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1

Chapter-1
Introduction
1.1 Abstract
This technical report summarizes the various geophysical surveys carried out in
Bakreshwar from 6th December to 24th December.
We planned our Geophysical surveys in an area where the strike direction is NE-SW.
And hence the two profiles of length 400 meter each and with a profile separation of 20 meter are laid in
the direction NW-SE perpendicular to the strike using prismatic compass. Two holes, one is of 10cm
depth and other is of 50cm depth are made at each station in the profiles with the station spacing 5 meter
to perform our experiments.
Then various Geophysical methods such as Spontaneous Potential , Wenner Profiling and
sounding , Schlumberger sounding, Pole-dipole method, Frequency domain EM , Time domain EM,
Time domain IP methods and Refraction and reflection seismic survey are carried out in these two
profiles and the results are interpreted.
We also carried out Regional Gravity survey using Worden gravimeter in the surrounding
areas and the corresponding station coordinates are precisely measured using GPS model 1200 (LEICA)
In this Geophysical Field training we are trained to acquire our own data using different
Geophysical methods and we are guided to process the field data. The results interpreted by different
Geophysical methods are consistent with each other which makes us excited and encouraging.
The methods and their results are discussed chapter wise as mentioned in the table of contents.
1.2 Location of the area

Bakreswar region is the


most
promising
geothermal system in
Eastern India. It is
located at Bakreswar
(2305248
N;
8702240
E)
in
Birbhum district, West
Bengal, India. The
elevation of the area is
about 84 meters.

Figure 1.1 Location of Bakreswar and its Geology

1.3 Geology of the area


Bakreswar hot spring is surrounded by alluvial and laterite soil with irregular exposures of the
basement consisting Archaean gneisses and schists belonging to the Chotanagpur Gneissic Complex.
The rocks are highly sheared, brecciated near the springs.

Figure 1.2 Local Geology of the area

Figure 1.3 Lithological sequence of the area

It is one of the few groups of geothermal areas in the Chotanagpur Granite Gneiss
Plateau of the eastern part of the Indian Peninsular Shield. The geothermal areas in the terrain are
characterized by surface manifestation of a cluster of springs with varied temperatures (35C88C) and
similar chemical compositions. The springs mostly issue out of fractures in a reactivated composite mass
comprising predominantly granitic rocks (Precambrian) with an EW belt of sparsely occurring
sedimentary outliers of Gondwana formation (Lower Permian to Middle Jurassic).

1.4 Hydrology of the geothermal area


For a better understanding of the hydrology of Bakreswar geothermal area, geophysical
investigations reveal that the occurrence and movement of shallow non-thermal groundwater take place
mostly in the weathered and fractured rocks, constituting a single aquifer system in the area.
Groundwater occurs in water table condition (unconfined state). Water table condition in Bakreswar and
the surrounding villages is studied from the inventory of several dug wells in. Water table contour
pattern generated from dug well data indicates varying hydraulic conductivity of the heterogeneous
aquifer system .Hydraulic gradients are mostly towards the spring site from the relatively high
topographic areas in the north, northeast and southwest, suggesting thereby, mixing of non-thermal
groundwater with deep-seated hot water.
A comparative study of thermal and chemical behaviours i.e. the presence of
sulpher,helium,calcium,potasium of the hot springs and the non-thermal groundwater of the adjoining
localities and isotopic signatures, viz. 18O, 2H and tritium contents of surface water, non-thermal
groundwater, as well as hot spring water however, indicate insignificant mixing of spring water with
non-thermal groundwater at the spring site. Orifices of spring discharge are restricted in nature, being
controlled by fractures within the shallow basement crystalline. A nearly NS trending buried fault zone
provides the major outlets for the emergence of hot water. 18O and 2H contents of spring water bear
resemblance with those of local meteoric water, even though its tritium content is remarkably lower than
in local meteoric water. From such observations, it can be reasonably inferred that circulation of
meteoric water along deep-seated active fractures augments its temperature, which, under suitable hydro
geological conditions, emerges as hot springs.

1.5 Other details

The heat flow of the area vary from 145 mW/m2 to 200m W/m2
The geothermal gradient near the hot spring is 900C/km.
Number of hot springs: 10
Helium present:2%by volume of water

CHAPTER-2
GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM (GPS)
2.1 GPS Introduction
GPS, which stands for Global Positioning System, is the
only system today able to show you your exact position on
the Earth anytime, in any weather, anywhere. GPS satellites,
24 in all, orbit at 11,000 nautical miles above the Earth.
They are continuously monitored by ground stations located
worldwide. The satellites transmit signals that can be
detected by anyone with a GPS receiver. Using the receiver,
you can determine your location with great precision.
. These spacecraft are placed in 6 orbit planes with four
operational satellites in each plane.
2.1 Principle of GPS

2.2 Components of the GPS:

Satellite segment
Ground segment
User segment
Satellite Segment

Figure 2.2

The space segment of the GPS system consists of a


constellation of satellites in earth orbit, with at least four
visible anywhere in the world at any time. While only
twenty four satellites are needed to meet this requirement
(four satellites in each of six orbital planes), several more
are generally in service to provide backup. The satellites
primarily consist of antennas, a transmitter, and atomic
clocks. The transmitter sends a signal containing position
information, a time stamp (from the atomic clock) and the
pseudo-random code needed for distance determination.

Ground Segment
The ground segment consists of a global network of monitoring stations and a master control station
(MCS) in Colorado. Coordinates of the ground stations are all precisely determined. The monitoring
stations communicate with the satellite constellation, collecting location information about the satellites
and sending it to the MCS. The MCS processes the information, modeling the location of the satellites

as a function of time and then sending the information out for uplink to the satellites. Orbital
information, atmospheric data, and other parameters are also monitored and maintained by the MCS.
User segment
The user segment consists of the person or system (car, airplane, etc) using a receiver to determine the
position of an unknown location. Receivers contain an antenna that captures signals from visible
satellites, a clock to internally generate signals to synchronize with the incoming satellite signal, and a
hardware and software system to process signals and calculate position. Characteristics of receivers that
can impact accuracy are single- versus dual-frequency receivers, the number of channels available to
track satellites (i.e. how many satellites can be tracked simultaneously), whether they are differentialready, and whether they use carrier signals in some fashion. Other characteristics of receivers that may
be important include size, cost, battery life, and interoperability with other systems like personal
computers.
2.3 Measurement of distance using satellites
Velocity (mph) x Time (hours) = Distance (miles)
In the case of GPS we're measuring a radio signal so the velocity is going to be the speed of
light or roughly 186,000 miles per second.

Timing is tricky
We need precise clocks to measure travel time
The travel time for a satellite right overhead is about 0.06 seconds
The difference in sync of the receiver time minus the satellite time is equal to the travel time
Distance to a satellite is determined by measuring how long a radio signal takes to reach us from
that satellite.
To make the measurement we assume that both the satellite and our receiver are generating the
same pseudo-random codes at exactly the same time.
By comparing how late the satellite's pseudo-random code appears compared to our receiver's
code, we determine how long it took to reach us.
Multiply that travel time by the speed of light and you've got distance.

2.4 GPS model 1200 (Leica) and SR 20 (Leica)


Several modern surveying techniques like Satellite Remote Sensing, Photogrammetric,
Field surveying procedures using digital theodolites, short and long-range EDM instruments like Total
Station etc., are available today. However, the advantages of using the satellite based GPS techniques
for surveying are:

GPS measurements do not require inter-visibility between points whereas the conventional surveying
tools require line of sight for measurements.

GPS technique provides a three dimensional position for the point. That is in one go, we
get the horizontal and vertical position of the point, unlike in conventional surveying where we need two
operations viz., horizontal traverse for planimetric control and a level loop for height control.
A very high accuracy measurement can be made in a relatively short time for baseline
lengths of a few hundred meters to few hundred kilometers and can provide the same accuracy anywhere
on earth, in almost any weather condition and at any time of the day.
GPS offers many advantages compared with conventional survey methods. Because there
is no need for a rod person, each surveyor can work alone when necessary. GPS also requires much less
setup time than did traditional surveying equipment, so the crew can use its time more efficiently. It can
also keep a much more flexible schedule and move from one area to the next or one pit to another as
needed.
2.5 Operations and acquiring the data
The tripod stand of the GPS should be leveled coarsely before mounting the level table.
Once the tripod leveled coarsely, fine leveling should be done after mounting the level table.
The GPS data acquiring instrument should be connected to a circular disc shaped antenna and then it
should be mounted on the clip in the tripod.
The instrument should be placed in an open area.
Once the instrument setup is ready, we can easily acquire the data which is software guided.
Usually, the data will be acquired for 10 minutes, to avoid any redundancy associated with the
atmospheric disturbances for the radio signal coming from the satellites.

2.6 GPS raw data of various stations


The collected data thus called a raw data. This raw data was then processed by LEICA Geo-office
software package and the data are tabulated.

STATION

DATE & TIME

LATITUDE

LONGITUDE

Elliptical Height Position + Height Qlty

STATION

DATE & TIME

LATITUDE

LONGITUDE

Elliptical Height Position + Height Qlty

2.7 Map of the stations

The map of the stations produced using the LEICA-Geo Office software package

Figure 2.3 Map of the stations occupied by GPS

10

Chapter-3
Self potential Method
3.1 Introduction to SP
SP is a passive method that employs measurements of naturally occurring electrical
potentials commonly associated with the weathering of sulfide ore bodies. Measurable electrical
potentials have also been observed in association with ground-water flow and certain biologic processes.
The groundwater plays a key role by acting as an electrolyte.

.
.

Figure 3.1

The self-potential associated with an ore body is called its mineralization potential.
Self-potential (SP) anomalies across ore bodies are invariably negative, amounting usually to a few
hundred mill volts. They are most commonly associated with sulfide ores, such as pyrite, pyrrhotite, and
chalcopyrite, but also with graphite and some metallic oxides.
3.2 Basic theory:
Self-potential depends on variations in oxidation (redox) potential with depth. The ground
above the water table is more accessible to oxygen than the submersed part, an electrochemical reaction
takes place at the surface between the ore body and the host rock above the water table. It results in
reduction of the oxidized ions in the adjacent solution. An excess of negative ions appears above the
water table. A simultaneous reaction between the submersed part of the ore body and the groundwater
causes oxidation of the reduced ions present in the groundwater. This produces excess positive ions in
the solution and liberates electrons at the surface of the ore body, which acts as a conductor connecting
the two half-cells.
Potential difference between the upper and lower parts, causing a spontaneous electric polarization of
the body.

11

3.3 Field equipment


1. Two porous pots
2. SP potential measurement meter
3. Two long cables winches.
4. Connecting wires with crocodile clips
5.

water

6. Tool box
3.4 Field procedure
The method we have used for the survey is the gradient method. The gradient method employs
a fixed separation between the electrodes, of the order of 10 m. The potential difference is measured
between the electrodes, and then the pair is moved forward along the survey line until the trailing
electrode occupies the location previously occupied by the leading electrode.
One day before the day of survey the porous pots were filled with and immersed in copper
sulphate solution.

In the field we have chosen the porous pots which have minimum mutual potential difference.

In the field small holes were drilled along the profile at an interval of 5meter and all the holes
were filled with distilled water.

Next the two porous pots were joined to potential measure unit with the help of the connecting
wires and crocodile clips.

Fig 3.2 the gradient method for measuring self potential. The total potential V at a station in
the gradient method is found by summing the previous potential differences.

