cosθ
d2 x sin θ cosθ 1 ( n+1)( n +1−1)

= ×2 2
d 4 x sin θ (cosθ ) 3 2
= = cosθ n2 +n−2
d 3 x sin θ (cosθ ) 2 = 2 2

d 2 d3 d 4
∴ = =
d1 d 2 d 3 (b) The number of terms in the 1st bracket = 1
∴ d1, d2, d3, d4 are in geometric sequence. The number of terms in the 2nd brackets = 2
The number of terms in the 3rd brackets = 3
(ii) ∵ a = xcos θ, R = cos θ ∴ The number of terms in the nth brackets = n

80 104
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 5A

n ( n −1) 9
and a = 2 2 ,R=2
2
n ( n −1) ∴ S(∞) = 1 −
3
2 2
(2 n − 1)
∴ The sum = = 27
2 −1
n ( n −1)
= (2 n − 1)2 2
2 1
(b) ∵ a = –4, R = =−
−4 2
(c) The number of terms in the first bracket = 1 −4
The number of terms in the first 2 brackets  1
∴ S(∞) = 1 −  − 
=1+2  2
The number of terms in the first 3 brackets 8
=1+2+3 =−
3
∴ The number of terms in the first n brackets
= 1 + 2 + 3 +… + n
n2 + n 0.2
= (c) ∵ a = 1, R = = 0.2
2 1
and a = 1, R = 2 1
∴ S(∞) = 1 − 0.2
n 2 +n

∴ The sum = 1(2


2
− 1) 5
=
2 −1 4
n 2 +n
=2 2
−1
− 5 
  1
(d) ∵ a = 5, R =  3 
=−
a (r n − 1) 5 3
15. S1 = a + ar + ar2 + … + arn – 1 =
r −1 5
S (∞ ) =
a 2 [(r 2 ) n − 1] ∴  1
= 1− − 
S =a +ar +ar +…+ar r 2 −1  3
2 2 2 2 4 2 2(n – 1)
2 a (r 2 n − 1)
2 15
= =
r 2 −1 4
(r – 1)S12 + 2aS1
2 2. (a) 0.7 = 0.7777…
 a ( r n − 1)  a( r n − 1)
= ( r − 1)  + 2a = 0.7 + 0.07 + 0.007 + 0.0007 + …
 r −1  r −1
0.7
=
a (r − 1)
2 n 2
2a ( r − 1)
2 n
1 − 0.1
= +
r −1 r −1 7
=
a 2 (r n − 1) n 9
= ( r + 1)
r −1
a (r − 1)
2 2n
(b) 0.4 7 = 0.474 747…
=
r −1 = 0.47 + 0.0047 + 0.000 047 + …
a 2 (r 2 n − 1) (r + 1) 0.47
= ⋅ =
r −1 (r + 1) 1 − 0.01
a 2 (r 2 n − 1) 47
= ( r + 1) =
r2 −1 99
= (r + 1)S2
(c) 0.23 4 = 0.234 343…
Exercise 14H (p. 203) = 0.2 + 0.034 + 0.000 34 + 0.000 0034 + …
Level 1 0.034
= 0.2 +
1 − 0.01
6 2 116
1. (a) ∵ a = 9 and R = = =
9 3 495

105
14 Arithmetic and Geometric Sequences and their Summation

(d) 0.7 47 = 0.747 747… 1


a  = 6
= 0.747 + 0.000 747 + 0.000 000 747 + … 2
0.747 a = 12
=
1 − 0.001 ∴ The first term is 12.
83
=
111 5. ∵ T(1) + T(2) + T(3) = 21
a (1 − R 3 )
= 21 ……(1)
3. (a) ∵ S (∞ ) = 5 1− R
2
∴ =5 and S (∞ ) = 24
1− R
a
3 = 24 ……(2)
R= 1− R
5
6 18 7
∴ The first 3 terms are 2, and . (1) ÷ (2), 1 – R3 =
5 25 8
1
R=
40 2
(b) ∵ S (∞ ) = 1
7 By substituting R = into (2), we have
10 40 2
= a
∴ 1− R 7
3 1 = 24
R=− 1−
2
4
a = 12
15 45
∴ The first 3 terms are 10, − and . ∴ The first 3 terms are 12, 6 and 3.
2 8
6. (a) ∵ a = 1, R = x
(c) ∵ S (∞ ) = 90 a 1
a ∴ S (∞ ) = 1 − R = 1 − x
∴ = 90
1− 0.2
a = 72 1
∴ The first 3 terms are 72, 14.4 and 2.88. (b) ∵ S (∞ ) = 1
8
(d) ∵ S (∞ ) = −5 1 1
=1
a ∴ 1− x 8
∴ = –5 1
1 − (−0.2) x=
9
a = –6
∴ The first 3 terms are –6, 1.2 and –0.24.
7. The total possible output of gold
4. ∵ T(2) = 6 = [1000 + 1000(80%) + 1000(80%)(80%) + ….] kg
aR = 6 ……(1) = [1000 + 1000(0.8) + 1000(0.8)(0.8) + ….] kg
and S (∞ ) = 24 1000
= kg
a 1 − 0.8
= 24 ……(2)
1− R = 5000 kg
1
(1) ÷ (2), R(1 – R) =
4 Level 2
2
 1
R−  = 0 80  2
 2 8. (a) a = 120°, R = 
=
120 3
1
R= ∴ Total angle swings through
2
= S (∞ )
1
By substituting R = into (1), we have
2

