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Chapter 19 Organizational Change and Stress Management MULTIPLE CHOICE Forces For Change 1.

Which of the following is not a primary force for change in organizations? a. technology b. economic shocks c. decreasing skill sets d. social trends e. the nature of the workforce (c; Easy; Forces for Change; pp. 619-620) 2. An example of change in the nature of the work force is an increase in_____. a. college attendance b. mergers and consolidations c. capital equipment d. divorce rates e. more cultural diversity (e; Moderate; Nature of the Workforce; p. 619) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 3. Phrases such as more cultural diversity, many new entrants with inadequate skills, and increase in aging workers are all examples of what force for change? a. technology b. world politics c. nature of the work force d. social trends e. competition (c; Easy; Nature of the Workforce; p. 619) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 4. An example of change in competition is _____. a. growth of e-commerce b. collapse of Enron Corporation c. IraqU.S. war d. increased interest in urban living e. a decrease in interest rates (a; Easy; Competition; p. 619) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} Planned Change 5. Change activities that are _____ and goal oriented are termed planned change. a. intentional b. discretionary c. random d. reflexive e. restorative (a; Moderate; Planned Change; p. 621)

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What is a goal of planned change? a. to change the forces of change b. to alter the agents of change c. to change employees responsibilities d. to improve the ability to adapt to the environment e. to alter the employees environment (d; Moderate; Goals of Planned Change; p. 621) Resistance to Change 7. Resistance to change can be positive because _____. a. it provides a degree of stability to behavior and productivity b. without some resistance, OB would take on characteristics of chaotic randomness c. resistance can be a source of functional conflict d. all of the above e. none of the above (d; Moderate; Resistance to Change; p. 622) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 8. It is easiest for management to deal with resistance when it is _____. a. covert b. deferred c. passive d. implicit e. overt (e; Moderate; Resistance to Change; p. 622) 9. Managing resistance to change that is _____ is extremely challenging. a. passive b. resolute c. deferred d. explicit e. overt (c; Moderate; Resistance to Change; p. 622) 10. Which of the following is not a source of individual resistance to change? a. habit b. security c. fear of the unknown d. inertia e. economic factors (d; Moderate; Sources of Individual Resistance to Change; p. 623) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 11. An example of a source of individual resistance to change is _____. a. inertia b. structural inertia c. a habit d. threat to expertise e. a policy conflict (c; Moderate; Sources of Resistance to Change; p. 623)

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12.

Which of the following is not a source of individual resistance to change? a. habit b. security c. fear of the unknown d. inertia e. economic factors (d; Moderate; Sources of Individual Resistance to Change; p. 623) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 13. All of the following are sources of organizational resistance to change except _____. a. structural inertia b. security c. limited focus of change d. threat to established power relationships e. group inertia (b; Moderate; Sources of Organizational Resistance to Change; p. 623) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 14. _____ is a source of organizational resistance. a. Structural motion b. Security c. Unlimited focus of change d. Support of established power relationships e. Threat to resource allocations (e; Moderate; Sources of Organizational Resistance to Change; p. 623) 15. Which one of the following is not listed as a tactic for dealing with resistance to change? a. acceleration b. manipulation c. participation d. cooptation e. education (a; Easy; Tactics for Dealing with Resistance to Change; p. 623) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 16. Which tactic for overcoming resistance to change basically assumes that the source of resistance lies in misinformation? a. training and development b. facilitation and support c. education and communication d. teaching and advancement e. cooptation and manipulation (c; Moderate; Education and Communication; p. 623) 17. Using covert influence to overcome resistance to change is called _____. a. negotiation b. cooptation c. education d. coercion e. manipulation (e; Moderate; Manipulation; p. 624)

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18.

If individuals resisting change are included in making change decisions in an attempt to gain their support, this approach is called _____. a. cooptation b. exploitation c. manipulation d. coercion e. education (a; Moderate; Cooptation; p. 624) 19. Which tactic to overcome resistance to change is a relatively easy way to gain the support of adversaries, but may backfire if the targets become aware of the tactic? a. negotiation b. conciliation c. manipulation d. coercion e. cooperation (c; Challenging; Manipulation; p. 624) 20. The application of direct threats or force upon resisters is called _____. a. exploitation b. cooptation c. manipulation d. coercion e. destruction (d; Moderate; Coercion; p. 624) 21. Politics suggest that the impetus for change is more likely to come from _____. a. outside change agents b. employees who are new to the organization c. managers slightly removed from the main power structure. d. all of the above e. none of the above (d; Moderate; Politics of Change; p. 625) 22. Managers who have spent their entire careers with an organization and are high in the hierarchy are _____. a. good change agents b. generally the impetus for change c. often impediments to change d. usually focused on radical change e. none of the above (c; Moderate; Politics of Change; p. 625) Approaches to Managing Organizational Change 23. Who developed a three-step model for change that included unfreezing, movement, and refreezing? a. John Kotter b. David McClelland c. Douglas Surber d. Lawrence Summers e. Kurt Lewin (e; Moderate; Lewins Three-Step Model; p. 625)

