Young Turks, Freemasons and Jews

Elie Kedourie

Middle Eastern Studies, Vol. 7, No. 1 (Jan., 1971), pp. 89-104

YoungTurks, Freemasonsand Jews
Elie Kedourie
It is relatedthat when Kamil Pashawas OttomanGrandVizierat the beginningof 1913, he complainedof lack of. support from the British in Sir ambassador, GerardLowther,and exclaimed despair:'Alas, where ?" is White, where is Currie Kamil Pasha's bitternessover Lowther's but his attitudewascertainly justified, it is mostdoubtfulwhether nostalgia In for Whiteand Curriehas any historicalwarrant. fact, whetherwe look at Britishpolicy towardsthe OttomanEmpirefrom the morrowof the Congressof Berlin to the eve of the First World War, or whetherwe Britishambassadors Constantinople in examinethe attitudeof successive during the same period, our dominantimpressionis likely to be quite negative. On the very morrow of the CyprusConventionof 1878, by whichBritainengagedto join the Sultanin defending Ottoman possessions was in Asia 'by force of arms',mutualdisenchantment alreadyapparent. on The Britishgovernment the one hand founditself unableor unwilling to give financialor other supportto Abd al-Hamid,and on the other suspected that the Sultan was not in earnest about those 'necessary reforms' which he had bound himself by the Cyprus Conventionto introduce.By the end of 1879, British influencewas at a low ebb in Constantinople,and the pro-OttomanLayardhad, as Salisbury it, put 'lost his temperwith the Sultan,and like a Portuguese sailorin a stormis disposed to beat the idol he worshipped'.2 Anglo-Ottomanrelations remainedtepid. The Britishoccupationof Egypt, on the one thereafter hand increasedAbd al-Hamid'ssuspicionof his ostensibleally, and on Britishinterestin an Ottomanalliance.3 decreased the otherconsiderably towardAbd al-Hamid became of increasing one Britishattitudes dislikeand mistrust:he was believedto be cynicalabout reformsand to propagate a mischievous and possibly dangerous Pan-Islamism. The Armenian troublesof the 1890sservedto give him, in addition,a sinisterreputation and as an unscrupulous bloodthirsty despot. It was now thoughtpracticallyuselessandmorallywrongto haveanytruckwith'AbdultheDamned', Turk' was undoubtedlythe wrong horse to have and the 'unspeakable Warand in 1876-78.'I believe,'Salisbury backedin the Crimean wrotein 1898, 'that under the guidance of Palmerstonand Lord Stratfordde the Redcliffewe made a graveblunderin deserting alliancesof 1805.We the sacrificed allianceof a Powerthat was growing,for a Powerthat was Fear of Germanyfinallybroughtabout an entente evidentlydecaying.'2 with Russia some nine years after the date of Salisbury's letter. This entente was bound to, and did make, Anglo-Ottomanrelationsmore than ever. difficultand ambiguous a The outbreak, yearlater,of the YoungTurkrevolutionseemed,howbetweenBritainand the ever,at firstsightto heralda warmer relationship Sir OttomanEmpire.The newlyappointedambassador, GerardLowther (1858-1916),was given an enthusiasticpopularwelcome on his arrival

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at Constantinople,and Sir Edward Grey describedthe revolution as 'marvellous', declaringthat: 'We were against the Turkishgovernment whenit was bad, but betweenus and the peopletherewas not, and never But had been, any barrier.'5 it soon becameclear that the Young Turk changein Anglo-Ottoman revolutionhad not effectedany fundamental by relations. Britishpolicy,afterall, was still governed theneedto maintain the ententewith Russia, no matterwhat the characterof the Ottoman regime.If this was the case, then to affordthe Ottomanssolid and wholeheartedsupport-whether political or financial-would have been conand harmful.In this sideredas at best unproductive, at worst downright attitudeLowtherseemsto have been at one with the ForeignOffice.One may even go furtherand say that his reportson the politicalsituationat and and activitiesof the Young Turks Constantinople, on the character instilledwithin the ForeignOfficethe belief that the Young Turkswere much worse than Abd al-Hamid. Lowther thus reinforcedthe longstandinganti-Ottoman prejudicein the Foreign Office,and encouraged was its tendencyto believethat the Ottomangovernment madeup of men who wereat once sinisterand incompetent, corruptand infantile. In conveyingsuch an impressionto his colleaguesand superiorsin seems to have been wholly guidedby his chief London,the ambassador dragoman, G. H. Fitzmaurice(1865-1939). No biography either of Lowther or Fitzmauriceexists, and it is difficultfor us to know how or passiveand receptivethe formerwas by character, how forcefuland the persuasive latter. But this at least we do know, that Lowtherwas a while Fitzmaurice was an old hand there, newcomerat Constantinople admiredhis subordinate's abilitiesand relied and that the ambassador who he on him.'As to Fitzmaurice, is indefatigable,' wroteto thePermanent at Under-Secretary the ForeignOfficein July 1909, 'I am quite satisfied thathe is in touchwith all the variouselementsof the localpoliticalworld, and that no embassy, except perhaps the Russians, who have a Jew in of dragoman close touchwith the Jew Committee Union and Progress, is betterinformedthat we are'.6When, some two yearslater,the Young Turk newspaperTanin attackedFitzmauricefor allegedlyintriguingin and favourof an Arabcaliphate, for attributing pro-Zionist policiesto the Ottoman government,Lowther strongly defendedhis chief dragoman, and endorsed Fitzmaurice'sexplanationof the attack by Tanin.This attack Fitzmauriceattributedto his investigationof the influence of over the Young Turks.He believedthat it was his duty to freemasonry becausemasonryhad become'the instrucarryout such an investigation in mentof politicalintrigue matters British interests'. Fitzmaurice affecting into masonry'werenot freefrom danger'.7 also believedthat his inquiries It is clearfrom this languagethat the chief dragoman believedthat in Constantinople thingswerenot what they seemed,that politicalincidents had hiddenimplicationsand esotericexplanations. outlook may be His letter which he wrote to WilliamTyrrell, exemplifiedby a remarkable Grey's principalprivate secretaryin November 1912, when the Balkan allies appearedon the point of capturingConstantinople. Fitzmaurice's letter was dated from Tzarigrad he now called the Ottomancapital, as and began:'Swan-like, me writeyou a last letterfromPekinbeforethe let Courtand Porteflee baglessand baggeless(Gladstonese) the shoresof to Asia.' He believedthat the 'dramaof 1453'was being 'undone'and that the 'Turkish and Armyrottedby C.U.P. doctrines politicscould not fight

