Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 10

TRIAL STPM 2006

Answer scheme: 1. (a) (i) n = PV/RT [1] [1]

= 5.24 x 103 Pa x 1.00 x 10-3 m3 8.31 x 301K = 2.09 x 10-3 mol [3 sf]

(ii) RMM = Mass No of mole 0.270 g 2.09 x 10-3 mol Relative molecular mass = 129 = [1] [3sf] [1] [1] [1] [1] [1]

(iii)No of molecule X = No of mole x Avogadros constant = 1.26 x 1021 (b) (i) Label the diagram energy level and orbital 1S, 2S 2P (ii) Electronic configuration must represent by arrow

3d 3p 3s 2p

2s 1s

TRIAL STPM 2006

(iii) Oxygen have very high I.E thus they do not form positive ion. They form negative ions as they have high electron affinity. [1] 3d 3p 3s 2p

2s 1s

2. Ion Number of electrons in 3d shell in ion Ca2+ 0 Mn2+ 5 Ni2+ 8 [3 marks] (i) The third I.E of M is the energy required to move the third outmost electron from a gaseous ion M2+ to infinity, so that M3+ is formed [1]

(ii) The third I.E of calcium is so high because this third electron to be removed is from the completely filled 3p orbital for the others, the third electrons removed is from the 3d orbital which have similar energy level as 4s orbital. [1] (b) (i) Weak intermolecular forces of ethane - bond between sodium ion and hydrogen ion are very strong [1] [1]

2 1s 2p 3s 3p 3d

TRIAL STPM 2006

(ii) Lewis structure BF3 Shape of molecule Trigonal planar

Both correct
[ I mark]

NH+4

Positive charge at the N or outside the square bracket [ ]

Tetrahedral

[ I mark]

SF6

Octahedral

[ I mark]

3 (a) (i) P : 2Cl- Cl2 + 2eQ : 2H2O + 2e- H2 + 2OH-

[1] [1]

(ii) To exert pressure so that NaOH do not flow back to left compartment. [1] (iii) Disproportionation occurs Cl2 + 2NaOH

NaCl + NaClO + H2O

[1]

(b) (i) PtCl2(H2O)2 is a complex that can exist as geometry isomers whereas [1] CH2Cl2 has only one tetrahedral structure [1] (ii) diaquadichloroplatinum(II) (iii) Cl Pt Cl 4. (a) (i) (ii) OH2 H2O OH2 Cl Pt Cl [2] [4] [1] OH2 [1]

Cis isomer Trans isomer CH3CH = CHCH3 ( Cis 2 butane and trans 2 butane ) Dehydrohalogenation @ elimination

TRIAL STPM 2006

(b) (i) (ii)

I : Chlorine in tetrachloroethane; absence of UV light and heating II: Alcoholic of sodium hydroxide and heat. H C C H H H + Cl Cl
I

[2] [2]

H C Cl
II

H H C Cl H C Cl H [2]

H C Cl H

5. (a) (i ) Na + C2H5OH

C2H5ONa + H2

[1] [1] [1] [1] [1]

(ii) Sodium is rapidly oxidised by oxygen in the air to form a layer of oxide OR sodium reacts with water vapour in air (iii) Graph: - consistent scale of both axis Correct points plotted Graph is smooth Total vol of gas/cm3

60 45 30

0 Time/ min a b From the graph, t1/2 is constant (t1/2= a= b = 1.45 min). Therefore overall kinetics is first order. [2] (iv) A large excess of ethanol is used, its concentration is constant. Hence rate is independent of ethanol and is zero order. [1]

TRIAL STPM 2006

(b) Q = It = 2.21 x (28 x 60) = 3712.8 C No. of moles of Cu deposited = 1.22 63.5 = 0.0192 Amount of change required for 1 mole of Cu = 3712.8 0.0192 = 193375 C Cu2+ + 2e Cu Charge on 2 moles of e= 193375 C Charge on 1 mole of e= 193375 2 = 96687.5 C F = NAe NA = 96687.5 1.60 X 10-19 = 6.04 X 1023 O2 1/3 x 3 = 1 2SO3 0 1.9

(3 s.f) [1] [2]

(6) (a) (i) Initial/atm Equilibrium/atm At equilibrium, P SO2

2SO2 2/3 x 3 = 2 2 1.9 = 0.1 = 0.1 atm

1 1.9/2 = 0.05 ; P O2 = 0.05 atm

New total pressure = 0.1 + 0.05 + 1.9 = 2.05 atm . (ii) Kp = = (PSO3 ) 2 (PSO2 ) 2 PO2

[1] [1]

(1.9 )2 (0.1 )2 ( 0.05 ) = 7.22 x 103 atm 1 .

[1]

(b) (i) Steam distillation lowers the boiling point of a substance and hence can purify an organic liquid which has a high boiling point and which decomposes at temperatures near its normal boiling point [1] (ii) mass of 2-nitrophenol

TRIAL STPM 2006

0 (iii) mA = MA PA mB MB PB = 139 x 6 = 0.487 18 x 95 Time .

[1]

[1] [1] [1] [1]

% of 2-nitrobenzene = 0.48 x 100 = 32.4% 1.48 Mass of 2 nitrophenol present in 100g of the distillate = 32.4 g (c) PbCl2(s) Pb2+(aq) + 2Cl-(aq) ..