80 106
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 5A

120  1
= =
2 3
1−
3
= 360  11. (a) ∵ The speed of Ken is twice that of Angel.
∴ The distance travelled by Ken is twice that of
Angel in the same time.
(b) ∵ Total angle swings through is 360°.
1 1
∴ Total distance swings through ∴ BC = AB = (24 m) = 12 m
2 2
 360  
= (2π)(10 cm)  
 
1 1
 360  Similarly, CD = BC = (12 m) = 6 m
2 2
= 20π cm 1 1
and DE = CD = (6 m) = 3 m
2 2
9. For the downwards distance travelled,
a = 10, R = 75% = 0.75 BC 6 1
a = =
∴ S (∞ ) = m (b) AB 12 2
1− R CD 3 1
10 = =
= m BC 6 2
1 − 0.75 ∴ AB, BC, CD, DE are in geometric sequence with
= 40 m 1
For the upwards distance travelled, common ratio .
2
a = 10(75%) = 7.5, R = 0.75
a 7.5 1
∴ S (∞ ) = m= m = 30 m (c) a = 24 m, R =
1− R 1 − 0.75 2
∴ The total distance travelled ∴ Total distance Ken must run
= (30 + 40) m = S (∞ )
= 70 m 24
= m
1
10. (a) (i) The fraction of the original piece of cake P 1−
2
1 = 48 m
gets the first time =
4

(ii) The fraction of the original piece of cake P


11 1
gets the second time alone =   =
 4  4 16

(iii) The fraction of the original piece of cake P


gets the nth time alone
n −1
1 1
= 
4 4
1
= 2n
2

1
 16  1 12. (a)
1  =
(b) ∵ a = , R =
4 1 4
4 ∵ △ABC is an equilateral triangle.
 
∴ ∠ABC = 60°
1 ∵ Area of △ABC = 3 × Area of △OAB
 
 4 1 1
∴ S (∞) = 1 ∴ (AB)(BC)(sin ∠ABC) = 3 × (AB)(OD)
1− 2 2
4 1 1
(8)(8)(sin 60°) = 3 × (8)(r1)
2 2

107
14 Arithmetic and Geometric Sequences and their Summation

4 AC1 B1C1
r1= =
3 AC BC
3a − b b
Consider △OEF. =
∠FOE = 60° 3a a
3
OE = OF cos ∠FOE b= a
r1 – r2 = (r1 + r2)cos 60° 4
1
r2 = r1 3
3 (b) (i) From (a), we have B1C1 = BC
4 4
r2 = 3 3 Similarly, we have
3
4 B2C2 = B1C1
1 4
Similarly, r3 = r2 =
3 9 3 3
= b
(b) From (a), we know that r1, r2, r3, … are in geometric 4
4 1
sequence with first term and common ratio .
3 3
Sum of the circumferences
= (2πr1 + 2πr2 + 2πr3 + …) cm 3
(ii) B2C2 = b
= 2π(r1 + r2 + r3 + …) cm 4
 4  33 
  = 4  4 a
 
= 2π    cm
3
1 9
 1 −  = a
3 16
 
= 4 3π cm (c) (i) By considering triangles AB1C1, AB2C2, …and
using argument similar to (a) and (b), we have
(c) Consider the sequence r12, r22, r32, … B2 C 2 B3C3 3
= = ... =
r2 2 r 
2
1 B1C1 B2 C 2 4
=  2  = ∴ B1C1, B2C2, B3C3, … are in geometric
r12  r1  9
sequence.
∴ r12, r22, r32, … are in geometric sequence with
16 1 3
4
first term and common ratio . (ii) B4C4 =   a
3 9 4
Sum of areas of these circles 81
= a
= (πr21 + πr22 + πr32 + …) cm2 256
= π(r12 + r22 + r32 + …) cm2
(iii) The areas of the squares are in geometric
  16  
  9 2
sequence with first term a and common
= π    cm 2
3
16
 1
1− 9  9
  ratio .
16
= 6π cm 2
Sum of areas
= (B1C1)2 + (B2C2)2 + (B3C3)2 +…
13. (a) C1C = B1C1 = b  9 2
AC1 = AC – C1C = 3a – b  a 
=  16 
By similar triangles, we have  9 
 1 − 
 16 
9
= a2
7

80 108
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 5A

14. (a) A1B1 = B1C1 = 49 cm = (2401 + 1225 + …) cm2


3  
A2B1 = A1B1 = 21 cm  2401 
7 =  cm 2
4  25 
B1B2 = B1C1 = 28 cm  1 − 
7  49 
117 649
= A2 B12 + B1 B2 2 cm = cm 2
24
AB (Pyth. theorem)
2 2
= 212 + 28 2 cm
= 35 cm Revision Exercise 14 (p. 209)
Level 1
A2 B2 5
(b) Common ratio = = 1. (a) T(1) = 2(1) – 1 = 1 , T(2) = 2(2) – 1 = 3 ,
A1 B1 7
T(3) = 2(3) – 1 = 5 , T(4) = 2(4) – 1 = 7 ,
(c) (i) ∵ The sides of the squares are in
T(5) = 2(5) – 1 = 9
geometric sequence.
∴ The perimeters of the squares are also in
geometric sequence with the same common (b) T(1) = 31 – 1 = 1 , T(2) = 32 – 1 = 3 ,
ratio and first term 196 cm.
T(3) = 33 – 1 = 9 , T(4) = 34 – 1 = 27 ,
Sum of the perimeters
= (196 + 140 + … ) cm T(5) = 35 – 1 = 81
 
 196 
=  cm (c) T(1) = (–1)1 + 1 ⋅ 2(1) = 2 ,
1− 5 
  T(2) = (–1)2 + 1 ⋅ 2(2) = −4 ,
 7 

