Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 71

Intro to World Religions: East

Syllabus, Grade Breakdown, Etc 8/30/2011 10:07:00 AM

O %ere are 3 exams over te semester, eac wort 30% of grade
O lass attendance is 10%

First Exam = HINDUISM (October 6

Second Exam = ALL O%HER INDIAN RELIGIONS (November 8

%ird Exam = xxx (%BH

Most lectures are done by PowerPoint. PowerPoints might be posted.

Eastern Religions as ompreensive Systems of Life 8/30/2011 10:07:00 AM

Silk Road Connection = One of te longest land routes (spanning 1000s of
miles connecting major civilizations of te time (ina & India in te East,
Arabia in te middle, Byzantium Empire in te West.
O Facilitated cross cultural fertilization of ideas
O Resulted in a mix of people influencing ideas all over te continent
4 Indian pilosopers in Persia, Byzantiums in ina, etc
O Played a significant role in Medieval %imes
4 Lost influence wen Sea Routes came around

I. ndia
O Ancient ivilization, goes back to approx. 3,000 B (5,000 years of
O 'arious social, cultural, religious and pilosopical systems ave
4 %ere is no clear cut boundary between social, cultural or
religious structure (class structure was partially social,
partially cultural, etc.
4 Wat could be social became a part of te religion
4 Divine and uman will always coexist. - Hinduism
4 ou cant miss religion in India. Its everywere. Its not like
ere, were tings are easy to miss.
O Native Religions: Hinduism, Buddism, Jainism, Sikism
O Migrated Religions: Islam, ristianity, Judaism, Zoroastrianism
4 Zoroastrianism: A monoteistic pre-Islamic religion of ancient
Persia founded by Zoroaster in te 6t century B

1. Religions and Pilosopies of India
O ulture Ancient Religious Beliefs / ults
4 Fertility ults: %ree (sacred fig trees, Serpent, Animals
4 Worsip of Icons: Goddess & Male Deities, Fire Ritual, Bating
O Religions of te Indian %ree
4 Hindu: Diwali, Festival of Ligts, God Krisnas Birtday,
Sivas Nigt Festival
4 Buddist: Buddas Birtday
4 Sikism: Guru Nanaks birtday
2. Indian Religions are tis worldly type
O Living a god life in tis world and ave fun
O es religious, celebration of life is equally important
O Life is colourful and joyful
O Do not worry all te time about karma and after deat crisis
O %e common-eld belief tat most Indian religious focus on te
afterlife, etc. is untrue.
3. oga: A System for Spiritual Discipline
O oga for Weigt Loss & Exercises
O oga, a system of meditation & contemplation for discipline pysical
and mental awareness
O Union wit divine deities.
4. Asceticism as a way of life 6 BE
O Jain Monk: Non-violence as a way of life, wearing a mask to avoid
killing microbes by inaling tem (really.?
5. Hinduism: %ree Ways of Discipline
O to acieve monksa / liberation
O ause & Effect = Fruits (wat?
O %e discipline of wisdom
6. Reincarnation or Rebirt
O ircle of life-deat-rebirt
O Its a fact of life
4 Except wen you really screw up. %en you can end your
rebirt cycle by completely destroying your karma
O entral to religions and pilosopies
O Saped te culture and Indian world view(s
O If you do karmically well, you will be reborn into someting good
4 Killing an animal is extremely bad karma.
4 %at does not necessarily mean tat you will be reborn into a
iger caste. ou could be reborn as a grassopper or
someting too.
O our consciousness does not usually carry over to your rebirt.
7. Sacred Arts & Devotion
O elebration fo life and divine experience
O Art is not for our sake in India.
4 Art as more purpose tan just being aestetically pleasing
4 Most early art is religious art.
4 Dancing siva is a cultural / religious dance.
8. ulture and Religion
O Diwali Festival: elebration of Life, Family and Social Relationsips
O Religion: 'ictory of Good over Evil - Stories of Gods & Goddesses
O Religion on display in India - Gods are everywere
O Prayers to Sun - worsip at ome
O Goddess Laksmi images worsiped in vendor stores
O God Ganesa in corporate offices
O Puja worsip - performed before a new venture
O New cars blessed at temples (wow.
O Rituals from birt to deat
O Indian weddings - culture and religion weaved seamlessly togeter

O Ancient civilization, just like India. More tan 5,000 years of
O Historical writing became in ina very early, still ave old belief
O ultural, social, religious and pilosopical systems are intertwined
over istory. No clear cut boundaries
O Major Religions are onfucianism and Daoism
O Migrated religions are Buddism, Islam and ristianity

3. Pilosopies as compreensive systems of life and no rigid boundaries
O Confucianism - social is sacred for onfucius Morals, etics and
social relationsips - cultivation of umaneness
4 onfucius values and ideologies for state and government and
noble leadersip
O aoism - Harmony of nature and cosmic forces. Individual and
universal levels, te perfect balance of ying & yang
4 Daoist Ideas: %raditional Science and Medicine. Holistic
approaces: acupuncture, alcemy, erbal treatment, martial
Arts, %ai-ci & meditation tecniques
5. Distinctive systems of Pilosopy, Religion and Etics
O Daoism = in-ang cosmic forces
O inese culture religion and worldviews
4 %e onfucius symbol means total armony, rigteousness in
your own life and your relations wit your neigbor

Its like wearing tree ats. popular saying in ina. Daoism for tis
world, onfucianism for cultivation of uman relationsips, Buddism for
after life.

Its a question of balance!
Wy Study Religion? 11/3/2011 11:14:00 AM
1. Wy Study Religion?
O Islamic Revolution in Iran, 1979
4 During te Sas regime in 1960-70s. Iran was more
modernized in every way. Diplomatic relations w/ US were
very good. Sa was deposed in 1979, 40 million people
participated in te revolution. (Wy did tey revolt? Ppl
started defending te traditional religious values. All te
modernization tat ad occurred was turned on its ass. Back
to traditional values.
O Eastern Europe & Soviet Union, 1989
4 Disintegration of communist order.
O 9/11 al-Qaeda attacks on World %rade enter, 2001
4 .

2. Insider and Outsider Perspectives
O Wo is an insider?
4 Follower/devotee/member
4 Particular tradition
4 Subjective & devotional
O Wo is an outsider?
4 Studies about oters religions
4 Objective, analytical, interpretive
4 Not immersed in culture. Not a follower of te religion
O %% Q&%E (see "Why Study Religion" pdf)
4 %o Summarize: %e reader is invited to direct is mind to a
moment of deeply-felt religious experience.(e can recall
emotions of adolescence, .discomforts of indigestion or .
social feelings, but .annot re.all any intrinsi.ally religious
Otto is in favour of te first and experience of te
religious participant.
%e fait of an aderent (follower/devotee
Insiders perspective is important because its a self-
represented view of te religious experience.
Is it a problem to ONL take an insiders view? es. ou
need to take bot an insider and outsiders view.
3. %wo views of religion in te modern world
O Favourable or Positive: religion is magnificent and te most
profound expression of te uman spirit
O ondemnation or Negative: religion a bligt, infestation or affliction
and creates superstition, ignorance, atred, repression and
4 Religion creates a dangerous world. It does, indeed, create
dangerous situations. SEE $5anish Inq., Holo.aust, Darfur
O %ere is a tird category
4 Ones own religion is true, and all oters is wrong.
O Why .ant there be a fourth? An a..e5ting .ategory?
O Referring to Muller (Max Muller, German scolar, He wo knows
one, knows none.
4 He wo only knows one religion knows noting, because es
never allowed is mind to expand beyond is narrow-minded
4 ou dont know ow oter tings are different.
4 Kupasta manduka Frog in a Well. (Sanskirt saying
%e well is te wole world for te frog, but in reality
te world is so muc bigger and te frog just doesnt
know it because es never botered to venture outside
of te well
4. East-West dicotomy (A division or .ontrast between two things that are
or are re5resented as being o55osed or entirely different.)
O Western use of te term `religion - piety, fait, action - ristian
O 1490 European world - word religions define oter traditions
O ristianity as 3 features: reedal beliefs, sacred and secular,
igly exclusive membersip (tink Aristotles 11 uman virtues
and ow teyre only applied to a certain sub sect of Atenian
4 ou wont find similar tings in Eastern religions. %ey are
structured and founded in a different way.
O Pagan or Paganism
4 Non-Judeo-ristian traditions
4 Polyteistic religions before ristianization
4 Greek mytology and Roman religions = Pagan
Anyting tats not ristianity, Judaism, Islam, etc. is
dumped in te Pagan andbasket
4 Actually refers to pre-ristian religions
O Wider Sense: Eastern religions, Native traditions of Americas, Non-
Abraamic folk
O Narrow Sense: Local / rural traditions in World Religions
Roster of Religions
O 1846 - Frederick Denison Maurice (ANGLIAN %HEOLOGIAN -
`great `living `world religions - istorically influential / alive
(doctrinal dept - first person to say tat were dumping
everyting in a Pagan Handbasket
4 Reason we ave East and West religion definition
4 %ese pagan beliefs are still alive, not all `dead religions
O Buddism, ristianity, Islam - Missionary Religions
O Judaisim, Hinduism, Zoroastrianism, Sinto - National Religious
O onfucianism & %aoism ina

ot &nder -ove Categories
O %ribal - Oral
O Died out religions
O New religions in 19