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in the name of Djavid Bey, instead of the Padishah and collapsed before

the avengingBalgarand the armiesof the new GreatPower-the "United the Statesof the Balcans"whichare undoubtedly right horsebesidesthe favouritesof the GladstonianTradition.Art. 23 of the Treatyof Berlin to has been set rightby reverting San Stephanoand if bad massacres, etc., occur here within the next 36 hours, the lurid wave may sweep over Anatolia and force the 10,000Russiansat Urmia to step in and redress was Art. 61 of Berlin.'His imagination just as luridas the scenehe envisaged,for he wenton to say: 'If a generalmassacre, etc., etc., like Turner's picture in the National Gallery "Wind, Rain and Speed" sweeps over Anatolia and Syria in an expiringspasm of Panislamism now for four the years harnessedto the chariot of Panjudaism, prairiefire may even reachEgypt.'8 Thereis no doubt that LowthersharedFitzmaurice's outlook. As has beenseen,in a letterof 1909,he speaksof the'JewCommittee Unionand of Otherlettersmakehis views on Ottomanpoliticsfully explicit. Progress'. he 'Haveyou readthe NineteenthCentury?', asks Hardinge, a letterof in in April 1910. 'Freemasonry France,mutatismutandi-this will explaina lot of what is going on here.The Jews,Socialistsand Freemasons all are supremelattermakinggreatstrides.That will probablyproduceanother Counterrevolutionunlessit gets too strong.'A week later, he speaksof the 'combinationof self-seekingspurious freemasonsand Jews that of the and represent Committee Union and Progress' he affirms that 'this Albanianbusinesshas been createdby a few SalonicaJews'.9Threeyears 'GreatBritainand her agents,'he laterhis opinionsare quiteunchanged: wrote in March 1913to Sir ArthurNicolson,Hardinge's successor the at ForeignOffice,'do not appealto the recklessand the violentwho pull the stringshere,so we are not popular.I do not thinkMahmoudShefket[the GrandVizier]dreadsor need dread the Ententists[i.e. the Hurriyetve Itilaf Firkasi]Moderatesor peace men or whatever you like to call them but ratherthe violentsectionof his own partywho carenot whathappens to the country,but who, encouraged the Jews,merelyseek their own by
ends.'10

and The mysteriesof the Judeo-masonic Young Turk conspiracyunand covered the ambassador his dragoman by do fortunately not haveto be piecedtogetherfrom mereobiterdicta.Theyare actuallyset out in a long and detailedletter, 'privateand confidential', dated May 29, 1910,from here in an appendix.The story Lowtherto Hardinge.It is reproduced which Lowtherhere unfolds in all its labyrinthine complexityinvolves many actors in various parts of the Mediterranean-andeven perhaps beyond-all bound togetherby the occult ties of freemasonry: 'Nathan, the JewishLord Mayorof Rome, is high up in Masonry,and the Jewish PremiersLuzzatiand Sonnino,and other Jewishsenatorsand deputies, are also, it appears,Masons'; 'The ItalianGovernment appointeda Jew and Mason called Primo Levi, who was not in the consularcareer,as at consul-general Salonica, and Oscar Strauss [sic], who togetherwith Jacob Schiff, had influencedthe American Jews in favour of Jewish immigrationinto Mesoptamiaas opposed to other Territorialist plans formof Sionism,wasappointed andas an extended American Ambassador here.'If to Nathan,Leviand the others,we addanother name,wewillhave revealeda cruciallink in this invisiblechain: 'Someyearsago Emanuele Carasso,a JewishMason of Salonica,and now deputyfor that town in

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the OttomanChamber, foundedtherea lodgecalled"Macedonia Risorta" in connectionwith ItalianFreemasonry. appearsto have inducedthe He and Young Turks,officers civilians,to adopt Freemasonry with a view to Jewishinfluence overthe newdispensation Turkey.' exerting impalpable in Thesewerethe conspirators. Nathanand Levi, Sonninoand Luzzati, But Schiffand Straussand Carasso,what was theirpurpose?'Theimmediate purposefor whichthey are workingis the practically exclusiveeconomic capture of Turkey and new enterprisesin that country.' Behind this aim immediate lay an ultimatepurpose'[theJew]seemsto have entangled Turk in his toils and as Turkeyhappensto the pre-economic-minded containthe places sacredto Israel,it is but naturalthat the Jew should strive to maintaina position of exclusiveinfluenceand utilize it for the of furtherance his ideals, viz. the ultimate creation of an autonomous Jewishstate in Palestineor Babyloniaas explainedby IsraelZangwillin his articlein the "Fortnightly Review"of April.'It was throughCarasso that the Young Turkswere harnessedto these aims, and they in return a havemadethe Ottoman of Empire mereinstrument the Jew:'TalaatBey,
the Minister of the Interior, who is of Gipsy descent . . . , and Javid, the

are Ministerof Finance,who is a Crypto-Jew, the officialmanifestations of the occult powerof the Committee[of Union and Progress]. They are of the only members the Cabinetwho reallycount, and are also the apex
of Freemasonry in Turkey.... Since he became Minister of the Interior

the abouta yearago, TalaatBey has been spreading net of the Freemason to over Committee the Empire appointing provincial by postsas governors, sub-governors, menwho areMasonsor reliableCommittee etc., adherents, and, in most cases,both.... The invisiblegovernment Turkeyis thus of the GrandOrientwith TalaatBey as GrandMaster.'Thesewerethe main lines of Sir Gerard'sstory, but it also had some baroque and highly The embellishments. Jew hates Russia, Englandis friendlyto significant Russia, thereforethe Jew is anti-British,'a consideration whichthe to Germansare, I think, alive'. The Jew and the Young Turk, again, have combinedto push out and estrangeArmenians,Greeks,and Arabs,and turntheireyestowards Khedivate the one the manyof the latter'secretly as "Arab Government" which, they cherishthe hope, may one day, under influenceon all OttomanArabs.' Britishauspices,exercisea centripetal in The fustianfantasiesrecorded this documentare worthnoticingfor of to theirown sake,for theyexhibitthe extremes credulity whichsuccumto bed the two men11 whomthe ForeignSecretary lookedfor the provision about an importantand sensitivearea.The docuof reliableinformation ment shows how tenuouswas their hold on reality.Rule by doctrinaire suchas the YoungTurkswas, of course,an ominousdevelopment officers it in the OttomanEmpire;but to represent as the outcomeof a Judeowas masonicconspiracy entirelyto missits significance. wasto be gulled It by fuddledfabulosities. wereso easilyled astrayon so fundamental If Lowtherand Fitzmaurice otheraspectsof Ottomanpolitics an issue, then theirjudgmentregarding becomes suspect. How this judgmentinfluencedpolicy is, however, a differentand a more complexissue. But that it had an influencemay not be doubted. AcknowledgingLowther's report of May 29, Hardinge declaredthat it was 'most interesting reading'and that copies werebeing sent privatelyto the India Office,to Cairo and Teheran.'2This is a indicationof how seriouslyit was taken.As has been arguedabove,anti-