= 686 cm T(3) = (–1)3 + 1 ⋅ 2(3) = 6 ,


T(4) = (–1)4 + 1 ⋅ 2(4) = −8
(ii) Notice that
4 T(5) = (–1)5 + 1 ⋅ 2(5) = 10
A1A2 = A1B1 = 28 cm
7
4 (d) T(1) = (1)1 + 1 = 1 , T(2) = (2)2 + 1 = 8 ,
A2A3 = A2B2 = 20 cm
7 T(3) = (3)3 + 1 = 81 , T(4) = (4)4 + 1 = 1024 ,

A1A2, A2A3, …are also in geometric sequence with T(5) = (5)5 + 1 = 15 625
the same common ratio as A1B1, A2B2, … and first
term 28 cm. 2. (a) (i) 6, 7
∴ Total distance travelled by the ant
= (28 + 20 + … ) cm (ii) ∵ T(1) = 2 = 1 + 1
  T(2) = 3 = 2 + 1
 28  T(3) = 4 = 3 + 1
= cm
T(4) = 5 = 4 + 1
 5
 1−  ∴ T(n) = n + 1
 7
= 98 cm
(b) (i) 20, 24
2
A2 B2 (ii) ∵ T(1) = 4 = 4(1)
(d) Common ratio = 2
A1 B1 T(2) = 8 = 4(2)
T(3) = 12 = 4(3)
352
= T(4) = 16 = 4(4)
49 2
25 ∴ T(n) = 4n
=
49
First term = A1B12 (c) (i) 4, 2
= 492 cm2
= 2401 cm2 (ii) ∵ T(1) = 64 = 27 – 1
∴ The sum of areas T(2) = 32 = 27 – 2

109
14 Arithmetic and Geometric Sequences and their Summation

T(3) = 16 = 27 – 3 (ii) T(9) = 4(9) – 2


T(4) = 8 = 27 – 4 = 34
7−n
∴ T(n) = 2
(b) (i) T(n) = –5 + (n – 1)(–4)
3 3 = −4n − 1
(d) (i) ,
32 64
(ii) T(9) = –4(9) – 1
3 3 = −37
(ii) ∵ T(1) = =
2 21
3 3  1
T(2) = = 2 (c) (i) T(n) = –2 + (n – 1) 1 
4 2  2
3 3 3n − 7
T(3) = = 3 =
8 2 2
3 3
T(4) = = 4
16 2 3(9) − 7
(ii) T(9) =
3 2
∴ T(n) = 2 n = 10

3. (a) T(2) – T(1) = 4 – 1 = 3 3  7


T(3) – T(2) = 7 – 4 = 3 (d) (i) T(n) = 4 + (n − 1) − 4 
 
T(4) – T(3) = 10 – 7 = 3
∴ It is an arithmetic sequence with common 10 − 7 n
=
difference 3. 4
T(n) = 1 + (n – 1)(3) = 3n − 2
10 − 7(9)
(ii) T(9) = 4
(b) T(2) – T(1) = 7 – 9 = –2
T(3) – T(2) = 5 – 7 = –2 53
=−
T(4) – T(3) = 2 – 5 = –3 ≠ –2 4
∴ It is not an arithmetic sequence.
5. (a) Let a and d be the first term and the common
(c) T(2) – T(1) = log 25 – log 5 difference respectively.
= 2 log 5 – log 5 ∵ a = 101 and d = 99 – 101 = –2
= log 5 ∴ T(n) = 101 + (n – 1)(–2)
T(3) – T(2) = log 125 – log 25 = 103 – 2n
= 3 log 5 – 2 log 5 Let –1 be the kth term.
= log 5 i.e. T(k) = –1
T(4) – T(3) = log 625 – log 125 ∴ 103 – 2k = –1
= 4 log 5 – 3 log 5 k = 52
= log 5 ∴ There are 52 terms in the sequence.
∴ It is an arithmetic sequence with common
difference log 5. (b) Let a and d be the first term and the common
T(n) = log 5 + (n – 1)(log 5) difference respectively.
= n log 5 ∵ a = 3 and d = 1 – 3 = –2
∴ T(n) = 3 + (n – 1)(–2)
(d) T(2) – T(1) = (x + 3) – (x + 1) = 2 = 5 – 2n
T(3) – T(2) = (x + 5) – (x + 3) = 2 Let –15 be the kth term.
T(4) – T(3) = (x + 7) – (x + 5) = 2 i.e. T(k) = –15
∴ It is an arithmetic sequence with common ∴ 5 – 2k = –15
difference 2. k = 10
T(n) = (x + 1) + (n – 1)(2) ∴ There are 10 terms in the sequence.
= x + 2n − 1
(c) Let a and d be the first term and the common
difference respectively.
4. (a) (i) T(n) = 2 + (n – 1)(4) 1 1 1
= 4n − 2 ∵ a = and d = 1 − =
2 2 2