12

3.5 SP DATA of Profile-1


Surface Measurements (at 5 cm depth)

In a hole of depth 50 cm

AB/2(m)
-112.5

SP(mv)
-9.9

AB/2(m)

SP(mv)

2.5

-14.4

-107.5

-4.8

7.5

-22.9

-102.5

5.3

12.5

-15.13

-97.5

0.1

17.5

-26.5

-92.5

-4.9

22.5

-19.6

-87.5

-1.9

27.5

-19.5

-82.5

-9

32.5

-0.2

-77.5

1.5

37.5

-15

-72.5

1.3

42.5

-13.1

-67.5

1.1

47.5

-20.6

-62.5

5.6

52.5

-15.3

-57.5

-8.2

57.5

-17.7

-52.5

4.1

62.5

-16.9

-47.5

7.7

67.5

-23.7

-42.5

-0.5

72.5

-23.5

-37.5

3.9

77.5

-2.2

-32.5

7.8

82.5

-9.2

-27.5

4.9

87.5

-16.8

-22.5

-1.4

92.5

-22.6

-17.5

-7.8

97.5

-22.7

-12.5

12.1

102.5

-16.1

-7.5

6.8

107.5

-16.1

-2.5

-1.5

112.5

-14.8

2.5

-6.9

117.5

-19.4

7.5

-6.6

122.5

-14.9

12.5

-2.6

127.5

-19.6

17.5

15.7

132.5

-21.3

22.5

3.7

137.5

-16.6

27.5

4.7

142.5

-11.9

32.5

6.7

147.5

-10.3

37.5

-4.8

152.5

-17.7

42.5

-1.6

157.5

-19.1

47.5

6.2

162.5

-12.2

52.5
57.5
62.5

-9.3
-2.7
-13.8

167.5
172.5
177.5

-16
-20.9
-14.6

67.5

-4.8

182.5

-23.2

72.5

-2.1

187.5

-21.8

13
77.5

4.2

192.5

-17.5

82.5

16.9

197.5

-14.3

87.5

2.9

202.5

-13.4

92.5

-6.6

207.5

-12.9

97.5

-13.5

212.5

-18.4

102.5

-24.5

217.5

-7.1

107.5

8.7

222.5

-12.3

112.5

4.7

227.5

-16.2

117.5

-4.4

232.5

-14.5

122.5

-0.1

237.5

-13.6

127.5

5.7

242.5

-3.9

132.5

-1.2

247.5

8.6

137.5

7.6

252.5

-21

142.5

7.4

257.5

-13.8

147.5

4.9

262.5

-30.5

152.5

2.9

267.5

-27.8

157.5

-13.7

272.5

-17.5

162.5

-10.6

277.5

-29.6

167.5

-19

282.5

-2.5

172.5

7.5

287.5

-23.3

177.5

-20.9

292.5

-24.2

182.5

-15.4

297.5

-20

187.5

-13.8

302.5

-22.1

192.5

7.4

307.5

-19.6

197.5

-1.3

202.5

3.8

207.5

6.4

212.5

3.7

217.5

-2.2

222.5

3.1

227.5

22.6

232.5

-32.1

237.5

7.2

242.5

8.9

247.5

-6.8

252.5

5.1

257.5
262.5
267.5
272.5

6.1
8.3
2.7
1.5

277.5

1.7

282.5

-8.1

287.5

-15.4

14
292.5

26.1

297.5

10

302.5

6.5

307.5

-1.4

3.6 Plot and Interpretation of profile-1

Figure 3.3 SP Vs Distance for profile-1

Figure 3.4
Measuring
the depth
using halfwidth method

Interpretation of self potential data: The SP profile both


for 10cm & 50cm depth shows same nature.
We observe three anomalies.
Between 120-220, we have observed two anomalies;
these may be due to bio-electric activity.
Between 230-310 we have observed major anomaly
this may be due to mineralized body.
Estimation of the depth: An estimation of depth can be
made from the shape of the profile .if X1/2 is the total width
of the profile at the half (negative) maximum, then the depth
of the top of the body is order of the order of half the
distance. Estimated depth = 20 meter
If the anomalous profile is wide, the source is also wide,
rather than deep, because the depth of detection in SP is
usually not greater than 60m.

15

3.7 SP DATA of Profile-2


Surface Measurements (at 5 cm depth) In a hole of depth 50 cm
AB/2(m)
-97.5
-92.5
-87.5
-77.5
-72.5
-67.5
-62.5
-57.5
-52.5
-47.5
-42.5
-37.5
-32.5
-27.5
-22.5
-17.5
-12.5
-7.5
-2.5
2.5
7.5
12.5
17.5
22.5
27.5
32.5
37.5
42.5
47.5
52.5
57.5
62.5
67.5
72.5
77.5
82.5
87.5

SP(mv)
-5.08
8.74
-9.96
-24.12
19.4
3.34
1.58
0.66
-6.76
4.26
6.14
15.46
-3.2
7.08
16.54
-4.38
-13.24
6.32
29.04
-24.9
-5.88
-6.12
-9.38
-5.4
-1.9
5.84
9.42
-1.74
7.34
-1.86
4.42
-7.96
-7.68
13.78
-1
6.64
7

AB/2(m) SP(mv)
-97.5
1.74
-92.5
-0.48
-87.5
6.8
-77.5
-4.54
-72.5
1.62
-67.5
7.98
-62.5
1.8
-57.5
0.64
-52.5
2.46
-47.5
-0.7
-42.5
2.66
-37.5
1.92
-32.5
5.7
-27.5
2.98
-22.5
5.38
-17.5
3.68
-12.5
-1.42
-7.5
1.24
-2.5
1.82
2.5
7.56
7.5
-0.24
12.5
0.82
17.5
1.3
22.5
3.16
27.5
6.7
32.5
5.34
37.5
5.64
42.5
8.24
47.5
6.12
52.5
6.68
57.5
3.06
62.5
1
67.5
-4.6
72.5
7.42
77.5
-7.52
82.5
-2.5
87.5
2.02

16

92.5
97.5
102.5
107.5
112.5
117.5
122.5
127.5
132.5
137.5
142.5
147.5
152.5
157.5
162.5
167.5
172.5
177.5
182.5
187.5
192.5
197.5
202.5
207.5
212.5
217.5
222.5
227.5
232.5
237.5
242.5
247.5
252.5
257.5
262.5
267.5
272.5
277.5
282.5
287.5
292.5
297.5

0.58
7
-1.2
2.5
-2.38
3.4
0.68
7.38
1.92
6.74
6.3
3.92
1.34
6.28
-0.7
3.76
-0.82
-5.52
-4.72
-11.36
-12.18
-9.62
-3.52
-8.54
0.6
-2.74
0.4
-3.86
4.74
-2.74
2.26
0.98
6.98
1.94
7.54
6.36
9.22
8.36
-1.24
1.2
10.54
5.36

92.5
97.5
102.5
107.5
112.5
117.5
122.5
127.5
132.5
137.5
142.5
147.5
152.5
157.5
162.5
167.5
172.5
177.5
182.5
187.5
192.5
197.5
202.5
207.5
212.5
217.5
222.5
227.5
232.5
237.5
242.5
247.5
252.5
257.5
262.5
267.5
272.5
277.5
282.5
287.5
292.5
297.5

-1.18
12.06
-11.3
-7.78
11.26
-4.5
-12.04
3.86
-7.88
-5.26
-3.84
10.54
-1.88
-6.06
-1.36
1.66
-2.22
-4.52
-14.1
-3.9
-11.66
-15.26
-14.46
3.42
12.22
-9.66
11.8
5.22
7.1
7.8
-10.08
1.78
3.04
3.66
-8.26
9.84
-2.3
-6.9
-0.92
-2.18
1
8.52

17

302.5
307.5
3.8 Plot and Interpretation

Fig.3.5: SP profile for 10cm whole depth

Fig.3.6: SP for 50cm depth hole

-4.32
9.3

302.5
307.5

-3.08
6.28

18

Fig.3.7: comparison of SP profile for 10cm & 50cm depth hole

Fig.3.8: Estimate of the depth from the shape of the profile (in this plot the distance is form the position
marked by 0)

3.9 INTERPRETATION:
The SP profile both for 10cm & 50cm depth shows same nature. We observe two major anomalies
1. Between 100-150m, may be due to bioelectric activity in vegetation.
2. Between 250-300m, may be due to presence of mineralized body or fracture on the subsurface.
We can estimate the depth the top of the target from the SP profile. If x1/2 is the total width of the profile
at half the maximum, then the depth of the top of the body is of the order of half this distance. From
figure 3.8 we estimated the depth of the body is approximately 20m.

19

Chapter-4
Resistivity Methods
4.1 Resistivity Method - Observation of electric fields caused by current introduced into the ground as a
means of studying earth resistivity in geophysical exploration. Resistivity is the property of a material
that resists the flow of electrical current.
4.2 The most common electrical method used are:
Resistivity Profiling - used to determine lateral changes in resistivity due to changes in geologic
structure.
Resistivity Soundings - used to determine vertical changes in resistivity due to geologic structure
assuming horizontal layering.
Some important arrays are:

Wenner Array

Schlumberger Array

Pole-Dipole

These arrays of current and potential electrodes measure apparent resistivity

Figure 4.1 General four-electrode configuration for resistivity measurement, consisting of a pair of current
electrodes (A, B) and a pair of potential electrodes (C, D).

4.3 Apparent resistivity

20

4.4 Wenner Configuration and procedure

Profiling For lateral exploration or mapping the spacing remains constant and all four electrodes
are moved along the line, then along another line.
Sounding: For depth exploration the electrodes are expanded about a fixed centre, increasing the
spacing an in steps.

Figure 4.2

After each 5m spacing along the traverse marking was done.


For potential electrodes holes were dug at the corresponding marks.
Electrodes were placed.
All the connections were done as in above wenner array figure
SP was balanced
Power was switched on.
The current value was read with the current unit and for having the appropriate current value
the battery voltage was changed.
The current value with the current unit and voltage (potential difference) with potential unit
were read.
After that the resistance was so adjusted that current becomes zero. Then the value of
resistance was noted.
Then system was shifted by 5m and similar procedure was applied for taking reading.

By measuring (V/I) for a particular position of electrodes apparent resistivity is calculated. Apparent
resistivity for each array position is plotted against the centre of the spread i.e. the midpoint of the
current electrodes. It gives the lateral variation of resistivity along the profile.

21

4.5 Wenner Profiling data of Profile-1


AB/2(m) Resistivity(-m) AB/2(m) Resistivity(-m)
7.5
112.3
202.5
48.2
12.5
190.5
207.5
43.7
17.5
182.4
212.5
49.3
22.5
190.7
217.5
37.4
27.5
219.8
222.5
39.2
32.5
232.2
227.5
58.3
37.5
214.5
232.5
39.5
42.5
230.7
237.5
45.8
47.5
167.4
242.5
42.76
52.5
170.1
247.5
44.7
57.5
77.1
252.5
35.6
62.5
63.6
257.5
36.2
67.5
36.7
262.5
41.2
72.5
41.5
267.5
41.8
77.5
37.7
272.5
57.8
82.5
35.1
277.5
49.5
87.5
38.3
282.5
56.6
92.5
44.5
287.5
48.9
97.5
33.7
292.5
49.8
102.5
30.9
297.5
50.9
107.5
33.9
302.5
68.1
112.5
29.1
307.5
90.4
117.5
48.1
312.5
57.2
122.5
44.6
317.5
72.1
127.5
68.3
322.5
45.4
132.5
55.4
327.5
29.8
137.5
49.7
332.5
31.2
142.5
79.9
337.5
26.7
147.5
72.8
342.5
15.9
152.5
70.6
347.5
19.9
157.5
58.5
352.5
10.7
162.5
32.8
357.5
17.7
167.5
39.5
362.5
13
172.5
42.6
367.5
14.2
177.5
42.8
372.5
15.4
182.5
45.1
377.5
15.4
187.5
67.1
382.5
17
192.5
73.8
387.5
18.5
197.5
49.7

22

4.6 Plot and interpretation of profiling data

Figure 4.3
Profile-1 wenner
profiling plot

Interpretation

In general, if the wenner profile plot has the M shape plot it indicates the presence of the
vertical contacts, if plot have the W shape plot it indicates the presence of the dyke.
Here we got two M shape curves around 45 and 320, which indicate the presence of the
two vertical contacts.

