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# EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

Chapter 3

Chapter 3

## Chapter 3 Digital Baseband Modulation Techniques

Goals in Communication System Design Pages 75-76

Chapter 3

## Communication System Design Source Transmitter Channel MS Figure 2.1 Receiver

Noise An information source (voice, music, video, text, signals or images) is modulated in the transmitter .

Chapter 3

## Communication System Design Source Transmitter Channel MS Figure 2.1 Receiver

Noise The output of the transmitter is inputted to the physical transmission medium (wires, fiber optics, wireless or acoustic) as a channel with additive noise.

Chapter 3

## Communication System Design Source Transmitter Channel MS Figure 2.1 Receiver

Noise The output of the channel is inputted to the receiver which attempts to demodulate the signal and recover the data.

Chapter 3

## Chapter 2 Baseband Modulation and Demodulation

Rectangular Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) Pages 18-20

## EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

Chapter 3

Rectangular Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) Random Integer Generator simulates a binary information source, bit rate rb = 1 kb/sec

MS Figure 2.1

## EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

Chapter 3

Rectangular Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) Random Integer Generator from the Communications Blockset, Comm Sources

## EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

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Rectangular Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) Random Integer Generator block from the Communications Blockset, Comm Sources binary random seed rb = 1 kb/sec Tb = 1 msec

## EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

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Rectangular Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) Binary data [0,1] Binary Polar PAM transmitter 5 V MS Figure 2.1

## EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

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Rectangular Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) Channel provides a random noise source, mean = 0 V, variance 2 = 0.5 V

MS Figure 2.1

## EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

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Rectangular Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) AWGN Channel block from the Communications Blockset, Channels

## EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

Chapter 3

Rectangular Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) AWGN Channel block from the Communications Blockset, Channels

Chapter 3

Chapter 3

Chapter 3

## Rectangular Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) MS Figure 2.1

Simple PAM receiver consists of a Sample and Hold block with synchronous timing at Tb /2 provided by a pulse generator. This induces a delay of Tb /2. /2 The Sign and Lookup Table blocks convert the received data to the correct format (see MS p. 19).

## EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

Chapter 3

Rectangular Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) The Sign block converts the variable amplitude bipolar received data from the Sample-andHold block to trinary data [1, 0, 1]

## EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

Chapter 3

Rectangular Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) The Lookup Table block converts the trinary data [1, 0, 1] to a replica of the bipolar transmitted signal [ 5] for comparison by mapping 0 to +5

Chapter 3

Chapter 3

Chapter 3

Chapter 3

## Chapter 3 Digital Baseband Modulation Techniques

Baseband Modulation Using Rectangular Pulses and Binary Pulse Amplitude Modulation Pages 76-88

Chapter 3

00 01

11 10

## EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

Chapter 3

PAM generation of data sequence 00, 01, 10 and 11 Pulse Generator block outputs a 1 V pulse with a width of 20 msec and a nominal pulse period of 200 msec

## EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

Chapter 3

PAM generation of data sequence 00, 01, 10 and 11 Transport Delay block delays the input by 20 msec using a sample data buffer automatically set

Chapter 3

11 Fig35.mdl 10

Chapter 3

= 20 msec

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= 20 msec

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00 01

11

10

## EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

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Spectrum of PAM data sequence 00, 01, 10 and 11 Spectrum Scope requires a discrete or sampled signal input. Pulse Generator block changed to sampled-based signal. Integer Delay block used to delay the pulse.

## EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

Chapter 3

Spectrum of PAM data sequence 00, 01, 10 and 11 Pulse Generator block changed to sampled-based signal. Sample time TS = 20 sec Pulse period = 500 000 samples (10 sec) Pulse width = 1000 samples (20 msec)

## EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

Chapter 3

Spectrum of PAM data sequence 00, 01, 10 and 11 Integer Delay block for sampled-based signal. Sample time TS = 20 sec Delay = 1000 samples (0.2 sec)

## EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

Chapter 3

Spectrum of PAM data sequence 00, 01, 10 and 11 Spectrum Scope simulation for N = 218 = 262 144 samples. samples Simulation time T = N / fS = 262 144 / 50 000 = 5.24288 sec Frequency resolution f = fS / N = 50 000/262 144 = 0.1907 Hz

## EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

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Data 00 PAM simulated ESD Output | FFT |2 1/2 1/ = 20 msec S&M Figure 3-6a

## EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

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Data 01 PAM simulated ESD Output | FFT |2 1/ 50 Hz Data 01 PAM simulated ESD Output | FFT |2 dB = 20 msec S&M Figure 3-6b

## EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

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Data 10 PAM simulated ESD Output | FFT |2 1/ 50 Hz Data 10 PAM simulated ESD Output | FFT |2 dB = 20 msec S&M Figure 3-6c

## EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

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Data 11 PAM simulated ESD Output | FFT |2 1/2 1/ = 20 msec S&M Figure 3-6d

## EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

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Sum of the equally likely simulated ESD | FFT |2 for data 00, 01, 10 and 11 unscaled by probability p = 0.25 S&M Figure 3.7 (f) = 2A2 2 sinc2( f ) 3/ 150 Hz

2/ 100 Hz 1/ 50 Hz

## EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

Chapter 3

Power of a Series of Pulses The power of a series of pulses is the energy in a series of pulses divided by the time to transmit the series of pulses (S&M p. 83). Power = Energy / Transmit Time This concept can be extended to find the average normalized power spectral density (PSD) G(f) of a series of rectangular pulses: G(f) = n A2 2 sinc2( f ) / n = A2 sinc2( f )

## EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

Chapter 3

The total power in a series of rectangular pulses is a function of the bandwidth of the data transmission. S&M Figure 3-10 (f) = 2A2 2 sinc2( f ) 3/ 96.5%

2/ 95% 1/ 90%

## EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

Chapter 3

The rectangular pulse width is the entire bit time Tb here and is optimum in the bandwidth sense. Table 3-1 Bandwidth of a Binary Rectangular PAM Signal as a Percentage of the Total Power (S&M p. 86, MS p. 22) with = Tb = 1 / rb Bandwidth (Hz) Percentage of Total Power 1/Tb 90% 1.5/Tb 93% 2/Tb 95% 3/Tb 96.5% 4/Tb 97.5% 5/Tb 98%

Chapter 3

## Chapter 2 Baseband Modulation and Demodulation

Rectangular PAM Power Spectral Density Pages 20-22

## EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

Chapter 3

For an ensemble (collection) of pseudo-random rectangular PAM data signals, the power spectral density (PSD) is used since the bit period Tb is finite and not infinite as for a single pulse with its ESD. The pulse width can be less than the bit period Tb but this is not bandwidth efficient. The MATLAB and Simulink simulation of a binary rectangular PAM transmitter (MS Figure 2.1) is modified for a variable pulse width Tb to verify these concepts.

## EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

Chapter 3

Rectangular PAM with variable pulse width Tb = 1 msec Pulse train, 0 to 1 V, pulse period 1 msec, pulse width 0.5 msec (50% duty cycle) Multiplier

## EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

Chapter 3

Rectangular PAM with variable pulse width Tb = 1 msec Pulse train = 0 to 1 V Pulse period = 1 msec

MSFig21mod.mdl

## EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

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Rectangular PAM with variable pulse width Tb = 1 msec Pulse width = 50% (0.5 msec) Phase delay = 0.5 msec

MSFig21mod.mdl

## EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

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Top: Binary data source. Middle: pulse train. Bottom: rectangular PAM transmit data output with 50% duty cycle. Data Tb Duty Cycle Tb /2 Product with Gain

## EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

Chapter 3

PSD of rectangular PAM Spectrum scope block calculates the PSD of the output of the rectangular PAM transmitter with variable duty cycle / Tb

Fig21modspec.mdl

## EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

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Scaled PSD of rectangular PAM / Tb = 0.5, Tb = 1 msec The impulse spectral terms [(2n1) fo] where fo = 1 / Tb = 1 kHz are due to the periodic signal imposed by the product modulator with 50% duty cycle

## EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

Chapter 3

Scaled PSD of rectangular PAM / Tb = 1, Tb = 1 msec No impulse spectral terms in the PSD for the rectangular PAM signal because the signal is only random with 100% duty cycle ( = Tb)

Chapter 3

## Chapter 2 Baseband Modulation and Demodulation

Performance of Rectangular PAM in a Simple Receiver in AWGN Pages 66-69

## EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

Chapter 3

The performance of rectangular PAM ( = Tb, 100% duty cycle) in a simple receiver (single point sampling at Tb / 2) in AWGN is assessed by the bit error rate (BER) The received binary data is compared bit-by-bit to the transmitted binary data by the Error Rate Calculation block

MS Figure 2.7

## EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

Chapter 3

Rectangular PAM with AWGN and BER analysis The Error Rate Calculation block delays the transmitted binary data to correlate it with the received binary data The BER output is displayed numerically

## EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

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Rectangular PAM with AWGN and BER analysis The computation delay allows the BER analysis to be delayed before starting if warranted (no delay is used here)

## EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

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Spectrally white Gaussian noise is added in the channel with variance 2 in volts by the AWGN Channel block The initial seed is the MATLAB variable randseed so that each simulation is unique

## EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

Chapter 3

The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is the metric for the BER analysis. The signal power in the rectangular PAM signal is A2 / RL and the noise power is 2 / RL. The SNR then is: SNR = (A2 / RL )/(2 / RL) = A2 / 2 SNR = 10 log10 [A2 / 2] dB MS Figure 2.7

## EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

Chapter 3

The signal power in the rectangular PAM signal is A2 / RL W (watts) and the normalized power (RL = 1) is A2 V2 (volts squared). Although it is correct to use the units V2 for normalized power and then divide by RL to convert to W, the convention is to use the term normalized power W even though the units are V2. Here A = 5 V and the normalized power = 25 W.

MS Figure 2.7

## EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

Chapter 3

Rectangular PAM performance in a simple receiver with AWGN (MS p. 24) Table 2.2 Observed BER as a Function of SNR in an Unfiltered Rectangular PAM Digital Communication System, Normalized Signal Power = 25 W. SNR dB 13.98 12.21 10.97 6.98 3.98 3.19 AWGN 2 V2 0 1 1.5 2 5 10 12 BER 0 0 0 2 10-4 1.24 10-2 5.64 10-2 7.43 10-2

## EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

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The BER performance of a rectangular PAM with AWGN can be improved with the addition of a low-pass filter (LPF) in the receiver. The LPF passes only the bandwidth required for the modulated signal.

MS Figure 2.9

## EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

Chapter 3

The low-pass filter in the rectangular PAM receiver is an Analog Filter Design block

## EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

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The available simulated analog low-pass filter types are Bessel, Butterworth, Chebyshev types I and II, and Elliptic. The Chebyshev LPF with fcutoff = 1200 Hz, in-band ripple = 0.1 dB displays the maximum roll-off attenuation with a trade-off of the in-band ripple.

## EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

Chapter 3

Rectangular PAM performance in a LPF receiver with AWGN (SVU p. 73) Table 2.3 Observed BER as a Function of SNR in an LPF (9-pole Chebyshev, 0.1 dB ripple, fcutoff = 1.2 kHz) Binary Rectangular PAM Digital Communication System, Normalized Signal Power = 25 W. SNR dB 10.00 0.96 3.01 6.02 9.03 AWGN 2 V2 0 2.5 20 50 100 200 BER 0 0 0 1 10-4 6.3 10-3 3.63 10-2

## EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

Chapter 3

Comparison of BER performance in binary rectangular PAM in an unfiltered and LPF receiver: Unfiltered Receiver SNR dB AWGN 2 V2 BER 6.98 5 1.24 10-2 3.98 10 5.64 10-2 LPF Receiver SNR dB AWGN 2 V2 BER 6.02 100 6.3 10-3 9.03 200 3.63 10-2

## EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

Chapter 3

Rectangular PAM 5 V, 1 kb/sec with AWGN, 2 = 10 V2 Simple receive data sampling occurs at the mid-point Tb /2 Tb + 5V

Chapter 3

## Chapter 3 Digital Baseband Modulation Techniques

Pulse Shaping to Improve Spectral Efficiency: Sinc Pulses Pages 89-101

## EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

Chapter 3

A practical sinc-shaped pulse has a finite duration T = 4 Tb. Zero-crossings occur at n / rb = n Tb MS Figures 2.15 and 2.16 binary 1 rb = 1 kb/sec binary 0

2/rb 1/rb

3/rb 4/rb

## EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

Chapter 3

Bandwidth of a sinc-shaped PAM pulse is rb / 2 Hz which is 50% of the first-null bandwidth of a rectangular PAM pulse (rb Hz). +5 V binary 0 2/rb 0 1/rb 3/rb 4/rb 5 V 8/rb binary 1 rb = 1 kb/sec

## EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

Chapter 3

Since the practical sinc-shaped pulses have zerocrossings at multiples of 1 / rb = Tb there is no interference between adjacent pulses if sampled at Tb. MS Figures 2.17 and 2.18

## EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

Chapter 3

Sinc PAM Power Spectral Density (S&M p. 90, MS p. 29-30) The power spectral density (PSD) for a sinc PAM signal is derived from the energy spectral density (ESD) for a single sinc pulse. The ESD (f) for a sinc pulse with a peak amplitude A and data rate rb is: (f) = (A / rb)2 = A2 Tb2 rb/2 f rb/2

As for rectangular pulses earlier, the normalized PSD G(f) of a series of sinc pulses is: G(f) = n A2 Tb2 / n Tb = A2 Tb rb/2 f rb/2 where 1 / rb = Tb

Chapter 3

## Chapter 2 Baseband Modulation and Demodulation

Sinc Pulse Amplitude Modulation Pages 27-33

## EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

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MATLAB and Simulink generation of a practical (finite duration) sinc PAM signal uses the impulse response of a filter (MS p. 27-29). MS Figure 2.14 sinc impulse filter

## EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

Chapter 3

The Random Integer Generator block data has an amplitude of 0, 1 V and a period of 1 msec (1/rb). The output is offset and scaled to provide a 1 V data source.

## EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

Chapter 3

The Pulse Generator block has an amplitude of 1 V, a period of 1 msec or a frequency of 1 kHz (rb) and a pulse width of 2% of the period (20 sec) which is the Simulink simulation time.

## EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

Chapter 3

Simulink Comm Filters in the Communications Blockset provides the Raised Cosine Transmit Filter which can generate a sinc when the rolloff factor = 0.

## EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

Chapter 3

Raised Cosine Transmit Filter block generates a sinc with a rolloff factor = 0. The group delay of 4 symbols specifies the 4Tb duration.

## EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

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Raised Cosine Transmit Filter block upsampling factor 50 specifies the duration of a symbol Tb = 50 x 20 sec = 1000 sec = 1 msec, where 20 sec is the Simulink simulation time. The filter gain of 5 sets the peak amplitude to 5 V.

## EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

Chapter 3

MATLAB and Simulink sinc PAM transmitter can be used to verify the PSD. MS Figure 2.19

## EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

Chapter 3

PSD of sinc PAM, rb = 1 kb/sec first null bandwidth rb /2 = 500 Hz sinc2 shaped PSD non-ideal sinc(t)

Chapter 3

## EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

Chapter 3

The performance of practical sinc PAM in a simple receiver (single point sampling at Tb ) in AWGN is assessed by the bit error rate (BER) The MATLAB and Simulink simulation of binary sinc PAM is used to assess performance. MS Figure 2.20

Chapter 3

MS Figure 2.20

## EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

Chapter 3

The MATLAB and Simulink simulation of binary sinc PAM includes a Chebyshev low-pass filter (LPF) with fcutoff = 600 Hz to improve BER performance. The bandwidth is rb /2 = 500 Hz, rb = 1 kb/sec here. MS Figure 2.20

## EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

Chapter 3

The signal power of the practical sinc PAM is problematical because of the complex shape and finite duration. A Simulink simulation can be used to compute the root-mean-square (RMS) of the sinc PAM transmit output. MS Figure 2.21

## EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

Chapter 3

The Simulink RMS block from the Signal Processing Blockset, Statistics computes the RMS.

## EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

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The measured normalized power of the practical sinc PAM signal is [RMS]2 = 4.9342 = 24.3 W. The normalized power of the rectangular PAM signal is 25 W exactly. The sinc PAM power is required for the computation of SNR in the BER analysis. MS Figure 2.21

## EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

Chapter 3

Sinc PAM performance in a simple receiver with AWGN (MS p. 31-33) Table 2.4 Observed BER as a Function of SNR in an LPF (9-pole Chebyshev, 0.1 dB ripple, fcutoff = 600 Hz) Binary Sinc PAM Digital Communication System, Normalized Signal Power 24.3 W. SNR dB 0.85 3.13 6.14 9.15 13.13 AWGN 2 V2 0 20 50 100 200 500 BER 0 0 4 10-3 3.5 10-3 2.14 10-2 9.31 10-2

## EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

Chapter 3

Comparison of BER performance in binary sinc and rectangular PAM with an LPF receiver: Sinc PAM SNR dB AWGN 2 V2 BER 6.14 100 3.5 10-2 9.15 200 2.14 10-2 Rectangular PAM SNR dB AWGN 2 V2 BER 6.02 100 6.3 10-3 9.03 200 3.62 10-2

Chapter 3

## Chapter 3 Digital Baseband Modulation Techniques

Pulse Shaping to Improve Spectral Efficiency: Raised Cosine Pulses Pages 101-111

## EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

Chapter 3

The raised cosine PAM pulse has a finite duration by definition. Zero-crossings occur at n / rb = n Tb +5 V binary 0 2/rb 1/rb 3/rb 4/rb 5 V 8/rb binary 1 rb = 1 kb/sec 0

## EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

Chapter 3

Bandwidth of a raised cosine pulse is rb / 2 + Hz where is the damping factor and 0 rb / 2. +5 V binary 0 2/rb 1/rb 3/rb 4/rb 5 V 8/rb binary 1 rb = 1 kb/sec 0

## EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

Chapter 3

The rolloff factor of a raised cosine pulse is related to the damping factor : = 2 / rb 01 = rb / 2 0 rb / 2 +5 V binary 0 2/rb 1/rb 3/rb 4/rb 5 V 8/rb binary 1 rb = 1 kb/sec 0

## EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

Chapter 3

Since the raised cosine pulses have zero-crossings at multiples of 1 / rb = Tb there is no interference between adjacent pulses if sampled at Tb. MS Figures 2.25 and 2.26

startup

1/rb

binary 0

## EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

Chapter 3

Raised Cosine PAM Power Spectral Density (S&M p. 102, MS p. 36-38) The normalized power spectral density (PSD) G(f) for a raised cosine PAM signal is derived from the energy spectral density (ESD) for a single raised cosine pulse with a peak amplitude A and data rate rb = 1 / Tb is: G(f) = A2 / rb | f | rb / 2

Chapter 3

## Chapter 2 Baseband Modulation and Demodulation

Raised Cosine Pulse Amplitude Modulation Pages 81-87

## EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

Chapter 3

MATLAB and Simulink generation of raised cosine PAM signal uses the impulse response of a filter (MS p. 33-36). MS Figure 2.22 raised cosine impulse filter

## EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

Chapter 3

The Random Integer Generator block data has an amplitude of 0, 1 V and a period of 1 msec (1/rb). The output is offset and scaled to provide a 1 V data source.

## EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

Chapter 3

The Pulse Generator block has an amplitude of 1 V, a period of 1 msec or a frequency of 1 kHz (rb) and a pulse width of 2% of the period (20 sec) which is the Simulink simulation time.

## EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

Chapter 3

Simulink Comm Filters in the Communications Blockset provides the Raised Cosine Transmit Filter which generates a raised cosine filter when the rolloff factor 0 < 1 ( 0)

## EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

Chapter 3

Raised Cosine Transmit Filter block is generated with a rolloff factor = 0.5 The group delay of 4 symbols specifies the 4Tb duration.

## EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

Chapter 3

MATLAB and Simulink raised cosine PAM transmitter can be used to verify the PSD. MS Figure 2.22

Chapter 3

## PSD of sinc PAM, rb = 1 kb/sec, = 0 first null bandwidth rb /2 = 500 Hz

PSD of raised cosine PAM, rb = 1 kb/sec, = 0.5, = 250 first null bandwidth rb /2 + = 750 Hz = 2 / rb

## EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

Chapter 3

PSD of raised cosine PAM, rb = 1 kb/sec, = 0.5, = 250 first null bandwidth rb /2 + = 750 Hz

## EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

Chapter 3

The performance of raised cosine PAM in a simple receiver (single point sampling at Tb ) in AWGN is assessed by the bit error rate (BER) The Simulink simulation of binary raised cosine PAM is used to assess performance. MS Figure 2.28

## EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

Chapter 3

The MATLAB and Simulink simulation of raised cosine PAM includes a Chebyshev low-pass filter (LPF) fcutoff = 900 Hz, in-band ripple = 0.1 dB to improve BER performance. The first null bandwidth is 750 Hz.

MS Figure 2.28

## EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

Chapter 3

The computed normalized power of the raised cosine PAM signal is [RMS]2 = 4.672 = 21.8 W. The normalized power of the sinc and rectangular PAM signals are 24.3 and 25 W. The raised cosine PAM power is required for the computation of SNR in the BER analysis. MS Figure 2.21rcos

## EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

Chapter 3

Raised cosine PAM performance in a simple receiver with AWGN (MS p. 38-40) Table 2.5 Observed BER as a Function of SNR in an LPF (9-pole Chebyshev, 0.01 dB ripple, fcutoff = 900 Hz) Binary Raised Cosine PAM Digital Communication System, Normalized Signal Power 21.8 W. SNR dB 3.38 0.37 3.61 6.62 9.62 AWGN 2 V2 0 10 20 50 100 200 BER 0 0 4 10-4 5.8 10-3 2.48 10-2 6.75 10-2

## EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications

Chapter 3

Comparison of BER performance in binary sinc and raised cosine PAM with an LPF receiver: Sinc PAM SNR dB AWGN 2 V2 BER 3.13 50 4 10-4 9.15 200 2.14 10-2 Raised Cosine PAM SNR dB AWGN V BER 3.61 50 5.8 10-2 9.62 200 6.75 10-2

Chapter 3