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CALCULATION OF SAMPLE SIZE FOR QUALITATIVE VARIABLES Calculation of sample size is important because the results obtained from

the sample are to be applied to the whole population. If there is an error in calculating the sample size, it affects the entire results. Therefore, while calculating sample size investigator should take proper care. For calculation of sample size for estimate of qualitative variables the investigator should be provided with the following information on the basis of which the investigator can calculate sample size. 1. The investigator should be provided with possible presence of test positive animal or should have rough idea about the prevalence of disease in population, such an idea or base about the causative reactor of disease is called as P hat represented by symbol P^, while using this P hat in statistical calculation, it is always written in 0 to 1 frequency. 2 The confidence level should be given to investigator because formulae are different for preparation of sample size for qualitative variable at 95% and 99% confidence level. 3 The investigator should be provided with allowable error (required precision) in the result. It is represented by L. In statistical calculation, The allowable error to be used in 0 to 1 frequency. Formula for calculation of sample size at 95% confidence level n = 4PQ L2 Where P = approximate prevalence Q = 1- P For 95% confidence level, Z = 1.96, and therefore 4; which is approximate square of Z is taken L = Allowable error (required precision) Formula for calculation of sample size at 99% confidence level n = 6.6PQ L2 If the required sample size is actually more as compared to actual population then in such case, sample size can be corrected by using reciprocal of 1 n Where, = 1 + 1 n* N

n = required sample size to be calculated for animal population n* = calculated sample size N = Population size

Example calculation no. 1: Available incidence suggest that 30% of the cow population having positive antibody titre against enzootic bovine leucosis. Also assume that the investigator would like to survey the estimate within 6% allowable error. Calculate the sample size for both the confidence level of 95% and 99%. P = positive Ab titre 100 (cow population) P = 30 100 = 0.30 Q = (1 - P) = (1 - 0.30) = 0.70 L2= 6 100 = 0.06

a. At 95% confidence level: n = 4 PQ L2 = 40.30.7 (0.06)2 = 0.84 0.0036 = 233 Approximately 233 cows would be needed for survey.
b.

At 99% confidence level n = 6.6 PQ L2

= 6.6 0.3 0.7 (0.06)2 = 385 Approximately 385 cows would be needed for survey. If N = 150, calculate the corrected sample size at 95% and 99% confidence level 1 / n = 233 (at 95% level) 1 / N = 150 1 = 1+1
n n* N

= 1/ 233 + 1 / 150 = 0.004291 + 0.006666

1/n = 0.01095 n = 91.3242 The required sample size is approximately 91 animals. 1 / n = 385 (at 99% level) 1 / N = 150 1 =1+1 n n* N = 1/ 385+ 1 / 150 = 0.0025 + 0.0066 1/n = 0.009197 n = 108.73 The required sample size is approximately 108 animals. Exercise no. 1: According to one survey, prevalence of Hypophosphatemia in buffaloes of Marathwada region is 15%. The investigator wants prevalence to be within 5% of true level (allowable error). Calculate the sample size for both 95% and 99% confidence level. P = 15 100 = 0.15 Q = (1 - P) = (1 - 0.15) = 0.85 5 100 = 0.05 c. At 95% confidence level: n = 4 PQ L2 = 40.150.85 (0.05)2 = 0.51 0.0025 = 204 Approximately 204 buffaloes would be needed for survey.
d.

L2=

At 99% confidence level n = 6.6 PQ L2

= 6.6 0.15 0.85 (0.05)2 = 336.6 = 337 Approximately 337 cows would be needed for survey.

Exercise no. 2: A survey is to be carried out to investigate prevalence of dog erythrocytic Antigen (DEA 1.1) in Parbhani canine population. An earlier survey indicated that the prevalence of this antigen in Chennai was 40%. The allowable error is 1%. Calculate sample size for both 95% and 99% level of confidence.

Exercise no. 3: Prevalence of Canine Parvo virus gastroenteritis in Parbhani city is known to be around 0.5%. The investigator wants to be within 10% of true level. Find out the sample size for 99% confidence level. If the dog population of the city is 75,000. What will be sample size.