East - West: Geograpical and cultural boundaries
O Western Religions: Judaism, ristianity, Islam
4 Islam is a `western religion because its monoteistic
O Eastern Religions: Hinduism, Buddism, onfucianism, Daoism,
4 Polyteistic.
O Fence Sitters: Zoroastrianism and Sikism provisional cultural

O Sared aracteristics
4 Western Religions united by propetic and scriptural
revelation from teir ONE God
%us says te Lord
4 Eastern traditions are wisdom-oriented - reflective uman
insigt of a wise teacer or sage.
Buddas experience
I meditated and reflected, tis insigt came to
5. omparative Approac
O Religion developed as a discipline of study in 19
4 Max Muller (German Indologist
4 %e Science of Religion
4 Asian religions =/= Pagan ategory
O No speculative teories in te past
O Accurate information
O Non-biased study + interpretation
O Sound comparative study differences and similarities
O %ey didnt study religions broadly. %ey studied eac individually.
4 Because of Muller, tey started looking more broadly
How does God differ in eac religion? Wat differences,
similarities are tere?
O ircea Eliade, Romanian Scolar (immigrated to USA
4 Religion on its own terms
4 Religion is experienced in a given tradition, by te people /
believers and te viewpoints of te believers
4 Historical: tey are reducible to non-religious forms of
beavior or non-religious istory (economic, social, political
4 %ere is no purely religious penomena

O %e Language of Religion: 3 categories
4 yth: reation, stories of Gods, propets, saints. Every
religion begins wit a creation story to explain ow tey got
Examples: Genesis, osmic Man, Muamma, Budda
4 Sym-ol: Representation of core ideas/beliefs. Most religions
ave a symbol tat represents tem, suc as te ross for
ristianity, te Star of David for Judaism, etc.
Examples: lotus, Om, yin-yang, swastika
4 Ritual: Facilitates to practice/experience religion. Rituals are
necessary so people can participate and actually become a
part of te religion. reates te social aspect of religion.
reates te religious community. W/o ritual, religion would
long be dead. It lives troug 5ra.ti.e.
Religious meaning for believer
Enactment of myts, gods deeds, stories of
ontent of religious truts or mytic truts
Examples: Eucarist, prasada, salat prayer
O %e language of myts, symbols, and rituals creates a world for
believers to lead life in a particular way
4 Wisdom, Knowledge, models of beavior and practice, and
te religion, te way it was given.
O Eac religious tradition as a specific world view.

Academic Study of Religion
O Patterns in religious tradition
4 reation Myts, %rimurti/%rinity
O Similarities and differences
4 Darma in Hinduism & Buddism
O Understanding of oters religions and ones own religion
Expressions of Basic Human Religion 8/30/2011 10:07:00 AM
1. %e Stoneenge
O Massive circle of standing stones, 3500-4000 BE
O onstruction, symbolism, function
4 %e course of te suns movement
4 %e burial ground & ceremonial ground
Probably used for ceremonies in ancient times
Generally at dawn, lead by a ief / Religious Autority,
4 Astronomical observatory
4 Heel Stone as a point of reference
Not actually inside Stoneenge
O Summer Solstice Sun is norteast
O Winter Solstice Sun is in reverse course
Sun & %e Order of te Universe

2. Wy is sun worsip so important in oter cultures / religions?
O Roman festival of Saturnalia
4 %e annual `rebirt of te Sun
O ristians in 4 E Rome
4 %e birt of te Risen rist
O inese Emperor
4 %emple of Heaven
4 Winter Solstice
O Indian festival of Sankranti
4 New year of te arvest season
4 %e renewal of life
O Sun Worsip
4 Pre-istorical agrarian cultures
Sun worsip in literate and organized religious cultures
rist as incarnate deity
Sun as te powerful deity
Gayatri Mantra in India

Some concepts in all religions
O Powerful Gods
4 God is always masculine, Eart is always feminine
O Sacred Places
O A Life after Deat
O %ree Worlds
4 oncept in every culture. Multiple eavens.
4 Heavens, underworld, eart.
Underworld is dangerous, dark
Heaven is safe, ligt, etc.
O Animal Spirits
4 Feared and revered
4 Wen animals were killed, tey were treated wit te proper
respect b/c ppl were afraid tat oterwise, te spirits would
be angry and wouldnt allow te people to use te animals for
food, etc.

Wy are umans religious?
O Religion from uman
4 Experience: Good or bad powers
O Emotional
4 Fear, Awe, Love, Hate
O Intellectual
4 Questioning: God, Universe, World
4 Humans are naturally questioning uman beings, always ave
to question tings

%en Waves of Religion (%e istory of uman religiosity
O Wave 1: Samanism
4 Healing Rituals
See ealing rituals in most early religions / cultures
Esp. in tribal cultures
Had all types of rituals to ask for protection and for
blessings from te spirits
4 Unfriendly spirits
an be anyone / anyting
Spirits = associated wit natural penomenon
Unfriendly spirits associated wit dangerous /
mytical creatures
4 %e Saman
A person aving access to, and influence in, te world
of spirits
Acted as a messenger between umans and spirits
Must be psycic, or survived near deat, or watever.
Guided by one particular spirit
%ake on te persona of a particular spirit during a
trance or position
4 Preistoric unting societies: ritual spirits
4 Economics and daily life

O Wave 2: onnecting to te osmos
4 ame about in te Neolitic period
osmic cycles
O Wanted to study te stars, etc
%ombs and Stupas
4 Animals and Gods
Animals ave divine power
4 %e ycle of Seasons
onstellations of Planets
Believe constellations affected uman life
O Ancient astrology!
Deat & Life: %ombs
Animals and Gods (wait, didnt I already say tat?

O Wave 3: %emple Religion
4 Indo-European Priests
Dont settle
Good, skilled warriors
%ravel everywere. %ey were nomads.
Adapted everywere easily
Sacrificial religion, believed in animal, etc., sacrifices
4 Jewis Priestood
First temple built by Solomon (destroyed in 1770 E
Establised by David
First religion wit legitimate %emple
4 %emple, priests, ierarcy
Hierarcy: Priests, Soldiers, Middle class, lower class.
4 Sacrificial religion
4 Patriarcy
Male oriented society, and religion

O Wave 4: Propetic Religion
4 %emple at Delpi, Greece
%e Oracle
'irgin Priestess
4 Abraamic Propetic %raditions

4 Seeds of propetic religion
4 Delpi virgin priestess, Apollo, ontact w/ Divine
4 Propesies: Judaism, ristianity, Islam

O Wave 5: %e Energy God
4 Divinity
A force / energy
4 Dao (%ao in inese ulture
Literally means way, pat or route
4 Braman in Indian ulture
Sat (One? %rut? or %rut
4 No attributes.
%is is te absolute God. He as no caracteristics.
Encompasses all cosmic energy
'ery mysterious

O Wave 6: Purity and Monasticism
4 Ganges Ascetic %raditions
Ganges was a river (trans-boundary river in India /
4 Indian religious / spiritual scools
4 Religious etics & non-violence
4 'ows of celibacy

O Wave 7: Mystery Religion
4 Greek & Roman %raditions
oncerned about te renewal of life
4 Mystery and Secretive
4 Persepone myt & afterlife
Disappearance of Persepone = disappearance of
growt, etc, because er moter (Goddess of te
Harvest was miserable witout er
ou know te story, us.
4 ristianity Baptism
Deat & Resurrection of Jesus

O Wave 8: God on Eart
4 Avatar Incarnation
God walks among us, propet kinda ting
4 A savior figure
4 Krisna
Avatar of 'isnu
4 Amitaba
%e Budda of Saving Grace
4 oming down of a God
4 Divine & Human worlds protect te world

O Wave 9: Scriptural Religion
4 Almost all world religions ave scripture
Zoroastrian Avest of Persia
Hindu 'edas
%ora of Judaism
All tree Scriptures: %ora, Bible, Quran (Koran
Important in uman istory
A book, word of God, divinely-inspired souce of
List patterns of virtuous life

O Wave 10: Fundamentalism
4 American Protestantism 20
Believe in te absolute, be-all-end-all trut of te Bible
Most sent cildren to religious scools
4 Fundamentalist cultures
%end to be male-oriented
%at seems fairly common, doesnt it?
Stupid men.
4 Exclusivist claims
Our God is te only God.
Still, only want to do teir own ting, dont force teir
views on oter people
4 Oter religions
4 Militant minorities
%ese are te negative minorities.
%aliban, Al Qaeda, Wite Supremacy, etc.