80 110
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 5A

1 1 ∴ T(n) = a + (n – 1)d


∴ T(n) = + (n – 1)  
2 2 125  5
= + (n − 1) − 
1 2  2
= n
2 5
= 65 − n
Let 10 be the kth term. 2
i.e. T(k) = 10
1 (c) Let a and d be the first term and the common
∴ k = 10
2 difference respectively.
k = 20 T(4) = a + 3d = 75 ……(1)
∴ There are 20 terms in the sequence. T(10) = a + 9d = 117 ……(2)
(2) – (1), 6d = 42
(d) Let a and d be the first term and the common d=7
difference respectively. By substituting d = 7 into (1), we have
1 2 1 a + 3(7) = 75
∵ a = and d = − − = –1
3 3 3 a = 54
1 ∴ T(n) = a + (n – 1)d
∴ T(n) = + (n – 1)(–1) = 54 + (n – 1)(7)
3
= 47 + 7 n
4
= –n
3
(d) Let a and d be the first term and the common
2 difference respectively.
Let − 18 be the kth term.
3 T(7) = a + 6d = 62 ……(1)
2 T(19) = a + 18d = 2 ……(2)
i.e. T(k) = − 18
3 (2) – (1), 12d = –60
4 2 d = –5
∴ − k = −18 By substituting d = –5 into (1), we have
3 3
a + 6(–5) = 62
k = 20
a = 92
∴ There are 20 terms in the sequence. ∴ T(n) = a + (n – 1)d
= 92 + (n – 1)(–5)
6. (a) Let a and d be the first term and the common
difference respectively. = 97 − 5n
T(7) = a + 6d = 20 ……(1)
T(19) = a + 18d = 56 ……(2) − 8 + ( −2)
7. (a) Arithmetic mean = 2
(2) – (1), 12d = 36
d=3 = –5
By substituting d = 3 into (1), we have
a + 6(3) = 20 117 + 49
a=2 (b) Arithmetic mean = 2
∴ T(n) = a + (n – 1)d = 83
= 2 + (n – 1)(3)
= 3n − 1 − 13 + 13
(c) Arithmetic mean = 2
(b) Let a and d be the first term and the common =0
difference respectively.
T(10) = a + 9d = 40 ……(1) 8. (a) Let d1 be the common difference of the arithmetic
T(16) = a + 15d = 25 ……(2) sequence to be formed.
(2) – (1), 6d = –15 The arithmetic sequence formed is:
5 5, 5 + d1, 5 + 2d1, 17
d=− ∵ The 4th term is also given by 5 + 3d1.
2
∴ 5 + 3d1 = 17
5 d1 = 4
By substituting d = − into (1), we have
2 ∴ The two required arithmetic means are 9 and 13.
 5
a + 9 −  = 40
 2 (b) Let d2 be the common difference of the arithmetic
sequence to be formed.
125
a= The arithmetic sequence formed is:
2
14 Arithmetic and Geometric Sequences and their Summation

3, 3 + d2, 3 + 2d2, 3 + 3d2, 19 ∴ It is not a geometric sequence.


∵ The 5th term is also given by 3 + 4d2.
∴ 3 + 4d2 = 19 T (2) x 3 y 2 x
d2 = 4 (d) = =
T (1) x 2 y 3 y
∴ The three required arithmetic means are 7, 11 and
15. T (3) x4 y x
= 3 2 =
T (2) x y y
(c) Let d be the common difference of the arithmetic
sequence. T (4) x5 x
= 4 =
∵ T(1) = a and T(4) = b T (3) x y y
∴ b = a + 3d
∴ It is a geometric sequence with common
b−a
d= x
3 ratio .
y
n−1
(i) x = T(2)
2 3 x 
=a+d ∴ T(n) = x y  
 y
b−a
= a + 3  = x ⋅ y 4− n
n+1
 
2a + b
=
3
(ii) y = T(3) 10. (a) (i) ∵ a = 1 and R = 2 and T(n) = aRn – 1
= a + 2d ∴ T(n) = 1(2)n – 1
b−a n −1
= a + 2 3  =2
 
a + 2b
= (ii) T(10) = 210−1
3 9
= 512 (or 2 )

T ( 2) −2 1
9. (a) = = (b) (i) ∵ a = 2 and R = –3 and T(n) = aRn – 1
T (1) − 4 2
∴ T(n) = 2 ⋅ ( −3)
n −1

T (3) −1 1
= =
T ( 2) − 2 2
(ii) T(10) = 2(–3)10 – 1
− 1 
T ( 4)  2  1 −39 366 (or − 2 ⋅ 39 )
= = =
T (3) −1 2
∴ It is a geometric sequence with common (c) (i) ∵ a = 1 and R = –1 and T(n) = aRn – 1
1 ∴ T(n) = 1(–1) n – 1
ratio . n−1
2 = ( −1)
n −1
1
∴ T(n) = − 4  (ii) T(10) = (–1)10 – 1
2
= − 2 3− n = −1

T (2) 5 1
(b) = (d) (i) ∵ a = − and R = –2 and T(n) = aRn – 1
T (1) 2 4
1 n −1
T (3) 11 5
= ≠ ∴ T(n) = − 4 (−2)
T ( 2) 5 2
= (−1) n ⋅ 2 n−3
∴ It is not a geometric sequence.

T (2) 0.33 11 (ii) T(10) = (−1)10 (210−3 )


(c) = = 7
T (1) 0.3 10 = 128 (or 2 )
T (3) 0.333 111 11
= = ≠ 11. (a) Let a and R be the first term and the common
T ( 2) 0.33 110 10
ratio respectively.

