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SEAKEEPING PERFORMANCES OF A LARGE WAVE-PIERCING CATAMARAN IN BEAM WAVES

Yoshiho IKEDA
Department of Marine System Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, JAPAN

Naoto YAMAMOTO and Keita FUKUNAGA


Graduate Student, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, JAPAN

ABSTRACT In the present study, seakeeping performance of the 112m Wave-Piercing Catamaran in beam waves is investigated by model experiments in tanks and monitoring of the ship at seas. It is confirmed that poor seakeeping performance of a typical catamaran in beam seas is conquered by larger GM, shorter roll natural period, large roll damping and smaller wave exciting moment because of large separation of twin hulls. KEY WORDS: Wave-Piercing Catamaran, Roll motion, MSI, Seakeeping, INTRODUCTION The first 112m wave-piercing catamaran (WPC), Natchan Rera, was delivered to Higashi Nihon Ferry Co., Japan by Incat Tasmania, and started the regular service between Hakodate and Aomori in September 2007. The dead weight of her is 1500 tons, and the service speed is 36 knots. It takes 1 hour and 45 minutes for a crossing of 113km. The route crosses the Tsugaru Strait, and in rough sea states in winter season the beam waves combining long swells from the Japan Sea and steep wind waves are dominant. In high-speed craft industry, it is widely said that the seakeeping performance of a catamaran in beam seas is not so good because of its large stability. Then, the operator, Higashi Nihon Ferry Co. asked an assessment of the seakeeping performances of the WPC to the authors as a third party. In the present study, model experiments to measure ship motions of the WPC in beam waves are carried out in the towing tank of Osaka Prefecture University. Using the measured data, Motion Sickness Incidences (MSI) on a passenger deck of the WPC are calculated and evaluated. Measurements of motions of the ship at seas have been carrying out to compare with the results obtained by the model experiments. THE 112M WAVE-PIERCING CATAMARAN The 112m WPC was developed by Incat Tasmania Ltd, Australia as the largest WPC following six 98m WPCs. The principal particulars and profile of the ship are shown in Table 1 and Fig.1. The maximum speed is 47 knots in her trial, and the service speed in 1500 DW is about 36 knots. She has very large stability as shown as GM=68m because of large separation of two demi-hulls, and the natural roll period is about 4 seconds. No bilge keel and skeg are attached on the hull, but a ride control system consisting of a T foil and two trim tubs is installed. A 1/80 scale model was made for experiments in a towing tank. No ride control system is attached on the model. Table 1 Principal particular of 112m WPC Incat 112m WPC Model (1/80) Length overall 112.63 m 1408 mm Length (demi-hull) 105.6m 1320 mm Beam 30.3m 379 mm Beam (demi-hull) 5.8 m 73 mm Draft 3.30 m approx 41 mm approx

Fig.1 Profiles of 112m WPC

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MEASUREMENTS OF SHIP MOTIONS IN BEAM WAVES Measurements of ship motions, roll, heave and pitch, are carried out in regular beam waves. The model has no advanced speed, and wave directions are changed from =60 to 120 around the exact beam wave, =90 as shown in Fig.2. The displacement is assumed to be 2350 tons which corresponds to about 850 tons of dead weight, and wave height is 2.4m in full scale. Experimental results are shown in Figs. 3-5. The results of roll motion shown in Fig.3 demonstrate that roll motion in just beam waves, =90 is the largest, and slight changes of wave directions to bow or stern waves from just beam waves drastically reduce roll motions. It can be said that the reduction in stern waves (=105 and 120) is sharper than that in bow waves (=60 and 75). It should be noted that the resonant roll amplitude at =26m, which corresponds to the natural roll period (4.1sec.), is much smaller than the roll amplitude in longer waves. This small resonant roll amplitude may be caused by large roll damping created by two separated hulls and smaller wave exciting moment because of smaller /B=0.87. The maximum roll amplitude appears at =6070m, at the moment when half of the incident wave length coincides to the ship breadth, 30m. At the instant, a demi-hull is located at wave crest and the other demi-hull at wave trough. As can be seen in Fig.4, measured heave amplitudes in =90 and 105 have high peaks at about =40m. The peaks may be caused by heave resonant. This peaks appears in very limited wave directions near beam waves, and disappears at =60, 75 and 120. It should be noted that heave motions at around =60m are very small. This small heave motion may reduce MSI although roll motions are relatively large in the region of wave frequency. As can be seen in the pitch motions in Fig.5, even in beam waves, some pitch motions are induced. This may be because of the significant asymmetric shape between bow and stern of the WPC. Similar peaks at shorter waves, =30-40m, as heave motions, appear in pitch motion.