%e nature of religious belief and practice as canged over time.
O Some religions developed independently on teir own
4 Some inspired oter religions
4 I.e.: all te off-soots of ristianity / atolicism
O ange & Response: Human conditions witin Historical, ultural,
Socio-Economic & Political ontexts
4 All of tese tings led to canges in religion / culture /
Religion in Pre-Historic India 11/3/2011 11:14:00 AM

I. Introduction to India
II.Indus 'alley & Harappa ivilization
III. Aryan Migration Issues
4 %e Indo-Europeans
I'. Hinduism: Banyan %ree

(ntroduction %o)
O %erms: Hindu, India, Hinduism, Barat from Sindu River
O Persians: Hindu for Sindu, Hindustan
O Greeks: Indu (Sindu river
4 320 BE - Alexander te Great comes to India
O ultural Migrations, etnic & cultural diversity
4 Different languages
4 ultural is more or less te same
But tere are many differences in food, costumes,
textiles, religion, language
4 15 different official languages, in addition to national
language (Hindi
O Indian sub.ontinent or Sout Asia
4 Geograpically separate from rest of Asia.
East, Sout, West surrounded by water. Nort bordered
by Nepal & Pakistan
O 1947 = Indian independence (August 1947, Britis India is
dissolved, te Dominion of India gains independence
4 Britis came to India mid 19
century (1800s

Wat is India today?
O Native Religions
4 Hinduism - omprises of a diverse family of devotional and
ascetic cults and pilosopical scools, all saring a belief in
reincarnation and involving te worsip of a large panteon of
4 Buddhism - founded by Siddarta Gautama in NE India in te
5t century bc, wic teaces tat enligtenment may be
reaced by elimination of eartly desires and of te idea of
te self.
4 Jainism - A nonteistic religion founded in India in te 6t
century bc as a reaction against te teacings of ortodox
Bramanism, and still practiced tere. %e Jain religion
teaces salvation by perfection troug successive lives, and
non-injury to living creatures. Approx. 4 million in India now
4 $ikhism - 6 or 7 million in India
O Foreign Religions
4 Islam
Long istory in Sout Asia
century onward
It goes on forever.
More tan 150 million Muslims in India
4 ristianity
Started wit European men
century - 19
More tan 14 million ristians

O Hinduism & Hindu Identity
4 900 million Hindus & Hindu identify
ommunity or caste or tradition
Hindu is not just a cultural identity, its a religious
Even if youre non-religious Hindu, youre still a
O ou are born Hindu, no matter wat you
'aisnava, God 'isnu
4 Hinduism, as a term, came into use in te 19
plurality of traditions, religious identity
Utilised as a glue to old community togeter against
Britis rule
%ink civil virtue (relationsips are needed to advance
society, etc
4 $anatana Dharma or eternal trut
4 Hinduism is not an empty term

ndus Valley & Harappa Civilization

O Nortwest region of India
4 2,750 BE
4 480 km
4 Major Sites

O Wo are te Indus & Harappan People?
4 Urban settlements
4 Impressive builders
Planned streets
4 Water tecnology
Great Bat
Swimming pool?!
Probably a religious ting.
Drainage and sewer systems
4 We didnt know about tis civilization until about te 1920s
Excavation uncovered all tese civilizations &
settlements by accident.
Now tere are more tan 1,000 excavation sites
4 Arcaeological discoveries
Buildings, Wells, Grain Storage
Lotal drainage system
Moenjadaro well
Harappa city site
Harappa city site
Buildings & streets
Bating systems in ancient & modern India
%e Great Bat, Moenjadaro, 2500 BE
O Swimming pool-like brick structure
O Water facility system
O Religious ritual purpose?
O Similar to temple water tanks
%emple Water %ank
O %irupati, Sout India
O 15
%emple Water %ank, Sout India
4 %ey knew ow to treat waste water
Great job.
No, seriously.
4 %ey also ad eated public bats
We dont ave tose.

O Art of Writing
4 Steatite seals wit pictograps & ideograps
Script not completely decipered
Sometimes teyre bilingual, not one singular language
4 Dravidian languages of Sout India

O Religion and Ritual
4 Houses worsip
Fire alters
Animal Bones (wut.
Bating places & wells
Every Hindu ome as a ome srine
4 %erracotta figures
Stone sculptures
Image worsip
4 Male figure wit orns
Sitting in yoga posture
4 Halls of worsip
Kinda like temples
4 Polyteistic

O Moter Goddess
4 %erracotta female figures
Moter goddess cult & fertility
4 %ree spirits - Pipal tree & worsippers wit plants
4 Deat and burial customs
Men & women are buried togeter
%is is apparently unusual
I guess because women used to trow temselves
on te funeral pyre
O Do tey still do tat?
O I know Laura wises tey did.

O Skiled Artisans at Harappa
4 rafted objects
Glazed ceramic
Semiprecious stones

O Wat caused te decline of Indus & Harappa ivilization?
4 Flooding of Indus River?
Or an Epidemic.
4 Not invasions
Peaceful migrations of Indo-Europeans from entral
4 Sopisticated urban culture & polyteistic religion
4 Indus & Harappa - older tan 3,000 BE
4 Indian religions and culture

ryan igration ssues - ndo Europeans

O Aryan Migration %eories!!
4 %heory 1:
Aryan migration(s to Nortwest India, 2000 - 1500
entral Asian tribes - Europe (nortern, western,
Ireland, Scandinavian countries
Iran - India
Aryans - Iran, `omeland of te Aryans and India social
class `noble ones (tese sentences make no sense.
Evidence: Linguistic links between 'edic scriptures of
Aryans and Iranian Avesta, European Languages
Sanskrit, ancient Greek and Latin - Indo-European
language group
4 %heory 2
Aryan migrations from 6,000 BE
Peaceful migration for farming purposes
Migration from te region of modern %urkey
O Not central Asia
Agricultural population
4 %heory 3
Aryans, te original settlers of te India Indus region,
te migrations from India to oter regions (%HIS
Literary, astronomical, geological data
O Rigveda: te River Saraswati & 5 tribes
(1500 BE
O Geological: River was dry at te time of
Aryan migration (wats tat got to do wit
O Aryans settled muc before 1500 BE
4 Harappa 2,500 BE
Political, racial, religious, nationalist agendas

4 None of tese teories are conclusive

O Indo-Europeans and Indus 'alley
4 'ery distinctive cutlures
Aryan Nomans - 'edas scriptures, ritual religion, social
Indus Urban people, religious beliefs, image worsip,
oter practices
4 Marriage fo two cultures and Hinduism

V Hinduism: Complexity & iversity

O Banyan %ree metapor
4 National tree of India
4 Really fucking big ass tree
4 Huge moter trunk in te center
Brances wind and twist, go down into te eart, create
teir own trees
O Hinduism and its Manifestations
O Monoteism & Polyteism
4 One and Many
'edic Religion & Society 11/3/2011 11:14:00 AM

I. 'edic Scriptures
II. reation myts
III. Gods, Religious Beliefs and Rituals
I'. 'edas as scriptural autority

I. 'edic Scriptures

O 1. 'egas, scared scriptures
4 knowledge troug revelation -- $ruti (tat wic was
Divine words uttered to sages
4 Not originally written by men
Initially passed down orally troug generations
Began to worry te words would be lost
Approx 1,000 (B, AD? wrote it all down
Originally came troug te sages
God spoke to te Sages and te Sages passed on
te word of God
4 'eda from Sanskrit root verb vid (to know
O 2. Mantras carged wit power (efficacy
O 3. 'edas
4 igest scriptural autority
revealed trut by God
ortodox traditions follow 'egas
te closer your tradition / mantra is to te original
'edas, te closer you are to God
O 4. 'edas and te Bramin class, custodians and priestly scools
O 4 (again?. Vedic Collections composition 1500 BE - 800 BE
4 Rg Veda - te oldest. 1028 ymns, nature gods, glorification
4 $ama Veda - ymnal singing / music
4 Yajur Veda - ritual and liturgy
4 Atharva Veda - late text, contains non-Aryan material, logic,
incantations, medicinal, evil spirits. Sometimes not counted
because it contains non-Aryan material
O 5. Interpretation of 'edas
4 Eac 'eda w/ 4 sections
Forest books
Pilosopical works (upanisads
O 6. Meaning, purpose, true nature, individual & universe relationsip

Hymns: praise of Gods
O attle, orses, cildren, food, rain, poetic intelligence, good life

'edic Oral Recitation
O 3,500 years
O 'edic mantras
4 Sacred sound, divine revelation
O Pronounciation & musical scales
O Double cecking metod