80 112
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 5A

2 (2) ÷ (1), R5 = 243


∵ a = 1 and R = =2
1 R=3
∴ T(n) = aRn – 1 By substituting R = 3 into (1), we have
= 1(2)n – 1 1
a(3) =
= 2n – 1 9
Let 2048 be the kth term. 1
i.e. T(k) = 2048 a=
27
2k – 1 = 2048 ∴ T(n) = aRn – 1
k = 12 1
∴ The number of terms is 12. = ⋅ 3n – 1
27
n−4
(b) Let a and R be the first term and the common ratio =3
respectively.
−10 (b) Let a and R be the first term and the common ratio
∵ a = –2 and R = =5 respectively.
−2
∴ T(n) = aRn – 1 T(4) = aR3 = 2 ………(1)
= –2(5)n – 1 1
T(5) = aR4 = ………(2)
Let –6250 be the kth term. 2
i.e. T(k) = –6250 1
(2) ÷ (1), R=
–2(5)k – 1 = –6250 4
k=6 1
By substituting R = into (1), we have
∴ The number of terms is 6. 4
3
1
(c) Let a and R be the first term and the common ratio a  = 2
respectively. 4
1.6 1 a = 128
∵ a = 3.2 and R = = ∴ T(n) = aRn – 1
3.2 2 n −1
∴ T(n) = aR n–1 1
= 128  
1
n −1 4
= 3.2   9−2 n
2 =2
Let 0.006 25 be the kth term.
i.e. T(k) = 0.006 25 (c) Let a and R be the first term and the common ratio
k −1 respectively.
1 T(3) = aR2 = –8 ………(1)
3.2   = 0.006 25
2 T(6) = aR5 = 1 ………(2)
k = 10 1
∴ The number of terms is 10. (2) ÷ (1), R3 = −
8
1
(d) Let a and R be the first term and the common ratio R=−
respectively. 2
−12 1
∵ a = 3 and R = = –4 By substituting R = − into (1), we have
3 2
2
∴ T(n) = aR n–1
 1
a  −  = –8
= 3(–4)n – 1  2
Let 12 288 be the kth term. a = –32
i.e. T(k) = 12 288 ∴ T(n) = aRn – 1
3(–4)k – 1 = 12 288 n −1
k=7  1
= –32  − 
∴ The number of terms is 7.  2
= ( −1) n
⋅ 26− n
12. (a) Let a and R be the first term and the common
ratio respectively.
1 (d) Let a and R be the first term and the common ratio
T(2) = aR = ………(1) respectively.
9
T(2) = aR = 6 ………(1)
T(7) = aR6 = 27 ………(2)
T(7) = aR6 = 192 ………(2)

113
14 Arithmetic and Geometric Sequences and their Summation

(2) ÷ (1), R5 = 32 (d) ∵ first term = (a – b),


R=2 d = (3a + b) – (a – b) = 2a + 2b and n = 10
By substituting R = 2 into (1), we have 10
a(2) = 6 ∴ S(10) = [2(a – b) + (10 – 1)(2a + 2b)]
2
a=3
= 100a + 80b
∴ T(n) = aRn – 1
= 3⋅ 2
n−1

15. (a) (i) Let n be the number of terms of the given


series.
13. (a) Geometric mean = 4 × 64 = 16 ∵ a = 200, l = 2
and S(n) = 10 100
n( 200 + 2)
(b) Geometric mean = ± − 3 × (−27) = 9 or − 9 ∴ = 10 100
2
n = 100
(c) Let R be the common ratio of the geometric ∴ There are 100 terms in the given series.
sequence to be formed.
The geometric sequence formed is: (ii) Let d be the common difference.
1 1 1 2 27 ∵ l = T(100) = 2
, R, R , ∴ 200 + 99d = 2
4 4 4 32
d = –2
1 ∴ The common difference is –2.
∵ The 4th term is also given by R3.
4
1 3 27 (b) (i) Let a be the first term and d be the common
∴ R =
4 32 difference.
3 ∵ S(9) = 90
R= 9
2 ∴ (2a + 8d) = 90
3 2
∴ The two required geometric means are and a + 4d = 10 ………(1)
8
∵ T(11) = 14
9 a + 10d = 14 ………(2)
.
16 (2) – (1), 6d = 4
2
(d) Let r be the common ratio of the geometric sequence d=
3
to be formed.
2
The geometric sequence formed is: ∴ The common difference is .
3, 3r, 3r2, 24 3
∵ The 4th term is also given by 3r3.
∴ 3r3 = 24 2
(ii) By substituting d = into (1), we have
r=2 3
∴ a = 6 and b = 12 22
a=
3
14. (a) ∵ a = –3, d = 2 – (–3) = 5 and n = 20 50   22   2 
20 ∴ S(50) = 2 2 3  + 49 3 
∴ S(20) = [2(–3) + (20 – 1)(5)]     
2
3550
= 890 =
3

(b) ∵ a = 65, d = 62 – 65 = –3 and n = 15


16. (a) ∵ a = 1, l = 50
15
∴ S(15) = [2(65) + (15 – 1)(–3)] 50
2 ∴ S(50) = [1 + 50]
2
= 660
= 1275
(c) ∵ a = 7, d = 4 – 7 = –3 and n = 12
(b) The sum of even integers
12
∴ S(12) = [2(7) + (12 – 1)( –3)] = 2 + 4 + 6 +…. + 100
2 = 2( 1 + 2 + 3 + … + 50)
= −114 = 2(1275) (from (a))
= 2550

80 114
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 5A

4n – 1 > 16425
6 n > 7.002
17. (a) ∵ a = 3, R = = 2 and n = 8 ∴ 8 terms of geometric series must be taken.
3
3( 28 − 1)
∴ S(8) = 14 1
2 −1 19. (a) ∵ a = 28 and R = =
28 2
= 765
28
S (∞ ) =
∴ 1
5 1 1−
(b) ∵ a = 10, R = = and n = 6 2
10 2 = 56
  1 6 
101 −    −18 2
  2   (b) ∵ a = 27, R = =−
∴ S(6) = 1 27 3
1− 27
2 S (∞ ) =
11  2
= 19 ∴ 1− − 
16  3
81
=
−24 5
(c) ∵ a = 8, R = = –3 and n = 8
8 − 9 
 25 
3   =−3
(c) ∵ a = , R =
8[1 − (−3)8 ] 5 3 5
5
∴ S(8) = 1 − ( −3)  
= − 13 120  3
 