4.7 Wenner Sounding Data at 320 meter


AB/2(m) Resistivity(-m)
10

60.3

20

142.3

30

257.2

40

400.95

50

577.6

60

681.2

70

881.2

80

1102.3

90

1356.3

100

1648.6

110

1973.3

23

4.8 plot and interpretation of wenner sounding data

Figure 4.4
Cumulative
apparent
resistivity
Vs Distance
(AB/2)

Interpretation:
We have drawn cumulative resistivity vs spacing. The above plot indicates the three layers,
the resistivity and thickness of the layers are as follows.
Resistivity(-m) Thickness(m)
Layer 1

54

20

Layer 2

608

46

Layer 3

1165

4.9 Wenner Profiling Data of Profile-2


Plotting point in meter Apparent resistivity

Apparent resistivity

(a in -m) 10cm depth (a in -m) 50cm depth


7.5

244.2

250.3286

12.5

302.1857

326.2286

17.5

346.3429

328.2714

22.5

221.2571

235.4

27.5

201.7714

215.2857

32.5

123.6714

132.6286

37.5

126.6571

125.7143

24
42.5

84.7

83.6

47.5

65.84286

67.00571

52.5

75.42857

75.58571

57.5

71.5

60.02857

62.5

73.54286

72.91429

67.5

82.97143

85.01429

72.5

81.87143

76.68571

77.5

76.21429

80.77143

82.5

83.91429

61.6

87.5

60.97143

79.51429

92.5

79.51429

64.74286

97.5

63.17143

81.08571

102.5

83.91429

63.64286

107.5

63.48571

65.21429

112.5

61.75714

55

117.5

74.8

77

122.5

55.94286

56.41429

127.5

53.58571

53.58571

132.5

76.37143

75.58571

137.5

85.48571

84.7

142.5

115.6571

111.7286

147.5

103.5571

108.1143

152.5

104.6571

106.2286

157.5

66

68.51429

162.5

70.08571

68.35714

167.5

64.74286

65.05714

172.5

62.54286

63.48571

177.5

63.17143

65.37143

25
182.5

77.15714

73.7

187.5

93.81429

95.54286

192.5

62.85714

66

197.5

61.44286

105.7571

202.5

77.31429

95.54286

207.5

61.44286

82.65714

212.5

66.31429

92.71429

217.5

53.74286

64.74286

222.5

80.61429

55

227.5

82.02857

46.35714

232.5

69.14286

82.02857

237.5

82.97143

70.24286

242.5

93.02857

81.08571

247.5

100.8857

93.65714

252.5

106.2286

106.8571

257.5

94.28571

109.3714

262.5

97.74286

97.9

267.5

101.5143

98.21429

272.5

40.22857

102.7714

277.5

81.4

85.17143

282.5

83.75714

83.75714

287.5

78.1

85.8

292.5

75.9

77.15714

297.5

97.42857

76.37143

302.5

87.52857

93.97143

307.5

114.0857

91.14286

312.5

106.7

110

317.5

118.4857

106.7

26
322.5

119.7429

118.3286

327.5

105.4429

104.5

332.5

108.4286

104.3429

337.5

111.4143

120.6857

342.5

81.71429

81.55714

347.5

113.1429

114.2429

352.5

66.31429

69.77143

357.5

66.31429

93.65714

362.5

55

56.25714

367.5

52.64286

52.48571

372.5

50.12857

51.54286

377.5

51.07143

49.34286

382.5

50.91429

51.38571

387.5

49.97143

52.8

392.5

51.22857

53.27143

397.5

51.54286

54.84286

27

4.10 Plot and Interpretation of Profile-2 Data (wenner profiling data)

Figure 4.5 Wenner profiling (data 1:10cm depth, data-2:50cm depth)

Figure 4.6 smoothened plot of Lateral wenner profiling (50cm hole data)

Interpretation
A good anomalous body is located at 330 meter.
A further extension of profile along backward direction of profile required.

28

4.11 Wenner Sounding Data (wenner sounding data in profile-2)

Distance Distance Apparent


(AB)
(AB/2)
resistivity
5
2.5
102.05
15
7.5
77.71
25
12.5
102.05
35
17.5
92.3
45
22.5
114.45
55
27.5
127.8
65
32.5
149
75
37.5
155.43
85
42.5
170.81
95
47.5
190.91

4.12 Plot and Interpretation (wenner sounding data in profile-2)

Figure 4.7 Cumulative apparent resistivity Vs Distance (AB)

Interpretation
Layers Resistivity (ohm-meter) Thickness (meter)
First

96.737

25.5

second

165.85

infinity

29

4.13 Schlumberger configuration


Profiling:
Lateral profiling done in two ways. With a large fixed separation of the current electrodes, the potential
pair is moved between them, also with fixed spacing subject to the limitation (L-x) >> 3L.
Sounding:
The potential electrodes remain fixed while the current electrodes spacing is expanded symmetrically
about the center of the spread in the limitation of L5a

Figure 4.8
Schlumberger
arrangement

4.14 Schlumberger Sounding Data in profile-1 and profile-2


At 30 meter

At 320 m

AB/2(m) App Resistivity(-m)

At 320 m perpendicular to profile

AB/2(m) App Resistivity(-m)

AB/2(m) App Resistivity(-m)

1.5

551.42

1.5

551.42

1.5

551.42

339.34

339.34

339.34

226.22

226.22

226.22

201.09

201.09

201.09

169.67

169.67

169.67

201.09

201.09

201.09

10

392.75

10

392.75

10

392.75

15

353.5

15

353.5

15

353.5

20

314.2

20

314.2

20

314.2

25

392.75

25

392.75

25

392.75

30

282.75

30

282.75

30

282.75

40

502.75

40

502.75

40

502.75

50

78.55

50

78.55

50

78.55

60

113.31

60

113.31

60

113.31

80

155.34

80

155.34

80

155.34

100

210.5

100

210.5

100

210.5

120

261.63

120

261.63

120

261.63

140

285.59

140

285.59

140

285.59

160

289.57

160

289.57

160

289.57

180

300.31

180

300.31

180

300.31

200

309.49

200

309.49

200

309.49

30

4.15 Plot and Interpretation of schlumberger sounding data in profile1 and profile2
Figure 4.9 Schlumberger sounding curve at 320 m

Interpretation:
From the wenner profiling we have
choosen the sounding point at 320m.
We got the H type sounding
curve,which represents the second layer
has less resistivity compared to the first
and third layer.
The above plot indicates the three
layers ,the resistivity and thickness of the
layers are as follows.
Resistivity(m)

Thickness
(m)

Layer 1

169

1.1

Layer 2

54

9.8

Layer 3

1080

When we carry out Schlumberger


sounding at point 320m, along the
strike and across the strike, we get Atype resistivity curves but they are
having a static shift. Hence we can't
surely say that the layer parameters
corresponding to a curve are exactly
correct.
Reason for static shift and its
solution. It is assumed that the rate of
accumulation of surface charge is
slower than the rate of evaporation but
this
is
an
ideal
case,
and
when
This condition is rarely obtained.
So we use the equation
which solves the problem.
Therefore to solve this problem and
for better interpretation we go for
Electromagnetic survey.

Figure 4.10 shows Schlumberger sounding at 320 m, one along the strike
direction and other along the direction perpendicular to the strike

31

Figure 4.11 shows Schlumberger sounding


data at 30 meter. It shows a HKH-curve
because which cant be interpreted

4.16 POLE DIPOLE METHOD

In this method one of the current electrode id fixed at a great distance from the other
three, all of which can have various spacings.
Large spacing

Fig 4.12 pole dipole array

rAC =a; rAD=b; rCB = rDB= large spacing

When b=2a

This is the double the ratio of in the wenner array.


When the potential electrode spacing is very small compared to the distance of either potential electrode
from Athen

32

This arrangement is called half-Schlumberger array.


If we move one of the potential electrode to a distant point which is also remote from the another current
electrode

i.e.

r3= b = then this arrangement is called half - wenner array.


4.17 Pole dipole profiling data

x2 (in meter) rho x2 (in meter)


7.5
58.77
182.5
12.5
215.5
187.5
17.5
155
192.5
22.5
27.5
32.5
37.5
42.5
47.5
52.5
57.5
62.5
67.5
72.5
77.5
82.5
87.5
92.5
97.5
102.5
107.5
112.5
117.5
122.5
127.5
132.5
137.5
142.5
147.5
152.5
157.5

198.7
199.6
207.3
200.3
234.7
225.2
237
129.3
82.3
35.9
38.2
34.2
39.3
43.3
41.6
16.2
88.9
41.2
26.8
21.4
28.2
54.9
52.4
41.6
48.8
54.2
61.3
53.8

197.5
202.5
207.5
212.5
217.5
222.5
227.5
232.5
237.5
242.5
247.5
252.5
257.5
262.5
267.5
272.5
277.5
282.5
287.5
292.5
297.5
302.5
307.5
312.5
317.5
322.5
327.5
332.5

rho
38.2
43.5
50.5
54.32
54.4
49.7
51
49.4
40.4
37.9
41.7
37.5
43
45.6
49
42
34
36
30.3
46.7
48.7
54.4
50
48
43.4
50.6
52
57
34.7
59.5
36.7

162.5
167.5
172.5
177.5

57.3
41.4
45.1
36.4

337.5
342.5
347.5
352.5
357.5

40.8
15.8
23
28.9
17

4.18 Plotting of Pole-Dipole Profiling Data

33

Chapter-5
Time domain IP survey
5.1 Theory: Induced polarization method is relatively new technique in geophysics, and has been
employed mainly in base metal exploration and to minor extent of ground water search. There are
two types of measurements in IP one is time domain IP measurement (decay voltage is measured as
a function of time) and other is frequency domain IP measurement (decay voltage is measured as a
function of time).
To carry out induced polarization survey over the specified profile line with dipole-dipole
Arrangement
5.2

Instruments used:
1. Induced polarization transmitter unit
2. Induced polarization receiver unit
3. Generator
4. Current electrodes
5. Potential electrodes
6. Winches with cables
7. Connecting wires with clips and clamps
8. Tool Box
9. Hammer
10. salt water
11. Gloves

Time domain IP surveys involve measurement of the magnitude of the polarization voltage (Vp) that
results from the injection of pulsed current into the ground
5.3

Illustration of the IP-related decay of potential after interruption of the primary current

Figure 5.1 showing the principle of TimeDomain IP

34

Figure 5.2 Measuring the parameters in


Time-Domain IP

5.4 Parameters measured in IP survey


Chargeability, Metal factor are the parameters which are commonly measured in an IP survey:
Chargeability: The area under the decay curve, expressed as a fraction of the steady-state voltage, is
called the chargeability M, defined as M has the dimensions of time and is expressed in seconds or
milliseconds. It is the most commonly used parameter in IP studies.
It is defined
t2

M=1/v0 v(t )dt


t1

Where V0 - steady voltage & v(t) =residual voltage


5.5 Procedure
1. At first eleven electrodes (two for current and nine for potential) were planted in the ground at
equal spacing.
2. One winch was kept near to each electrode and one end current electrode was connected to the
electrode and other was connected to transmitter (which was kept far from the profile line).
Similarly the one end of winch was connected to the potential electrode and other was connected
to the receiver with the corresponding places.
3. The receiver was set up according to the manual.
4. Then the transmitter was connected to the generator.
5. Current of around 1amp was injected in the ground through the transmitter.
6. Readings were taken and stored by the receiver unit.
7. After taking the readings the current was put off, and receiver position was shifted to the next
electrode.
8. In this way the further readings were taken.

35

5.6 Time Domain IP Data of profile-1

Station

Mx1

Mx2

Mx3

Mx4

Mx5

Mx6

Mx7

Mx8

0-10

7.19

8.36

8.51

5.8

5.73

6.93

8.67

8.76

10-20

8.37

8.57

5.5

5.24

6.53

8.4

6.02

5.31

20-30

9.34

6.36

5.86

6.49

8.44

6.55

5.72

6.07

30-40

9.2

8.56

9.01

10.93

9.1

8.04

7.63

10.9

40-50

7.23

8.11

10.31

8.57

7.65

7.3

9.34

6.41

50-60

6.12

8.51

6.73

5.78

5.43

7.52

4.78

5.09

60-70

8.33

6.76

5.93

5.48

7.4

4.87

5.88

8.33

70-80

8.33

7.85

7.26

8.86

6.47

7.43

9.34

9.19

80-90

8.28

8.07

9.83

7.52

8.45

10.85

9.72

11.84

90-100

5.98

7.44

5.19

6.06

8.57

8.14

7.81

100-110

7.06

4.8

5.69

8.27

7.77

7.54

5.75

3.48

110-120

5.41

6.04

8.9

8.1

7.71

5.96

4.31

5.46

120-130

8.52

11.97 11.04

11.24

8.74

7.95

9.5

11.73

130-140

8.81

7.86

8.38

5.85

3.6

6.36

8.57

-30.52

140-150 10.52 11.16

8.88

7.16

9.12

11.17

9.38

8.29

150-160 11.96

9.88

8.49

10.77

12.88

11.1

9.93

13.57

160-170 10.48

9.49

10.7

12.9

11.16 10.01 12.33

10.45

170-180 11.55 11.37 13.32

11.24

9.94

14.85

180-190 12.65 13.93 11.39

9.99

11.89 10.07

7.53

7.86

190-200 11.96

8.08

10.19

7.73

4.42

7.56

6.17

200-210 12.94 10.92 11.95

10.71

8.99

9.21

6.5

7.36

210-220 14.08 14.97 13.26

11.74

11.93

8.93

9.9

8.41

220-230 16.25 13.96 11.52

11.45

8.96

9.12

-2.65

28.85

8.68

7.18

6.68

9.65

230-240 13.33 10.82 10.53 9.43

11.47 10.54

36
240-250 11.72

0.09

30.98

10.09

8.78

250-260 10.03

7.48

8.37

7.13

6.73

260-270

8.69

7.25

5.72

100.62

270-280

8.39

6.15

4.95

280-290

6.61

1.17

290-300

5.21

8.28

5.7 Time domain IP Pseudo-section

Mx

Chargeability
Distance (in meters)