Creation yths
O osmic Person, Hindu World Origins

O 1. %e Hymn of Purusa, te osmic Person
4 Rg Veda 10.90, $ 8, WR 38-39
%e man wo ad a tousand eads (1
It is te Man wo is all of tis (2
All creatures are a quarter of im; tree quarters are
wat is immortal in eaven (3-4
%e Man as te sacrificial offering to Purusa (7
Everyting born from im.world (9-14, 4 classes of
beings (11-12
%e Man: mout became Braman; is arms. warrior,
is tigs te People, is feet te servants (12
Oter tings from tat sacrifice: first ritual laws
(darma, verses, cants, formulas, animals, te Man,
moon, sun, wind.
One cosmic giant figure containing te universe itself
Gods made sacrifice of a Man to Purusa
Sacrifice necessary for creation & sustenance of world
Four divisions of social classes
First laws of darma
Sacrificial religion
O 2. %e reation Hymn
4 Rg Veda 10.129, WR 29
Neiter non-existent nor existent
Noting exists - water, te life force tat was covered
wit emptiness.from te power of eat
Neiter deat nor immortality - nigt and day.
%hat one -reathed, windless, -y its own impulse.
Desire in te beginning te first seed of mind.
Poets? Seers.found te bond of existence in non-
Wo really knows? %e gods came afterwards.
reation? It formed itself.or peraps it did not
Sopisticated creation ymn 900 BE
Abstract & metapysical ideas
osmic vision and universe
Indian pilosopical tougt - sat (real and asat
Not accepting of ready-made myts
Searc for te secret of existence
Admits ignorance

ods, Religious Beliefs, and Rituals

O %e oncept of God
4 %wo ideologies
1. One God as te universe Itself, te cosmic Purusa
2. Many gods created from tat original One
personifications of natural penomena
4 ategory 2.
Gods of Nature
Fire (Agni
Water ('aruna
Soma (Plant
Warrior God Indra
'isnu and Rudra (Siva
Goddess of Speec ('ac - Sarasvati in Hindu
4 Vedic ods (except gni) - guardian deities in classical

gni, %he od of Fire
4 Fire sacrifice
Fire sacrifice for Aryans
Agni, Gods uman world
Square fire alter, wood, clarified butter, mantras recited
Sacrifice of primeval man to te creation
idea enacted
%e cosmic order
%rut & Justice
Rains, intelligence, progeny
Soma juice
Priestly Bramin class

4 Prayer to Agni ($ 11
I pray to Agni (1
...e will bring te gods ere (2
...Wealt and growt (3
... sacrificial ritual (4
. wis fulfilling (5
... sine upon darkness (6
... king over sacrifices (8

4 Agni: mediating agent of sacrifice, gods, worsippers
4 Agnis presence
eavenly regions
4 %e primary receiver of sacrifice, oblations to oter Gods
4 Let us make a good fire and pray wit a good fire
4 False accusation to Agni bring upon disaster - extinction of
Fire causes problems

Soma, the od of Plants
4 Plant, God, Substance
4 Epedra
`Sea Grape
4 Pressing soma in yajna
ajna = ritual of sacrifice
4 Exalted states & visions
4 Mystical experience
4 Fire sacrifice
pressing soma leaves, soma juice wit milk, consumed
by priests & gods
4 A drink of immortality
4 Agni and Soma in fire sacrifice
4 Soma identified wit Moon

ndra, the Warrior od ($ 9-11)
4 Indra
te king of te gods
te most powerful
Warrior 'irtues, Battle, %underbolt
Hindu equivalent of Zeus?
About 250 ymns specifically to Indra
%e slaying of te demon 'ritra
demons are seen as evil forces
constant battle between te Gods (olders of te
good and te Demons (te bad guys
Indra released imprisoned rain waters from te body of
te demon
So tere was no rain
O %at seems like a bad idea
%e soma drinker and ero of Aryan tribes
%e primordial battle between demons and Gods
to establis cosmic law and order for umans to
A stabled, ordered cosmos by Indra

V Vedas as Scriptual uthority

O Sacred scripture
4 But not kept in ouses
4 Bramins ave been te custodians of 'edas
4 Specialized training is required to read te 'edas
its a very ancient form of sanskript
not many people can actually read it
only te bramins.
O Ritual texts used by priests in temple rituals
O Sacred mantras
4 Eternal Sound and Words
O %ranscendental aspect and autoritative nature
4 Eternal coeval wit God
4 non-uman autorsip
originally came from God
O Faultless, supreme source of knowledge
4 Everyting in te 'edas is completely true
4 %ere are no flaws in te 'edas
If anyting, if you tink you find a flaw, ten you
yourself are probably flawed
O Ortodoxy determined based on acceptance of 'edas
4 %e more accepting you are of te 'edas, te closer oyu are
to God and true ortodoxy
O Oter texts more popular tan 'edas
4 %e `fift 'eda


O Aryans and 'edic Religion 1500 BE
O Nomadic, pastoral culture
4 Hymnal scriptures
O One God, many forms
O Higly developed ritualistic society
4 fire sacrifice
O Specific social ierarcy

No one WRO%E te 'edas. %ey were given te knowledge. %ats wy tey
are eternal. %ey coexist wit God.
8/30/2011 10:07:00 AM
Pilosopical Forms of Hinduism
700 - 600 BE

1. Major Features of Upanisadic Period
O Upanisad = upa + nisad
4 `seated near by guru/teacer
4 Guru lineage scools, ascetic and ouseolder
O A new pase of development
4 Literature & Pilosopy
4 A canon of 18 books (700-600 BE
Sanskrit Language
Not muc about ritual or religious practice, mostly
pilosopical inquires
forest wisdom
O %raditions of Forest Wisdom
4 A period of great tinkers, ascetic / renouncer traditions
4 Written in te forest
4 Sramama (eterodox (heterodox - not conforming wit
accepted / ortodox traditions
4 New ideas & Doctrinal systems
4 arl Jaspers called it the " PER"
Many great tinkers born in tis period (not just in
India, but all over te world
O Dialogical format
4 fater & son
4 usband and wife
4 fellow seers
4 guru & disciples
O An era of questioning
4 Autority of Bramins
4 Meaning & purpose of ritual
4 Nature & relationsip of Braman & Atman
4 Karma / Action & Samsara / Reincarnation
4 Welfare of individual
4 Mysteries of life & deat
4 Wat is te nature of individual and god?
O Pilosopical interpretations of 'edic texts and religious ideas
4 Doctrines of transmigration, nonviolence, karma
4 Braman and Atman, mystical gnosis in searc of release
(moska from te cycle of birt and deat (samsara
O Individual and inner contemplation
4 oga & meditation metods
O Sifting awareness from ritualism to pilosopical tougt,
organized religious community to individualistic focus, external to
4 tats not to say ritual isnt important
It is still very important today


O 1. How Many Gods Are %ere? WR 41
4 Brihandaranyaka U5anishad, 3.9.1-2
Sakalyas Question to sage ajnavalkya: ow many
gods are tere?
tree undred and tree or tirty-tree
yes, but really, ow many gods are tere?
es, but wo aer tose tree undred and tree?
`%ey are but te powers of te gods
ekam sat bahuda vandanti
%rut is one, people speak of it many
O %ere is one, but people speak of it in many
One and many
O 2. Braman, %e Supreme Being
4 Wat is Braman?
%e Supreme Being, ultimate reality, universal soul
`Pervades and yet transcends not only uman tougt
but te universe itself.
Braman wit existence or trut (sat, knowledge
(jnana, infinity (ananta, consciousness (cit, bliss
4 Brhadaranyaka U5anisad 3.8 (WR 28
Braman is woven across space like warp and woof, a
weaving loom and embodies everyting in te universe
- Braman - expansiveness of unknown nature -
inseparable entity - everywere
Breat or breating
%at one breated, windless, by its own
impulse. (Rg Veda, 10.129
4 macrocosm (cosmic and microcosm (uman
4 Impersonal absolute, formless entity, neutral gender
4 %o know Braman is to enter a new state of consciousness
Engligtened being?
4 Inner contemplation, meditation, yoga

4 Sacred syllable
4 Sacred sound
4 Meditation
4 Intuitive insigt, wisdom

O 3 tman, individual self or soul
4 Seed and %ree - subtle essence of self, idden inside a nut,
idden gold in every uman eart
4 %e relationsip of Atman & Braman
Salt & Water analogy (Chandogya U5anishad
Famous dictum: tat tvam asi (`you are tat
4 %at is you $ 24-25
4 Atman - deatless, eternal, subtle energy
4 Braman, te inner controller of te uman soul
Ultimate goal: Knowing inner self, atman, wic means
knowing te Braman
4 Wy dont we feel tat way?
Karmic bondage
Samsara cycle of life, deat, rebirt