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_____ is one way to achieve unfreezing of an organizations status quo. a. Increasing the driving forces directing behavior away from the status quo b. Decreasing the restraining forces which hinder movement from inequality c. Increasing employee investment in the status quo d. Decreasing managements investment in change e. Increasing the rigidity of the organizational hierarchy (a; Challenging; Unfreezing; p. 626) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 25. To move from equilibrium, Lewin suggests _____ forces. a. decreasing restraining b. increasing compelling c. decreasing driving d. all of the above e. none of the above (a; Moderate; Unfreezing; p. 626) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 26. Who built upon the three-step model to create a more detailed approach for implementing change? a. John Kotter b. David McClelland c. Douglas Surber d. Lawrence Summers e. Kurt Lewin (a; Moderate; Kotters Eight-Step Plan for Implementing Change; p. 627) 27. _____ is a change process based on systematic collection of data and selection of a change action based on what the analyzed data indicate. a. Organizational development b. Action research c. Planned change d. Process consultation e. Organizational restructuring (b; Moderate; Action Research; p. 628) 28. All of the following are steps in the process of action research except _____. a. diagnosis b. forming c. feedback d. action e. evaluation (b; Moderate; Stages of Action Research; p. 628) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 29. The action research process closely resembles _____. a. political research b. the scientific method c. organizational development d. appreciative inquiry e. an economic paradigm (b; Moderate; Action Research; p. 628)

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30.

The step in the action research process where information is gathered about problems, concerns, and needed changes is known as the _____ stage. a. feedback b. evaluation c. diagnosis d. action e. prognosis (c; Moderate; Diagnosis Stage of Action Research; p. 628) 31. In the process of action research, diagnosis is followed by _____. a. feedback b. analysis c. action d. evaluation e. re-evaluation (b; Moderate; Analysis Stage of Action Research; p. 628) 32. Which of the following is considered a benefit of action research for an organization? a. Employees can carry out the specific actions to correct the problems identified. b. It is problem focused. c. It is solution centered. d. It is simple to implement. e. It has no financial costs associated with it. (b; Moderate; Benefits of Action Research; p. 628) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 33. _____ encompasses a collection of planned-change interventions built on humanistic-democratic values that seek to improve organizational effectiveness and employee well-being. a. Organizational development b. Reflected change c. Process consultation d. Action research e. Economic validity (a; Moderate; Organizational Development; p. 628) 34. Which of the following is not considered an underlying value in organizational development? a. participation b. confrontation c. implementation d. respect e. trust (c; Easy; Underlying Values in Organizational Development; p. 629) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 35. Which of the following is not true of organizational development? a. Problems should be condensed. b. Problems should be openly confronted. c. Effective organizations are characterized by trust. d. People should be treated with dignity and respect. e. All of the above are true. (a; Moderate; Underlying Values in Organizational Development; p. 629) {AACSB: Analytic Skills}

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36.

The de-emphasis of hierarchical authority and control in organizational development is referred to as _____. a. participation b. power equalization c. trust and support d. respect for people e. vertical blending (b; Moderate; Power Equalization; p. 629) 37. T-groups are also known as _____. a. action research teams b. appreciative inquiry training groups c. team building groups d. sensitivity training groups e. focus groups (d; Easy; Sensitivity Training; p. 629) 38. _____ is a method of changing behavior through unstructured group interaction. a. Action research b. Planned change c. Process consultation d. Sensitivity training e. Psychoanalysis (d; Moderate; Sensitivity Training; p. 629) 39. _____ is a tool for assessing attitudes held by organizational members, identifying discrepancies among member perceptions, and solving these differences. a. Sensitivity training b. Survey feedback c. Process consultation d. Intergroup development e. MBWA (b; Easy; Survey Feedback; p. 630) 40. The purpose of _____ is for an outside consultant to assist a client, usually a manager, to perceive, understand, and act upon process events with which the manager must deal. a. a change agent b. survey feedback c. process consultation d. action research e. social reinforcement (c; Moderate; Process Consultation; p. 630) 41. The activities included in team building include all of the following except _____. a. goal setting b. personal development c. team process analysis d. role analysis e. defining priorities (b; Moderate; Team Building; p. 631) {AACSB: Analytic Skills}

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42.