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Ottoman prejudice more or less pronounced is a standing feature of British policy from the 1880s onwards. Lowther's letter, encouraging the belief that the new Ottoman rulers were a band of sinister conspirators, must have confirmed this prejudice and given it a new strength. Such a prejudice,incalculable as its effects are, must be reckoned with in considering British policy toward the Ottoman Empire in the years immediately preceding the outbreak of the First World War. In a recent paper, Professor Allan Cunningham has remarked that by 1914 'a British government was no longer inclined by temperamentto make any sort of major sacrifice It to win over Turkey'.13 is reasonable to assume that Lowther's reports had their part to play in the making of this temperament. Two echoes of Lowther's and Fitzmaurice's views are perhaps worth mentioning, both for their intrinsic interest, and as an indication of the wide prevalence of these views. The Arab Bulletin of September 26, 1916, carried an anonymous article entitled 'Notes on Freemasonry in Turkey under the New Regime (1908-1914)', which seems to reproduce, with embellishments, the account given in Lowther's letter of May 29, 1910. Carasso, 'a low-class, and dishonest lawyer, an obsequious, venal and secretive scoundrel, with a mysterious manner' was responsible for inducting Talaat, Javid, Dr Nazim and Behaeddin Monastirli into freemasonry; he was a 'useful jackal to the lions and tigers of the C.U.P.'. The Committee of Union and Progress, freemasonry and Judaism were inextricably connected: 'Certain Turks of Constantinople who knew Salonika remarked a curious similarity between the emblems of the Committee and those of the Macedonia Risorta Lodge, and of the Jewish Beni Brith Society'; the inauguration of the Grand Orient of Turkey in June 1909 was 'graced by the presence of numerous Jewish gentlemen from Haskeui (the Whitechapel of Constantinople), Salonika, Smyrna and various cities in Hungary, and the Central Empires'. The Bulletin listed the members of the 'Supreme Council of the Grand Orient of Turkey', three or probably four of whom were Jews,'4 three Donmes and four only Muslims. Certain foreign observers, the Bulletin remarked, had begun to wonder whether 'the Young Turk might not prove to be an old Jew with German affinities'. After going through various complicated reasonings, the article concluded that 'as far as is known Turkish Freemasonry is now dormant, and will probably remain so, till the present governing group in Turkey is driven from power, and resumes its underground methods against the next Turkish regime or a foreign conqueror'.15 The other echo worth noticing occurs in a letter from G. F. Clayton, director of Intelligence at Cairo, to Wingate, the Governor-General of the Sudan. The letter is written from London where Clayton was on an official mission, and is dated August 3, 1916. Clayton describes to his correspondent his impression 'which confirmed what I have always thought' of the widespread influence of the Jews; the letter went on: 'There are English Jews, French Jews, American Jews, German Jews, Austrian Jews and Salonica Jews-but all are JEWS, and moreover practically all are anti-Russian. You hear peace talk and generally somewhere behind is the Jew. You hear pro-Turk talk and desires for a separate peace with Turkey-again the Jew (the mainspring of the C.U.P.)'.16 The letter sheds a peculiar light on the judgment of one who, during and after the First World War, was a main architect of British policy in the Middle East. But, of course, Clayton was not the only one to be impressed by the

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ubiquity and omnipotence of the Jews. If he was suspicious, others were impressed by so much power and it may well be that such fictions helped to persuade the British government to fall for and to take up Zionism: Clio is indeed an ironic muse.

APPENDIX Secret Sir G. Lowtherto Sir C. Hardinge* (Privateand Confidential.) Dear Charles Constantinople, May 29, 1910. Gorst'stelegramof the 23rd April and your telegramof the 25th Aprilabout the rumouredappointmentof MohammedFarid as delegatein Egypt of the 'saidto be intimately connectedwiththe Committee Constantinople Freemasons, of Union and Progress', promptsme to writeto you at some lengthon the strain of continentalFreemasonry runningthroughthe Young Turk movement.I do as so privatelyand confidentially, this new Freemasonry Turkey,unlikethat in of Englandand America,is in great part secret and political,and information on the subjectis only obtainablein strict confidence,while those who betray its politicalsecretsseemto standin fear of the hand of the Mafia.Some daysago a local Mason who divulgedthe signs of the craft was actuallythreatened with being sent beforethe court-martial, sittingin virtueof our state of siege. As you are aware,the Young Turkeymovementin Paris was quite separate from and in great part in ignoranceof the inner workingsof that in Salonica. The latter town has a population of about 140,000, of whom 80,000 are SpanishJews, and 20,000 of the sect of SabetaiLevi [sic] or Crypto-Jews, who externallyprofess Islamism. Many of the former have in the past acquired Italian nationalityand are Freemasonsaffiliatedto Italian lodges. Nathan, the JewishLord Mayor of Rome, is high up in Masonry,and the JewishPremiers Luzzati and Sonnino, and other Jewish senators and deputies, are also, it appears, Masons. They claim to have been founded from and to follow the ritual of the 'AncientScottish'. Some years ago EmannueleCarasso,a Jewish Mason of Salonica,and now deputy for that town in the Ottoman Chamber,founded there a lodge called 'MacedoniaRisorta' in connection with Italian Freemasonry.He appearsto have induced the Young Turks, officersand civilians, to adopt Freemasonry Jewishinfluence with a view to exertingan impalpable overthe new dispensation in Turkey,thoughostensiblyonly with a view to outwittingthe Hamidianspies, and gave them the shelter of his lodge, which, meeting in a foreign house, immunitiesfrom inquisitorial enjoyedextra-territorial methods.AdbulHamid's spies got cognisanceof the movement,and a certainIsmail MahirPasha, who murdered was mysteriously shortlyafterthe revolutionin July 1908-an accident afterdark-appears to have learntsome of theirsecretsand reportedon themto Yildiz Palace. Spies were posted outside the lodge to take down the names of officersand others who frequentedit, a move which the Freemasonscountermined by enrolling of the secret police as 'brethren'.The inspirationof the movementin Salonicawould seem to have been mainlyJewish,while the words the 'Liberte','Egalite'and 'Fraternite', motto of the Young Turks,are also the deviceof ItalianFreemasons.The colours of both, red and white, are againthe same. Shortlyafterthe revolutionin July 1908,whenthe Committeeestablished it itselfin Constantinople, soon becameknownthat manyof its leadingmembers were Freemasons.Carasso began to play a big role, includinghis successful * F.O. 800/193A (Lowther Papers).

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captureof the Balkan Committee,and it was noticed that Jews of all colours, of native and foreign,were enthusiastic supporters the new dispensation, as till, a Turk expressedit, every Hebrew seemed to become a potential spy of the occult Committee,and people beganto remarkthat the movementwas rathera Jewishthan a Turkishrevolution.The ItalianGovernment appointeda Jew and MasoncalledPrimoLevi, who was not in the consularcareer,as consul-general at Salonica,and OscarStrauss,who, togetherwith Jacob Schiff,had influenced into as Jewsin favourof Jewishimmigration Mesoptamia opposed the American to other Territorialist plans and as an extendedform of Sionism,was appointed Ambassador here.As you probablyknow, the orthodoxMoslemhas a American very strong prejudiceagainst Masonry, which he looks upon as worse than irreligious,and in the movementagainst the Committeewhich culminatedin the mutiny of the 13th April, 1909, this feature figured rather prominently. Those eventshave not so far been satisfactorily explained,but it did not escape notice at the time that the four battalionswhich had been speciallydispatched from Salonicato the capital,and which KiamilPashawishedto have sent back to the IlIrd ArmyCorps,startedthe mutinyor 'so-calledreactionary movement', and from Salonica,a Colonel and werecommanded a Crypto-Jew Freemason by on Remzi Bey, who, insteadof being court-martialled accountof the behaviour of the troops confided to his charge, was appointed Chief Aide-de-campto SultanMehmedV. Carassowas one of the bearersof the messageof deposition to Abdul Hamid, who was conveyedto Salonicaand confinedin the house of the ItalianJewishbankersof the Committee,while a brotherof Renzi Bey was set over him as keeper.After the depositionthe Jewishpapersof Salonicasent from 'the oppressorof Israel'who had twiceturned up a loud cry of deliverance a deafear to the appealsof Herzl,the Sionistleader,and who, by the imposition of the red passport,like our own Aliens Act, againstPolish Jewishimmigrants, and otherwise,had thwartedthe realisationof the idealsof Sionismin Palestine. The ninth Sionist Congressin December1909 at Hamburgannouncedthat the and divisionsin the Jewishworld betweenTerritorialists Sionists, 'as a miracle of the Turkishrevolution',had been healed.At the sametime JavidBey, Deputy and for Salonica,an exceedinglycleverand gifted Crypto-Jew Freemason,was becameMinister made Ministerof Finance,whileTalaatBey, also a Freemason, of the Interior.Hilmi Pasha,the GrandVizier,had appliedto becomea Mason, but did not 'proceed'.Martiallaw was proclaimedfor two years, and most of were Freemasons.Parliamentwas 'ordered' the officerson the courts-martial and to pass a very stringentPress Law, and a SalonicaCrypto-Jew Freemason was made 'Directeurdu Bureaude la Presse',a post of enormouspower, as its holder can suppressa paper for severe 'criticismof the new regime' (dubbed A 'reaction'),or have the proprietoror editor court-martialled. semi-inspired Ottomantelegraphagency,which gives the Committeeview of events external and internalconcerningthings Ottoman,was startedunder the directionof a BaghdadJew, and an all but successfulattemptwas madeto appointa Salonica Jewish lawyer and Mason as adviserto the Ministry of Justice. The Constantinoplehead branchof the Committeeof Union and Progressis also run by and a SalonicaCrypto-Jew Mason.AnotherSalonicaCrypto-Jew Freemason and made determinedattemptsto be appointed'Prefet',i.e. Lord Mayor, of the capital, but has not yet succeededin his aim, though Prince Said Hamil, [sic] an EgyptianFreemason,has become Deputy Mayor. The 'Prefet'of Constantinople, like those in France,wields enormouspower in all mattersconcerning the lives and movementsof the citizens, and especiallyin matters connected with municipal elections and those for the Constantinopledeputies in the Chamber.At the same time, the old Ministryof Police was replacedby the 'Strete Publique'controllingthe police and gendarmerie, put in chargeof a and was furtherorderedto pass the 'Loi sur les SalonicaFreemason.'Parliament' Associations',whichenabledthe Committeeof Union and Progressto suppress all similar or rival associationsamong the Bulgars,Greeks, etc., after which