O 4. %opics from The $.ared $.ri5tures of the ast (18-22
4 amas (te god of deat Instructions to Naciketas
A story from The Katha U5anishad
%e knowledge of te atman (te self
O 15-18 Om and Braman
O 19-24 Nature of atman
O 2.3.1-13 cariot and orses analogy
O 4.1-5 inward and outward looking
O 6.1-2 Braman, te root of te eternal tree
4 Sacrifices annot Lead to te Ultimate Goal (arte?!
%ension between sacrificial religion and asceticism and
Man as to give up all is possessions to tose wo are
attending te sacrifice
No more fire alters.
unsteady boats
cycle of old age and deat
deluded men and desire
cildis and worldly existence
practice austerities (tapas & devotion
tranquil ones
spiritual teacer
realization of Braman

O 5. Karma and Samsara (cycle of rebirt
4 oncept of Karma or action: two types
1 ritual action in 'edic religion and later ortodox
Hindu systems
2 action wit morals and etics in Upanisad period-a
system of rewards and punisments attaced to various
4 3 kinds of karma: past, present, future
awarded/punised based on merits and demerits of
uman action
4 A cain of cause and effect leads to numerous lifetimes
One would become acc (? to as one acts and one
onsequences of ones own actions lead to te repeated
rebirt of an eternal and uncanging soul/self

O 6. Moksa Liberation
4 Ultimate goal: breaking of te reincarnation cycle troug
good karma and intuitive wisdom
4 liberation (moska from te cycle of life and rebirt (samsara
4 `a supreme, experiential, transforming wisdom
4 liberated soul never undergo samsara again
4 Enligtenment
4 Famous verse (BAU, WR 40
Lead me from te unreal to reality
Lead me from darkness to ligt
Lead me from deat to immortality
Om, let tere be peace, peace, peace

O Pilosopical scools of tougt
O Ascetic / Renunciation / Monastic traditions
O %e Pat of Knowledge (wisdom to liberation
O Less prominence to sacrificial religion and ritual
O More importance to inner contemplation and reflection of ones self
8/30/2011 10:07:00 AM
No time to take notes tis class. %oo busy writing Aristotle paper.
8/30/2011 10:07:00 AM
9/22 was apparently lost in translation.ooooops.
8/30/2011 10:07:00 AM
Hindu Way of ife
O Lecture 9

1. %e oncept of Darma
2. Epic Ramayana
3. %e Four Stages of Life
4. %e Four Goals of Life
5. Life-ycle Rites
6. Women's Rituals
7. Foreead marks.

1. %e oncept of Darma
O Darma form to old on to
4 Meanings: Religion, duty; social, moral, etical, law
(jurisprudence, rigteousness or worldly order, osmic order
4 Darma can be used intercangeably to describe all of tese
O Darma in different periods
4 'edic
Performance of ritual duties by priestly class
Perform te sacrifices correctly, as described in te text
Darma described te ritual duty of te priestly class,
performing te sacrifices correctly.
4 Upanisad
Moral duty, individual and universal levels
4 lassical Hinduism
Rules of conduct (varna-asrama darma
O Sadarana darma
4 ommon to all umanity; non-violence
4 oter virtues
4 ertain principles are drawn under tis category of Darma
O Darma is te foundation of Hindu society & religion
4 Weter people follow Darma or not, it is still a cornerstone
of Indian / Hindu society

2. %e Ramayana
O %e Story of Rama
4 'almiki (te autor and te Ramayana
A major text, remember the author
4 A living epic in Hindu life
Has been a source of inspiration for generations in India
and elsewere
For over 2,500 years (or someting
4 Story and main caracters
Well known as far as ambodia, %ailand, India, many
Sout-Eastern Asian countries
Story of te Kings family, te royal family
Has 3 wives, no cildren
ildren are important to te continuity of te
Has a ceremony, asks 'isna for cildren
Got blessed food troug te fire.
Sared troug te tree wives
Got tree sons
Life was good until Rama (te oldest son reaced te
age of coronation
On coronation nigt, te kings second wife demands e
fulfill er two wises
its a long story as to WH e granted er tese
two wises to begin wit
Se wants er son, Ko-someting, to be
coronated instead of Rama
Also, wants Rama to go into te forest into exile
for 14 years
%e King cant go against is wifes wises because e
promised er and it would be against is Darma or
Woops, missed part of te story
So.te second broter rules on is broters bealf for
14 years
Rama journeyed and stuff and met a bunca
Demon king, demon race?
O Wat te actual fuck.
Rama.well some demon wants to marry im and
yada yada
O %eres some kidnapping
O and a golden deer.
4 Wat te fuck?
4 WR 43-44
Ramas darma is to kill te demon and save is
Eventually, Rama kills.someone.
Monkey god?
4 Operation of Darma rules in life according to gender and
social relationsips
4 Etics and Moral values
4 Most beloved God:
Son, broter and usband
4 Best (model of kingsip
Ideology in every culture
'ery ideal form of ruling
Moral model for kingsip
4 Ramayana beyond India

3. %e Four Stages of Life
O Student
4 Goes out into te world for 10-15 years or someting
O Houseolder
4 omes ome, marries a girl, starts a ome and a family and
4 %o free imself from te debts tat e as to is Guru and
te debts e as to is Gods
Pays off tese debts by being a part of te family or
Man is unable to pay off is debts because es
ineligible witout a marriage to a woman
ant participate in rituals or do anyting
O suckaa
O Forest Dweller
4 Semi-retirement, 60s if you make it tat old
4 Family duties, spending time on teir own spiritual pat
4 Doing watever te fuck tey want.
4 But in te Ancient India.
used to live family beind, go into forest, go live alone
in te forest and unite wit spiritualness
O World Renouncer
4 After fulfilling all te family duties, tey can renounce teir
family and go off on teir own
4 an renounce all teir duties (as long as teyve been
4 People rarely do tis in modern times
O Bramanical ideology
4 A model for all caste communities

4. %e Goals of Life
O 1. Darma
4 ones own duty and rigteousness
4 One sould follow darma all te time
O 2. Arta
4 Wealt
O 3. Kama
4 desire or passion
4 Sensual pleasures in many types
Sexual, aestetic, etc.
O 4. Moksa
4 liberation from te cycle of samsara
4 Long term goal for life

5. Life-ycle Rites
O Samskaras or sacraments prescribed in law books or darma
4 Normative rites practiced in all Hindu communities
O Some sacraments common to all
4 Birt Rituals
4 Marriage ceremony
%e debt of man
%e Sages
%e Gods
%e Ancestors
A wife is important in fulfilling te darma of a usband
Arranged marriages
Informal networks
Formal marriage bureaus
Matrimonial advertisements, etc
Simple or lavis weddings
O %raditional and registered marriages
%e Gift of te 'irgin
Fater ands off is daugter to er groom
%e lasping of Hands
%aking te Seven Steps togeter
%ake steps around te fire or someting
Giving of `auspiciousness
A neckace for bride
Symbol of marriage
Excanging of rings
'edic ymns
Wife as a partner fulfilling darma of a usband,
companion and friend
O Not a possession or servant
4 Funeral rites
Last sacrament and cremation by fire
Burial reserved for young cildren, unmarried, and
Deat, pollution period for a family, inauspicious
Life is usually full of appiness, etc.
Wait, but wats pollution
O Seriously, youre not answering te
Deat itself is a pollution in life
Lasts 10-11 days
Last bat and decoration of body, recitation of ymns
Funeral rites properly performed; soul remains as a
gost (preta
Liberation of water and balls of rice
O Some are only for te upper classes
4 Initiation (upanayana ceremony
stage of a young Bramin life
Student life stage
Leaving to a Gurus scool
Boy bated and priest cants ymns
Sacred tread to wear over is left soulder
Gayatri or sun mantra is given to im
O Life-cycle rites mark transitions from one stage of life to anoter
4 Kinda like a coming-of-age kind of ting
O Bat rituals for pregnant women
O Name-giving ceremony
O Chudakarana or mundan
4 %onsure (? of te first air of a cild

6. Women and Womens Rituals
O ontradictory attitudes towards women
4 Ex: The Laws of Manu, WR 89
4 Woman sould be onoured
4 Womans complete dependence
O Western notions of Hindu women due to law books and later
4 Woman as a dutiful wife, subservient to man
O Manus laws neiter prescriptive nor normative
O Woman's role significant as a partner to a man in fulfilling darma
O Religious and financial independence
4 Women patrons in Ancient & ontemporary India
O Women in a Patriarcal Society
4 A domain or rituals, oral raditions, worsip and devotion
O 'otive rituals in onor of deities
4 Welfare of oters
Domestic realm
4 Worldly rewards not for salvation
O Sumangali
4 Married `auspicious woman
4 'irtuous woman
rules of stri darma (woman
4 Excels in rituals, fasting, fulfilling vows
4 Steadfast and faitful devotion
4 Powerful and onoured
Dead spirits of sumangalis

7. Foreead Marks
O A Little Story!
O Married women ave to wear te dot
4 But times are canging so sometimes tey dont
O Its vermillion red powder
4 Flower petals, etc.
4 not important.
O ultural and religious symbol
4 Religion
Put on statues of deities
4 oga
Worn between te eyebrows because tats te igest
spiritual place
%ird eye or someting"
4 ultural
If you see young women wearing it, tats a cultural
But married women generally HA'E to wear tem
Fasion stickers used now
Made in different sapes, etc.