Rather than looking for problems, _____ seeks to identify the unique qualities and special strengths of an organization, which can then be built upon to improve performance. a. appreciative inquiry b. action research c. team building d. process consultation e. social reinforcement (a; Moderate; Appreciative Inquiry; p. 632) 43. Which of the following is not a step in the appreciative inquiry process? a. discovery b. dreaming c. devising d. destiny e. design (c; Moderate; Steps of Appreciative Inquiry; p. 633) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} Creating a Culture for Change 44. _____ is a new idea applied to initiating or improving a product, process, or service. a. A continuous improvement process b. Double-loop learning c. Innovation d. Process reengineering e. Organizational streaming (c; Moderate; Innovation; p. 634) 45. Which of the following has been the most studied potential source of innovation? a. cultural variables b. structural variables c. human resource factors d. champions e. brainstorming (b; Moderate; Innovation; p. 634) 46. An organization that has developed the continuous capacity to adapt and change is termed a(n) _____. a. maladapted mechanism b. continuous improvement process c. innovative organization d. double-loop learning organization e. learning organization (e; Easy; Learning Organization; p. 635) 47. _____ involves correcting errors using past routines and present policies. a. Process reengineering b. Single-loop learning c. Double-loop learning d. Continuous improvement process e. Organizational reaction (b; Moderate; Single-Loop Learning; p. 635)

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48.

Errors that are corrected by modifying the organizations objectives, policies, and standard routines are part of _____. a. single-loop learning b. double-loop learning c. process reengineering d. the continuous improvement process e. tertiary continuance (b; Moderate; Double-Loop Learning; p. 635) 49. Which of the following is a characteristic of a learning organization? Its employees _____. a. have standard ways of doing their jobs b. pursue projects of interest c. focus on breaking down barriers created by hierarchical levels d. think in terms of independent relationships e. have high levels of technical knowledge (c; Challenging; Learning Organization; p. 635) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 50. Which of the following is not a characteristic of a learning organization? a. There is a shared vision upon which everyone agrees. b. People sublimate their personal self-interest to work together to achieve the organizations shared vision. c. Members integrate old ways of thinking with new ideas. d. People openly communicate with each other. e. There is consensus on the direction of the organization. (c; Moderate; Characteristics of Learning Organizations; p. 636) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 51. Which is not a strategy for managers to make their firms learning organizations? a. Establish a strategy that makes managements commitment to innovation explicit. b. Redesign the organizations structure by flattening the structure and increasing the use of cross-functional teams. c. Reshape the organizations culture by emphasizing risk taking and openness. d. Systematically collect data and then select a change action based on the analyzed data. e. Make it clear that people high in the organization are behind any proposed change. (d; Moderate; Creating Learning Organizations; p. 636) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} Work Stress and Its Management 52. Political uncertainties, economic uncertainties, and technological change are examples of which category of potential sources of stress? a. economic b. environmental c. organizational d. group e. social (b; Easy; Environmental Sources of Stress; p. 639) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 53. Which of the following is not an organizational factor related to stress? a. economic conditions b. task demands c. role demands d. interpersonal demands e. none of the above (a; Moderate; Organizational Sources of Stress; p. 640) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 54. Family issues, economic problems, and personality characteristics are examples of the _____ 152

factor of potential stress. a. social b. environmental c. personnel d. psychological e. personal (e; Moderate; Personal Sources of Stress; p. 640) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 55. Consequences of stress can surface as _____ symptoms. a. physiological b. psychological c. behavioral d. all of the above e. none of the above (d; Easy; Consequences of Stress; p. 642) 56. Increased blood pressure and increased heart rate are _____ symptoms of stress. a. psychological b. physiological c. behavioral d. personal e. reactive (b; Easy; Physiological Symptoms of Stress; p. 642) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 57. Which of the following is not a psychological symptom of stress? a. anxiety b. low self-esteem c. frustration d. high blood pressure e. a mood disorder (d; Easy; Psychological Symptoms of Stress; p. 642) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 58. Excessive smoking, substance abuse, accident proneness, and appetite disorders are all examples of _____ symptoms of stress. a. personal b. psychological c. behavioral d. physiological e. pathological (c; Moderate; Behavioral Symptoms of Stress; p. 642) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 59. The most widely studied pattern in the stress-performance literature is the _____ relationship. a. self-efficacy b. reverse-inverted c. inverted-U d. double-loop e. single-loop (c; Easy; Inverted-U Relationship; p. 643)

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60.