S (∞ ) =  
5
6 1 ∴  3
(d) ∵ a = –18, R = = − and n = 12 1− − 
− 18 3  5
  1 12  3
=
− 181 −  −   8
  3  
∴ S(12) =
 1
1− −  20. (a) 0.5 = 0.5555…
 3
= 0.5 + 0.05 + 0.005 + 0.0005 + …
265 720
=− 0.5
19 683 =
1 − 0.1
5
18. (a) Let N be the number of terms of the given series. =
9
3
∵ a = 1, R = = 1
1
and S(N) > 2000 (b) 0.41 4 = 0.414 1414…
1(3 N − 1) = 0.4 + 0.014 + 0.000 14 + …
∴ > 2000 0.014
3 −1 = 0.4 +
3N – 1 > 4000 1 − 0.01
N > 7.55 41
=
∴ 8 terms of geometric series must be taken. 99

(b) Let n be the number of terms that must be taken.


(c) 0.4 14 = 0.414 414…
8
3 = 0.414 + 0.000 414 + 0.000 000 414 + …
2  
∵ a= ,R= =4 0.414
3 2 =
3 1 − 0.001
 
46
and S(N) > 3650 =
2
111
(4 n − 1)
∴ 3 > 3650
4 −1 Level 2

115
14 Arithmetic and Geometric Sequences and their Summation

21. ∵ The equation ax2 +2bx + c = 0 has equal roots. sequence.


∴ ∆=0
i.e. (2b)2 – 4ac = 0 n
(ii) S(n) = [2 log a + (n – 1)(1)]
b2 = ac 2
c b n(n − 1)
= = n log a +
b a 2
∴ a, b, c are in geometric sequence.
25. (a) The weight loss in a month is a geometric
22. tan θ cosθ = 2 sin θ sequence with a = 2 and R = 80% = 0.8.
tan θ cos θ = 2 sin2θ ∴ In the nth month, weight loss = 2 ⋅ 0.8 kg
n −1

sin θ = 2 sin2θ
sin θ (2 sinθ – 1) = 0
(b) Total weight loss = S (∞)
1
sin θ = 0 or sinθ = 2
2 = kg
  1 − 0.8
θ = 30 or 150 = 10 kg
∴ Her ultimate weight = (80 – 10) kg
= 70 kg

23. (a) a ⋅ a2 ⋅ a3 ⋅ a3 ⋅ …⋅ a100 26. ∵ The diameters of the semi-circles are in geometric
= a1 + 2 + 3 + … + 100 sequence with a = 8 mm, R = 60% = 0.6
100 (1+100 )
∴ The lengths of the semi-circles are in geometric
=a 2
8
sequence with a = π mm = 4π mm, R = 0.6
= a 5050 2
Maximum length = S (∞ )
(b) (2 + log 2) + (4 + log 4) + (8 + log 8) + … 4π
= mm
= (2 + 4 + 8 + …) + (log 2 + log 4 + log 8 + …) 1 − 0.6
Then we have a geometric sequence 2, 4, 8, … and an = 10π mm
arithmetic sequence log 2, log 4, log 8, …
For the geometric sequence 2, 4, 8, …,
a = 2, R = 2, sin 2 α cos 2 α
27. (a) Common ratio =
2(210 − 1) sin 2 α
S(10) =
2 −1 = cos α
2

= 2046
For the arithmetic sequence log 2, log 4, log 8, … sin 2 α
a = log 2, d = log 2, (b) S(∞) =
1 − cos 2 α
10
S(10) = (log 2 + 10 log 2) =1
2
= 55 log 2
3 1
∴ The required sum = 2046 + 55 log 2 28. (a) a = 9, R = =
9 3
9 27
10a = =
24. (a) (i) Common ratio = a S(∞) = 1 2
1−
3
= 10
 5
1
9 1 −   
a(10 n − 1)  3 
(ii) S(n) = S(5) =     121
10 − 1 =
1 9
a 1−
= (10 n − 1) 3
9 ∴ Error = S(5) – S (∞)
121 27
(b) (i) T(2) – T(1) = log 10a – log a = log 10 = 1 = −
2 9
T(3) – T(2) = log 100a – log 10a = log 10 = 1 1
… =−
∴ log a, log 10a, log 100a, … are in arithmetic 18

80 116
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 5A

a
=
 1 1− R
− 
18 
= × 100% =
256
cm 2
(b) Percentage error  27  1
  1−
 2  2
= –0.412% = 512 cm 2

29. (a) Side of the 2nd square


2 2
30. (a) (i) From 1st January 2010 to 31st December 2019,
=   +   cm
16 16 there are 20 half-years.
2  2 The 1st deposit will amount to x(1.03)20.
The 2nd deposit will amount to x(1.03)19.
= 8 2 cm
The 3rd deposit will amount to x(1.03)18.
Side of the 3rd square ∴ The required sum
2 2
8 2  8 2  = $[x(1.03)20 + x(1.03)19 + x(1.03)18]
=    
 2  +  2  cm = $ x (1.03 + 1.03 + 1.03 )
20 19 18

   
= 8 cm
(ii) The last deposit will amount to 1.03x.
Side of the 1st square = 16 cm
The total sum
Side of the 2nd square = 8 2 cm = $[x(1.03)20 + x(1.03)19 +… + 1.03x]
1.03 x(1.0320 − 1)
 1  =$
= 16  cm 1.03 − 1
 2
103x (1.0320 − 1)
Side of the 3rd square = 8 cm =$
2 3
 1 
= 16  cm
 2 (b) The sum = 500 000
103 x(1.0320 − 1)
 1 
k-1 = 500 000
∴ Side of the kth square = 16  cm 3