Exam on October 6t

%otal Questions, 50 questions and 100 points
O %rue/False
4 15 statement questions
O Multiple oice
4 35 questions

apter 1: About Religions
apter 2: Hindu %raditions: powerpoint lecture topics and terms at te end
of te capter
Scriptres of te East: covered topics only

ou sould focus:
1. General facts (some major dates
O major religious dates
2. Scriptures
3. Deities (Gods
4. Doctrines
5. oncepts / idas
6. Worsip
8/30/2011 10:07:00 AM
(First few minutes are clip from Gandhi. Remember watcing tat for Euro?

I. Hinduism in olonial Period
O Reforms & Revival
II. Hinduism in Post-Independence Era

I. Hinduism in olonial Period
O Reforms & Revival
4 1. From Britis Perspective
%rade & economic interests
Building an Empire
Progressin of India
monoteistic form of Hinduism
Social issues
aste system
O Missionaries saw it as a negative ting
Britis didn't understand it (?
Burning of te widow
%e oldest wife (usually would trow erself on
te funeral pyre so tat se could go wit im to
deat so tat e was not alone
O Because it was a wifes duty to accompany
er usband
4 2. From Indian and Hindus Perspective
Nationalist Movement and Indias unity as One Nation
Freedom movement and Indias independence
Religious Reforms
1. Bramo Samaj
2. Arya Samaj
3. Ramakrisna Movement
Revival of Hinduism

O %e Bramo Samaj of Roy
4 (protest and response
4 Founded te Bramo Samaj, 1828
4 Humanity, Rationalist, Reformist
4 Influenced by European liberalism
4 Major reform in Hinduism
Upanisadic pilosopy, not classical Hindu religious
4 Used 'edanta form of Hinduism to defend missionary attacks
on Hindu polyteism
4 American Unitarians and The Pre.e5ts of Jesus
4 Never really became a part of mainstream Hinduism
O %e Arya Samaj
4 Dayananda Saraswati
Sanskrit Scolar
4 'egas as true scriptures, eternal truts
4 Science and reason
4 Rejects iconic worsip
Loving savior god
Antropomorpic form of god
4 %otal elimination karma not possible so do liberation
4 Humanitarian service
Not renunciation
4 Educational institutions for 'edic learning
4 Influential organization and membersip
O %e Ramakrisna Movement
4 Neo-'edanta Scool of Hinduism
Ramakrisnas vision of goddess Kali
Mystic devotee
Broader vision of all religions
%rut in all religions
No caste distinctions
Monastic order of ascetics wit a new vision
Living in and for te world
Humanitarian services
Educational & medicinal institutions-first indian

II. Hinduism in Post-Independence Era
O 1. India and Hinduism
O 2. Religious Diversity & omplexity
O 3. Spiritual Movements and Leaders
O 4. Modern Reproductive %ecnologies
O 5. %e Hindu Diaspora

O 1. India and Hinduism
4 Indian constitution, religious diversity, secular nation
4 900 million Hindus and Hindu identity
Break down of caste system
Sectarian and non-Sectarian %raditions
4 Hinduism in te 21
Religious tolerance
Religious pluralism
4 ommunity violence, politics and religion
O 2. Hinduism: Religious Diversity & omplexity
4 %e Banyan %ree or %e River Modals
O 3. Spiritual Movements and Leaders
4 20
entury - Present
Acaryas or Gurus
Acaryas are initiated into a particular order,
teac a particular religious teacing
Guru's teac more of everyting
Spiritual leaders and organized instutitions
Literacy of religious and spiritual values
Financial empires - criticism
O 4. Modern Reproductive %ecnologies
4 Religion and use of reproductive tecnologies
4 %e Darma Sastra texts and `sisu-atya
4 Abortion = legal
4 Etical dimension
Male cildren and female fetuses
Female fetuses were aborted because families
wanted men
O 5. %e Hindu Diaspora in America
4 1. 19
century spiritual missions
4 2. 1965 Immigration Act of Asia, Hindu migrations, Hinduism
and %emple building

1. Spiritual Missions
Swami 'ivekanada, 'edanta
O 1893 - %e Parliament of Word Religions in
O Pioneering disciple of Ramakrisna
O 'endanta Scool
O Indian spirituality and Western science
Oter spiritual teacers
O Paramaamsa ogananda
4 Self-realization fellowsip
4 alifornia
O Maarsi ogi
4 %ranscendental oga Organiation
4 World-Wide Organization
O Swami
8/30/2011 10:07:00 AM
%heravada Buddhism
O Way of the Elders (ittle Vehicle)

1. Buddist councils and divisions
2. King Asoka and Darma-rule
3. %eravada in Sri Lanka
4. %eravada scriptures & teacings
5. Practice
6. Film

O Buddist ouncils and Divisions
4 4
%e formal divison of te Sanga (the Buddhist
.ommunity of monks, nuns, novi.es, et.
4 %e Stanviravada (scool of te elders
%eravada in Pali
4 %e Maasangika
Great ommunity
Maayana, %e Great 'eicle?
4 Wy te division?
Interpretation and differing views of te Buddas
teacings and doctrines
Sanga rules
O King Asoka and Darma-Rule
4 King Asoka
irca 273
4 %e Kalinga War
onversion to Buddism
Asoka conquered te Kalinga
As e looked over te dead bodies, te deat and
suffering, e began to reflect on all e ad done
(WRE 198
4 Darma-rule and Darma-conquest
4 Asokan edicts & Budda darma
4 Buddist stupas and veneration of Budda
4 %e King as Weel %urner
Non-violence as a public etic
O %eravada and Buddas %eacings
4 Scriptures, %ripatakas, %ree Baskets
Get notes on tat
4 %ree gems
4 Four Noble %ruts
4 %e Eigtfold Pat
4 %e Dependent Origination
O %eravada Practices
4 Budda-puja
anting praise to Budda
'owing to observe te five precepts
Refrain from
O %aking life
O %aking tat wic is not given
O Sexual misconduct
O Wrong speec
O Intoxicants
4 Merit making rituals
Bring good karma!
Monks for daily food
Lay people serve food into alms bowls
O On special occasions in temples
%e Dana (giving Ritual
%emple, pilgrimage place, ome
Monks perform Budda puja
O Budda image on ome alter, cant paritta
String connecting Budda image, monks, lay
ant and Darma talk
Idea of merit transfer
%e Budda Day Festival
O Budda Day observed
O Birt, enligtenment, parinirvana
O %emples and pilgrimage
Life-cycle and Deat rituals
No specific Buddist practices
Follows Hindu tradition
ustoms in Asian countries
'ipassana Meditation
`insigt or `mindfulness
Meditation posture
oncentration on breating
Mindfulness of oter parts of te body
O Personal emotions or relationsips wit
rhats or worty ones
Higest beings, nirvana
Not called as buddas because tey are followers
of te Buddist pat
4 First Buddhist issionaries
Monk Mainda
Asokas son
Sri Lanka, 3 BE
The Great Chroni.le
Maina converts Sri Lankan kings and people
Stupa, darma all, teacings
%eravada Buddism
Pali canon of Buddist scriptures
Lecture 15 8/30/2011 10:07:00 AM
ahayana Buddhism
O %e Greater 'eicle

O 1. %e Maayana
O 2. Scriptures
O 3. Maayana Doctrine
O 4. Maayana Practice

1. %e Maayana
4 %e Maayana movement begins in 1 E
Dismisses older forms of Buddism as %eravada
4 Maayana Buddism is from one fo te 18 sects
4 Dominant form of Buddism
Expanded to entral Asia, ina via te Silk Road
4 Different from %eravada
Different scriptures, doctrines, rituals, meditation
4 Maayana opens doors male, female, lay, monks.
4 Lay people can acieve nirvana by perfectly ones own