Which of the following characteristics is most likely to be associated with high stress? a. considerable job experience b. external locus of control c. a high sense of competence d. type B behavior e. a positive outlook (b; Moderate; Managing Stress; p. 645) 61. _____ is an example of an individual approach to stress reduction. a. Selection and placement b. Redesigning jobs c. Goal setting d. Relaxation techniques e. all of the above (d; Easy; Individual Approaches to Managing Stress; p. 645) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 62. Organizationally supported programs that focus on the employees total physical and mental condition are called _____ programs. a. job redesign b. relaxation c. employee involvement d. organizational development e. wellness (e; Easy; Wellness Programs; p. 645) TRUE/FALSE Forces For Change 63. Change or die is the rallying cry among todays managers worldwide. (True; Easy; Forces for Change; p. 619) 64. Technology is a force that acts as a catalyst for change. (True; Easy; Forces for Change; p. 619) 65. The global economy means that competitors are as likely to come from across the ocean as from across town. (True; Easy; Competition; p. 620) Planned Change 66. Change agent is synonymous with manager. (False; Easy; Change Agents; p. 621) Resistance To Change 67. Research demonstrates that any effort to resist change is dysfunctional in terms of organizational effectiveness. (False; Moderate; Resistance to Change; p. 622) 68. There is a negative correlation between peoples need for security and their resistance to change. (False; Moderate; Sources of Individual Resistance to Change; p. 623)

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If an individual believes his/her income will be affected negatively by a particular change, resistance will increase. (True; Moderate; Sources of Individual Resistance to Change; p. 623) 70. Change is caused by individual, not organizational, factors. (False; Easy; Sources of Resistance to Change; pp. 622-623) 71. Cooptation is a form of both manipulation and participation. (True; Moderate; Cooptation; p. 624) 72. Internal change agents typically are individuals high in the organization who have little to lose from the change. (False; Moderate; Internal Change Agents; p. 625) 73. You should expect that long-time career executives will be proponents of change. (False; Moderate; Politics of Change; p. 625) Approaches to Managing Organizational Change 74. According to Lewins model, refreezing is required if changes are to be permanent. (True; Easy; Lewins Three-Step Model; p. 625) 75. Inertia forces direct behavior away from the status quo. (False; Easy; Driving Forces; p. 626) 76. Retention forces are those that hinder movement from the existing equilibrium. (False; Moderate; Restraining Forces; p. 626) 77. Appreciative inquiry refers to a change process based on systematic collection of data and then selection of a change action based on what the analyzed data indicates. (False; Moderate; Action Research; p. 628) 78. In the process of action research, the gathering of information about problems occurs in the analysis stage. (False; Moderate; Steps of Action Research; p. 628) 79. The diagnosis step of action research is analogous to the physicians search to find the appropriate treatment. (False; Moderate; Steps of Action Research; p. 628) 80. The steps of action research fall in this order: analysis, diagnosis, feedback, action, and evaluation. (False; Moderate; Steps of Action Research; p. 628) 81. An advantage of action research is that it is solution-centered. (False; Moderate; Action Research; p. 628) 82. Organizational behavior (OB) is not a readily definable concept, but a convenient term used to encompass a variety of activities for managing change. (False; Moderate; Organizational Development; p. 628) 83. Sensitivity training emphasizes changing behavior through structured group interaction. (False; Moderate; Sensitivity Training; p. 629)

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The objectives of survey feedback are to provide subjects with increased awareness of their own behavior and how others see them. (False; Easy; Survey Feedback; p. 630) 85. Process consultants work with the clients in jointly diagnosing what processes need improvement. (True; Moderate; Process Consultation; pp. 630-631) 86. Team building is applicable where group activities are interdependent. (True; Moderate; Team Building; p. 631) 87. Intergroup development seeks to change attitudes, stereotypes, and perceptions that groups have of each other. (True; Moderate; Intergroup Development; p. 632) 88. Appreciative inquiry is problem-focused. (False; Moderate; Appreciative Inquiry; p. 632) 89. Appreciative inquiry is a collection of change techniques or interventions built on humanisticdemocratic values. (False; Moderate; Appreciative Inquiry; p. 632) 90. In appreciative inquiry, the initial diagnosis stage is followed by analysis. (False; Moderate; Steps of Appreciative Inquiry; p. 633) Creating a Culture for Change 91. All innovations involve change. (True; Easy; Innovation; p. 634) 92. Change is a specialized kind of innovation. (False; Easy; Innovation; p. 634) 93. Organic structures positively influence innovation. (True; Moderate; Sources of Innovation; p. 634) 94. Innovation is nurtured where there are slack resources. (True; Moderate; Sources of Innovation; p. 634) 95. Innovative organizations tend to have similar cultures. (True; Moderate; Sources of Innovation; p. 634) 96. Innovative organizations reward employees for failures. (True; Moderate; Sources of Innovation; p. 634) 97. Idea champions have extremely high self confidence, persistence, energy, and a tendency to take risks. (True; Easy; Idea Champions; p. 635) 98. Idea champions display characteristics associated with transactional leadership. (False; Challenging; Idea Champions; p. 635) 99. Double-loop learning is an error correction process that relies on past routines and present policies. (False; Moderate; Double-Loop Learning; p. 635) 156