Addition of dilute HCl .common ion effect of Cl-, equilibrium shift to LHS solubility of PbCl2 decreases. [1] Addition of conc. HCl, formation of a soluble complex ion of PbCl 4 2- equilibrium shifts to RHS solubility increases. [1] PbCl2(s) + 2Cl-(aq) PbCl42- (aq) . [1]

7.(a)

The solubility decreases down the group [1] - Solubility depends on enthalpy of solution = enthalpy of hydration- lattice energy[1] - The lattice enthalpy is partly a function of the sum of the radii of the cation and anion. Since the size of the sulphate ion is significantly larger than the [1] cation, interionic distance remains essentially unchanged when descending the group. Consequently, there is minimal decrease in the magnitude of the lattice energies of the Group 2 sulphates when descending the group. [1] - However, the hydration enthalpy of the cations decreases rapidly in magnitude as they get larger when the group is descended. - Therefore, the solubility of the Group 2 sulphates falls with increasing cation size because the hydration energy decreases much more than the [1] lattice energy. Na2O reacts with water to form sodium hydroxide. Na2O(s) + H2O(l) 2NaOH(aq) P4O10 dissolves in water to form phosphoric acid. P4O10(S) + 6H2O(l) 4H3PO4(aq) [1] [1]

7(b)(i)

SiO2 is a giant covalent molecule that is insoluble in water. The Si-O bond is very strong and cannot be broken by water. [1]

TRIAL STPM 2006

The Mg2+ and the A13+ ions have high charge densities forming strong ionic bonds in MgO and [1] A12O3 These oxides cannot be decomposed by water and are said to be insoluble in water. [1] Max 4 marks (iii) Na2O and MgO are metallic oxides and are basic in nature. They can react with acids to form salt and water. [1] Na2O(s) + 2HCI(aq) 2NaCI(aq) + H2O(l) [1] MgO(s) + 2HCI(aq) MgCl (aq) + H2O(l) Al2O3 is an amphoteric oxide. It shows properties of a base when it reacts with an acid. A12O3(s) + 6HCI(aq) 2AlCl3(aq) + 3H2O(l) A12O3 shows its acidic property by reacting with a base. A1203(S) + 2NaOH(aq) 2NaA1(OH)4(aq) + 3H2O(l) [1] [1] [1]

SiO2 and P 4O10 are non-metallic oxides which are acidic. They can react with a base to form salt and water. [1] SiO2(s) + 2NaOH(aq) Na2SiO3(aq) + H2O(l) [1] P4OI0(S) + 12NaOH(aq) 4Na3PO4(aq) + 6H2O(I) 8. (a) (i) Resistant to corrosion / Easily recyclable. [1] (ii) A very high current of about 10 000A is used. [1] (iii) Pollution caused by discarded aluminium cans. [1] (iv) The aluminium can is washed and then heated to about 660oC where aluminium melts. It can then be drained into moulds for it to cold and solidify. [2] (b) SiCl4 is easily hydrolysed by water to form silicon(IV) oxide and hydrogen chloride. SiCl4 + SiCl4 (l) + 4 H2O 2 H2O (l) Si(OH)4 + SiO2 (s) + 4 HCl 4 HCl (g) [1] [1]

The oxygen atom in the water molecule contributes its lone pair of electrons to the empty d orbital on the silicon atom, to form a dative bond. The silicon atom has an expanded octet and hydrogen chloride is eliminated. [1]

TRIAL STPM 2006

CCl4 is not hydrolysed because carbon is a Period 2 element and does not have any 2d orbitals that can be used to form a dative bond with water molecules. All the s and p orbitals in carbon have been used for sp3 hybridisation and then, bonding. [2] (c) (i) A small amount of nitric acid has decomposed to form nitrogen dioxide, which is a brown coloured gas. [1] 4 HNO3 (l) 4 NO2 (g) + 2 H2O (l) + O2 (g) [1] [1] [1]

(ii) The ammonium salt has decomposed to form ammonia. 2 NH4Cl + CaO 2 NH3 (g) + H2O + CaCl2

When reacted with concentrated hydrochloric acid, white fumes of ammonium chloride are formed. NH3 (g) + HCl (g) NH4Cl (s) [1] 9. (a) C 5.173 3 O 1.724 1 H 10.34 6 [1] [1] [1]

Empirical formula = C3H6O 58n = 58 n=1 molecular formula = C 3H6O

[1]

H O CH3CH2 C = O or CH3 C CH3 or

CH3 CH (OH)2

[1] [3] [2]

(i) Yellow ppt. of iodoform, CHI3 and -O-C6H4-CH2CH2COO-; oxidation (ii) O2N HO (iii) [2] HO C6H4 CH2CH2CH(OH)CH3; reduction CH2CH2COCH3; Electrophilic substitution nitration

(b) Phenol dissolves readily in aqueous sodium hydroxide to form a homogeneous solution of sodium phenoxide which may be crystallized out. Phenylmethanol shows no appreciable reaction and it remains as an immiscible liquid. [3]

TRIAL STPM 2006

10. (a)(i) Both G and H has CH3 on carbon with OH or with C=O [1] G is aldehydes / has CHO group H is an alcohol / has OH group G CH3CHO H CH3CH(OH)CN (ii) Reaction I H+/ K2Cr2O7, distil (reject MnO4-/H+)/ Reaction II H2SO4(aq)/dilute H2SO4, heat (b) Absence of acid group OH group and carbonyl group K cyclic diester H | CH3 C O C = O | | O = C O C CH3 | H [1]

[1] [1] [1] [1] [1] [2]

[1] --------Max [9]

(c) (i) 2-amino-3-phenylpropanoic acid (ii) 3 H2NCHCOOH | CH2 | OH O H || | || | H2NCHC-N-CHC-N-CHCOOH | | | CH2 CH2 CH2 | | |

[1]

[2] (iii) HNO2(aq)/ NaNO2+ HCl/ nitrous acid Effervescence/ gas evolved for A but not for 3-phenylpropanoic acid C6H5 CH2-CH(COOH)NH2 + O=N-OH C6H5-CH2CH(OH)COOH + N2 [1] [1] [1] --Max [6]

TRIAL STPM 2006

10