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The Fair Test

•What is the question?

•Identifies variables for an


•Changes only one variable

at a time

•Identifies a situation which

provides a baseline data for
comparison (the control)

• Knowledge: Set questions that require

• Comprehension: Questions show that they
understand the text’s context
• Application: The ability to take the
information and apply it to other contexts
• Analysis: Understand the parts of the text
and the contribution the parts make to the
• Evaluation: Give own opinions and back
with reasons
• Synthesis: Build on knowledge gained,
take ideas and issues and present a
different viewpoint

Questions that will help them focus on the cues and

inferences they use to interpret the text. (Aiden
Chambers. Tell Me. 1994)

• Has anything that happened in the book ever

happened to you?
• Were there any patterns or connections that you
• Was there anything that puzzled you?
• How long did the story take to happen?

• When you first saw the book, what sort of book did
you think it was? What made you think this? Is it
what you expected?
• Reading for a purpose
• Using what the reader already knows

• Asking questions – answering the child’s

questions, not someone else’s
• How to get the message from the page;
retell, hypothesise, recall, sequence,
• How to interpret the message; explicit /
implicit, cause / effect / analysis, inference,
analysis, synthesis
• Thinking for themselves; valuing their
• When to do it – not just an end product

• Become used to providing wait time

• Children need time to process what is in their
• Extend wait time up to thirty seconds if necessary
• Make sure they know they have permission to give
their own ideas or interpretations
• Know when to be silent and when to intervene

• Critical literacy involves the ability to go past a

literal interpretation of the text
• It is influenced by their ability to identify with
particular events and characters within the text
• Through practice children should be able to
interact with a text at a deeper level. Whose
point of view? Why write this text? What is the
message? Hidden messages?
• Be able to challenge what they read in relation
to their own experiences and ideas
• Be introduced to how language and visual
imagery shape ideas
Personal Qualities of a Culturally Effective Teacher
Te Toi Huarewa – Report to the Ministry of Education of a survey on Effective
Teaching and Learning Strategies and Effective Teaching Materials for
Improving the reading and writing in Te Reo Maori of students aged 5-9 in
Maori Medium Education

Teachers surveyed:

• Treat their students and their whanau with respect

• Are compassionate and confidential

• Have a sense of humour

• Act in a just and fair manner towards others

• Are friendly but firm in their relations with students

• All these personal qualities are culturally located

Pedagogical characteristics of a Culturally Effective Teacher

The teachers surveyed displayed a large number of effective pedagogical
characteristics including:

• Depth of professional and cultural knowledge

• Passionate about what they do

• Have a philosophy of teaching and clear teaching goals

• Have a commitment to developing students’ understanding and


• Use non confrontational behaviour management

• Show a genuine interest in students including provision of high

quality feedback

• Continually reflect upon their own teaching

• Have high expectations while offering comfort and challenges

• Have excellent classroom management

• Use prior learning experiences and knowledges

• Materials are related to children’s world view and experiences

• Importance of matching strategies and materials to individual or

group abilities

• Emphasis on oral language

• Integrate curriculum

• Encouraging self evaluation

• Fostering a high degree of academic engagement

• Close links to whanau

• Create culturally appropriate and responsive contexts for

Definition of “… fit to be a teacher”
Personal How this is demonstrated

Trustworthine • Works independently and without supervision

• Meets any reasonable requirement for the protection and safety
ss of others
• Preserves confidences.
Honesty • Demonstrates integrity in all contact
• Respects persons and property
• Reports clearly and truthfully
Reliability • Takes on responsibilities with due regard for time and place
• Meets the expectations of caregivers and the learning centre
when supervising learners
• Accepts, plans and executes a variety of tasks and professional
Sensitivity • Respects other cultural and social values
• Recognises and respects others as individuals
• Cares for the learning of those who are disadvantaged and
compassio those with learning difficulties
n • Demonstrates firmness when necessary

Respect for • Demonstrates a respect for the law

• Adopts accepted codes of language, dress and demeanour
• Accepts and carries out collegial and employer decisions
• Respects the views of others
Imagination, • Supports and inspires others in their work
enthusias • Generates excitement and satisfaction in learning
• Engages in co-curricular tasks which expand learning
m and
dedication • Shows respect for learning and inspires a love of learning

Communicati • Communicates easily and lucidly in English and/or Maori, the

official languages of New Zealand
on • Exercises discretion
• Gives and receives constructive criticism
• Seeks advice when needed
Physical and • Carries out duties safely and satisfactorily
• Shows emotional balance and maturity
• Displays warmth and humour