100. A learning organization is an ideal rather than an organizational reality. (True; Easy; Learning Organization; p. 635) 101. An excellent illustration of a learning organization is Merck. (True; Easy; Learning Organization; p. 637) Work Stress and Its Management 102. Stress may offer the opportunity for potential gain. (True; Easy; Stress; p. 637) 103. Computers are an example of individual stress factors. (False; Easy; Environmental Sources of Stress; p. 639) 104. The organizational factors that cause stress include: task demands, role demands, and interpersonal demands. (True; Moderate; Organizational Sources of Stress; p. 640) 105. Financial stressors created by overextending are an example of the environmental stress category. (False; Moderate; Personal Sources of Stress; p. 640) 106. A persons basic disposition is a major private factor that influences stress. (True; Moderate; Personal Sources of Stress; p. 640) 107. Social support can buffer the impact of stress. (True; Easy; Moderators of Stress; p. 641) 108. Experience on the job tends to be positively related to work stress. (False; Moderate; Moderators of Stress; p. 641) 109. Few of the factors that cause stress are controlled by management. (False; Easy; Organizational Approaches to Managing Stress; p. 645) 110. To help manage stress, organizations can use the techniques of goal setting and redesigning jobs, among others. (True; Easy; Organizational Approaches to Managing Stress; p. 645) 111. The potential payoff from wellness programs has not been documented. (False; Easy; Wellness Programs; p. 645) Global Implications 112. An idea champion in Germany will be more effective by ignoring budgets and procedures. (False; Moderate; Idea Champions and Culture; p. 647) {AACSB: Multicultural and Diversity} 113. Conditions that cause stress are universal in effect. (False; Easy; Stress and Culture; p. 648) {AACSB: Multicultural and Diversity}

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SCENARIO-BASED QUESTIONS Application of Sources of Resistance To Change Your supervisor has restructured the jobs within your division and some of your colleagues are not pleased. Don is concerned that he will not be able to perform the new tasks. Since he is paid by the amount he produces, his pay might be reduced. Tony is afraid that his job may be in jeopardy and he may be laid off. Doug dislikes uncertainty and has developed a negative attitude. 114. The source of Tonys resistance is _____. a. habit b. selective information processing c. security d. group inertia e. none of the above (c; Moderate; Sources of Individual Resistance to Change; p. 623) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 115. The source of Dons resistance is _____. a. habit b. economic c. security d. structural inertia e. none of the above (b; Moderate; Sources of Individual Resistance to Change; p. 623) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 116. The source of Dougs resistance is _____. a. habit b. economic c. selective information processing d. fear of the unknown e. none of the above (d; Moderate; Sources of Individual Resistance to Change; p. 623) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 117. Since the restructuring, your division has had trouble filling the open positions with appropriate candidates. The selection processes used by human resources have not yet adjusted to the new criteria required for the restructured job positions. This problem is an example of which kind of resistance to change? a. structural inertia b. limited focus of change c. group inertia d. threat to expertise e. threat to established power relationships (a; Moderate; Sources of Organizational Resistance to Change; p. 623) {AACSB: Analytic Skills}

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Application of Overcoming Resistance to Change Your company, Johnson Farm Products, has decided to expand its traditional business serving farm owners in order to include home gardeners in its customer base. This change is not met with enthusiasm by the sales personnel who have had good long-term relationships with area farmers. You know that the change will be difficult if you cannot overcome the resistance of the sales personnel and obtain their cooperation. 118. You have brought in the local extension agent to explain demographics and the changing nature of the area in which you live. The method for overcoming resistance that you have chosen is _____. a. education and communication b. participation c. negotiation d. manipulation and cooptation e. coercion (a; Easy; Education and Communication; p. 623) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 119. You have decided to involve the sales personnel in planning for the change and in stocking appropriate new items to sell to gardeners. The method for overcoming resistance that you have chosen is _____. a. education and communication b. participation c. negotiation d. manipulation and cooptation e. coercion (b; Easy; Participation; pp. 623-624) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 120. You have threatened to eliminate positions and even to close down the company if your employees dont change their attitudes. The method for overcoming resistance that you have chosen may be _____. a. education and communication b. participation c. negotiation d. manipulation e. building support and commitment (d; Easy; Manipulation; p. 624) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 121. In reaction to your threat to close down the company, your employees accuse you of manipulating them to gain their cooperation with the new sales approach. Their accusation is ________. a. accurate, because you fully intend to follow through on your threat if the sales team refuses to support the new customer focus b. accurate, because you plan to eliminate many sales positions regardless of whether your sales force accepts the new customer focus c. inaccurate, because your threat to eliminate positions and close down the company is simply a ruse to gain employees compliance d. inaccurate, because you fully intend to follow through on your threat if the sales team refuses to support the new customer focus e. accurate, because your threat to eliminate positions and close down the company is simply a ruse to gain employees compliance (e; Challenging; Manipulation; p. 624) {AACSB: Analytic Skills}