 2 x = 18 066 (cor. to the nearest integer)

(b) The lengths of each side of the squares are in 31. ∵ a, b, c are in arithmetic sequence.
1 ∴ b–a=c–b
geometric sequence with a = 16 cm, R = .
2 b2(c + a) – a2(b + c) = b2c + b2a – a2b – a2c
The perimeter of the squares are also in geometric = c(b2 – a2) + ab(b – a)
1 = (b – a)[c(b + a) + ab]
sequence with a = 4 × 16 cm = 64 cm, R = .
2 = (b – a)(cb + ca + ab)
c2(a + b) – b2(c + a) = c2a + c2b – b2c – b2a
  1 10  = a(c2 – b2) + bc(c – b)
641 −    = (c – b)[a(c + b) + bc]
  2  
∴ S(10) = 1 cm = (c – b)(ac + ab + bc)
1− = (b – a)(cb + ca + ab)
2
= b2(c + a) – a2(b + c)
= 62(2 + 2 ) cm
∴ a (b + c), b (c + a), c2(a + b) are in arithmetic
2 2

sequence.
(c) The areas of the squares are in geometric sequence
1 32. (a) OA2 = OB1cos θ
with a = (16 × 16) cm2 = 256 cm2 and R = .
2 = kcos θ
Total area of the infinite number of squares formed OA3 = OB2cos θ
= kcos θ
2

117
14 Arithmetic and Geometric Sequences and their Summation

∩ πθ 1
A1 B1 = OA1 k 2 cosθ sin θ
(b) (i) 180 = 2
kπθ 1 − cos 2 θ
=
180 k cosθ sin θ
2
=
∩ πθ 2 sin 2 θ
A2 B2 = OA2
180 k cosθ
2
=
πkθ cos θ 2 sin θ
=
180 k2
=
∩ πθ 2 tan θ
A3 B3 = OA3
180
πkθ cos 2 θ 8 8 8
= 33. (a) 8 = (9) = (10 – 1) = (101 – 1)
180 9 9 9
8 8 8
88 = (99) = (100 – 1) = (102 – 1)
(ii) The sum is a geometric series with 9 9 9
kπθ 8 8 8
a= and R = cos θ. 888 = (999) = (1000 – 1) = (103 – 1)
180 9 9 9
∩ ∩ ∩
∴ A1 B1 + A2 B2 + A3 B3 + ... 8
∴ T(n) = 9 (10 − 1)
n

 kπθ 
 
=  180 
(b) T(1) + T(2) + T(3) + … + T(n)
1 − cosθ
8 8 8
kπθ = (101 – 1) + (102 – 1) + … + (10n – 1)
= 9 9 9
180 (1 − cosθ )
8 1 2 n
= [10 – 1 + 10 – 1 + … + 10 – 1]
9
1 8
(c) Area of △OA2B1 = (OB1)(OA2)sin θ = [101 + 102 + … + 10n – n]
2 9
1
= (k)(kcos θ)sin θ 8 10(10 n − 1) 
2 =  − n
9  (10 − 1) 
1 2
= 2 k cos θ sin θ 8 10(10 n − 1) 
=  − n
9  9 
1
Area of △OA3B2 = (OB2)(OA3)sin θ
2
1 34. (a) (i) a4 = 1 + 2(1) + 2(2) + 2(3)
= (kcos θ)(kcos2θ)sin θ
2 = 13
1 2 3 a5 = 1 + 2(1) + 2(2) + 2(3) + 2(4)
= 2 k cos θsin θ
= 21
1
Area of △OA4B3 = (OB3)(OA4)sin θ
2 (ii) l = 2(n − 1)
1 an = 1 + 2(1) + 2(2) + … + l
= (kcos2θ)(OB3cos θ)sin θ
2 = 1 + 2(1) + 2(2) + … + 2(n – 1)
1 = 1 + 2[1 + 2 + … + (n – 1)]
= (kcos2θ)(kcos2θcos θ)sin θ
2  n( n − 1) 
1 2 5 = 1 + 2 
 2 
= 2 k cos θsin θ
= 1 + n( n − 1)

(d) The areas of the triangles are in geometric sequence


(b) (i) 1 = 2(1) – 1
1 5 = 2(1 + 2) – 1
with a = k2cos θsin θ and R = cos2θ.
2 11 = 2(1 + 2 + 3) – 1
∴ The sum to infinity of the series 19 = 2(1 + 2 + 3 + 4) – 1
∴ L = 2(1 + 2 + 3 + … + n) – 1

80 118
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 5A

 n(n + 1)  Multiple Choice Questions (p. 216)


= 2 –1
 2  1. Answer: B
= n( n + 1) − 1 Let d be the common difference of the arithmetic sequence
to be formed.
(ii) The terms in bn are in arithmetic sequence with The arithmetic sequence formed is:
a = an = 1 + n(n – 1) and d = 2. x, x + d, x + 2d, x + 3d, x + 4d, x + 5d, y
The number of terms = n ∵ The 7th term is also given by x + 6d.
∴ The sum of terms in bn ∴ x + 6d = y
= an + (an + 2) + (an + 4) + … + L y−x
d=
n 6
= [(1 + n(n – 1)) + (n(n + 1) – 1)]
2 x+ y
∴ The 3rd arithmetic mean is .
=n
3
2

