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CT Saturation Tutorial

Presented by Tony Giuliante

Bushing CT

IS

IP

N Turns

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Physical Properties of Core


Length L Area A

B-H Characteristic

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B-H Characteristic
B

Flux to Volts per Turn


=

s B

dA

= B A sin (t) V = d = B A cos (t) N dt

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Flux to Volts per Turn

V = BA N

Electric Field to Ampere Turns


=

dL

= H L

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Convert B-H Characteristic


B V = BA N

= H L

V/N vs. NI
V N

NI

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CT Exciting Characteristic
2000:5

300:5

VS

IS

Simplified Bushing CT Circuit


IS

IP
N

REB

REB = RLEADS + RDEVICES

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Simplified Bushing CT Circuit


RCT IS

IP
N

XM IM

REB

Simplified Bushing CT Circuit


IS

IP
N

XM IM

V = IS RTB

RTB

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Flux vs Voltage
V = N d dt 1 = N 1 = N

dt

IS RTB

dt

Flux vs Voltage
1 = N

IS RTB

dt

Flux equals the AREA under the Voltage

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Voltage Demand IS RTB

Voltage & Flux Waveforms


IS RTB

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Flux Design Limits


+ S

- S

Secondary Current
No Saturation

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Increased Voltage Demand Five times IS RTB


5*IS RTB

Flux for Ideal CT


No Saturation

5*IS RTB

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Current Output for Ideal CT


No Saturation
Primary Current Secondary Current

Amperes

Time (Seconds)

Flux Design Limits


+ S - S

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Flux Design Limits


+ S - S

Flux Excursion

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Current vs Flux

AC Saturation

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AC Saturation
Large Fault Current Large Burden Low CT Kneepoint Voltage

AC Saturation
Relay Applications
Large Fault Current
Unit Auxiliary Transformers

Large Burden
High Impedance Bus Differentials

Low CT Kneepoint Voltage


Compact Distribution Switchgear

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Unit Auxiliary Transformers


G

87UAT

DC Offset
Transformer

Fault current includes a dc component, or offset, that makes the current asymmetrical. L/R = 100 ms X/R = 37.7

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Offset Current vs Flux


Primary Current Flux Sec. Amperes or Flux Density

Time (Seconds)

Secondary Current
Primary Current Secondary Current

Amperes

Time (Seconds)

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Secondary Current Observations


Secondary current is distorted due to the core flux saturation Secondary current distorts after a short time (time-to-saturation) Distortion slowly dissipates as primary dc offset decays

Secondary Current 100 Amps 50 0 -50 0 2 Tesla 1 0 -1 0 1 2 3 4 Cycles 5 6 7 I SEC 1 2 3 4 5 6 Magnetic Flux Density (B) 7 I PRIM

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Large Differential Current


Secondary Current Primary Current

Amperes

Differential Current

Time (Seconds)

DC Saturation Factors
Large DC Time Constant Large Burden Low CT Kneepoint Voltage High Remanent Flux

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Remanent Flux
Trapped magnetic flux in core if a previous offset current is interrupted before reaching a symmetrical state High X/R ratios make remanent flux more likely due to the slow decay rates of offset current

Remanent Flux Survey


Remanent flux in % of saturation 0 - 20 21 - 40 41 - 60 61 - 80 Percentage of cts 39 18 16 27

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Remanent Flux Example


CT data
1200:5, C800, burden = 1.6 +j 0.7 ohm

Fault current 24,000 amps with dc offset X/R ratio = 19 Display ct secondary output current for remanence of 0%, 50% and 75% of saturation

0% Remanent Flux
Primary Current Secondary Current

Amperes

Time (Seconds)

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50% Remanent Flux


Primary Current Secondary Current

Amperes

Time (Seconds)

75% Remanent Flux


Primary Current Secondary Current

Amperes

Time (Seconds)

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Remanent Flux Results


Remanent flux 0% 50% 75% Time-to-saturation 1+ cycles 1/2 cycle 1/3 cycle

IEEE Guide for the Application of Current Transformers Used for Protective Relaying Purposes C37.110-1996

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CT Classification

CT Accuracy Class
ANSI defines accuracy rating classes by a letter and number C100, C800 or T100, etc. Letter designates how the accuracy can be determined Number designates the minimum secondary terminal voltage under a standard burden

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Accuracy Class Letter


C means by Calculation
non-gapped cores with negligible leakage flux, such as bushing cts

T means by Test
cts with leakage flux, such as cts with wound primaries

Old classes H and L


H T and L C

Accuracy Class Number


Minimum secondary terminal voltage produced
at 20 times rated current into a standard burden without exceeding a 10% ratio correction factor

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What is a Standard Burden?