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Application of Approaches to Managing Organizational Change Mintzs Motor Repair is moving its location to a larger community 100 miles away. Mintz would like for its mechanics to move with the company but realizes that there will be some hardships associated with the move. Mintz has decided to use Lewins three-step model in order to make the change. 122. As a manager in charge of the relocation effort, you are offering a $2,000 moving bonus for any employee who will go to the new location. In Lewins terms, you are attempting to _____. a. unfreeze the status quo b. move the process along c. refreeze the change d. bribe your employees e. none of the above (a; Challenging; Unfreezing; pp. 625-626) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 123. You have implemented a permanent upward adjustment of salaries for employees who relocate. You are attempting to _____. a. unfreeze the status quo b. move the process along c. refreeze the change d. change a driving force e. none of the above (c; Challenging; Refreezing; p. 626) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 124. You counsel each employee individually, trying to lessen each persons fears about the move. This is an example of _____. a. removing driving forces b. increasing driving forces c. removing restraining forces d. brainwashing e. none of the above (c; Challenging; Unfreezing; p. 626) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 125. Despite your attempts to unfreeze the status quo at Mintz, your employees are still resistant to the relocation. According to Kotters model, which of the following would most likely help to overcome this problem? a. emphasizing the importance of short-term wins by discouraging risk taking b. creating a set of strategies for the move and sticking with them at all costs c. limiting your discussion of your vision for the move to employees with the highest rankings d. postponing the moving deadline since it isnt critical that the move occur immediately e. providing employees with a list of compelling reasons for the move (e; Challenging; Kotters Eight-Step Plan for Implementing Change; p. 627) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 126. You decide to put more effort into planning the relocation effort, and you choose to institute an appreciative inquiry (AI) to increase employee investment in the change. To coordinate the AI, an outside consultant is hired who does which of the following? a. focuses on reviewing past mistakes and avoiding shortcomings b. demonstrates to your employees that you are at fault for not planning the relocation properly c. focuses on identifying the problems of your organization d. convenes a large-group meeting of your employees over a 2 day time period e. none of the above (c; Challenging; Appreciative Inquiry; p. 632) {AACSB: Analytic Skills}

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Application of Action Research You have decided to use action research to manage a planned change in your department. You have carefully mapped out the five steps of the process. 127. You ask questions and interview your employees in which step of the process? a. action b. diagnosis c. evaluation d. feedback e. analysis (b; Moderate; Diagnosis Stage of Action Research; p. 628) {AACSB: Analytic Skills}

128.

In which stage of the process do you synthesize the information into primary concerns, problem areas, and possible actions? a. evaluation b. action c. analysis d. feedback e. diagnosis (c; Moderate; Analysis Stage of Action Research; p. 628) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 129. In which stage do you share with employees what you have found and develop action plans? a. evaluation b. analysis c. feedback d. action e. diagnosis (c; Moderate; Feedback Stage of Action Research; p. 628) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} Application of Understanding Stress and Its Consequences TNT Net is a company that you have established within the computer industry, where innovations are common. Your employees are highly trained, well educated, and hard working. They are under a great deal of stress and TNT Net is concerned that productivity and job satisfaction will decline. 130. The technological change that employees are dealing with is a(n) _____ stress-producing factor. a. organizational b. environmental c. individual d. industrial e. none of the above (b; Moderate; Environmental Sources of Stress; p. 639) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 131. One of your employees is very stressed out as a result of being asked to assume too many roles in his job. This source of stress is _____. a. organizational b. environmental c. individual d. industrial e. none of the above (a; Moderate; Organizational Sources of Stress; p. 640) {AACSB: Analytic Skills}

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132.

In an attempt to recognize stress early, you should be aware that symptoms may be _____. a. physiological b. psychological c. behavioral d. all of the above e. none of the above (d; Moderate; Consequences of Stress; p. 642) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} SHORT DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 133. What are the three steps in Lewins model for change? Kurt Lewin argued that successful change in organizations should follow three steps: unfreezing the status quo, movement to a new state, and refreezing the new change to make it permanent. (Easy; Lewins Three-Step Model; p. 625) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 134. What is action research? Action research refers to a change process based on the systematic collection of data and then selection of a change agent based on what the analyzed data indicate. The importance of this approach lies in providing a scientific methodology for managing planned change. The process of action research consists of five steps: diagnosis, analysis, feedback, action, and evaluation. These steps closely parallel the scientific method. (Easy; Action Research; p. 628) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 135. What is innovation? Innovation is a more specialized kind of change. It is a new idea applied to initiating or improving a product, process, or service. So all innovations involve change, but not all changes necessarily involve new ideas or lead to significant improvements. (Easy; Innovation; p. 634) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 136. What is a learning organization? A learning organization is an organization that has developed the continuous capacity to adapt and change. Just as individuals learn, so too do organizations. (Easy; Learning Organization; p. 635) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 137. What is the difference between single-loop learning and double-loop learning? Most organizations engage in what has been called single-loop learning. When errors are detected, the correction process relies on past routines and present policies. In contrast, learning organizations use double-loop learning. When an error is detected, it is corrected in ways that involve the modification of the organizations objectives, policies, and standard routines. Double-loop learning challenges deep-rooted assumptions and norms within an organization. It provides opportunities for radically different solutions to problems and dramatic jumps in improvement. (Moderate; Single-Loop Learning and Double-Loop Learning; p. 635) {AACSB: Analytic Skills}