Scale: X-axis- 1 unit = 10 meter

Figure 5.3 Time domain IP pseudo section

37

5.8 Time domain IP sounding data


TDIP sounding at 250
m
AB/2(m)
chargeability
4

10.92

12.2

12.51

10

12.37

15

11.61

20

10.58

25

10.15

40

8.31

50

8.09

60

9.21

80

8.5

100

7.87

120

8.57

140

7.49
Figure 5.4 TDIP sounding plot

160

7.9

180

7.47

200

7.77

250

8.27

300

8.59

38

5.9 Time Domain IP data sheet - Profile-2

Station
0-10
10-20
20-30
30-40
40-50
50-60
60-70
70-80
80-90
90-100
100-110
110-120
120-130
130-140
140-150
150-160
160-170
170-180
180-190
190-200
200-210
210-220
220-230
230-240
240-250
250-260
260-270
270-280
280-290
290-300
300-310
310-320
320-330
330-340

Mx1 Mx2
7.79
8.07
10.84
8.78
8.96
8.84
7.27
6.75
6.99
7.37
6.89
8.81
8.23
6.02
9.76
7.17
8.28
8.11
7.58
7.57
8.64
6.78
8.23
5.96
6.56
7.71
6.88
5.01
5.67
5.88
6.44
7.9
6.59
7.92
7.83 10.21
12.74
7.52
8.84
8.9
5.67 373.62
8.84 11.66
11.94 12.69
16.15
11.9
12.3 12.58
11.69 11.75
7.15
5.27
7.77
6.81
7.38
7.38
8.83
6.54
6.11
7.29
5.96
6.44
5.72
8.54
5.81

Mx3
6.21
8.63
8.22
7.03
8.81
6.93
4.91
7.31
8.49
5.9
6.24
5.82
6.59
5
7.29
9.13
10.06
5.09
8.45
10.84
14.7
11.4
5.95
12.01
12.1
9.57
5.25
5.87
7
6.7
7.39
8.07

Mx4
5.12
7.64
8.76
8.4
6.86
5.71
4.85
7.69
6.94
5.78
7.04
6.44
6.58
6.52
8.56
11.29
5.4
5.25
40.6
11.72
14.4
7.01
9.78
11.2
10.15
9.28
4.44
6.27
7.33
6.68
8.22

Mx5 Mx6
Mx7
Mx8
4.85
5.29 -49.76 84.63
8.53
7.45
10.31
7.41
9.26 -1449.4 399.02
5.94
6.63
5.66 -1209.7 848.98
6.13
6.31
6.78
6.08
5.8
6.41
4.85
5.31
5.46
3.77
4.11 14.21
6.06
6.18
6.78
4.92
8.1
46.93 -47.19
48
6.47
5.5 160.61 150.03
6.06
5.53
7.2
7.73
9.04
0.22
2.96 45.47
8.03
9.29
10.39
7.55
7.96
9.28
4.95
7.12
10.06
6.01
5.68
7.21
6.73
7.05
10.83 11.01
5.96
8.46
10.13
9.41
8.17
8.61
8.25
6
61.52
15.7
17.15
4.23
12.69
7.85
9.37
6.24
10.07
11.32
10.62 10.64
7.51
7.91
6.42
6.03
4.38
4.9
22.6 32.08
9.66
8.69
10.14
7.12
9.18 132.85 178.38 11.76
8.59
7.61
9.18
9.42
5.05
4.37
5.97
6.22
5.85
6.25
7.39
6.99
8.45
7.44

39

5.10 Pseudo-plot of Time domain IP data of Profile-2 and Interpretation

Figure 5.5 Pseudo-section TDIP profile-2 A


Mx

Distance (in meters)

Scale X-axis 1 unit = 10 meter and the


origin starts at 1 instead of 0

Chargeability

Figure 5.6 Pseudo-section TDIP profile-2 B


Mx

Distance (in meters)


Scale X-axis 1 unit = 10 meter and the
origin starts at 1 instead of 0
Chargeability

INTERPRETATION:
The entire above diagrams represents IP pseudo section plot i.e. how the chargeability varies along the
profile. IP method is applicable for ground water search. We know water has lower chargeability. Here
we observe the presence of water which is indicated by the lower value of chargeability. Water is
trapped in an impervious rock. All figures indicate that water is associated with clay. Hence IP method
is suitable to distinguish between water and clay.

40

5.11 Measurement of layer parameters using TDIP data

For schlumberger

Figure 5.7 Sounding


curves for TDIP and
schlumberger

For TDIP

5.12 Interpretation for TDIP:


In the presence of chargeable medium apparent resistivity is given as:

Data sheet prepared using the Formula

1 ma

ma = chargeability of the medium;

AB/2

a = Apparent resistivity measured by Schlumberger


sounding method;
From the plot, we find that the resistivity curve for
Schlumberger sounding and TDIP sounding are
overlapping. This is due to low chargeability of the medium
in the region.
The layer parameters are
1 = 172-m

h1 = 1.1m

m1 =17.8ms

2 = 56 -m

h 2 = 9.8m

m 2 = 37.2ms

3 = 1100-m

h3 =

m 3 =18ms

5
10
15
20
25
40
50
60

Ma (in s)
9.42
9.06
8.29
8.27
8.59
7.75
7.69
7.425

Ma (in
rhoa
ms)
32.2517
0.00942
34.1946
0.00906
33.3959
0.00829
35.7489
0.00827
33.912
0.00859
46.9823
0.00775
38.8575
0.00769
54.95 0.007425

rho'
32.5584
34.50724
33.67507
36.04701
34.20583
47.34926
39.15863
55.36106

41

Chapter-6
Electromagnetic Methods
6.1 Introduction
Electromagnetic methods to get information about subsurface resistivity structure particularly
in volcanic and hydrothermal regions are considered highly effective to apply. This method can be
further divided into two parts depending on type of the signal used to energize the ground.
Frequency Domain Electromagnetic Method (FDEM)
Time Domain Electromagnetic Method (TDEM)
6.2 Frequency Domain Electromagnetic (Ground Conductivity) METHODS
Frequency Domain Electromagnetic (FDEM) involves generating an electromagnetic field which
induces current in the earth which in turn causes the subsurface to create a magnetic field. By measuring
this magnetic field, subsurface properties and features can be delineated. This method measures the
magnitude and phase of induced electromagnetic currents, which are related to the subsurface electrical
conductivity. EM instruments provide two measurements simultaneously, the electrical conductivity data
and the phase component (in term of in-phase and quadrature), which responds to magnetic
susceptibility. These instruments provide bulk measurements of apparent conductivity values integrated
over a volume of the subsurface.

Figure 6.1 shows the generation of secondary field in subsurface conductive body.

FDEM has distinct advantages over many other techniques. Because no contact with the ground is
required, FDEM can cover a large area quickly and therefore economically. In certain cases, depths of
up to 50 meters can be mapped.

42

6.3 Common applications of FDEM include the following,

Near-surface structures (faults)


groundwater investigations(identifying aquifers)
mapping lateral changes in natural geologic conditions
detecting and mapping contaminant plumes
mapping buried wastes, metal drums, tanks, and metal utilities

Factors affecting ground conductivity include the constituents, structure, and moisture content of the soil
or rock. Most soil and rock constituents (such as quartz, feldspar, mica, and iron and aluminum oxide
coatings) are electrical insulators of very high resistivity. In general the conductivity of both soils and
rocks is a function of:

Porosity
Moisture content
Concentration of dissolved electrolytes in the contained moisture
Temperature and phase state of the pore water
Amount and composition of colloids

6.4 Instruments used


Transmitter
Receiver
Cable
6.5 Coil systems for electromagnetic surveys

Figure 6.2 shows the different Geometry of coupling between Transmitter and Receiver

Field
The EM survey was carried out in two lines. The profile length is 400m with station
spacing 10m and source receiver distance of 100m were chosen for the EM survey. The readings were
taken at four different frequencies i.e. 220 Hz, 880Hz, 3520 Hz and 14 kHz. The in-phase and out of
phase component were measured at four different frequencies. The survey is carried out on both the
profile-1 and profile-2.

43

6.6 FDEM DATA SHEET for profile-1

X (Mid-point)

220Hz

800Hz ,

3520Hz

7000Hz

14kHz

-7.2

-4.8

-9.5

-6.5

15

10

-6.6

-4.5

-7.3

29.5

19.9

20

-6.2

-4.1

1.1

39.2

19

30

-8.1

-5.4

5.3

13.7

-9.7

40

-7.7

-5.6

5.2

13.7

-17.3

50

-6.6

-4.3

-3.8

-9.6

-17.7

60

-8.6

-4.8

-2.3

-4.6

-40.9

70

-8

-6.2

-3.5

-13.5

-58.7

80

-10.7

-5.4

4.8

-7.4

-43

90

-11.3

-9

-4.9

-7.4

-53

100

-7

-6.4

-5.8

-12.4

-50.4

110

-9.7

-6

-2.3

-11.2

-36.5

120

-8.5

-6.2

-1.7

-8

-50.8

130

-4.9

-5.5

-1.9

-8

-35.8

140

-8.8

-5.8

7.8

-1

-28.9

150

-6.5

-4.6

7.4

-24.4

160

-7.9

-5.6

7.2

19.2

0.3

170

-5.2

-5.6

6.9

23.3

180

-7.8

-6.1

0.5

0.4

-28.6

190

-5

-4.8

0.4

1.7

-23.5

200

-5.7

-5.1

0.8

1.9

-24.1

210

-8

-3.7

-0.2

-0.3

-27.1

220

-7.9

-3.8

-0.7

-22.1

230

-5.2

-5.8

2.9

13.1

-0.2

44
240

-8.1

-6.5

5.8

15.4

250

-7.4

-3.6

3.1

13.4

-0.7

260

-4.9

-1.3

14.1

-2.1

270

-1.5

-3.8

7.2

17.4

6.7

280

-2.2

-2.4

-13.4

39.5

52.6

290

-3.1

-0.6

15.2

34.2

52.8

300

-2.8

-2.5

16.2

35.5

39.6

310

-7.2

-4.6

12.2

29.9

7.4

320

-5.7

-4.1

12.4

27.3

12.9

330

-5.8

-4

3.8

7.8

-24.3

340

-6.6

-3.3

1.3

-3.5

-46.1

350

-0.6

-0.3

2.1

-4.4

-50.4

360

-7.2

-5.9

0.5

-8.6

-54.5

370

-13.8

-7.4

-8.2

-24.2

-90.5

380

-10.9

-30.3

-12.4

-30.9

-89

390

-13.6

-7.7

-12.3

-35.5

-98.1

400

-13.2

-8.6

-15.6

-37.8

-94.1

45

6.7 Plot and Interpretation of FDEM data of profile-1

Figure 6.3
Phase value (I) Vs
Distance
For different
frequencies 220
Hz, 880 Hz, 3520
Hz, 14 KHZ

Interpretation

Phase zero or cross over point indicates the position of the receiver or transmitter at the top of
the body.
In general high frequencies resolve shallower bodies and lower frequencies resolve deeper
bodies.
In the figure separation of crossovers for the 14 kHz and 7 kHz phase curve indicate the beds
are inclined.