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itself from a secret muzling processit went throughthe sham of transforming revolutionarysociety into a 'politicalparty and social society' with published statutes. It was, however,noticed at the same time that Freemasonry lodges began to spring up like mushroomsin all the principaland small towns of Macedonia and also in the capital,wheresome twelve lodges have been startedwithin the last year, and it did not requiremuch investigationto learnthat the secrecyof the craftwas beingpartlyused to concealthe innerworkingsof the Committee, whichhad professedly ceasedto be a 'secretsociety'.A subterranean propaganda seemedto be carriedon, and officialsand othersholdingimportant posts seemed to be given to understand that their position, advancement,and consequently theirlivelihooddependedon theirbecoming'brethren'. Some weretold that, by becoming Masons, Egypt, Crete, and other questions affecting the national of greatness the countrywouldbe settledin favourof Turkey,that the innermost arcanaof the politicalworldwould be revealedto them,that they wouldbecome the brothersof the late King of England,and could shake handsand exchange signs with him when he visited Constantinople, Many of these new recruits etc. beganto visit, and some actuallysucceeded joining,the old-established in British lodge, 'La Turquie',and every endeavourwas made to induce them to believe that in becoming Masons they were joining an English institution.The new lodges, like similarones in Egypt, claimedto follow the 'AncientScottish'rite, and falselygave out that they indirectly held a charterfrom the GrandLodgeof Scotland, of which the King of England was Protector, their idea being to inspirethe confidencewhich attachesto the Englishname among all Ottoman classes. To maintain the Committee'shold on the army, crowds of officers, especially the juniors were made Masons, and received into a lodge called in 'Resna'afterthe birthplace Macedoniaof Niazi Bey, and with MajorOsman, FehmiBey, the brotherof Niazi Bey, as Master.Most of the Committee deputies and senatorsalso becameMasons, belongingto the lodge 'La Constitution'of of whichTalaatBey,the Minister the InteriorandJavidBey, Minister Finance, of were the principalofficers.Some opposition deputies,especiallyArabs, seeing that they were beingleft out in the cold and out of the currentof local political secrets and intrigues, started or joined lodges, e.g. the 'Ukhuvet Osmanie and (i.e. 'Ottoman Fraternity') the'Muhiban-i-Hurriet' 'Friends Freedom'.) (i.e. of Further the close on 1,000,000adherentsof the unorthodoxIslamic sect of Bektashis,to be found mostly in SouthAlbaniaand Macedonia,and possessing secret tenets and an organisationakin to those of Freemasonry, manifesteda desire to join the Freemasons.These, however, were animatedrather by the as true spirit of Freemasonry opposed to the politicaland atheisticform to be met with in some continentalcountries. In addition to the above-mentioned lodges, the following were founded in Constantinopleduring 1909-10: The 'Vefa Oriental'(or 'OrientalFidelity'), 'Les vrais Amis de l'Union et Progres', 'Byzantio Risorto', 'La Vritas', 'La and Patrie','La Renaissance', a branchof 'MacedoniaRisorta'and the 'Shefak' a (or 'Dawn', i.e. 'L'Aurore'), name not unknownto the studentsof Egyptian undergroundpolitics. All these lodges, like the network of Freemasonryin Salonicaand Macedonia,seem to be mainly directedor inspiredby Jews, the Greek, Armenian,and other native Christianelements being almost entirely if non-represented, not excluded.Mentionhas been made above of PrinceSaid Halim of Egypt. He, his brotherAbbas Halim, PrinceAziz Hassan, and other Egyptiansanimatedwith a violent dislike of His Highnessthe Khedive have worked in with and financiallyhelped the Committeeof Union and Progress. The process by which the Freemasonry Young Turkey,introducedinto the of capitalthroughSalonica,becamelinkedup with EgyptianMasonrywas subject that usually characterisepolitics on the shores of the to the cross-currents Bosphorus,and is a bit obscure.Masonsthemselvesgivingconflictingaccounts of what occurred.