Fig. 3 Measured roll amplitude in regular beam waves

Fig. 4 Measured heave amplitude in regular beam waves

Fig. 5 Measured pitch amplitude in regular beam waves

=60

=75

=90

Fig. 6 Measured roll motion of the WPC model in advanced speed in beam waves In longer wave region, the pitch motion at =90 decreases, but increases as wave direction changes from beam wave condition to bow or stern waves.

=105 =120 Fig. 2 Wave directions in model experiments

For conventional mono-hull ships, roll motion usually decreases with increasing advanced speed because of

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increase of the roll damping. Roll motions of the WPC running in beam waves are measured for several advanced speed in the marine dynamics basin of National Research Institute of Fisheries Engineering, Japan. The results are shown in Fig.6. We can see that roll amplitude decreases with advanced speed. In the real ship, however, it should be noted that the ride control system may reduce the roll amplitudes more in high advanced speed. MOTION SICKNESS INCIDENCES (MSI) Using the measured ship motion data of roll, heave and pitch, the vertical accelerations at any points on the ship can be calculated. As well known, through the experimental results shown in Fig.7 by J. OHanlon (1974), the vertical acceleration and its period can deduce MSI at any points on decks. The prediction method was evaluated for transit passengers in the Dover Strait by A. Lawther et. al. and for Japanese passengers in several local routes by Y. Ikeda et. al. Using the method, MSI on the mesh shown in Fig.8 on the passenger deck of the WPC is predicted as shown in Figs. 9-11 for advanced speeds, 15, 30 and 40 knots in 4.8m wave height. The measured data of ship motions in zero advanced speed are converted to each advanced speed by changing encounter period which depends on advanced speed. The results for shorter waves shown in Fig.9 demonstrate that MSI becomes larger as wave direction come up to beam waves, =90 and as the advanced speed decreases. The MSI in =90 shows that the MSI in bow starboard side is largest, and gradually decreases to stern port side. In longer beam waves the results shown in Fig.10 demonstrate that the MSI in starboard side is highest, and rapidly decreases to port side. The MSI at 15 knots and in slight bow direction waves, =105, higher MSI regions expand to wide area on
100 M SI 80 60 40 20 0 0 .4 5 Vertical A cceleration/g

Fig. 9 Predicted MSI on the passenger deck of 112m WPC in beam waves of =40m and Hw=2.4m

20 Period s ec

2 0 .02 5

0 .1 5

0 .3

Fig. 7 MSI as a function of vertical acceleration and its period obtained by OHanlon

Fig. 8 Mesh for calculation of MSI

Fig. 10 Predicted MSI on the passenger deck of 112m WPC in beam waves of =65m and Hw=2.4m

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HEAVE 1.6 1.4 significant amp(m) 1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0 2000 4000 time(sec) 6000

AMP PERIOD 14 significant period (sec)


12 10 8 6 4 2 0

8000

ROLL 5 4.5 significant amp(m) 4 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 0 2000 4000 time(sec) 6000

AMP PERIOD 14
12 10 8 6 4 2 0

Fig. 11 Predicted MSI on the passenger deck of 112m WPC in beam waves of =100m and Hw=2.4m the deck. The results at =100m shown in Fig.11 demonstrates that the MSI in slight stern waves, =105, becomes larger than that in just beam waves, =90. Using the figures, the captain can choose the ship course and speed as passengers can escape from severe seasickness. If the captain does so, even in 4.8m wave height, it is possible to keep an area where MSI is below 10% on the passenger decks. MEASURED ROLL MOTION ON THE 112m WPC AT SEAS Measurements of ships motions in six degree of freedom of the WPC have been carrying out for three months after the ship entered the regular service at the Tsugaru strait. During the first winter season, the ship encountered several heavy seas. However, the operation rate is recorded over 98%, and the operator satisfied her seakeeping performances in all wave directions. An example of the significant heave and roll amplitudes and their period in a voyage are shown in Figs.12. The significant amplitude and significant period are calculated every 5 minutes.