6.8 FDEM Data for profile-2


Mid

220 Hz
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80

I
-13.2
-8.5
-9.5
-8.9
-8.9
-9.6
-10
-10
-9.7

880 Hz
Q
0.7
1.6
0.3
1.3
0.6
1.1
1.6
-1
-3.2

I
-6.3
-5.8
-7.4
-7.8
-7.1
-7
-7.6
-8.5
-5.7

Q
4.9
4
2.6
2.1
2.8
3.3
2
-2.8
-5.4

3520 Hz
I
Q
12.2
3.1
8.5
0.8
5.2
-3.5
3.9
-5
6.1
-2.3
6.1
-0.6
3.9
-5
-5.8
-19.2
-8.1
27.3

14000 Hz
I
Q
5.1
-75.2
-6.8
-77.3
-20.8
-78.1
-26
-76.4
-18.1
-79.4
-17.2
-77.9
-27
-76.6
65.4
-71.8
-81.3
-71.2

46

90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
190
200
210
220
230
240
250
260
270
280
290
300
310
320
330
340
350
360
370
380
390
400

-6.8
-8.1
-9.2
-10.4
-9.6
-10.3
-8.4
-8.9
-7.5
-5.5
-8.2
-9
-7.5
-8.6
-6
-5
-4.9
-3.3
5
-4.2
-2.9
-3
-2
-4.4
-2.5
-3.3
-4
-3.6
-3.8
0.9
1
0.9

-4.3
-0.6
-0.3
-0.3
-1.2
-0.6
-1
0.5
-2.4
0.6
-1.9
-0.5
0.5
1.6
1.4
0.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
2.8
2.2
2.1
1.8
2.1
1.7
1.9
1.4
1
0.5
1
1.2
1.1

-8
-5.6
-8.6
-8.2
-8.4
-7.7
-7.3
-7.1
-8.3
-5.1
-6.8
-6.6
-5.4
-5.2
-4.2
-3.8
-3.5
-2.5
-2.2
-1.6
-1.5
-1.7
-1.7
-2.5
-1.3
-2.1
-2.7
-2.1
-3
4.1
1.5
2.6

-4.2
-1.5
-3
-2.4
-2.1
0.8
0.8
-0.7
0.6
1.4
-0.3
-1.2
0.6
1.3
2.1
-0.7
0.7
2.4
5.7
6.1
6.7
6.9
7.6
5.9
4
3.2
2.5
0.8
-0.5
-2.8
1.2
1.3

-7.6
-2.5
-6.4
-4.9
-3.7
2.5
2
0.3
0.3
4.2
-2.3
2.8
0.2
1.5
3.3
-0.6
1.6
5.3
10.8
11.6
12.9
12.2
13.5
11.9
9.8
6.1
5.3
2
-1.2
-2.2
-1.9
-3.1

-24.1
-16.7
-21.3
-19
-17.6
-8.9
-8.5
-12
-9
-6.6
-11.7
-12.5
-5.5
-2.6
0
-8.7
-4.5
1
12.4
13.5
17
17.3
18.5
13.5
7.3
3.8
2.6
-4
-7.9
-9.4
-10.6
-15.7

-75.2
56.5
-71.4
-65.6
-63.1
-14.2
-13.6
-11.6
-32.7
-21
-44.9
-43.4
-24.2
-13.3
-3.4
-26.8
-18.1
1.4
44.3
48.2
64.5
66.2
69.2
46.2
27.3
12.8
6.5
-24
-39.3
-43
-47.3
-58.9

-71.2
-73.1
71.3
-76.3
-79.3
-82.4
-79
-80.9
-75.5
-70.6
-74.4
-69.8
-65.9
-56.9
-55.9
-60.5
-61.9
-55.8
-44.8
-40
-34.7
-30.6
-34.8
-53.5
-59.3
-58.1
-58.8
-59.7
-55.2
-48.3
-46.7
-42.7

47

6.9 Plot and Interpretation of FDEM data -profile-2

Figure 6.4 In-Phase


component Vs Distance

Figure 6.5 In-phase


component and Quadrature
Component Vs Distance

Distance (in meters)

Figure 6.6
In-phase component
contours to easily
visualize the contact

1-220 Hz
2- 800 Hz
3- 3250 Hz
4- 14 Hz

Distance (in meters)

48

Interpretation

The anomaly becomes feeble as we go for low frequencies indicate the body causing the
anomaly is of shallow origin.
The contacts are found at 260 meter and 350 meter location in the profile
And also some unclear contacts are present at 50 meter and 100 meter location in the profile.
The contacts can be visualized by noting the zero contour in color map

6.10 Time Domain Electromagnetic Methods


Time domain electromagnetic sounding has a very peculiar advantage over other electrical prospecting
methods. So it provides a very good tool to resistivity structure of the earth. The advantages are stated
bellow:
It measures the secondary in the absence of primary.
It gives the value of

a without measuring E , rather it calculate a form B .

6.11 Basic Principles


The time domain electromagnetic method employs a transmitter that drives an alternating current
through a square loop of insulated electrical cable laid on the ground. The current consists of equal
periods of time-on and time-off, with base frequencies that range from 1 to 32 Hz, producing an
electromagnetic field. Termination of the current flow is not instantaneous, but occurs over a very brief
period of time (a few microseconds) known as the ramp time, during which the magnetic field is timevariant. The time-variant nature of the primary electromagnetic field creates a secondary
electromagnetic field in the ground beneath the loop, in accordance with Faraday's Law, that is a precise
image of the transmitter loop itself. This secondary field immediately begins to decay, in the process
generating additional eddy currents that propagate downward and outward into the subsurface like a
series of smoke rings. Measurements of the secondary currents are made only during the time-off period
by a receiver located in the center of the transmitter loop. Depth of investigation depends on the time
interval after shutoff of the current, since at later times the receiver is sensing eddy currents at
progressively greater depths. The intensity of the eddy currents at specific times and depths is
determined by the bulk conductivity of subsurface rock units and their contained fluids.
Figure 6.7

Instrument used:

Transmitter
Receiver
Sensors(3 magnetic coil)
Controler
Cable
Batteries

49

Figure 6.8 principle of TDEM

6.12 PROCEDURE FOR PROFILING


First of all the receiver should be switched on before one hour to provide enough time to the
quartz crystal to heated up. Then the receiver (Rx) and the transmitter are synchronized by the help of
the controller (XMT) by setting the phase difference around 0.2 degrees. By this we can make the pulse
shape of the transmitted and received signal exactly same or having phase difference with in tolerance
level. The XMT is then calibrated at 1Hz and 50% duty cycle.
Before taking reading the magnetic coils are calibrated form 1Hz to 32Hz and the contact
resistance is checked then a 30 X 30m loop of conducting wire is laid having the receiver at the centre.
The entire profile having 400m length is covered with 14 stations having 30m station spacing. The value
of the time window and the apparent resistivity are recorded which are then plotted. The plots are given
on the next page.

50

6.13 TDEM profile-1 Data Sheet

As it can be seen the data is inconsistent with our geological knowledge. The data shows that top
weathered layered resistivity is above 60000 ohms and resistivity values decreases uniformly with the
depth. Thus there is some problem has occurred while acquiring the data, so we not processed this data.

51

6.14 TDEM Profile-2 DATA SHEET

In order to plot the TDEM data into effective resistivity versus effective depth using the
formulae given below,
Effective resistivity =
Effective thickness =

The data is processed and tabulated as given below.


6.15 Processed TDEM data sheet
x(station) y(eff_depth) z(eff_res) Station # Log(Eff_depth) Log(Eff_resistivity)
1
32.978
114.37
1
1.518224314
2.058312121
1
25.851
35.453
1
1.412477348
1.549652991
1
50.44
90.249
1
1.702775078
1.955442398
1
92.754
229.29
1
1.967332648
2.360385114
1
186.69
743.81
1
2.271121056
2.871462013
1
211.43
795.08
1
2.32516661
2.900410829
1
197.65
557.89
1
2.295896819
2.746548577
1
240.45
651.39
1
2.381024781
2.813841087
1
205.15
391.66
1
2.312071521
2.59290922

52
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3

259.68
240.36
277.62
445.68
279.86
293.34
400.4
354.68
314.06
331.8
267.65
399.37
295.31
427.93
284.6
383.91
12.997
10.347
11.747
18.571
34.095
89.715
107.55
126.45
142.65
166.38
245.25
233.03
162.43
158.04
145.31
168.58
153.55
123.28
118.98
169.06
113.25
182.69
136.06
139.94
121.93
12.997
10.347
13.357
60.177

516.5
364.14
394.47
805.71
255.14
225.65
338.17
211.65
131.17
116.23
60.282
107.03
46.523
77.525
27.311
39.571
17.765
5.6796
4.8951
9.1919
24.809
143.16
165.19
180.16
189.38
212.03
379.11
277.93
107.03
81.362
55.373
59.945
39.667
20.21
14.945
24.05
8.6065
17.804
7.8371
6.6039
3.9915
17.765
5.6796
6.3288
96.512

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3

2.414438502
2.380862195
2.44345075
2.649023145
2.44694083
2.467371288
2.602494069
2.5498367
2.497012626
2.520876382
2.427567248
2.601375438
2.470278154
2.631372734
2.454234896
2.584229425
1.113843119
1.014814449
1.069926969
1.26883529
1.532690695
1.952865061
2.031610415
2.101918834
2.154271776
2.22110112
2.389609016
2.367411835
2.210666244
2.198767021
2.162295503
2.22680605
2.186249821
2.090892626
2.075473965
2.228040865
2.054038211
2.261714776
2.133730467
2.14594187
2.086110574
1.113843119
1.014814449
1.125708926
1.779430533

2.713070326
2.561268388
2.59601398
2.906178754
2.406778551
2.353435338
2.529135078
2.325618273
2.117834519
2.065318238
1.780187653
2.029505525
1.667667712
1.889441775
1.436337602
1.597377025
1.249565212
0.754317751
0.689761568
0.963405291
1.394609259
2.15582169
2.217983753
2.255658373
2.277334112
2.326397313
2.57876524
2.443935427
2.029505525
1.910421616
1.743298053
1.777752965
1.598429356
1.305566314
1.174495919
1.381115081
0.934826573
1.250517586
0.894155388
0.819800488
0.601136134
1.249565212
0.754317751
0.801321372
1.984581316

53
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4

48.115
40.801
365.68
214.94
179.99
172.11
186.82
319.55
204.96
181.88
160.09
150.02
143.83
138.02
134.43
140.94
131.37
136.61
132.13
127.64
138.51
20.64
27.466
51.638
97.328
123.42
126.23
137.68
159.6
157.62
178.33
209.22
208.45
232.93
266.9
245.17
326.4
304.93
640.87
424.89
349.69
375.35
512.17
236.28
323.09

49.407
29.61
1909.7
520.52
301.49
226.88
219.99
522.63
170.41
107.76
67.208
47.475
34.808
25.334
19.079
16.715
11.581
9.9554
7.3914
5.4939
5.1512
44.8
40.02
94.589
252.46
325.11
283.39
270.68
286.99
231.2
243.58
275.89
222.39
220.1
232.07
157.62
224.73
156.44
546.19
190.59
102.9
94.545
139.94
23.635
35.199

3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4

1.68228049
1.610670807
2.563101208
2.332317245
2.255248377
2.235806105
2.271423368
2.504538822
2.311669112
2.259784946
2.204364205
2.176149161
2.15784948
2.139942023
2.128496199
2.149034267
2.1184962
2.135482491
2.121001435
2.105986796
2.141481129
1.314709693
1.438795416
1.712969413
1.988237799
2.091385542
2.101162582
2.138870857
2.203032887
2.197611323
2.25122441
2.320603198
2.319001899
2.367225427
2.426348574
2.389467327
2.51375015
2.484200154
2.806769942
2.62827651
2.543683213
2.57443642
2.709414136
2.373426962
2.509323516

1.693788484
1.471438407
3.280965148
2.716437421
2.479272912
2.355796214
2.34240294
2.718194335
2.231495076
2.032457583
1.827420972
1.676464973
1.54167907
1.403703766
1.280555608
1.223106381
1.063746062
0.998058714
0.868726706
0.73988075
0.711908412
1.651278014
1.602277084
1.975840634
2.402192578
2.512030328
2.452384521
2.432456168
2.457866764
2.36398783
2.386641626
2.440735959
2.347115255
2.342620043
2.365619002
2.197611323
2.351661052
2.194347807
2.737343745
2.28010011
2.012415375
1.975638566
2.14594187
1.373555607
1.546530325

54
4
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6

279.21
12.93
10.342
11.567
15.949
32.946
80.972
136.94
148.36
146.08
172.5
201.09
283.35
158.03
129.14
133.45
116.75
120.98
113.78
120.37
127.66
134.72
131.94
106.22
101.68
185.93
27.179
38.043
72.856
181.52
201.02
216.3
219.79
224.62
258.6
269.71
254.88
382.46
368.08
300.78
367.49
1165.1
365.11
345.76
632.81

20.931
17.583
5.674
4.7464
6.779
23.165
116.62
267.79
248
198.6
227.9
254.88
410.94
101.3
54.328
46.699
28.751
24.624
17.215
15.296
13.714
12.18
9.2859
4.7767
3.4859
9.2812
77.683
76.779
188.29
878.13
862.36
832.18
689.88
568.45
622.35
557.15
409.47
748.66
549.59
294.71
354.15
2863.5
224.29
158.98
422.76