Co-operative Learning Strategies

Structure Brief Description Functions-Academic and Social

Team Building
Roundrobi Each student in turn shares something with Expressing ideas and opinions, creation of
n his/her team mates stories. Equal participation, getting
acquainted with team mates
Class Building
Corners Each student moves to a corner of the room Seeing alternative hypotheses, values,
representing a teacher-determined problem-solving approaches. Knowing
alternative. Students discuss within and respecting different points of view,
corners, then listen to and paraphrase ideas meeting classmates.
from other corners.
Numbered The teacher asks a question, students Review, checking for knowledge,
Heads consult to make sure everyone knows the comprehension. Tutoring.
Together answer - then one student is called upon to
Colour- Students memorise facts using a flash-card Memorising facts. Helping, praising
coded game. The game is structured so that there
Co-op is a maximum probability of success at
Cards each step, moving from short-term to long-
term memory. Scoring is based on
Pairs Students work in pairs within groups of four. Practicing skills. Helping, praising
Check Within pairs students alternate – one solves
Concept Development
Three step Students interview each other in pairs, first Sharing personal information such as
interview one way, then the other. Students each hypotheses, reactions to a poem,
share with the group information they conclusions from a unit. Participation,
learned in the interview. listening
Think-Pair- Students think to themselves on a topic Generating and revising hypotheses,
Share provided by the teacher; they pair up with inductive reasoning, deductive reasoning,
another student to discuss it; they then application. Participation, involvement.
share their thoughts with the class.
Team Students write simultaneously on a piece of Analysis of concepts into components,
word- chart paper, drawing main concepts, understanding multiple relations among
webbing supporting elements and bridges ideas, differentiating concepts. Role-
representing the relation of ideas in a taking.
Roundtable Each student in turn writes one answer as a Assessing prior knowledge, practising
paper and pencil are passed around the skills, recalling information, creating co-
group. With Simultaneous Roundtable more operative art. Team building,
than one pencil and paper are used at once. participation of all.
Inside- Students stand in pairs in two concentric Checking for understanding, review,
Outside circles. The inside circle faces out, the processing, helping. Tutoring, sharing,
Circle outside circle faces in. Students use flash meeting classmates.
cards or respond to teacher questions as
they rotate to each new partner.
Partners Students work in pairs to create or master Mastery and presentation of new
content. They consult with partners from material, concept development.
other teams. They then share their Presentation and communication skills.
products or understanding with the other
partner pair in their team.
Jigsaw Each student on the team becomes an Acquisition and presentation of new
‘expert’ on one topic by working with material, review, informed debate.
members from other teams assigned the Interdependence, status equalisation.
corresponding expert topic. Upon returning
to their teams, each one in turn teaches the
group; and students are all assessed on all
aspects of the topic.
Co-op Co- Students work in groups to produce a Learning and sharing complex material,
op particular group product to share with the often with multiple sources; evaluation;
whole class; each student makes a application analysis; synthesis. Conflict
particular contribution to the goods. resolution skills.
Graphic Organiser – Thinking Critically

Topic How does the What is the effect What does the How do the What is the What elements
choice of of the author want the choices of author’s point of are effective in
genre/style affect photographs on reader to feel? vocabulary affect view? Evidence? getting the
the reader? the reader? the reader? author’s
message across
to the reader?
Text 1

Text 2

What are the signs that quality learning is occurring or
has occurred?

Quality learning results in...

• Increased confidence and skills
• Enthusiasm to share and express learning
• Increased independence, increased self direction
• Growth and progress

The learner is…

• Willing to ask for help
• Able to put learning into practice
• Able to question further
• Able to define problem and experiment with new ways to solve
• Prepared and able to interact with others
• Recognises when it is appropriate to work interdependently
• Actively involved
• Increasingly self directed

The learner experiences…

• Sense of achievement and success
• Good feelings about self
• The learning as relevant
• Valuing of the learning/expressing by others and/or self
• Pride in achievement/learning
• Affirmation in own way of knowing and being
PHILOSOPHY d Does the teacher have
1a What are you trying to BEHAVIOUR MANAGEMENT materials for the lesson
achieve with this class this 4a Are there clearly prepared and ready to
year? communicated behaviour distribute?
Academically guidelines eg; rules on wall or e Are there a variety of
Socially verbally from teacher? teaching methods used?
b How are you going to try and b What routines are well f Is organisation such that
achieve it? established? programme runs smoothly?
Academically c Is noise level appropriate? ASSESSMENT AND LEARNING
Socially d Are there periods of silent 6a How are students assessed in
work? Reading
CLASSROOM ENVIRONMENT e Are instructions clear? Written Language
2a Is the room attractively set f Is voice used effectively? Oral Language
out and decorated? g Are instructions followed Maths
b What displays are there? quickly by all? Other
c What ‘interest’ areas? h Do changeovers from one b Are learning needs identified
d Is children’s work on display? activity to another go in
e Is the standard of smoothly? Reading
neatness/tidiness high? i Do children seem to be on Written Language
f is the seating arrangement task? Maths
satisfactory? j Are children inappropriately c Are appropriate programmes
out of seat? planned to meet these
RELATIONSHIPS WITH k Are there a significant needs?
STUDENTS number of call outs/loud Reading
3a Is there evidence of positive talking? Written Language
relationships between l What strategies does the Maths
students and teacher? teacher use to deal with d How are very able and very
b How frequent are positive inappropriate behaviour? limited students catered for
responses from teacher? m Are these used consistently? Reading
c Is there a positive n Are they effective? Written Language
reinforcement system in PLANNING Maths
place eg; points, starchart, 5a Is long term plan e How is academic progress of
certificates etc? satisfactory? individual students
d Comment on class tone b Are units of work planned monitored?
adequately? Reading
c Is the programme interesting Written Language
for students? Maths
f Does the
system used give a
satisfactory and accurate
picture of each student’s
Written Language
7 How is student (and teacher)
enjoyment and fun
incorporated into the