IEEE Standard Requirements for Instrument Transformers C57.13-1993 the standard relaying burdens are 1, 2, 4 and 8 ohms at a lagging 0.5 p.f. 20 times rated secondary current of 5 A is 100 A, and 100 A times the standard burdens yield C ratings of 100, 200, 400 and 800 V

CT Knee Point Voltages


45o Tangent A B 300:5 2000:5

VS

IS

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Knee Point Definitions


Point A is the ANSI knee point voltage
point tangent to 45 degree slope line

Point B is the IEC knee point


where a 10% increase in voltage causes a 50 % increase in current

IEC knee point is higher than ANSI knee point

CT Excitation Impedance
Excitation curve represents the exciting impedance in terms of voltage and current The ANSI knee point (A) represents the point of maximum permeability of the iron core

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Examples
Determine Accuracy Class Selecting CT Ratings Calculating Time to Saturation

Example - Find Accuracy Class


Find the approximate ct accuracy class from the excitation curve
the C class is defined for a 10% ratio correction factor at 20 times rated current
10% of (20 X 5 A) is 10 A for IE = 10 A, use the excitation curve to find VS as about 500 V

next find the ct terminal voltage by subtracting the internal voltage drop from VS
(continued)

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Example - Equivalent Circuit


IP VS = 500 IS = 100 A IE = 10 A VB = ? ZB

Example - continued
VB (voltage to the burden)
VB = VS - (IS X RS) VB = 500 - (100 X 0.61) VB = 439 V

The approximate ct accuracy class is the next lowest ANSI class number (C400)

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Examples
Determine Accuracy Class Selecting CT Ratings Calculating Time to Saturation

Avoiding CT Saturation
VX > IS ZTB (1 + X/R)
VX = saturation voltage IS = secondary current ZTB = total ct secondary burden

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CTs for Generator Differentials


For generators, typically cts cannot be sized to avoid saturation because of:
high fault current high X/R ratio

Common applications would:


select adequate ct primary rating select highest practical C class match manufacturer and types of cts

Examples
Determine Accuracy Class Selecting CT Ratings Calculating Time to Saturation

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Transient Response of Current Transformers


Power Systems Relaying Committee

Time to Saturate Equation

VK I F R TB

( I - KR )

TCT TS
T CT - T S

-t TCT

-e

-t TS

+1

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VK
VK 2000:5 Tangents Intersect 300:5

VS

IS

Saturation Parameters
R TB = RCT + R LEADS +R DEVICES I F = FAULT CURRENT (SEC RMS AMPS) KR =

.5 - .75 IRON CORE .1 AIR GAP

= 377
L TCT = M R TB

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VM & I M
45o Tangent VM 300:5 2000:5

VS

IM

IS

CT Inductance
LM TCT = RTB VM

XM =

IM
XM

LM =

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DC Offsets

DC Offset Current
Depends on where in the voltage wave the fault occurs. Fault time is defined as: F I A => Fault Initiation Angle

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Voltage Waveform
FIA

45

90 4.16

135 180 225 270 345 360 8.33 12.5

Degrees

60 Hz

16.67 Time ms

Voltage Waveform
FIA

45

90 5

135 180 225 270 345 360 10 15

Degrees

50 Hz

20 Time ms

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Power System
R L

Z = R2 + X2 = ARCTAN ( L / R)

Power System
R L

= Characteristic Angle

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Fault at FIA = No Offset


R L

Current Waveform No Offset FIA =


2 1

0 Current

-1

-2

-3 0 10 20 Time - Milliseconds 30 40 50

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Fault at FIA = 90 Max Offset


R L

Current Waveform Max Offset FIA = + 90


2 1

0 Current

-1

-2

-3 0 10 20 Time - Milliseconds 30 40 50

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Total Current
2 1

0 Current

-1

-2

-3 0 10 20 Time - Milliseconds 30 40 50

Equations
v(t) = Vmax * sin ( Wt + Close_Ang ) i (t) = i ss (t) + i trans (t) i ss (t) = [ Vmax / Z ] * sin ( Wt + Alpha ) Alpha = Close_Ang - ArcTan ( WL/R ) i trans (t) = [ e^ (-R/L) t ] * [ -Vmax / Z ] * sin ( Alpha )

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Power System Time Constants


L/R (MS) 1 2 5 10 30 100 200 400 1000 X/R 0.377 0.754 1.885 3.770 11.310 37.699 75.398 150.796 376.991 Ang (deg) 20.66 37.02 62.05 75.14 84.95 88.48 89.24 89.62 89.85 Power System High Fault Resistance Distribution Lines Subtransmission Lines EHV Lines Transformers Generators Large Generators

Subtransmission Line L/R = 10 ms


2 1

0 Current

-1

-2

-3 0 10 20 Time - Milliseconds 30 40 50

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Generator L/R = 200 ms


2 1

0 Current

-1

-2

-3 0 10 20 Time - Milliseconds 30 40 50

EHV Line L/R = 30 ms


2 1

0 Current

-1

-2

-3 0 10 20 Time - Milliseconds 30 40 50

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Distribution Line L/R = 5 ms


2 1

0 Current

-1

-2

-3 0 10 20 Time - Milliseconds 30 40 50

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