8000

Figs.12 An example of significant amplitudes and periods during a voyage at seas

Measured maximum and significant amplitudes in each voyage are plotted with significant periods in Figs.13. The maximum roll, pitch and heave amplitudes during the period are 7, 3.3 and 2.8m, respectively, and corresponding significant vales are 4.5, 1.6 and 1.5m, respectively. The time history of roll motion when the maximum value, 7 of roll was recorded is shown in Fig.14. We can see that large roll does not continue so long. Concerning to seasickness, the operator reported that numbers of passengers who were in seasickness on board in severe sea conditions are very small, and the operator satisfies the seakeeping performances of the WPC.

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significant period (sec)

Maximum Amp. 3 2.5 2 m 1.5 1 0.5 0

Significant Amp. HEAVE

Significant Period Day-No. 14 10 8 6 4 2 0 significant period (s) 12

09 24 09 -08 26 09 -17 29 10 -12 02 10 -03 04 10 -16 07 10 -09 09 10 -22 12 10 -13 15 10 -08 18 10 -13 22 10 -08 25 10 -13 29 11 -08 01 11 -13 05 11 -08 08 11 -13 12 11 -08 15 11 -13 19 11 -08 22 11 -13 26 11 -08 29 12 -13 03 12 -08 06 12 -13 10 12 -08 13 12 -13 17 12 -12 22 -0 9

8 7 6 deg 5 4 3 2 1 0

ROLL

14 10 8 6 4 2 0 significant period (s) 12

3.5 3 2.5 deg 2 1.5 1 0.5 0

PITCH

16 12 10 8 6 4 2 0
th

Figs.13 The maximum amplitudes and periods of heave, roll and pitch motions in each voyage from the 24 September to the 22nd December, 2007.
8 6 4 2 0 -2 0 -4 -6 -8 -10

roll angle(deg)

50

100

150

200

250

300

time (sec)

Fig.14 Time history of roll motion when the maximum roll motion was recorded.

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significant period (s)

14

CONCLUSIONS Through the present experimental study on seakeeping performance of the 112m Wave-Piercing catamaran, following conclusions can be obtained. 1. Resonant roll amplitude in beam waves is very small because of short natural period, large roll damping and small wave exciting moment. 2. The largest roll amplitude appears when half length of incident waves coincides with breadth of the WPC. 3. Heave motion has a high peak in shorter waves in beam waves, and the peak disappears with changing the wave direction to slight bow or stern wave directions 4. Heave motion has a peak near =40m, and a minimum value near =60m. 5. Some pitch motions are induced in beam waves because of the asymmetrical hull shape in longitudinal direction. 6. MSI on the passenger deck depends on advanced speed, wave direction as well as wave height and length. 7. A MSI distribution map can be useful for the captain to select his navigation for reduction in seasickness of passengers. 8. Measurements of ship motions of the 112m WPC and operational experiences of her demonstrate that the results of the model experiments done in the studies are reasonable, and that the vessel has excellent seakeeping performance even in heavy beam seas. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The present study was carried out under the sponsorship of Higashi Nihon Ship-management Ltd., Japan. The authors would like to acknowledge Mr. S. Koga, the president of the company. REFERENCES J. OHanlon, M.E. McCauly.(1974), Motion Sickness Incidence as a Function of the Frequency and Acceleration of Sinusoidal Motion, Aerospace Medicine, April, pp 366-369 A. Lawther, M.J. Griffin. (1986), The Motion of a Ship at sea and the consequent motion sickness amongst passengers, Ergonomics, Vol.29, No.4, pp 535-552 Ikeda, Y. and Shirazawa, H. (1994), A Study on Evaluation of Seakeeping Performance for Passenger Ships (2nd report)-Measurements of Ship Motions and Vomiting Ratio of Passengers, J. Kansai Soc. N. A., Japan, No.222, pp 141-147

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