2. Maayana Scriptures
O Perfection of Wisdom Sutras
4 Scriptures of te east 98-106
1. %e Heart of Perfect Wisdom Sutra (98-99
Bodisattva Avalokitesvara in meditative
%e give aggregates (skanda are empty of
inerent existence
Sariputa asks: How sould a son of good lineage
train if e wants to practice te profound
perfection of wisdom?
Form is emptiness; emptiness is form.
%erefore, te mantra.
2. %e Lotus Sutra (103-105
Parable of te Burning House
O %e practice of skillful means of
bodisattvas and buddas
O %actics used for te good and benefit of
O %o draw tem away from mundane
pleasures toward darma
O %e parable of te burning ouse
4 %e man and is sons
4 So tis wealty man as sons, and is
ouse is on fire. He escapes and e
asked is kids to follow im, but tey
didnt, tey stayed in te ouse,
playing wit teir toys, not realizing
te ouse is on fire. He asks tem to
come out and tey dont listen. %e
cildren are compared to te people
in ignorance. %e man
O A skillful metod to protect is sons from
te burning ouse
4 Penomenal world
3. Everyting is ontrolled by te Mind (106
All penomena are productions of te mind
O Everyting is created by te mind
Ordinary beings vs. bodisattvas
%e world is led, te mind karma, carries all
tings away
Bodisattvas and mind
4. %e Basis onsciousness (106
%e tougt as te basis consciousness
Basis consciousness te fundamental level of
te mind
O omprised of te seeds of past actions
and mental states
%e seeds, te Mind, te consciousness
%e cultivation of tougts and emotion
O Poistive or negative
Appropriating consciousness - body
Mind te collector of forms, sounds
3. Maayana Doctrine
O i. %e Lay Sanga
O ii. Doctrine of te %ree Bodies
O iii. Expedient Means and te Lotus Sutra
O iv. Bodisattvas
O v. Merit %ransfer
O vi. Meditaiton and 'isualization

4 i. %e Lay Sanga
%e cange in te religious role of te lay people
Opened doors to lay people in seeking spiritual
development and enligtment
%e dragon girl story from The Lotus $utra
4 ii. %e Doctrine fo te %ree Bodies
Buddists - eavenly realms, buddas,
A transcendental Budda
%e speculation of powers of enligtened beings
of te past
oncept of triple bodies
%e Doctrine of %ree Bodies (trikaya
1. Appearance Body or %ransformation Body
O Manifestation of buddas in uman form,
O %os et in te weel of darma
2. Body of Bliss or Heavenly Beings
O Bodisattvas (beings of perfected wisdom
O Budda Realms (eavenly abodes
O Bodisattvas ambitaba (pure land
3. %e Darma Body or %e Absolute Body
O One cosmic reality
4 Oneness of all buddas
4 %e unity of Budda nature or Budda
potential in store
4 iii. Expedient Means
%e metod of upaya or skillful means
Used according to peoples capacity to receive
Steps to towards more complex understanding
%e lotus sutra and te parable of te burning ouse
Scriptures as guides
Raft analogy
4 iv. %e Bodisattvas
Bodisatttvas Saviors
Historically incarnate figures
Role as saints or angels
Bodisattvas vow and compassion
Salvation fo all living beings
Merit transfer for te welfare of people
Forgoes te nirvana
Returns to te world
Ms criticism of %eravada self centered
Bodisattvas assist buddas in eavenly realms
Buddist teism
'eneration of bodisattvas
Prayers of petition
anting of ymns
%e one wo looks down upon
4 v. Merit %ransfer
Buddas and bodisattvas
an transfer merit from temselves to oter
Devotees can appeal teir cosen bodisattvas
Different in %eravada
4 vi. Meditation and 'isualization
'ision meditations on buddas or bodisattvas
A vision of tat figure
Acieve ig state of consciousness

4. Maayana Practice
O Buddist triple reguge and five precepts
O 'eneration of Stupa
O 'eneration bodisattvas
O Participation in Buddist temple rituals
O Observation of Budda Day and oter festivals
O Pilgrimage to Buddist sacred places
8/30/2011 10:07:00 AM
%he Jain %radition

1. General aracteristics
O A minority religion
4 Few million people
4 Western states
4 Gujarat, Rajastan, Karnataka (soutern
O 6
BE India
4 Sramana Renounciation Orders
4 Establised in 6
BE by ascetic propet Maavira
Lineage of 24 teacers
O JINAS - `victors or `conquerors
4 Jinas called %irtankaras (`ford-builders
4 Acieved perfect enligtenment and served as guides for
oter uman beings
O Jainism
4 Pat of self restraint
4 Pat to appiness, trut, self realization
4 Strict ascetic practices
O 'eneration of JINAS and te following of teir pat
4 Regal cakravartin (world conquerer
4 Arat in deep meditation (world renouncer
4 Karma accrued from a life of non-violence
O Paradoxical disjunction
4 Jains community
4 %is worldly acievements vs. Oter worldly etod
4 Business expertise, worldly success, social identity
O Power of renunciation
4 Not in opposing worldly power, but rater in transcending it
O Non 'iolence is te igest form of religious conduct
4 Life forms wit an eternal soul (jiva, restrain from arming
oters result in good karma
4 Intentional and unintentional karmic actions
O %e Self
4 `oter, luminous, radiating peace
O Entanglement of te Self
4 Use of worldly substances leads to impurity and suffering
O Samyak darsan or momentary awakening
4 onscious minds troug `rigt fait or `correct intuition into
te workings of te world
4 Liberation attained - glimpse of self magnificence

2. Origins and Development
O 1. Origins
4 Sramana `world renouncing movement
Jain Origins 9
- 6
4 24 %eacers
Risaba, Founder and First %eacer
%eacers were from Warrior aste
4 'ardamana Maavira
4 Rejected te braamnical ortodoxy and flaws wit cosmic
social order
4 Salvation from cosmos
Purposeless place of suffering
O 2. Maaviras biograpy
4 Stories: mytical and istorical elements
%ransfer of is embryo from womb of a Bramin woman
to a Queen %risala
Many previous birts
and te last teacer of degenerate time period
4 Became a Jina and Arat, called Kevalin or liberated one
Omniscient & compreending all objects
Knew and saw all conditions of te world, gods, men
and dmeons
4 Pysical deat, 599 BE
72 years
omplete detacment from te world
O 3. Jain Monastery
4 Jainism as a four-fold community
4 ommunity of ouseolders and mendicants (beggers
4 Women into Sanga, notewort feature
Maavira sanga
36,000 Nuns
14,000 Monks
318,000 Laywomen
159,000 Laymen
4 Institutionalization of sanga split into two traditions (4

%raditions developed in isolation due to te migration of
some to sout
%e Nortern group
O Svetambara, %e Wite-lad
4 Abandoned Maaviras principle of
4 Wore wite robes
4 lotes ad no bearing on Spiritual
%e Soutern Group
O Digambara, %e Sky-lad
4 Nudity = `most elemental expression
of non-attacment & non-violence
Self-identification two groups
Women eligibility for initiation into te order
O Sky-clad: women disqualified for
O Wite-clad: permitted women into order
Bot groups
O Womens bodies are inferior to mens
4 Weaker by nature
4 Ascetic pat is more difficult
O Rebirt into male body, prerequisite for full
O Women as noble women
4 Lead a life of semi-renunciation
O Wite-lad sect liberal, full initiation for
4 %e nature of Jinas omniscient
No normal life
ommunicate by a divine
Supernatural sound
Omniscent Jina subject to bodily demands
Normal life
ommunicates troug spoken word
O 4. Jain Scriptures
4 %e Agama: 3 brances
1. The Purva or An.ient
Jaina metapysics, cosmology, pilosopy
2. The Anga or the limbs
Mendicant conduct, doctrine, karma and religious
3. The Angabahya or the an.illary limbs
ommentaries on above topics, astrology, cycles
of time
4 %ransmission of canon for some generations
Was nearly lost after 4 BE
Some section of te second branc survived
4 Revived scriptures by bot sects
4 The Tatthvartha $utra of te Umasvati (2 E, fundamentals
of te tradition, manuscript followed by bot communities
O 5. osmology
4 osmos wit 6 eternal substances (dravya and te
knowledge of tese dravya and self perfection
4 2 Broad ategories
1. Jiva (Soul
Eternal Substance wit sconsciousness
Souls wit samsara jivas of rebirt
Souls wit no rebirt are liberated souls
2. Ajiva (non-soul
5 types witout consciousness
O Pudgala
4 oncrete substance wit attributes
4 Subtle form in matter and energy,
body and mind, tougt, speec, all
knowledge, including ow to free
4 Pudgala not opposite to jiva/soul,
4 Attaced to matter and jiga
(friend/foe; jiva depends on pudgala
for its release
4 Problems
All beings wit jiva and ajiva
entangled, prevents soulf rom
acieving a state of bliss, and
its possible in purity and in
separation from non-soul
Entanglement due to Karmic
particles of auspicious,
inauspicious, all sould be
3. Practice
O %ree Jewels
4 1. orrect Practice
4 2. orrect Intuition
4 3. orrect Knowledge
O Wy Practice is Most Important
4 Jain Worldview
Lack of consciousness plays a key roel in te problems
of eartly existence
Problems due to pysical realities and must be
dealt wit pysically suc as penance and fasting
Entanglement of soul and non-soul substances
real so concrete action is necessary to purify soul
4 Daily life practices
Dietary restrictions, fasting
Prayer of forgiveness
Fast to deat
Worsip of jinas
4 Practice of ouseolders
Acestics vary, levels of intensity also differ
Houseolders follow strict fasting and dietary practices
No meat, fis, eggs, certain fruits wit seeds, root
vegetables, and NO ALOHOL (a!
Avoided professions involved wit violence or
Practice of non-violence
Pious acts of donations to temples and religious
Reflection and meditation
A daily period of 48 minutes for meditation or
reflection, away from worldly concerns to develop
4 Sallekana, te Fast to Deat
Ritual fast voluntarily undertaken by advanced spiritual
Jains to celebrate te deat
Deat as a total detacment, accepted wit equanimity,
jina te victor over ego, gred, body
Higly self-disciplined Jains for dispassionate deat, a
power of explusion of bad karma nad ensure a good
Able to `discard te body witout pain or fear,
great deat wit calmness and equanimity, te
ultimate reward of a live wit according to Jain
O 'eneration of Jinas
4 Devotion and worsip of jina images in temples
4 ant namokar mantra, omage to jinas and oter mantras
to destroy all sins (devotional
4 Worsip puja
Pat of self-reaisation and `worldly benefits (non-
teistic aspect
4 Pure devotion to accrue good karma
4 Annual pilgrimage to Jina of Sky-lad sect
8/30/2011 10:07:00 AM
%he Sikh %radition