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IdrisBey Raghib,the Masterof the GrandLodgeof Egypt,whichis said to be recognisedby the Grand Lodge of Scotland, was the founder of, and held supremacy over,a numberof lodgesin Egypt,Syria,Palestine,and the Lebanon, in which latter districtthe curious phenomenonof large numbersof Roman CatholicMasonsis to be met with. MahomedOrfiPashawas also the founderof some lodgesin Egypt,Jerusalem and SouthernSyria, and aspiredto bring the Constantinoplelodges into his 'system',and arrivedhere for that purposein the Springof 1909.He met with he certaindifficulties, whenthe mutinyof the 13thApriloccurred, got scared and to and fled precipitately Egypt.Some time beforethose eventsIdris Raghibhad delegatedPrince Aziz Hassan who had attainedthe 17th degreein the Italian to lodge at Alexandria, bringthe Constantinople lodgesunderthe GrandLodge of Egypt,and some time afterthe entryinto the capitalof the Macedonian forces of who were led and inspiredby Masons,and the dethronement Abdul Hamid, who was bitterlyopposed to Masonry,held by him to be a dangeroussecret politicalsociety, the negotiationsbegan. The necessaryauthoritywas obtained from the Italian Grand Orient, and Prince Aziz Hassan, in virtue of special powers emanatingthrough Yusuf Bey Sakakini, from the Belgian Supreme Council of Freemasonry,was raised to the 33rd degree, and empoweredto constitutethe Grand Orientde la Turquie.This took place in July or August 1909,and MehmedTalaatBey, Minister the Interior, madeGrandMaster. of was It wouldthusappearthatthe victoryof the Macedonian forcesin April 1909over Abdul Hamid and the conquest of Constantinoplealso meant the victory of Italian inspired Freemasonryover the British recognized Grand Lodge of were graduallyaffiliatedto it, as also Egypt. All the lodges in Constantinople those in Macedonia,and it was decidedto bringall the Ottomanlodgesin Syria, Egypt,etc., underthe OttomanGrandOrient.PrinceAziz Hassan,accompanied to returned Egyptfor thatpurpose,but IdrisBey Raghiband others by Sakakini, were opposed to the idea, and maintainedthat Egypt and the Lebanon,being even in (political)Freemasonry. privilegedprovinces,ought to be independent PrinceAziz Hassanthenfell out withIdrisRaghib,who had originally dispatched him to Constantinople, and, in virtue of instructions from Talaat Bey, Grand Masterof the OttomanGrandOrient,appointedMahomedFarid,the Egyptian Nationalist leader, as delegatein Egypt of the Constantinople Grand Orient, the investiturebeing carriedout at a lodge at Tantah. Halil Hamade Pasha, Shahin Makariusof the 'Mukattam',and other prominentEgyptian Masons who do not sympathisewith the Nationalists,raised strong opposition to the appointment,while His Highness the Khedive also deprecateda step which linked up by the bond of politicalFreemasonry EgyptianNationalistsand the the Committeeof Union and Progress,but the appointmentonce made could not be undone. Halil HamadaPasha suggestedas a remedythe foundingof a separateEgyptian'Grand Orient Ottoman',with the express stipulationthat MahomedFarid shouldnot become its GrandMasteror GrandVenerable. By of the establishment an OttomanGrandOrientin Egypt, and the investiture of its Grand Master,MahomedFarid'sappointmentas delegateof the Constantinople Grand Orient will ipso facto lapse. Halil Hamada Pasha is now in Constantinopleand is endeavouringto get Carasso, the Jewish deputy and Venerableof the ItalianLodge of Salonica,to use his good officeswith Talaat Bey to bringaboutthe aboveconsummation. PrinceAziz Hassanand Mahomed Faridare also on theirway to Constantinople. WhenTalaatBey declaredit was untruethat MahomedFaridhad been appointeddelegatein Egypt and that he and his Committeefriendswould not commitsuch a gaffe it would appearthat he deliberatelylied, presumablyunder pressure of the engagementsof the Committeenot to betraytheir secrets. In the meantimeSakakinihas also arrivedin Constantinople,after passing from Egypt to Syria, and spendingsome time in the latter country linkingup its lodges with the OttomanGrandOrient.
G

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Should the Committeeof Union and ProgressGrand Orientof Turkeyget control of the Egyptianlodges and fill the latter with Nationalists,there is no with a doubt that the tendencywill be to work secretlyand subterraneously, view to one day bringingabout an unexpectedexplosion like that which in July 1908 took the world by surpriseat Salonica. In this connection I may mentiona somewhatcuriousincident.Some time ago the new GrandRabbi of Turkey,a clever, energeticand accomplishedman, who was the schoolfellow of some prominentYoung Turks,and who underthe old regimemade several attemptsto be employed in Abdul Hamid's palace as librarian,solicited the good officesof the Embassyin the case of a JewishMason, namedVentura,of Italian nationality,who many years ago posed as an Ottomansubject,started businessin the Soudan,and was expelledthenceby the Sirdaron the groundthat he (Ventura)was connectedwith the smugglingof tobacco throughtwo Jews in Suakim for a certain Corporal White. The latter was also expelled and degraded.Venturabrought his case before the Mixed Tribunalat Cairo and obtaineda semi-favourable sentenceagainstthe Ministryof War,but the Court of Appealquashedthe sentence.The GrandRabbipresented longmemorandum a of nearly200 pagesexposingthe detailsof the allegedinjusticeof whichVentura was stated to be the victim, and beggedthat I should give Venturaa letter of introduction Sir E. Gorst, with a view to the latterexercising influencein to his favour of Ventura'scase, which was again to come beforethe Egyptiancourts. I pointedout that any such action of mine was impossibleas it would constitute an attemptto influence an justice,and that the man was, moreover,professedly Italian subject.Some time after a JewishMason here, called Dr Farih, got an introduction, throughthe Masterof the local Britishlodge, to a memberof my and staff, and again, in a quiet, determined, semi-minatory tone, beggedfor the letter of introductionto Gorst on behalf of Ventura.On its being explainedto him that such a coursewas impossible,even in the case of a Britishsubject,he adopted a defianttone, and declaredthat this case of cryinginjusticemust be remedied;that the highest influencesin the world, including that of Jewish of members the Houseof Lords,wouldbe broughtto bear;and that,if necessary, measureswould be taken to bringabout the downfallof the EgyptianGovernment, and the Britishposition in Egypt would be compromised.The man was not a lunatic,and spoke in very measuredtones. TalaatBey, the Ministerof the Interior,who is of Gipsy descent,and comes from Kirjali,in the Adrianopledistrict,and JavidBey, the Ministerof Finance, who is a Crypto-Jew, the officialmanifestations the occult power of the are of Committee. Theyare the only membersof the Cabinetwho reallycount, and are also the apex of Freemasonryin Turkey. That they would use an agent of Sakakini'santecedentsis more than suspicious.Since he became Ministerof the Interiorabout a year ago, Talaat Bey has been spreadingthe net of the Freemason Committee over the Empire by appointingto provincialposts as governors,sub-governors,etc., men who are Masons or reliable Committee adherents,and, in most cases, both. The intentionis that, should a majorityof the presentChamber,by accident or despite the terrorsof the state of siege, carryoppositionto the point of endangering Ministryof Talaatand Javid, the the lattershouldinstantlyreplyby a coupd'etat,dissolvethe Chamber, have and freshelections,which would be manipulated the Committeeclubsand Freeby masonry lodges in the provinces and return more malleable deputies. The invisible governmentof Turkey is thus the Grand Orient with Talaat Bey as Grand Master. Eugene Tavemier, in his article in the April number of the 'NineteenthCentury',describesthe French Republic as the 'daughterof the GrandOrient'.The same epithetmightperhapsbe appropriately appliedto the OttomanCommittee Union and Progress, as Masonsseemto be adherents of for of the Committee,most non-Masons,i.e. the vast majorityof the population, are secretlyopposed to its rule. Like FrenchRepublicansand Freemasons,the words most frequentlyon its lips are 'reaction'and 'clerical'.Its firsttendency