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What can managers do to make their firms learning organizations? Managers can make their firms learning organizations through a number of suggestions. Management can establish a strategy. Management might also redesign the organizations structure. In addition, they can reshape the organizations culture. (Easy; Creating Learning Organizations; p. 636) {AACSB: Analytic Skills}

139.

What is stress? Stress is a dynamic condition in which an individual is confronted with an opportunity, constraint, or demand related to what he or she desires and for which the outcome is perceived to be both uncertain and important. Stress is not necessarily bad in and of itself. (Easy; Stress; p. 637) {AACSB: Analytic Skills}

140.

Discuss some of the psychological consequences of stress. Stress can cause dissatisfaction. Job-related stress can cause job-related dissatisfaction. Other psychological states include tension, anxiety, irritability, boredom, and procrastination. (Easy; Psychological Symptoms of Stress; p. 642) {AACSB: Analytic Skills}

141.

What are some individual approaches to managing stress? Individual strategies that have proven effective include implementing time management techniques, increasing physical exercise, relaxation training, and expanding the social support network. (Easy; Individual Approaches to Managing Stress; p. 645) {AACSB: Analytic Skills}

MEDIUM LENGTH DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 142. List the six specific forces for change. The six specific forces for change are: the nature of the workforce, technology, economic shocks, competition, social trends, and world politics. a) The nature of the workforce includes more cultural diversity, increase in professionals, and many new entrants with inadequate skills. b) Technology includes faster and cheaper computers, new mobile communication devices, and deciphering of the human genetic code. c) Economic shocks include the rise and fall of dot.com stocks, the decline in the value of the Euro, and the collapse of Enron Corporation. d) Competition includes global competitors; mergers and consolidations; and the growth of e-commerce. e) Social trends include Internet chat rooms, the retirement of Baby Boomers, and the increased interest in urban living. f) World politics includes the escalation of hostilities in the Middle East, the opening of markets in China, and the war on terrorism. (Moderate; Forces for Change; pp. 619-620) {AACSB: Analytic Skills}

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143.

What are the five steps of the action research process? The process of action research consists of five steps: diagnosis, analysis, feedback, action, and evaluation. The change agent begins by gathering information about problems, concerns, and needed changes from members of the organization. The change agent asks questions, interviews employees, reviews records, and listens to the concerns of employees. a) In the diagnosis stage, the change agent synthesizes this information into primary concerns, problem areas, and possible actions. b) Action research includes extensive involvement of the change targets. c) Feedback requires sharing with employees what has been found from steps one and two. The employees, with the help of the change agent, develop action plans for bringing about any needed change. d) The employees and the change agent carry out the specific actions to correct the problems that have been identified. e) The final step is evaluation of the action plans effectiveness. (Moderate; Stages of Action Research; p. 628) {AACSB: Analytic Skills}

COMPREHENSIVE ESSAYS 144. Discuss resistance to change in term of its organizational sources. There are six major sources of organizational resistance to change. a) Structural Inertia. Organizations have built-in mechanisms to produce stability. Formalization provides job descriptions, rules, and procedures for employees to follow. b) Limited Focus of Change. Organizations are made up of a number of interdependent subsystems. You cant change one without affecting the others. c) Group Inertia. Even if individuals want to change their behavior, group norms may act as a constraint. d) Threat to Expertise. Changes in organizational patterns may threaten the expertise of specialized groups. e) Threat to Established Power Relationships. Any redistribution of decision-making authority can threaten long-established power relationships within the organization. f) Threat to Established Resource Allocations. Groups in the organization that control sizable resources often see change as a threat. They tend to be content with the way things are. (Challenging; Sources of Resistance to Change; p. 623) {AACSB: Analytic Skills}

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145.