4
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6

2.445930969
1.111598525
1.014604533
1.063220736
1.202733458
1.517802694
1.908334866
2.136530324
2.171316825
2.16459076
2.236789099
2.303390474
2.452323217
2.19873954
2.111060782
2.125318578
2.067256889
2.08271358
2.056065929
2.080518261
2.10605484
2.129432074
2.12037648
2.026206297
2.007235538
2.269349469
1.434233474
1.580274757
1.862465324
2.258924483
2.303239269
2.335056519
2.342007929
2.351448423
2.412628521
2.430897049
2.406335758
2.582586021
2.56594222
2.478248955
2.565245526
3.066363202
2.562423728
2.53877475
2.801273333

1.320789978
1.245092976
0.753889331
0.676364335
0.831165634
1.364832305
2.066773037
2.427794355
2.394451681
2.297979244
2.357744325
2.406335758
2.613778417
2.005609445
1.735023717
1.669307581
1.458652955
1.391358602
1.235907027
1.184577875
1.137164145
1.085647288
0.967824002
0.679127966
0.542314924
0.967604131
1.890325989
1.885242451
2.274827255
2.943558814
2.935688604
2.920217274
2.838773555
2.754692271
2.794034694
2.745972135
2.612222088
2.87428463
2.740038822
2.469394872
2.549187246
3.456897187
2.350809911
2.201342493
2.626093889

55
6
6
6
6
6
6
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8

381.13
653.09
366.06
395.93
292.35
328.43
12.997
10.347
12.28
24.969
37.586
84.728
93.095
106.23
114.23
125.89
151.99
198.8
255.47
161.6
164.42
139.06
131.68
133.13
126.55
121.94
125.3
116.11
138.68
125.49
125.73
12.93
10.294
12.32
34.097
40.453
84.293
91.897
103.97
114.61
141.64
152.69
374.17
257.65
157.18

122.23
286.23
71.482
66.366
28.82
28.961
17.765
5.6796
5.349
16.616
30.15
127.69
123.77
127.15
121.43
121.38
145.61
202.28
264.75
85.077
70.896
40.788
29.174
23.57
16.907
12.512
10.536
7.1922
8.142
5.3104
4.2445
17.583
5.6212
5.3842
30.985
34.925
126.38
120.6
121.8
122.25
153.65
146.95
716.58
269.28
80.486

6
6
6
6
6
6
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8

2.581073135
2.814973034
2.563552275
2.59761841
2.465903098
2.51644282
1.113843119
1.014814449
1.089198367
1.397401149
1.575026109
1.928026955
1.968926356
2.026247181
2.057780177
2.099991234
2.181815015
2.29841638
2.407339908
2.208441356
2.215954644
2.143202225
2.119519818
2.124275932
2.102262149
2.086146191
2.097951071
2.064869625
2.142013833
2.098609119
2.099438916
1.111598525
1.012584164
1.090610708
1.53271617
1.606950734
1.925791511
1.963301334
2.016908044
2.059222513
2.151185918
2.183810595
2.573068964
2.411030147
2.196397284

2.087177812
2.456715151
1.854196695
1.821945643
1.459693976
1.461813554
1.249565212
0.754317751
0.728272598
1.220526484
1.479287316
2.106156887
2.092615391
2.104316365
2.084325995
2.084147133
2.163191202
2.305952945
2.422835969
1.929812167
1.850621733
1.610532411
1.464995979
1.372359583
1.228066553
1.097326736
1.022675762
0.856861756
0.910731098
0.725127235
0.627826538
1.245092976
0.749829038
0.731121184
1.4911515
1.543136415
2.101678351
2.081347308
2.085647288
2.087248868
2.186532565
2.16716959
2.855264683
2.430204099
1.905720344

56
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10

136.42
124.49
120.41
121.15
121.7
112.7
132.23
119.79
126.7
131.42
115.26
27.169
50.656
135.39
175.18
419.69
365.04
207.54
540.81
179.28
298.33
244.25
233.68
328.75
249.68
337.47
237.49
450.86
225.36
307.78
219.24
187.79
261.64
281.03
225.23
229.15
22.235
49.062
83.259
180.92
292.77
212.03
88.197
303.34
274.21

48.804
32.692
24.395
19.518
15.635
10.688
11.734
7.6544
6.7961
5.8238
3.5666
77.625
136.13
650.25
817.84
3759.2
2370.1
615.11
3295.4
299.12
681.66
376.02
279.49
438.39
203.08
298.64
118.97
342.01
67.541
100.01
40.446
23.666
36.519
33.437
17.105
14.098
51.992
127.7
245.9
872.32
1829.3
799.68
111.09
1036.7
699.75

8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10

2.134878045
2.095134467
2.080662556
2.083323418
2.085290578
2.051923916
2.121329998
2.078420565
2.102776615
2.118661463
2.061678615
1.434073654
1.704630893
2.131586588
2.243484522
2.622928621
2.562340456
2.317101812
2.733044713
2.253531844
2.474696928
2.387834572
2.368621544
2.516865761
2.397383756
2.528235171
2.375645327
2.654041707
2.352876834
2.488240395
2.340919793
2.273672462
2.41770414
2.448752683
2.352626237
2.360119862
1.347037134
1.690745248
1.92043119
2.257486579
2.466526573
2.326397313
1.945453813
2.481929682
2.438083289

1.688455418
1.51444149
1.387300822
1.290435314
1.194097886
1.028896445
1.069446084
0.883911154
0.832259761
0.765206452
0.552254405
1.890001613
2.133953845
2.813080361
2.912668348
3.575095432
3.37476667
2.788952788
3.517908137
2.475845452
2.83356781
2.575210945
2.446366274
2.641860639
2.307667155
2.475147977
2.075437462
2.534038805
1.829567486
2.000043427
1.606875578
1.37412486
1.562518877
1.524227305
1.233123079
1.149157506
1.715936524
2.106190897
2.390758529
2.94067583
3.262284934
2.902916234
2.045674967
3.015653099
2.844942907

57
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
12
12
12
12

506.09
302.17
344.45
369.69
349.7
259.11
302.4
635.02
433.8
455.26
530.86
348.69
245.32
271.39
639.6
274.59
41.58
62.49
97.612
151.72
152.01
147.26
408.08
170.64
244.81
197.93
215.66
195.35
258.2
214.81
210.07
409.44
316.6
334.49
217.63
569.04
177.29
207.89
215.79
251.94
164.21
32.583
160.39
229.93
131.01

1961.8
575.49
607.24
554.39
398.38
176.06
192.89
678.48
250.26
218.81
237.14
81.594
32.105
31.182
137.94
20.243
181.82
207.17
337.99
613.5
493.18
385.74
2378.2
328.08
557.73
300.07
293.16
195.31
270.44
150.32
115.73
353.62
168.65
148.79
50.004
272.47
21.092
23.056
19.713
21.404
7.2397
111.65
1364.7
1875.4
457.46

10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
12
12
12
12

2.704227756
2.480251345
2.537126189
2.567837703
2.543695632
2.413484174
2.480581787
2.802787404
2.637289548
2.658259494
2.724980003
2.542439493
2.389732956
2.433593841
2.805908455
2.438684717
1.618884485
1.795810525
1.989503211
2.181042834
2.181872159
2.168084796
2.610745311
2.232080842
2.388829154
2.296511625
2.333769601
2.290813416
2.411956238
2.332054495
2.322364035
2.612190269
2.500510911
2.524383139
2.337718762
2.755142796
2.24868424
2.317833599
2.334031315
2.401297125
2.215399601
1.512991068
2.205177287
2.361595639
2.117304447

3.29265473
2.760037782
2.783360372
2.743815388
2.600297527
2.245660698
2.285309713
2.83153705
2.39839144
2.340067166
2.375004816
1.911658224
1.506572674
1.493903967
2.139690222
1.306274875
2.259641653
2.316326866
2.528903851
2.787814567
2.693005456
2.586294676
3.376248375
2.515979756
2.746424006
2.477222578
2.467104713
2.29072448
2.432070927
2.177016767
2.063445953
2.54853682
2.226986346
2.172573744
1.699004747
2.435318692
1.324117763
1.362783963
1.294752722
1.330494942
0.85972057
2.047858727
3.135037192
3.273093912
2.660353126

58
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13

179.78
202.87
220.76
356.92
217.16
337.72
276.43
462.21
418
287.4
379.84
278.42
521.01
337.8
218
519.12
305.14
491.27
325.84
533.74
273.65
12.638
10.294
12.382
31.813
40.407
92.161
98.005
109.31
116.38
127.62
151.32
202.53
214.67
162.93
150.83
137.05
130.41
124.24
121.18
119.78
121.7
125.15
116.87
113.89

689.81
732.05
696
1435.4
438.86
873.59
481.65
1093.5
708.76
269.07
378.36
163.51
456.72
151.74
50.171
226.76
62.482
128.75
44.949
96.061
20.105
16.796
5.6212
5.4387
26.972
34.845
151.08
137.17
134.62
126.04
124.75
144.33
209.93
186.93
86.474
59.659
39.62
28.613
20.526
15.502
12.073
9.9397
8.3548
5.7824
4.3738

12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13

2.254741376
2.307217829
2.343920385
2.552570884
2.336779833
2.528556781
2.441585174
2.664839337
2.621176282
2.458486764
2.579600697
2.444700429
2.716846059
2.528659645
2.338456494
2.715267761
2.484499142
2.691320244
2.513004397
2.727329751
2.437195452
1.101678351
1.012584164
1.0927908
1.502604625
1.606456608
1.964547178
1.991248233
2.038659894
2.065878353
2.10591874
2.179896333
2.306489363
2.331771356
2.212001058
2.178487731
2.13687904
2.115310895
2.094261443
2.083430948
2.078384309
2.085290578
2.097430854
2.067703044
2.056485593

2.838729486
2.864540745
2.84260924
3.156972942
2.642325999
2.941307654
2.682731565
3.038818787
2.850499199
2.429865279
2.577905217
2.213544319
2.65965003
2.18110008
1.700452757
2.355566448
1.795754923
2.109747238
1.652720034
1.982547103
1.303304077
1.225205866
0.749829038
0.735495104
1.430913151
1.542140469
2.179206976
2.137259139
2.129109586
2.100508395
2.096040554
2.159356612
2.322074506
2.271679006
1.936885548
1.775675969
1.597914471
1.456563395
1.312304325
1.190387733
1.081815201
0.997373277
0.921936058
0.762108131
0.64085892

59
13
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14

131.34
34.66
157.16
97.113
160.26
191.46
202.07
236.76
276.12
404.14
261.93
583.4
351
320.9
337.32
463.77
411.96
516.08
321.9
314.31
602.54
573.27
235.26
344.79
281.79
403.34

4.6312
126.33
1310.4
334.54
684.5
782.34
726.27
800.49
859.03
1520
525.5
2145.2
630.57
417.72
370.68
564.03
357.99
448.12
137.79
104.29
305.5
220.54
29.525
50.327
26.774
43.677

13
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14

2.118397012
1.539828558
2.19634202
1.98727737
2.204825138
2.282078055
2.305501841
2.374308331
2.441097865
2.606531837
2.418185243
2.765966425
2.545307116
2.506369717
2.528042092
2.666302652
2.614855049
2.712717029
2.507720977
2.497358199
2.779985883
2.758359215
2.371548093
2.537554661
2.449925577
2.605671294

0.665693537
2.101506496
3.117403884
2.524448053
2.835373452
2.893395536
2.861098105
2.903355911
2.934008331
3.181843588
2.72057272
3.331467788
2.799733305
2.620885269
2.568999154
2.751302204
2.553870895
2.651394327
2.1392177
2.018242667
2.485011215
2.34348737
1.470189906
1.701801043
1.427713259
1.640252801

60

6.16 TDEM data Statistical Analysis to remove noisy data


The data tabulated is analyzed statistically by computing the mean and standard deviation of
effective resistivity. And the data which have higher standard deviation are removed.