1. Origins
O Sikism and Siks
4 Punjab region
4 Nortwestern India
4 25 million practicers in India
O Only 500 years old
4 Guru Nanak, founder, establised in 1519
4 Developed into religion wit lineage of 10 gurus
O Sikism
4 ommunity and religious identity
4 More recently a political identity as wel
O Similarities to Monoteistic traditions of Islam and Jewis, wit a
strong Hindu influence
O Birth of Sikh %radition
4 Hindu and Muslim devotional mysticism
4 Nort Indian Saint %radition
Bakti or devotional Hinduism
Hata yoga, a system of meditation postures and
breat control
Sufism, Islamic mystical tradition
4 Battles between Mugal emperors and Sik gurus
Small scale battles, not large one
4 Sikism was born int is culture milieu

2. Guru Nanak, %e Founder
O Nanak, 1469
4 Katri upper caste
4 Nortwestern India
O Birt Narratives
4 1. Early ontemplative Period
4 2. Mystical Experience and Divine Mission
4 3. ommunity of Disciples
O Divine Experience
4 Page 112
4 %ravelled extensively
4 Pilgrimage to Hindu and Muslim scared sites
O Foundation of te Sik Pant
4 1519 community and spiritual guide
Devotional singing (kirtan and congregational worsip,
recitation of te name of God.
O Nanaks 974 devotional ymns into scripture in te Adi Granth
4 Distinction and identity of is teacings, beliefs, practices
4 Welcomed oter religious communities
4 Message to difference audiences (page 113
O 3-fold Discpline
4 Name
4 arity
4 Purity
O Spiritual message troug 3 institutions
4 1. Sangat (Holy Fellowsip
4 2. Daramsala (te Sik place of worsip (gurudwara
Gurudwara = ouse of worsip
4 3. Langar (te communal meal
No social status, caste, gender
O Guru Nanak on women
4 Page 114
4 Against te inferior position assigned to women
%ried to establis equal position for women

3. %e %en Gurus and %e Sik Pant
O A spiritual lineage of ten gurus over two centuries
4 Katri ig cast
O &R&S
4 Angad (Guru 2
ollection of Nanaks ymns
ommunal kitcen (langar
Gurumuki s.ri5t
Hired by Nanak to continue te religion
Nanaks own son would not be te next guru, as
e followed a different religion
4 Amardas (3
Founded a town
Missionaries, expansion of Pant
Women as missionaries
No custom of veils, widows are allowed to remarry
Did a lot for womens equality
Publised pamplets of Sik tradition so teir religion
could circulate
Son of Angad (?
4 Ramdas (4
%own of pool of te nectar of immortality
Ramdas 679 new ymns
4 Arjan (5
1. Harimandir %emple
2. Adi Granth
3. %e Sik Pant
Independent identity
ange in community leadersip, politico-military
Imprisoned by Mugal Jaangir
O First martyrdom
4 Hargobind (6
%raditional religious autority and new temporal
autority wit an emblem
An emblem of two swords flanking a double-
edged sword and a discus
Battles wit Mugal troops
4 Guru 7 and 8 were not interested in politics
Did more spiritual tings
Mugals didnt care about tem
4 Execution fo %eg Baadur (9 by Mugal Aurangzeb (last
emperor of Mugal period, Emperor wit te bad reputation,
0 religious tolerance
Islamic laws & taxes, forced conversion (te Mugal,
%eg Baadur became a martyr for freedom of worsip
and uman rigts
4 Gobind Sing (10
Sik community as military order
Kalsa, institution for loyal Siks
Initiation by a sweet drink of `nectar
4 End of te line of te human gurus
4 %e scripture and te corporate community
Given te rigt to continue by temselves

4. rystallization fo te Religion
O 1. Sacred Scripture
4 Adi Granth (first book or Guru Granth $ahib (`revered bok
tat is te Guru
1,430 pages
36 contributors
Poems from te first 5 gurus and gurus from oter
Liturgical prayers
31 major musical patterns
Miscellaneous works but tis is te main one
%rained reciting person of granthi
4 Dasam Granth
%e Book of te %ent
Poems of te 10
1,428 pages
Morning Prayer (`Master Recitation
4 %e Adi Granth as divine word, divine guidance, divine
4 Gurudwara
Adi Granth
Higest onor of worsip
4 Books
All comforts, a bed, a ligt, a fan
4 anopy Ik Onkar monogram
4 Books carried in procession
4 Food offerings, sweets
Blessed by God
4 Hindu temple worsip parallels
O 2. %e Kalsa
4 Guru Gobind Sing, 10
Initiation of kalsa Siks, solidarity of sik community
Baptism-like reitual
Spring consecrated water (nectar - nectar
Five items of identity (%e Five Ks
A set of rules of fait and practice Rait (Pat
Reborn in te ouse of Guru, Sing for Men, Kaur
for Women
Five Ks
O Kes - Uncut air / Beard
O Kirpan - sword
O Kara Iron - steel bracelet
O Kanda - sword
O Kangra - comb
O Kacera - boxer sorts
%ey are te five mandatory pysical symbols
O Siks cannot ide teir identity, must ave
tese symbols
O 3. Sik Doctrine
4 1. Akal Purak
%e Ancient One, Formless God, nirguna, transcendent
Saraguna w/ attributes in te divine Name (nam and
bani or Words and persons of te Gurus
4 2. Endless creation, unmanifest reveal
4 3. Karam, Sansar, Divine Grace
Karma or Action
Moral cause and effect
Sansar, reincarnation
`Divine Order
Divine Grace overrides Karma
4 4. Divine Revelation
Nam, divine word, guru
Self centeredness (haumai from Akal Purak
%e rebirt of Akal Purak troug guru, divine
word, grace
4 5. Remembering te Divine Name
Devotional signing
Good actions as part of spiritual discipline and more
empatsis on divine grace
4 5. Four notions of Gurusip
God as guru
%eacer as guru
Scripture as guru
ommunity as guru

5. Practice
O 1. Prayer
4 %e Divine Name
4 5 liturgical prayers
4 Nanaks ja5gi
Wat is Japgi?
O 2. ongregational Worsip
4 anopied stand %e Bok
4 Devotees cover teir eads
4 Men and women separately
4 Granti
4 Musicians singing
4 %aking te Gurus word
4 Kara Prasad
A blessed food
O Nanaks mul mantra (root statement
4 %ere is one Supreme Being, te Eternal Reality.
He is te Creator, witout fear and devoid of enmity.
He is immortal, never incarnated, self-existent, known by
grace troug te uru.
%e Eternal ne, from te beginning, troug all time,
present now, te Everlasting Reality.
O 3. Langar, te ommunity Kitcen
4 Meals for everyone
4 Siks and non-Siks
O 4. %e Annual Festival cycle
4 Hindu festivals wit a different purpose
4 New ears Day for te birtday of Sik community (Khalsa
4 Diwali festival
Hargobind from imprisonment under te Mugal court
O %he Sikh dentity
4 1. %e `baptized amrit-dhari Siks into te Kalsa institution
(influencial minority
4 2. %e kes-dhari Siks (uncut air males w/ NO Kalsa
intiation (majority!
4 3. %e sahaj-dhari Siks `gradualist (saven and cut air

efining the Sikh %radition in the 19
O %e Sing Saba movement 1873
O Religion five undred years old
O Independent religion wit influences from Hinduism and Islam
O Developed by 10 Gurus