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sacredlaw, but to underwas not to modify and modernisethe Mahommedan whilefranklyrationalist, also paradoxically mineandsmashit. Mostof its leaders, endeavourto use the Islamicfervourof the massesas a politicalweaponand to divert it into chauvinisticchannelson the lines of national, i.e. Asiatic, PanIslamism.It is intolerantof opposition, and one of its principalmethods of is destroyingits adversaries to drivethem into overt oppositionand then crush Severalof the Ulema have been induced to become them as 'reactionaries'. Masons,and theirexampleis beingused to overcomethe scruplesand prejudices of the people. A Turk describedit as a process of 'druggingthe latter with Jewishhashish'. From the foregoingor any close inspectionof the Young Turkeymovement in its present stage, it will appear to be principallyJewish and 'Turkish'as Armenians, opposedto otherOttomanelements,e.g. Arabs,Greeks,Bulgarians, etc. The Turk is mainly a soldier,and underconstitutionalforms he strivesto which he can only do throughthe army. On preservehis race predominance, the latterhe spendshalf his revenueand uses it to reducethe otherelementsto a state of terrorand mute subjection.A constitutionin a way implies economic progress,but the economic organismof the Turk is of the feeblest kind, and, could not standalone a week. It was hoped in the beginningthat unsupported, the Armenians, Bulgarians, Greeks and the Ottoman Jew would serve as economicprops,but the Young Turkseemsto havealliedhimselfsolelywith the Jew, Ottoman and foreign, and to have estrangedthe other races. The same resulthas been witnessedin Hungary,wherethe Hungarian,who is of Turkish stock and is similarlydevoid of real business instincts, has come under the almostexclusiveeconomicand financialdominationof the Jew.The latterseems Turk in his toils, and as Turkey to have entangledthe pre-economic-minded happensto containthe placessacredto Israel,it is but naturalthatthe Jewshould and striveto maintaina positionof exclusiveinfluence utilizeit for the furtherance of his ideals,viz. the ultimatecreationof an autonomousJewishstatein Palestine or Babylonia,as explainedby Israel Zangwillin his articlein the 'Fortnightly Review'of April.He wouldkill two birdswith one stone if he could obtainfrom of immigration Jewsinto Turkey,an aim that he has been the Turkunrestricted pursuingfor years back, and transferto Mesopotamia some millions of his in co-religionists bondagein Russia and Roumania.In returnfor 'unrestricted immigration'of foreign Jews, he has offeredthe Young Turk to sacrificehis and mother-tongue replaceit by Turkish,and even to take over the whole of the membersof the TurkishNational Debt. Dr Nazim, one of the most influential has, in company,with SalonicaCommitteeand said to be of Jewishextraction, of his fidus Achates,a certainFaik Bey Toledo, a Crypto-Jew Salonica,visited Association)and has since the Paris branchof the I.C.A. (Judaeo-Colonisation openly advocated importing 200,000 Roumanian Jews into Macedonia and IsraelZangwill,in the article some millions of RussianJews into Mesopotamia. in the 'FortnightlyReview' of April alludedto above, expressesthe hope that Hakki Pasha, the present Grand Vizier, 'may be trusted to advise the Porte soundlyon the subject',i.e. in favour of a Jewishautonomousstate in Mesopotamia. Hakki Pasha has been given a Jewishprivatesecretary,and frequentsa certainJewishhouse more than any other, but the Jewishprojectshave not yet materialised. Doubtless,whenYoung Turkeywith its heavymilitaryexpenditure is in need of borrowing,furtherpressurewill be appliedby the Jewishlenders. Abdul Hamid, when in dire financialstraits,refusedsimilaroffersfrom Herzl, the Sionist leader,and the same idea seems to be in Zangwill'smind when he remarks: 'For,unlessthe YoungTurkshaveevenless commonsensethanmoney, the to the enormousadvantages theirEmpireof permitting peacefulpenetration whitepopulationmustbe bornehome to them.' and of an industrial non-militant are Zangwillsays the four Jewishdeputiesin the OttomanParliament 'violently anti-Sionist'. They may pretendto be so in the Palestinesense of the word: they sense. are certainlynot in the Mesopotamian

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This feature of Young Turkeypolitics cannot be overlooked by those who in would be connectedwith projectedenterprises Mesopotamia,Syriaand even Egypt. For the 'Aurore'('Shefak'),a Sionist organ starteda year ago in Conits stantinople, nevertiredof reminding readersthat the dominationof Egypt, is the land of the Pharaohs,who forced the Jews to build the Pyramids,is part if the future heritageof Israel. This theory certainlysounds far-fetched,but it is apparentlyheld and preachedby some idealists. Mesopotamiaand Palestine are, however,only the ultimategoal of the Jews. The immediateend for which exclusiveeconomiccaptureof Turkeyand new theyareworkingis the practically in enterprises that country.It has been shown above that alreadythey hold or controlall the pivotalpointsin the machinery the YoungTurkeyGovernment, of though the Ministry of Public Works, which can influence the granting of Effendi.Whenhis predecessor, concessions, stillheldby an Armenian, is Halajian anotherArmenian,was got rid of, a determined attemptwas madeto appointa Jew or a Jewishnominee. But, especiallyafter the massacresof Armeniansat Adana, it was felt that the Armeniansshould continue to hold one portfoio in the Ministry.Two months ago Halajianseemedon the point of falling, but obtaineda new lease of life on becominga Mason in the same lodge as Talaat Bey and Javid Bey. His position is now still shaky, and the most bitter and constantattacks on him come from a Jewish-financed paper, 'Le JeuneTurc', whilethereare rumoursthat his successorwill be a Jew, or a Turkwith a Jewat his elbow. his It is obvious that the Jew, who is so vitallyinterestedin maintaining sole predominance the councils of the Young Turkey, is equally interestedin in keepingalive the flamesof discordbetweenthe Turkand his (theJew's)possible rivals,i.e. the Armenians,Greeks,etc., while it is to be inferredthat he would not be averse to the new regime increasingthe national indebtednessto the Hebrewfinanciers. This aspect of the TurkishRevolutionhas been dwelt on at some length,as, apartfrom its historicalinterest,it is not withoutits directand indirectbearingon side problemsof the Near East. The Jew hates Russia and its Government,and the fact that Englandis now friendlyto Russia has the effectof makingthe Jew to a certainextentanti-British Turkeyand Persia-a in considerationto which the Germansare, I think, alive. The Jew can help the Young Turkwith brains,businessenterprise, enormousinfluence the press his in of Europe, and money in return for economic advantagesand the eventual realisationof the ideals of Israel, while the Young Turk wants to regain and asserthis nationalindependence and get rid of the tutelageof Europe,as part of a generalAsiaticrevival,on linesand at a pacewhichmustappear chauvinistic to the averageWestern. The Jewhas suppliedfundsto the Young Turksand has thus acquireda hold on them; but in orderto retainthis hold he has to appear at least to approveand aid the Young Turk towards the accomplishment of 'national' dreams. Secrecy and elusive methods are essential to both. The Oriental is an adeptat manipulating Jew occultforces,and politicalFreemasonry of the continentaltype has been chosenas the most effectivebond and cloak to concealthe innerworkingsof the movement.It has been mentionedabove that, at the outset,this new formof Masonryin Turkey'fraternised' the members with of the British,i.e. Scottish,lodge foundedin Constantinople yearsago, but fifty the lattersoon beganto discoverthat the ways of the nativelodges, whichwere mostly run by Jews, were but a travestyon and a prostitutionof true Freemasonry, and eventually the Grand Lodge of Scotland pronounced them 'spurious',with the resultthat the Englishlodge closed its doors to all the new Masons, includingthe all-powerfulMinistersTalaat Bey and Javid Bey. The latter, who control the armiesof Turkey,its finances,martiallaw, Parliament, and, in short, the destiniesof the Empiregenerally,naturallytook umbrageat this 'rebuff from the English',as it was styledin the versionwhichrapidlyspread throughthe whispering galleries,and may have become a trifleless pro-British in consequence.They were describedas 'furiousat this insult', but there is no