Figure 6.9 Standard deviation Vs Resistivity data ( data whose S.D more than 14.89 are removed )

It has been found that most of the data fall below the S.D value 14.89. And constricting ourselves to
the depth of investigation to 350 meter, we filtered the data set. I.e. we removed the data set whose
depth value greater than 350 meter
The station locations are converted into meters. The data set thus obtained is scattered data set.
This scattered data thus obtained are converted into the regular grid data by grid data function in
MATLAB which uses cubic spline method for interpolation

Figure 6.10 showing conversion of scattered data to grid data

61

6.17 Scattered Data set filtered on the basis standard deviation described above
and restricting ourselves to depth of 350 meter
X
Y
Z
STATION DEPTH
EFFECTIVE RESISTIVITY
(in meter) (in meter) (in Ohm-meter)
15
32.978
114.37
15
25.851
35.453
15
50.44
90.249
15
92.754
229.29
15
197.65
557.89
15
205.15
391.66
15
259.68
516.5
15
240.36
364.14
15
277.62
394.47
15
279.86
255.14
15
293.34
225.65
15
314.06
131.17
15
331.8
116.23
15
267.65
60.282
15
295.31
46.523
15
284.6
27.311
45
12.997
17.765
45
10.347
5.6796
45
18.571
9.1919
45
34.095
24.809
45
89.715
143.16
45
107.55
165.19
45
126.45
180.16
45
142.65
189.38
45
166.38
212.03
45
245.25
379.11
45
233.03
277.93
45
162.43
107.03
45
158.04
81.362
45
145.31
55.373
45
168.58
59.945
45
153.55
39.667
45
123.28
20.21
45
118.98
14.945
45
169.06
24.05
45
113.25
8.6065
45
182.69
17.804
45
136.06
7.8371
45
139.94
6.6039

62
75
75
75
75
75
75
75
75
75
75
75
75
75
75
75
75
75
75
75
75
75
75
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
135
135
135

12.997
10.347
13.357
60.177
48.115
40.801
214.94
179.99
172.11
186.82
319.55
204.96
181.88
160.09
150.02
143.83
138.02
134.43
140.94
131.37
136.61
132.13
20.64
27.466
51.638
97.328
123.42
126.23
137.68
159.6
157.62
178.33
209.22
208.45
232.93
266.9
245.17
326.4
304.93
349.69
236.28
323.09
279.21
12.93
10.342
15.949

17.765
5.6796
6.3288
96.512
49.407
29.61
520.52
301.49
226.88
219.99
522.63
170.41
107.76
67.208
47.475
34.808
25.334
19.079
16.715
11.581
9.9554
7.3914
44.8
40.02
94.589
252.46
325.11
283.39
270.68
286.99
231.2
243.58
275.89
222.39
220.1
232.07
157.62
224.73
156.44
102.9
23.635
35.199
20.931
17.583
5.674
6.779

63
135
135
135
135
135
135
135
135
135
135
135
135
135
135
135
135
135
135
135
165
165
165
165
165
165
165
165
165
195
195
195
195
195
195
195
195
195
195
195
195
195
195
195
195
195
195

32.946
80.972
136.94
148.36
146.08
172.5
201.09
283.35
158.03
129.14
133.45
116.75
120.98
113.78
120.37
127.66
134.72
131.94
185.93
27.179
38.043
72.856
269.71
254.88
300.78
345.76
292.35
328.43
12.997
10.347
24.969
37.586
84.728
93.095
106.23
114.23
125.89
151.99
198.8
255.47
161.6
164.42
139.06
131.68
133.13
126.55

23.165
116.62
267.79
248
198.6
227.9
254.88
410.94
101.3
54.328
46.699
28.751
24.624
17.215
15.296
13.714
12.18
9.2859
9.2812
77.683
76.779
188.29
557.15
409.47
294.71
158.98
28.82
28.961
17.765
5.6796
16.616
30.15
127.69
123.77
127.15
121.43
121.38
145.61
202.28
264.75
85.077
70.896
40.788
29.174
23.57
16.907

64
195
195
195
195
225
225
225
225
225
225
225
225
225
225
225
225
225
225
225
225
225
225
225
225
225
225
255
255
255
255
255
255
255
255
255
255
255
255
255
255
255
255
255
285
285
285

121.94
125.3
116.11
138.68
12.93
10.294
34.097
40.453
84.293
91.897
103.97
114.61
141.64
152.69
257.65
157.18
136.42
124.49
120.41
121.15
121.7
112.7
132.23
119.79
126.7
131.42
27.169
50.656
179.28
244.25
233.68
328.75
249.68
337.47
237.49
225.36
307.78
219.24
187.79
261.64
281.03
225.23
229.15
22.235
49.062
83.259

12.512
10.536
7.1922
8.142
17.583
5.6212
30.985
34.925
126.38
120.6
121.8
122.25
153.65
146.95
269.28
80.486
48.804
32.692
24.395
19.518
15.635
10.688
11.734
7.6544
6.7961
5.8238
77.625
136.13
299.12
376.02
279.49
438.39
203.08
298.64
118.97
67.541
100.01
40.446
23.666
36.519
33.437
17.105
14.098
51.992
127.7
245.9

65
285
285
285
285
285
285
285
285
315
315
315
315
315
315
315
315
315
315
315
315
315
315
315
315
315
315
315
315
315
345
345
345
345
345
345
345
345
345
345
345
375
375
375
375
375
375

88.197
349.7
259.11
302.4
348.69
245.32
271.39
274.59
41.58
62.49
97.612
152.01
147.26
170.64
244.81
197.93
215.66
195.35
258.2
214.81
210.07
316.6
334.49
217.63
177.29
207.89
215.79
251.94
164.21
32.583
131.01
217.16
276.43
287.4
278.42
337.8
218
305.14
325.84
273.65
12.638
10.294
31.813
40.407
92.161
98.005

111.09
398.38
176.06
192.89
81.594
32.105
31.182
20.243
181.82
207.17
337.99
493.18
385.74
328.08
557.73
300.07
293.16
195.31
270.44
150.32
115.73
168.65
148.79
50.004
21.092
23.056
19.713
21.404
7.2397
111.65
457.46
438.86
481.65
269.07
163.51
151.74
50.171
62.482
44.949
20.105
16.796
5.6212
26.972
34.845
151.08
137.17

66
375
375
375
375
375
375
375
375
375
375
375
375
375
375
375
375
405
405
405
405
405
405
405
405
405
405

109.31
116.38
127.62
151.32
202.53
214.67
162.93
150.83
137.05
130.41
124.24
121.18
119.78
121.7
125.15
116.87
34.66
97.113
261.93
320.9
337.32
321.9
314.31
235.26
344.79
281.79

134.62
126.04
124.75
144.33
209.93
186.93
86.474
59.659
39.62
28.613
20.526
15.502
12.073
9.9397
8.3548
5.7824
126.33
334.54
525.5
417.72
370.68
137.79
104.29
29.525
50.327
26.774

6.15 Interpolated regular Grid data (with station spacing 15 meter and depth 10 meter interval)
15
10

NaN

20

NaN

45
NaN

75
NaN

105
NaN

135
NaN

165
NaN

195
NaN

225
NaN

255
NaN

285
NaN

315
NaN

345
NaN

375
NaN

405
NaN

9.7

9.1

43.7

8.0

56.8

17.0

23.1

48.1

42.2

49.1

55.9

21.8

NaN

30

84.6

18.1

16.5

43.7

18.0

78.9

20.0

28.4

84.9

79.9

113.7

103.7

25.9

NaN

40

108.0

36.3

28.4

63.8

37.9

82.0

35.0

34.1

110.6

105.2

176.2

129.9

33.9

142.2

50

89.5

56.3

56.4

90.0

61.1

118.9

56.1

57.9

134.7

130.5

195.7

147.4

58.2

180.6

60

116.8

77.0

96.0

123.5

84.0

159.7

78.0

85.5

155.3

169.8

202.1

159.2

81.4

225.2

70

154.2

98.5

127.5

166.3

103.3

186.0

99.6

110.1

171.8

213.6

231.1

169.6

103.8

269.2

80

192.8

120.7

161.3

208.9

115.9

182.9

119.4

124.8

182.6

242.8

272.0

186.2

125.4

306.2

90

223.4

143.9

192.2

241.1

106.7

153.2

126.2

121.8

90.9

110.6

313.1

234.0

146.6

329.7

100

245.2

174.2

228.0

255.8

70.9

105.0

130.2

129.0

37.5

116.3

343.7

272.7

142.1

333.7

110

273.6

107.0

176.2

286.8

29.7

58.1

129.1

33.7

32.7

135.4

356.0

368.8

135.1

324.1

120

307.9

12.3

84.4

319.8

15.7

-7.5

5.1

10.6

68.5

165.5

357.3

445.4

12.7

305.7

130

346.1

133.9

18.1

272.7

44.7

33.2

25.1

2.6

104.3

203.6

357.7

460.0

37.0

280.2

140

386.2

8.0

12.9

272.8

265.5

135.9

47.3

125.9

143.2

243.6

367.2

391.5

41.1

249.4

150

426.4

43.9

47.5

251.6

230.4

184.8

142.3

158.5

220.8

294.9

468.2

236.8

54.1

215.0

160

464.6

89.1

66.3

288.7

106.2

81.9

96.0

75.3

292.6

351.1

133.9

52.9

100.6

178.9

67
170

499.0

21.4

212.5

278.4

222.7

116.3

81.8

68.0

320.9

232.0

318.1

45.3

80.9

142.7

180

527.6

14.2

301.4

239.0

91.6

42.2

120.7

75.2

290.7

126.1

24.0

60.5

102.4

108.3

190

548.4

36.2

215.0

216.6

53.1

98.5

168.3

89.6

19.2

80.7

121.0

107.6

145.8

77.4

200

519.7

77.6

158.5

209.7

247.1

246.1

205.8

103.6

16.5

-9.0

253.1

272.3

197.3

51.7

210

390.9

132.5

356.8

280.1

288.1

281.3

234.3

121.8

29.6

-9.4

114.2

414.7

198.3

33.2

220

372.4

195.0

515.5

281.4

307.8

313.0

259.0

150.5

39.5

65.2

84.0

45.6

193.0

23.4

230

354.0

259.1

438.2

233.5

310.6

342.4

276.5

192.3

51.3

41.9

314.8

27.7

208.0

24.2

240

363.0

348.9

307.1

66.5

302.9

370.1

283.3

229.5

204.1

28.9

526.2

16.9

225.3

76.6

250

475.1

373.2

283.3

175.4

265.8

396.7

276.0

256.9

199.4

72.0

129.8

12.3

242.2

327.5

260

511.2

358.0

242.4

229.8

334.2

467.6

248.3

271.0

50.8

175.1

274.4

12.8

253.5

521.4

270

91.1

341.7

224.4

191.0

400.5

554.0

187.6

263.8

13.0

43.3

280.6

17.5

216.9

348.8

280

247.5

325.9

298.4

22.3

418.5

309.2

305.0

237.0

31.0

41.8

266.3

152.0

115.8

44.6

290

158.4

313.0

384.9

76.7

376.2

51.0

280.0

198.1

58.1

117.1

239.5

252.4

70.2

8.7

300

46.0

314.1

460.9

143.4

284.0

289.4

243.1

159.9

86.1

184.9

208.4

108.8

27.2

28.6

310

113.1

354.7

511.4

137.6

162.0

218.3

180.7

123.9

111.6

194.8

180.9

47.7

47.1

78.1

320

147.9

382.7

522.0

51.7

43.9

86.4

70.2

177.9

300.8

162.0

161.4

30.4

71.0

399.5

330

134.2

307.9

436.3

231.2

108.5

30.8

121.6

318.4

434.0

114.6

139.1

81.3

180.1

256.7

340

NaN

NaN

205.6

185.1

160.8

114.4

171.9

248.3

306.7

80.0

201.8

158.2

153.8

281.3

Here along X-direction is profile distance in meter, along Y-axis is Depth in meter and Grid data are
effective resistance in Ohm-meter. NaN indicates non-availability of the data or the places where the
data cannot be computed.

68

6.18 Plotting and Interpretation of TDEM data


We obtained the image of the subsurface by plotting in MATLAB

Figure 6.10
Effective resistivity
plot using TDEM
method

Effective
resistivity

Interpretation:

Low resistivity regions may be water or clay are indicated by dark blue colour
High resistivity regions may be due to igneous intrusions are indicated by red colour, but the
those structure will not look like real igneous intrusions (dyke) due to interpolation errors ,
approximations and smoothing done while processing the data.
This High resistivity regions are consistent with the anomalies obtained in other geophysical
methods like SP, wenner profiling.