List six interventions that change agents might consider using.

a) Sensitivity training refers to a method of changing behavior through unstructured


group interaction. Members are brought together in a free and open environment in which participants discuss themselves and their interactive processes, loosely directed by a professional behavioral scientist. b) One tool for assessing attitudes held by organizational members, identifying discrepancies among member perceptions, and solving these differences is the survey feedback approach. c) The purpose of process consultation is for an outside consultant to assist a client to perceive, understand, and act upon process events with which he or she must deal. These might include work flow, informal relationships among unit members, and formal communication channels. d) Team building utilizes high-interaction group activities to increase trust and openness among team members. e) Intergroup development seeks to change the attitudes, stereotypes, and perceptions that groups have of each other. f) Appreciative inquiry seeks to identify the unique qualities and special strengths of an organization, which can then be built upon to improve performance. That is, it focuses on an organizations successes rather than its problems. (Challenging; Interventions for Bringing about Change; Pages 629-632) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 146. Discuss stress and the types of stress. Describe the potential sources of stress. Stress is a dynamic condition in which an individual is confronted with an opportunity, constraint, or demand related to what he or she desires and for which the outcome is perceived to be both uncertain and important. Stress is not necessarily bad in and of itself. Although stress is typically discussed in a negative context, it also has a positive value. Its an opportunity when it offers potential gain. In short, some stress can be good, and some can be bad. Recently, researchers have argued that challenge stressorsor stressors associated with work load, pressure to complete tasks, and time urgencyoperates quite differently from hindrance stressors or stressors that keep you from reaching your goals (red tape, office politics, confusion over job responsibilities). Although research on challenge and hindrance stress is just starting to accumulate, early evidence suggests that challenge stressors are less harmful (produce less strain) than hindrance stressors. More typically, stress is associated with demands and resources. Demands are responsibilities, pressures, obligations, and even uncertainties that individuals face in the workplace. Resources are things within an individuals control that can be used to resolve the demands. This demandsresources model has received increasing support in the literature. There are three categories of potential stressors: environmental, organizational, and personal. a) Environmental sources of stress include economic uncertainty, political uncertainty, and technological uncertainty. b) Organizational sources of stress include: task demands, role demands, interpersonal demands, organizational structure, organizational leadership, and an organizations life cycle. c) Personal factors include family problems, financial problems, and personality. (Challenging; Stress and Sources of Stress; pp. 637-641) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 165

147.

Explain individual difference variables that moderate the stress-outcome relationship. At least four variablesperception, job experience, social support, and personalityhave been found to be relevant moderators of stress. a) Employees react in response to their perception of reality rather than to reality itself. Perception, therefore, will moderate the relationship between a potential stress condition and an employees reaction to it. So stress potential doesnt lie in objective conditions; it lies in an employees interpretation of those conditions. b) The evidence indicates that experience on the job tends to be negatively related to work stress. Voluntary turnover is more probable among people who experience more stress. Therefore, people who remain with the organization longer are those with more stress-resistant traits or those who are more resistant to the stress characteristics of their organization. Second, people eventually develop coping mechanisms to deal with stress. Because this takes time, senior members of the organization are more likely to be fully adapted and should experience less stress. c) There is increasing evidence that social supportthat is, collegial relationships with co-workers or supervisorscan buffer the impact of stress. The logic underlying this moderating variable is that social support acts as a palliative, mitigating the negative effects of even high-strain jobs. d) Personality also affects the degree to which people experience stress and how they cope with it. Perhaps the most widely studied personality trait in stress is Type A personality, Type Aparticularly that aspect of Type A that manifests itself in hostility and angeris associated with increased levels of stress and risk for heart disease. More specifically, people who are quick to anger, maintain a persistently hostile outlook, and project a cynical mistrust of others are at increased risk of experiencing stress in situations. (Challenging; Individual Differences; pp. 641-642) {AACSB: Analytic Skills}

148.

Explain the three consequences of stress. a) Physiological Symptoms. Most of the early concern with stress was directed at physiological symptoms. The research led to the conclusion that stress could create changes in metabolism, increase heart and breathing rates, increase blood pressure, bring on headaches, and induce heart attacks. The link between stress and particular physiological symptoms is not clear. Traditionally, researchers concluded that there were few, if any, consistent relationships. This is attributed to the complexity of the symptoms and the difficulty of objectively measuring them. More recently, some evidence suggests that stress may have harmful physiological effects. b) Psychological Symptoms. Stress can cause dissatisfaction. Job-related stress can cause job-related dissatisfaction. Job dissatisfaction, in fact, is the simplest and most obvious psychological effect of stress. But stress shows itself in other psychological statesfor instance, tension, anxiety, irritability, boredom, and procrastination. The evidence indicates that when people are placed in jobs that make multiple and conflicting demands or in which there is a lack of clarity about the incumbents duties, authority, and responsibilities, both stress and dissatisfaction are increased. Similarly, the less control people have over the pace of their work, the greater the stress and dissatisfaction. Although more research is needed to clarify the relationship, the evidence suggests that jobs that provide a low level of variety, significance, autonomy, feedback, and identity to incumbents create stress and reduce satisfaction and involvement in the job. c) Behavioral Symptoms. Behavior-related stress symptoms include changes in productivity, absence, and turnover, as well as changes in eating habits, increased smoking or consumption of alcohol, rapid speech, fidgeting, and sleep disorders. (Challenging; Consequences of Stress; p. 642) {AACSB: Analytic Skills}

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