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reasonto supposethat it led them to essentiallyalterthe friendlypolicy of their Cabinettowardsus. We may, perhaps,also give them the benefitof the doubt, and supposethat they have little or no positiveknowledgeof the extremeviews and policy of some membersof local lodges that are in touch and sympathy and with EgyptianFreemasons workingin the same subterranean in Cairo, way Alexandria,etc. For some of the ultra-chauvinistic Masonshere are workingin with the anti-Khediveand anti-Englishpartiesin Egypt, and an Arab deputy and Mason statedrecentlythat he had good reasonto supposethat one of their back-thoughts was, by propaganda,occasionaldisplayof the Ottomanfleet at in Alexandria, fosterunrestand eventuallylead up to disorders, the courseof to whichHis Highnessthe Khedivewouldbe madeto disappear the 'blackhand', by and a memberof the Halimbranchbe appointedregentof the Khedive'sson on the lines of the recentdynasticchangein Persia.The Committeeof Union and Progressundoubtedlyencouragedand co-operatedwith the Persiansin this latterevent,and thereis now questionof startinga PersianGrandOrient,Ferrajullah Khan,the new Persiancharged'affaires, havingrecentlybecomea Mason. The type of chauvinistic YoungTurkwho holds suchviewsis an 'AsiaticNationfor alist', and, no matterhow gratefulhe may feel to a EuropeanGovernment servicesrendered,would considerit his 'patriotic'duty to help other Orientals to 'rightlystruggling be free' in Egypt or in India, to attaintheirfreedomfrom European 'bondage'. The Committee'spolicy is not guided by sentimental and any Power that expects gratitudefor servicesrenderedto considerations, Young Turkeywould be makingan egregiousmiscalculation. Ismail Hakki Bey, Babanzade,Deputy for Baghdad,and one of the Committee'sexpertson foreignaffairs,is saidto havea brotherHikmetBey employed under Reouf Pasha in the OttomanAgency in Cairo. Hikmet Bey appearsto have doubtful dealings, mostly through some Syrians,with Mahomed Farid and other such Nationalists, despite the correct behaviourof his chief. The 'JeuneTurc',which, like some other organsin the Ottomancapital,is subventionedby the Jews,has fromtimeto timeviolentanti-English articleson Egyptian affairs.One of the writersis a young Cretan,Jelal Noury by name, who is a memberof the Committee,and son of a Committeesenatorcalled Noury Bey. Another writerin the same is a renegadePole, called SeiffeddinT. Gastowtt, who once had financialrelationswith Oppenheim, GermanJew well known the in Cairo at the time of the Akaba incident and since. SeifiddinT. Gastowtt, with an Egyptiancalled HusseinHassib,has recentlystartedin Constantinople a Pan-Islamic organin Frenchand Turkishcalled 'La Tribunedes Peuples'(in the Turkish'Kursi-i-Millel'), avowed object of which is to awakenand arouse to a sense of their solidarity with Young Turkey Moslems the millions of in 'oppressed' brethren India,Egypt,Russia,Tunis,Algiers,etc. It declaresthat Europe'spolicy is anti-Islamicand anti-Asiaticand that Turks should put no faith in Europeanhypocriticalprofessionsof friendship.As for England, it quotes Ahmed Riza Bey's statement: 'L'ecrasementde l'Empire ottoman augmenteraet consoliderasa force en Egypte et en Arabie.' Hussein Hassib Bey is a sort of delegatehere of the EgyptianNationalists,and has interested himselfin gettingsome young Nationaliststakeninto Turkishschools. He has a brotherworkingwith MahomedFarid. What are then the likely tendenciesof Young Turkey? Its representative clerkin receiptof ?T.3 per month, civiliansare TalaatBey, who was a telegraph JavidBey, Ministerof Finance,who was a schoolmaster earningsome ?T.10 a month, and HusseinJahid Bey, deputy and editor of the 'Tanin',who at one time translatedinto Turkishnovels at the rate of fourpencea page for Abdul Hamid.Theirnaturalinstincthas been and is to reduceothersto theirownlevel. The Turkishelementnumberssome 6,000,000in an Empireof some 30,000,000. Under a real constitutionalregime,allowing a certainfair play and free play to the other elements,it would be swamped,more especiallyas it is inferiorto the majority(Arabs, Greeks, Bulgarians,etc.), in intelligence,instructionand

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businessqualities.It can only maintainits position as the dominantrace by its fighting qualities, i.e. by the army. The capital and Parliamentit dominates throughmartiallaw. The Armenianswere cowed by the Adana massacres,the Greeks have been terrorisedinto a sullen silence, the political life of the Bulgarianswas crushedby the forcibleclosingof theirclubs and societies.So much for the potentially'obstreperous' Christian elements.The Turkisharmy is now 'levellingthe non-submissiveMoslem Albanians, and the Kurds and Arabs will probablyin turn undergothe same process.As the Turkishelementcannot shine by intellectualor commercial achievements, instinctslead it to display its its superiorityby military'activity'.If it succeeds in reducingthe Empire to mute subjectioninternally,its impulse will probably be to adopt an active chauvinistic policy as regardsPersia,Egypt, Greeceand perhapsBulgaria.For the moment it is withheld by prudentialconsiderationsconnected with the Cretan question, where it still requiresthe good-will of Europe to secure a favourablesolution.The attainmentof the lattermay only whet its appetitefor on similarsuccessesin Egypt,etc. But all this is dependent European,i.e. mainly to Jewish,financiers supplyingit with the sumsrequired keep up an armywhich At is disproportionate its actual state of economicdevelopment. presentthe to Turkishconstitutionalregimeis a sham; but, looking into the future,how the Turkishelement can maintainits supremacyby force alone under a genuine constitutionalregime is almost an insolubleproblem.As it is, Young Turkey regardsitself as the vanguardof an awakenedAsia. It fancies itself bound to by protectthe nascentlibertiesof Persia'now endangered the selfishand overin bearingpolicy of Russiaand England'.Henceits policy of adventure Western Azerbaijanand its subterraneanlinks with Young Persian anjumans, with German efforts at interventionin Persia, as in Morocco in 1906, and with Caucasianrevolutionaries.It also has affiliationswith Jewish and extreme Armenian(Tashnak)revolutionaries Russia, which it hopes to weaken and in renderinnocuous by fostering unrest and currentsof internal upheaval.It is also coquetting,assistedby the Jews, with its Hungarianbrethrenof Turanian origin, and tries to create a sympatheticcurrentin Afghanistanand among Indian Moslems. The Young Turks, partly at the inspirationof Jewish Masonry,and partly owing to the fact that Frenchis the one Europeanlanguageextensivelyspread in the Levant,have been imitatingthe French Revolution and its godless and levellingmethods.The developments the FrenchRevolutionled to antagonism of betweenEnglandand France,and shouldthe Turkishrevolutiondevelopon the same lines, it may find itself similarlyin antagonismwith British ideals and interests. The Young Turkishpolicy so far has almost completelyestrangedOttoman, and especiallySyrian,Arabs, who, like Greeks, Bulgarians,etc., have lost all hope of the establishment a reallyconstitutionalregimein Turkey,fear the of heavy hand of the Turk, and are looking around for some rallyingcentre in defence of Arab interests.They hate and despisethe Turk, to whom they feel themselvesintellectually culturallysuperior,will not submitto be turcised, and and dreadSionismand Jewishinvasionin Syriaand Mesopotamia,but theyare separatedby deserts,differences dialect, and a racial inabilityof cohesion, of and many of them, deputies and others, secretly turn their eyes towards the which,they cherishthe hope, may one Khedivateas the one 'ArabGovernment' effect on all OttomanArabs. day, underBritishauspices,exercisea centripetal With manythis idea has taken definiteshape,with othersit is inchoateor semiinchoate; but all these have no sympathywith EgyptianextremeNationalists or their methods.Some of them suggestthat the GrandLodge of Egypt, which is recognisedby British Freemasonry,should try to bring under its wing the 'spurious' Egyptian lodges of political Masons. The notion, of course, is ridiculous,and only testifiesto theirfallaciousconceptionof the true principles of British Masonry,which is, of course, non-political,and presumably British

