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AUSTRALIAN MATRICULATION PROGRAMME

FINAL EXAMINATION SEM 1, 2008/2009

2008 CHEMISTRY
Name: ___________________________
Group: __________________________

Time: 1 hours
Date:
Examination material: An 11- pages question booklet (4 questions)

Approved dictionaries and calculators may be used


Instructions to Candidates
1.

You will have 5 minutes to read the paper. You must not write in your question booklets during this reading
time but you may make notes on the scribbling paper provided.

2.

You will be expected to extract information such as atomic number and relative atomic mass from the periodic
table on the last page. You may remove the page from this booklet before the test begins.

3.

Answer all parts of Questions 1 to 4 in the spaces provided in the booklet. You may write on page 10 if you
need more space.

4.

There is no need to fill all of the space provided; clearly written, well-expressed answers are required. If you
delete part or all of an answer you should clearly indicate your final answer.

5.

The total mark is 80. The four questions are of approximately equal value.

6.

Write your name and group number in the box provided.

STUDENTS DECLARATION ON THE USE OF


CALCULATORS
By signing the examination attendance roll I declare that:
my calculators have been cleared of all memory;
no external storage media are in use on these
calculators.
I understand that if I do not comply with the above conditions
for the use of calculators I will:
be in breach the rules;
have my marks for the examination cancelled or
amended;
be liable to such further penalty, whether by exclusion

QUESTION 1
(a) For the element fluorine:
(i) Name the block in which it occurs in the Periodic Table and explain why it occupies this
position.
______________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________ (2 marks)
(ii) State the nature of the element.
_______________________________________________________________________ (1 mark)
(iii) Give one likely oxidation state it forms in compounds.
_______________________________________________________________________ (1 mark)
(iv) State whether its electronegativity will be low, intermediate or high.
_______________________________________________________________________ (1 mark)
(b) Consider the element zinc.
(i) Write the electron configuration for the zinc ion in ZnO.
______________________________________________________________________ (2 marks)

(ii) A sample of zinc oxide is added into test tube which contains 10 mLs of acid. Each is shaken
vigorously. Write down the relevant balanced chemical equations.

(2 marks)
(c) Phosphorus is one of the very important elements required by plants.
(i) Phosphorus forms a +5 oxidation state, state two other possible oxidation states of
phosphorus.
______________________________________________________________________ (2 marks)
(ii) State the primary bonding present in phosphorus trichloride.
_______________________________________________________________________ (1 mark)

(d) (i) Draw the shape of PCl3 based on VSEPR theory.

(2 marks)
(ii) Explain the shape of SO3 based on VSEPR theory.

(3 marks)
(iii) Explain the polarity of PCl3.
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________ (3 marks)

TOTAL: 20 marks

QUESTION 2
(a) The Haber process is the industrial process used to produce ammonia and one of the major ways to
remove nitrogen from the atmosphere.
(i) Write a balanced equation for the production of ammonia.
(2 marks)
(ii) Name the process that converts N2 to NO3- ion.
_______________________________________________________________________ (1 mark)
(b) Write a balanced equation for the photosynthesis process.
(2 marks)
(c) State the products of aerobic decomposition based on these elements:
(i) Nitrogen: ______________________________________________________________ (1 mark)
(ii) Phosphorus: ____________________________________________________________ (1 mark)
(iii) Carbon: _______________________________________________________________ (1 mark)
(d) Plants required significant amounts of the essential elements nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) for
growth.

(i) Describe the roles of these elements to plants.


(1) Nitrogen:
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________ (2 marks)
(2) Phosphorus:
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________ (2 marks)

(ii) Describe the process by which lightning makes atmospheric nitrogen available to plants.

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________ (4 marks)

(c) The greenhouse effect is important. Without the greenhouse effect, the Earth would not be warm
enough for humans to live. But if the greenhouse effect becomes stronger, it could make the Earth
warmer than usual.
(i) Name one of the greenhouse gases besides methane.
_______________________________________________________________________ (1 mark)

(ii) Anaerobic breakdown of plant material is the main source of methane production into the
atmosphere. Describe the human activities that enhanced the greenhouse effect based on methane
production.
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________(3 marks)

TOTAL: 20 marks
QUESTION 3

(a)

Acid rain is one of the most dangerous and widespread forms of pollution.
(i) Write a balanced chemical equation to show that the normal rain is acidic.
(2 marks)
(ii) A sample of river water taken in an industrial area was found to have a hydrogen ion
concentration of 0.0045 mol L-1 . Calculate the pH of the river water.

(2 marks)
(iii) Explain how nitric oxide is converted into nitric acid in the atmosphere.
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________ (2 marks)
(b) The gas sulphur trioxide, when in our atmosphere, is referred to as a secondary pollutant.
(i) Explain what is meant by the term secondary pollutant.
_______________________________________________________________________ (1 mark)
(ii) Explain the conversion of NO2 to O3 in photochemical smog by giving one suitable equation.
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________ (3 marks)

(iii) A catalytic converter can be used to reduce the photochemical smog. Explain the use of catalytic
converter.
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________ (2 marks)
Credit will be given for answers to part (c) which shows clearly written, well-expressed ideas, and which
present accurate and relevant information in a well-organized, logical manner.
Your answer to part (c) should use clear well expressed ideas and present information in a logical
manner. Your answer, which must include one equation, should be confined to the space provided.
(c) Acid rain is a problem in some parts of the world.
Describe how sulphur in petrol contributes to acid rain.
Describe a problem which acid rain can cause in the environment and one measure which can be taken
to reduce the likelihood of it occurring.
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________ (8 marks)

TOTAL: 20 marks
QUESTION 4
(a)

Draw the following organic compounds


(1) 2,3-dimethylheptan-4-one

(2 marks)
(2) 2,3-dibromopentanoic acid

(2 marks)
(3) 2-methylhexan-3-ol

(2 marks)
(b)

Name the following organic molecules according to IUPAC system.


(1)

CH3(CH2)5COCH3

(2)

H2N(CH2)4NH2
(4 marks)

(b) Alanine molecule as shown below is an example of amino acids. Alanine is found in a wide variety of
foods.
O
OH

NH2

alanine

(i) Explain the solubility of alanine in water.


______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________ (3 marks)
(ii) Draw a diagram to show the hydrogen bonding between alanine and a water molecule.

(3 marks)

(iv) Circle and label only two functional groups in the aldosterone molecule below.
O
CH
HO
CH3

CH2OH
C

(4 marks)