2. Answer: B
35. No
Let the speed of the tortoise be v m/s, then that of Achilles d = n2 – n1
be 5v m/s. Common difference of the new arithmetic sequence
∵ The speed of Achilles is 5 times that of the tortoise. = (3n2 + 1) – (3n1 + 1)
∴ Distance travelled by Achilles is 5 times that of the = 3(n2 – n1)
tortoise. = 3d
∴ When Achilles reaches B, the tortoise move 2 m.
i.e. BC = 2 m 3. Answer: C
1  T(7) = S(7) – S(6)
Similarly, CD = BC  m  = [3(7)2 – 2(7)] – [3(6)2 – 2(6)]
5 
= 133 – 96
2 = 37
=m
5
∴ AB, BC, CD, … are in geometric sequence with a = 4. Answer: C
1 10 ⋅ 102 ⋅ 103 ⋅…⋅ 10n > 1050
10 m and R = .
5 101 + 2 + 3 + … + n > 1050
∴ Total distance travelled by Achilles when he reaches 1 + 2 + 3 + … + n > 50
the tortoise n( n + 1)
> 50
10 2
m
= 1 n(n + 1) > 100
1−
5 ∴ (n + 1)(n + 1) > 100
= 12.5 m n + 1 > 10 or n + 1 < –10
12.5 5 ∴ n > 9 or n < –11(rejected)
∴ The time needed = = s , which is finite. The smallest value of n is 10.
5v 2v
5. Answer: A
36. (a) 1, 2, 3 or 2, 4, 6 or 3, 6, 9
(or any other reasonable answers) Let d1 and d2 be the common differences of the arithmetic
sequences respectively.
(b) By adding the corresponding terms of 1, 2, 3 and 2, 4, Then b = a + 3d1 and b = a + 4d2
6, we have 3, 6, 9, which is an arithmetic sequence m1 + m2 a + d1 + a + 2d1
with a common difference 3. The common difference =
n1 + n3 a + d 2 + a + 3d 2
of the new sequence is the sum of that of the former
sequences. a + a + 3d1
=
a + a + 4d 2
37. (a) 1, 2, 4 or 1, 3, 9 or 1, 4, 16 a+b
(or any other reasonable answers) =
a+b
=1
(b) By multiplying the corresponding terms of 1, 2, 4 and
1, 3, 9, we have 1, 6, 36, which is a geometric 6. Answer: C
sequence with a common ratio 6.
The common ratio of the new sequence is the product Consider the sequence which terms that are multiples of 7:
of that of the former sequences. 7, 14, 21, …
Let n be the number of multiples of 7 less than 100.

119
14 Arithmetic and Geometric Sequences and their Summation

T(n) < 100 1


7 + (n – 1)(7) < 100 xy =
10
n < 14.29
1
∴ The number of multiples of 7 less than 100 is 14. xy =
100
∴ The number of positive integers less than 100 not
divisible by 7 log x + log y
= log xy
= 99 – 14
1
= 85 = log
100
7. Answer: C = –2
Consider the geometric sequence: 1, 2, 4
10. Answer: D
and 1 + 10, 2 + 10, 4 + 10 = 11, 12, 14 which is not a
geometric sequence. 1[(9 2 ) n+1 − 1]
=
∴ I is false. 92 − 1
2 2 n+2
1 + 9 + 9 + … +9 = (3 ) −1
∵ a, b , c are in geometric sequence. 2 4 2n
b c 80
∴ = =R 34 n + 4 − 1
a b =
10b b 80
∵ = =R
10a a
11. Answer: B
10c c
and = =R
10b b
∴ 10a, 10b , 10c are in geometric sequence.
∴ II is true.

b b 12. Answer: D
∵ = = R
a a S (∞ ) = 100
c c a
and = = R = 100
b b 1− 0.25
a = 75
∴ a , b , c are in geometric sequence.
∴ III is true.
HKMO (p. 217)
8. Answer: C
For I: 1. Consider the sequence of the denominator.
2, 3, 3, 4, 4, 4, … , n, n, … ,n, …
1  1 
 33  1  333  11 1 For each n,
 =  = ≠
and 1. there are (n – 1) terms.
 1  11  1  111 11
3  33  2. the terms are from [1 + 2 + 3 +… + (n – 2) + 1]th to
   
[1 + 2 + 3 +… + (n – 1)]th
∴ I is not in geometric sequence.
( n − 1)(n − 2) n( n − 1)
i.e. from [ + 1 ]th to th
For II: 2 2
0.33 11 0.333 111 11 If the denominator is 46, the terms are from [
= and = ≠
0.3 10 0.33 110 10 ( 46 − 1)(46 − 2) 46(46 − 1)
+ 1 ]th to th
∴ II is not in geometric sequence. 2 2
i.e. from 991th to 1035th.
For III: For each denominator with value of n, the numerator runs
− 1  1 − 1  from 1 to n – 1.
 6    24 
  = − 1  12  = − 1   =−1 By counting from the 991th term, the numerator of the
, and
 
1 2 − 1 2  1 2 1001th term is 11.
3  6  12 
     
∴ III is in geometric sequence. 2. ∵ sin 30° + sin230° + … + sinQ30° = 1– cosR45°

9. Answer: D

80 120
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 5A

sin 30  (1 − sin Q 30  )
= 1 − cos R 45
∴ 1 − sin 30 
0.5(1 − sin Q 30  )
= 1 − cos R 45
0.5
1 – sinQ30° = 1– cosR45°
sinQ30° = cosR45°
Q R
1  1 
  =  

 2  2
2Q R
 1   1 
  =  
 2 
   2
∴ R = 2Q

121