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recognisedMasons in Egypt will have to follow the injunctionsof the Grand Lodges of England and Scotland to eschew all relations with the 'spurious brethren' who merelyuse Masonryas a cloak for their political scheming.All the above facts and appreciationsconcerningour local Masonry have been obtainedfrom Masonsunderthe seal of confidence,but, like all secretpolitical of organisations the kind, it is very elusive and tends to bury itself deeperif it suspects that its secrets are being discovered,and I would thereforebeg that this document be treated as strictly secret. Most of it interests Cairo, and I to supposeyou will forwardit confidentially Gorst. It might also be expedient to similarlycommunicate to Tehranand, perhaps,the Governmentof India. it For if the prominentIndian Moslemswere discreetlygiven to understand that the Young Turkey movement is seriously influencedby Jewishand atheistic the political Freemasonry, effect would be to counteractany potentiallyantiBritish national Pan-Islamicpropagandacarried on by extreme chauvinist Young Turks. I have reason to believethat my Germancolleagueis awareof the extent to which Jewish and Latin Masonry inspires the Committee,and that he has confidentially kept his Government informedas to this featureof Young Turkey politics. Yours very sincerely, GERARD LOWTHER. P.S.-It has been said above that the Grand Lodge of Scotlandrefusedto recognise the new 'Grand Orient Ottoman', whose Masonry it pronounced 'spurious';but I learn that effortsare being made to indirectlyget round this difficulty inducingthe GrandLodgeof Englandto recognisethe new Turkish by creation.In view of the curious developmentsin EgyptianMasonry,it would seem desirablethat the Grand Lodge of Englandshould follow the exampleof its Scotch sister and refuse its imprimaturto an institution so coloured by politics.

1. Quoted from the memoirs of Ali Fuad Turkgeldiby B. Lewis, in Bulletinof the School of Orientaland AfricanStudies,vol. XXIII, 1960, p. 147. 2. GwendolenCecil, Life of RobertMarquisof Salisbury, vol. II, 1921, p. 320. 3. See, for instance, Cromer'sreport of a conversationin 1896 with Baron Calice, the Austrian Internuncio at Constantinople.Discussing British policy towards the Ottoman Empire,Cromerdeclaredthat there had been a change in public opinion of late years. 'More especially,' he added, 'since we had been in occupation of Egypt, had manyinfluential newspapers urgedthat excludingthe RussiansfromConstantinople was a matter of less importanceto England than to Austria.' Cromer to Salisbury, Cairo, December2, 1896, Public Record OfficeF.O. 633/6 (CromerPapers),no. 267. Quotations and transcriptsfrom Crown copyright papers by kind permissionof the Controller,Her Majesty'sStationeryOffice. 4. Salisbury,to the Duke of Rutland,quoted in E. Kedourie,England the Middle and East, 1956, p. 21. 5. Kedourie, op cit., p. 33. 6. F.O. 800/193B(LowtherPapers).Lowtherto Nicolson, May 5, 1911, enclosing a memorandum Fitzmaurice;see also in F.O. 800/193Ba letter of April 26 previous, by same to same, also in defence of Fitzmaurice. 7. F.O. 800/193B(LowtherPapers),Lowtherto Hardinge,July 6, 1909. 8. F.O. 800/80 (Grey Papers),Fitzmauriceto Tyrrell,November 5, 1912. 9. Hardinge Papers, vol. 20, pp. 230 and 235, Cambridge University Library, Lowther to Hardinge,April 19 and April 27, 1910. The NineteenthCenturyhad just publishedan articleon Frenchfreemasonry;see Appendix. 10. F.O. 800/193B(LowtherPapers),Lowtherto Nicolson, March 13, 1913.

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11. There is little doubt that the details in Lowther's letter were supplied by Fitzmaurice. There is great resemblance between it and Fitzmaurice's memorandum of 1911 mentioned above, in F.O. 800/193B. 12. Hardinge to Lowther, 'Private and Confidential', June 26, 1910. F.O. 800/193A. With this letter was included a printed copy of Lowther's letter of May 29. It is this copy which is reproduced in the Appendix. Lowther's original does not figure in the Hardinge Papers. Lowther copied his letters to Hardinge and Nicolson in a series of notebooks (F.O. 800/193B), but a copy of this letter does not figure in these notebooks. This may confirm the suspicion that it was not so much a genuine private letter from Lowther to Hardinge, as a report written by Fitzmaurice and couched in the form of a private letter from the ambassador, to the Permanent Under-Secretary. In his memoirs, Hardinge wrote: 'Turkey, under a Parliamentary Government, required a strong and judicious hand to control its policy, but it was the Army under the direction of a corrupt Committee of Jews and aliens that dominated the situation'. Old Diplomacy, 1947, p. 175. 13. Allan Cunningham, 'The Wrong Horse?-A Study of Anglo-Turkish Relations before the First World War' in St Antony's Papers, no. 17, 1965, p. 75. 14. The fourth, doubtful, name was that of Yusuf Sakakini, also mentioned in Lowther's letter. It is curious that an intelligence bulletin written in Cairo should be so ignorant as not to know that Sakakini in fact belonged to a Syrian Christian family long settled in Egypt. The Bulletin describes him as 'a French protected subject of most uncertain origin, but probably a Syrian Jew, resident at Alexandria, who had lived by exploiting Freemasonry, in various parts of the Levant, and, by rendering a variety of mysterious services to the then Khedive for whom he spied, to Aziz Pasha Hassan, an Egyptian Prince of Prusso-Turkish morals ... and other notables'. 15. F.O. 882/25, Arab Bulletin, no. 23; the passages cited above are at pp. 294-96 and 298. 16. Wingate Papers, Sudan Archives, School of Oriental Studies, Durham University, 139/1. It is also perhaps worth noticing that the Judeo-masonic character of the Young Turks is touched on in one of the handbooks prepared in the Historical Section of the Foreign Office for the use of the British Delegates to the Peace Conference and subsequently published. The handbook on Mohammedan History (1920), declares, p. 57; 'That the Committee of Union and Progress could be in earnest in its Pan-Islamic policy has been denied on various grounds. In the first place it has been pointed out that the leaders of that Committee are, without exception, Freemasons; and such religious fanaticism conflicts with the principles of the Masonic Society . . .'; and again on p. 80: 'The Salonika Jews are inseparable from the Committee of Union and Progress.' The author of the first assertion was Sir Thomas Arnold and of the second Arnold J. Toynbee; see list established by Professor G. W. Prothero, the editor of the handbooks, F.O. 370/245 L455 and L 959/14/405. A recent author, Professor Z. N. Zeine, seems to accept the truth of these and similar assertions. He also compounds his error by also affirming, on his own account, that 'The Arab Muslim leaders doubted the sincerity of the Committee of Union and Progress' because of these alleged Jewish and masonic connections. There is no evidence for such as affirmation; see The Emergence of Arab Nationalism (Beirut, 1966), p. 89.

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