69

Chapter-7
Gravity survey
7.1 Gravity Survey Introduction: Gravity prospecting involves the measurement of subsurface
geology on the basis of variation in the Earths gravitational field generated by density contrasts
between the subsurface rocks.
7.2 Gravity Survey Theory:
The acceleration due to gravity is given by
g=GM/R2
Where, M=Mass of Earth, G=Gravitational constant, R=Radius of the Earth
In Gravity prospecting, we measure the relative variation in gravity with respect to a Base Station at
which gravity is known previously.
International gravity reference formula 1930 (IGRF)
The acceleration due to gravity at any latitude () is given by the International gravity formula
g = g0 (1+sin2+sin22).
Where g0 = 978.049 Gal, gravity at the equator.
= 0.0052884, = -0.0000059, = latitude
This gives the theoretical value of gravity at the stations.
7.3 Corrections applied to the gravity data:
1. Drift correction: All spring mass system (e.g. gravimeter) changes null reading with time, even when
set up at fixed station. This is known as drift.
Drift rate = (b2-b1)/ (t2-t1) * C
Drift correction at time t = (t-t1) * Drift rate
g = observed reading + Drift correction
Where, b2 = gravimeter reading at time t2
b1 = gravimeter reading at time t1
C = dial constant of gravimeter
g =drift corrected gravimeter reading
2. Free Air correction (F.A.C):
Free air correction is given by: 2gh/R= -0.3086h mgal/m

70

3. Bouguer correction (B.C):


Bouguer correction is given by: 2Gh= 0.112h mgal/m

Free Air anomaly = g (observed)-g (theoretical) +F.A.C


Bouguer anomaly = g (observed)-g (theoretical) +F.A.C-B.C
7.4 Field Procedure:
The gravity base station at Dubrajpur is taken as the primary base station for the gravity survey. For drift
corrections, a Secondary base station was prepared near Bakreswar lodge.
Preparation of Secondary Base:
Reading at Primary Base at time t1=R1
Reading at Secondary Base at time t2=R2
Reading at Primary Base at time t3=R3
By interpolation, Reading at Primary Base at time t2= R1 + ((R3-R1) / (t3-t2))*(t2-t1).
The students were divided into groups and each group carried out the survey in different places near
to the survey area. Every day at the beginning, the gravimeter was placed at the secondary base station
and the reading was taken after leveling the gravimeter. Readings were repeated at the base after twothree hours. For accuracy, readings were repeated at each station.
Elevation, latitude and longitude of stations were determined through GPS survey.
7.5 OBSERVATIONS:
Value of the gravity at the primary base is 1035.1 div or 93.28321 mgal.
The elevation of the primary base from M.S.L is 36.215m.
Gravimeter used: Worden Gravimeter.
Instrument constant: 0.0912 mgal/div
Density taken, = 2.67 gm/cm

71

7.6 Data sheet for Gravity survey with various corrections


S.No

Stations
name

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25

ADU1
ADU2
ADU3
ADU4
ADU5
ADU6
ADU7
ADU8
ADU9
ADU10
TNP1
TNP2
TNP3
TNP4
TNP5
CHR1
CHR2
CHR3
CHR4
CHR5
RJN1
RJN2
RJN3
RJN4
RJN5

Field
gravity
value
(div)
1068.6
1055.6
1067.3
1058.0
1071.3
1064.6
1051.1
1048.2
1062.9
1060.9
1049.7
1071.8
1063.7
1060.1
1051.5
1093.6
1021.2
1117.9
1106.5
1109.6
1058.5
1038.4
1050.8
1063.3
1060.9

Drift
correction
(div)
1.9008
3.0624
3.6432
4.4352
5.5176
6.072
0.2865
0.3655
0.4287
0.4564
0.6629
1.5785
2.7465
3.4727
4.7355
0.1101
0.1801
0.2202
0.2803
0.3303
1.2615
1.8922
2.3758
2.6492
2.9645

Drift
corrected
value
(div)
1066.8992
1052.5376
1063.6568
1053.5648
1065.7824
1058.5280
1050.8130
1047.8340
1062.4712
1060.4535
1049.0124
1070.2211
1060.9531
1056.6273
1046.7645
1093.4912
1021.0231
1117.6842
1106.2214
1109.6121
1057.238
1036.5078
1048.4242
1060.6508
1057.9355

Drift
corrected
value
(mgal)
97.3012
95.9914
97.0055
96.0851
97.1993
96.5377
95.8341
95.5624
96.8973
96.7135
95.6688
97.6041
96.7589
96.3644
95.4649
99.7263
93.1170
101.932
100.8873
100.8943
96.4201
94.5295
95.6162
96.7313
96.4837

*Elevation
of station
(m)

Free air
correction
(mgal)

Bouguer
correction
(mgal)

**Bouguer
anomaly
(mgal)

6.7444
8.6908
2.3034
0.0992
-7.0103
-1.1646
-1.1646
-6.9734
-2.9241
-6.5242
3.1126
0.1372
1.4915
7.8469
10.5478
5.3151
-5.4050
-5.9551
-1.0553
-8.7952
6.4336
17.2918
12.4245
0.9471
9.1629

-2.0813
-2.6819
-0.7108
-0.0306
2.1633
0.3593
0.3593
2.1519
0.9023
2.0133
-0.9605
-0.0423
-0.4603
-2.4215
-3.2550
1.6402
1.668
1.8377
0.3256
2.7141
-1.9854
-5.3362
-3.8342
-0.2922
-2.8276

0.7553
0.9733
0.2579
0.0111
-0.7851
-0.1304
-0.1304
-0.7810
-0.3275
-0.7307
0.03486
0.0154
0.1671
0.8788
1.1814
0.59528
-0.60536
-0.66696
-0.11816
-0.98504
0.7205
1.9366
1.3995
0.1060
1.0262

-0.0283
-2.1567
1.5438
1.6151
5.6550
2.5347
1.8311
4.0026
3.6344
4.9647
0.1331
3.0536
1.6387
-1.4288
-0.4643
6.2784
0.89758
9.94424
6.83824
10.10062
-0.7786
-7.2361
-4.1023
1.8402
-1.86290

*Elevation is given with respect to bench mark located at Dubrajpur, whose elevation with respect to
MSL is 36.215 m.
**Bouguer anomaly has been calculated with respect to gravity value at Dubrajpur base station, which
has a value of 1035.1 div or 93.28321 mgal as measured by gravimeter.

7.7 Bouguer Anomaly and corresponding Latitude and Longitude values Data sheet

BOUGUER
STATION ANOMALY LATITUDE LONGITUDE
ADU 1
-0.02831
23.9182
87.3991
ADU 2
-2.15674
23.9123
87.3957
ADU 3
1.54387
23.9067
87.392
ADU 4
1.6152
23.9003
87.3859
ADU 5
5.6551
23.8873
87.3758
ADU 6
2.5348
23.8781
87.3693
ADU 7
1.8312
23.8781
87.3693
ADU 8
4.0027
23.8764
87.3711
ADU 9
3.6344
23.8751
87.3727

72
ADU 10
ADU 11
ADU 12
ADU 13
ADU 14
ADU 15
ADU 16
ADU 17
ADU 18
ADU 19
ADU 20
ADU 21
CHRO 2
CHRO 3
CHRO 4
CHRO 5

4.9648
0.13312
3.0536
1.6387
-1.4288
-0.4643
-0.7786
-7.236
-4.1023
-1.8402
-1.8629
6.2784
0.8975
9.9442
6.8382
10.1006

23.8734
23.8956
23.8848
23.9036
23.9059
23.9057
23.9254
23.929
23.9312
23.9356
23.9198
23.9187
23.9191
23.9198
23.9177
23.9195

87.3741
87.3752
87.3642
87.3564
87.3479
87.3373
87.387
87.3784
87.3689
87.3613
87.3946
87.4124
87.4259
87.4323
87.4433
87.4517

7.8 plotting and interpretation


Based on the data the Bouguer Anomaly Map is generated using SURFER package and the results are
interpreted
X-axis Latitude
Y-axis Longitude
Grayscale- indicates bouguer anomaly.

Figure 7.1 Bouguer


anomaly map
shows a m inor
fault and major
fault

The above latitude-longitude plot can be converted into meters by taking Base station as a reference in
Cartesian co-ordinate system by using the formulae,

73

y = R* (North-south direction)
x = R*cos ()* (East- West direction)
Where =-reference
=-reference
If and are longitude and latitude respectively
100

Figure 7.2 shows Bouguer Anomaly Map converted


in meters. Other than change in scale, there is no
significant difference in the map.

50

Note : The grayscale in this map is same as in


the previous map.

-50

Interpretation

-100

-150

-200

A minor fault is observed whose strike


length along North East direction in the
Northeastern part. Marked by red line.
A major fault is observed in the
Northwestern part is indicated by a
another red line.

-250

-100

-50

50

100

Figure 7.4 rough diagram shows


anomaly due to a fault

Figure 7.3 shows mesh plot of Bouguer Anomaly

74

Chapter-8
SEISMIC METHODS
8.1 seismic methods
Seismic method is the most popular as well as the most reliable geophysical technique that provides
true subsurface image.

8.2 Instruments used:


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Seismic recorder ( GEOMETRIC STRATAVISOR NZ)


Geophone
Geophone cable
Hammer, hammer-plate, trigger-switch, trigger extension cable
Batteries

Seismic Recorder
The seismic recorder used for our field purpose was the STRATAVISOR NZ manufactured
by GEOMETRICS. It is a conventional seismic recorder with an integrated color screen, keypad and
built in printer. The STRATAVISORTM NZ comes with a LCD display. The instrument is designed to
operate over a wide temperature range, but these limits may be exceeded in the field.
STRATAVISORTM NZ requires 12V external battery it includes refraction software with gain control
for individual traces, first break picking, layer assignment, depth below each geophone using delay time,
refraction tomography and reflection processing software.
The stacking menu allows controlling how stacking takes place. If auto stack is enabled, the
seismograph will stack each subsequent record to the previous automatically. The STRATAVISOR NZ
can record 64 channels of data. . In addition, the channel capacity can be increased by attached
secondary instrumentation. This instrument is used for both seismic refraction and reflection surveys.
8.3 Refraction method:
In refraction seismology we make use of waves which have been refracted at the critical
angle; these waves are called as head waves.
Mainly there three methods were employed in our refraction survey.
1. End-on survey
2. Split spread survey
3. Arc shooting

75

End on survey:

Split spread survey:

Arc shooting:

Figure 8.1 Various types of survey

Calculation of depth:

Where;

V1=velocity in the first medium


V2= velocity in the second medium
Xc = crossover distance

76

The seismic sections of the end on spread and split spread survey are as follows:

Figure 8.2 Seismic refraction data (from left)- end-on spread, split spresd ,end-on spread

Interpretation:
from the above seismic sections we have calculated the velocities and thickness of the layers.
From end on spread-1
Layer 1
Layer 2

Velocity (m/sec)
1722
12900

Thickness (m)
24
infinity

Velocity (m/sec)
1146
10750

Thickness (m)
8.4
Infinity

Velocity (m/sec)
1216
7813

Thickness (m)
12
infinity

From end on spread-2


Layer 1
Layer 2

From split spread


Layer 1
Layer 2

77

8.5 Reflection survey:


In reflection survey CDP/CMP shooting is important one for getting good resolution data.
Common mid-point shooting
Improving signal-to-noise ratios by adding together several traces (stacking) is fundamental to
deep reflection surveys. In shallow surveys this technique is normally used only to stack (enhance)
results obtained with identical source and detector positions. If, however, the data are recorded digitally,
NMO corrections can be made (although not in the field) to traces produced with different source
receiver combinations. The technique normally used is to collect together a number of traces that have
the same mid-point between source and receiver (common midpoint or CMP traces), apply the
corrections and then stack.
The number of traces gathered together in a CMP stack defines the fold of coverage.

Figure 8.3 CMP shooting

Procedure:
Plant the 24 geophones along the profile for survey.
Activate the 12 geophones at a time for one shot and use the remaining geophones for extend the line.
Take the geophone spacing as a 5m and the shot point spacing is 5m.
Fold = (1/2) * No. of geophones * (geophone spacing/shot spacing)
From the above data fold is 6
After data collected for first shot, move the shot point location to next position 5m away from the
first shot.
In this way repeat the survey along the profile.

78

Processing:
The data was collected in SEG-Y format with stratavisor.
This data was processed in seismic laboratory of ISM with the help of Seismic Unix software.
The stack sections showing below are shot gather sections.
For displaying purpose we shot gather 44 CDP data in 4 windows each containing 11 CDP data.

CMP SHOT GATHER SECTIONS


a)

Figure 8.4 CMP shot gather (a) ,(b),(c) & (d)

79

80

After the getting the shot gather sections, we have to do NMO corrections and stacking
processes further to get the final section.

81

Chapter-9
Conclusions

The spontaneous potential method, Wenner profiling , TDEM and FDEM profiling all
predicting the anomalies at 320 meter and 150 meter approximately in both the profiles. From the
Geology of that area we conclude those features are fractures.
The first layer (weathered layer) thickness (approximately 25 meter) interpreted by wenner
sounding method is in close agreement with the value calculated in Refraction seismic survey
These results we got are encouraging and motivating us. And this indicates the quality of
data we acquired and proper processing of our field data.
.