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M M Mahapatra1, G L Datta1*, B Pradhan1, and N R Mandal2 1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, India 2 Department of Ocean Engineering and Naval Architecture, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, India The manuscript was received on 31 August 2007 and was accepted after revision for publication on 6 November 2007. DOI: 10.1243/09544054JEM995

Abstract: Adequate top and bottom side weld reinforcements are important for single-side submerged arc welded butt joints as the shrinkage forces generated due to the solidification of top side weld reinforcements and bottom side weld reinforcements can cancel out each other to minimize angular distortions. In the present investigation it was experimentally established during submerged arc welding (SAW) that by using proper process parameters adequate bottom and required top weld reinforcements could be obtained by using two welding passes for 12 mm thick square butt joints. During the experimental investigation the first pass of welding was used for adequate bottom reinforcement and for filling up the root gap. The second welding pass was used to achieve the required top reinforcement. The first pass weld acted like a restraint to angular distortion induced due to the weld of the second pass. The process was modelled using three-dimensional finite element analysis considering a distributed moving heat source, reinforcements, filler material deposition in each pass of welding, and temperaturedependent material properties. Keywords: square butt joints, double-pass submerged arc welding, finite element analysis, transient thermal analysis, element birth and death method, thermomechanical analysis and angular distortions

1 INTRODUCTION Although adequate top and bottom weld reinforcements are desired in a single pass of welding for minimizing angular distortions, it is not always possible and a second pass is often used to attain the top reinforcement. In heavy structural welding works bead reinforcements (i.e. bead width and height) are normally prescribed for better structural integrity. These reinforcements can be achieved by using automatic processes like submerged arc welding (SAW) with proper process parameters. If the first weld pass produces adequate bottom reinforcement then the resulting angular distortion after the second weld pass will be less because the bottom reinforcement, resulting from the first pass, would act like a constraint in the second pass. Although the SAW process is used widely in heavy structural fabrications, works related to the prediction of angular distortions of multipass submerged arc welded square butt joints (i.e. joints without any edge

*Corresponding author: Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, West Bengal 721 302, India. email: gld@mech.iitkgp.ernet.in

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preparation) with top and bottom weld reinforcements using three-dimensional finite element analysis are rarely found in the published literature. There is therefore a need to develop an experimental procedure and three-dimensional model for achieving and predicting angular distortions caused by multipass submerged arc welded butt welding with top and bottom reinforcements. In the present work single-side doublepass submerged arc welded square butt welding of 12 mm thick mild steel plates as carried out incorporating an adequate bottom weld reinforcement in the first pass and required top weld reinforcement in the second pass. The process was modelled using threedimensional finite element analysis.

2 LITERATURE REVIEW In earlier days of welding simulations the temperature distributions, residual stresses, and distortions in single-pass welded joints were used in predictions by considering a two-dimensional approximation of a three-dimensional problem [1, 2]. Free and Porter Goff [3] had used a two-dimensional plane strain

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analysis for residual stress prediction in welded plates, but it resulted in higher stress predictions as the thermal expansion in the longitudinal direction could not be accommodated in their model. Michaleris [4] had predicted residual stresses in multipass girth welds of thin and thick pipes using quasistatic stress analysis. Michaleris and DeBiccari [5] combined welding simulations with three-dimensional structural analyses in a decoupled approach to evaluate welding-induced buckling in panel structures. They had used a kinematic work hardening material model for simulating the plastic behaviour of mild steel [5]. Lindgren [6] discussed complexities involved in simulation of welding processes and presented improved material models for better prediction of residual stresses and distortions for threedimensional modelling. Teng et al. [7] had used temperature-dependent material properties and convection cooling in their two-dimensional finite element model for predicting residual stresses and distortions in T-joint fillet welds. Park et al. [8] had studied the effects of mechanical constraints on angular distortion of welded joints. The effects of process parameters on certain responses in welding of curved mild steel plates were investigated by Awang [9]. Tsirkas et al. [10] evaluated distortions in laserwelded shipbuilding parts using a localglobal finite element approach. They had obtained the residual plastic strains and stiffness from the local model and utilized the same in the global analysis for predicting the distortion of the whole part [10]. Pathak and Datta [11] predicted the temperature distribution and microstructure zones of submerged arc-welded joints using the distributed circular spread of arc in their three-dimensional finite element models. Fanous et al. [12] used three-dimensional finite element modelling using element birth and element movement methods for predicting temperature distributions and residual stresses with the help of the distributed circular spread of arc in the thermal model for predicting the temperature distributions. Fassani and Trevisan [13] had presented an analytical solution to predict temperature fields in multipass welding using distributed Gaussian heat sources and compared the results with those of a concentrated heat source; they opined that the thermal profiles obtained from the distributed heat source models were more reliable than those obtained from the concentrated heat source models. Tsai and Jung [14] modelled the angular distortion of T-joints using plasticity-based distortion analysis. Dhingra and Murphy [15] did numerical analyses of several joints including fillet joints for predicting welding-induced distortions in thin-walled structures. Jiang et al. [16] used a three-dimensional axis-symmetric thermomechanical finite element model to simulate the multipass welding process using the established data [17] for predicting residual

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stresses. They opined that the predictions from the three-dimensional model were better when compared with the experimental data than those from the two-dimensional models [16]. From the literature review for single- and multipass welding the need and suitability of three-dimensional thermomechanical finite element modelling with a moving distributed heat source was realized and carried out in the present investigation for predicting the temperature distributions and angular distortions of double-pass submerged arc-welded butt welds.

3 MODELLING METHODOLOGY In the present work three-dimensional finite element analyses were carried out for predicting the transient temperature distributions and angular distortions of double-pass submerged arc-welded square butt joints (i.e. joints without any edge preparation) by taking into consideration the following: (a) moving heat source; (b) temperature-dependent thermal and mechanical material properties; (c) incorporating the joint geometry including top and bottom reinforcements into the modelling; (d) layer-wise application of heat flux for each pass of welding; (e) element activation and deactivation for incorporating filler material deposition in each pass; (f) deactivation of elements of the second weld pass while applying the heat flux and subsequent cooling to the elements of the first pass; (g) incorporating an appropriate material model for simulating elasticplastic behaviour of the mild steel weld and base metal. Heat flux was applied layer-wise for each pass of welding, while considering filler material deposition and moving heat source to obtain the transient thermal profiles. The thermal profiles were matched with the experimental data. Angular distortions before and after welding of the plates were also measured. Transient thermal and non-linear structural analyses were carried out for predicting angular distortion. The model was further verified by comparing the predicted and experimentally obtained angular distortions. The composition of the mild steel plates used in the experiments is shown in Table 1. The thermomechanical properties of mild steel [2, 9, 11] used for modelling temperature distributions and distortions are shown in Table 2. Solidus (Tsolidus) and liquidus (Tliquidus) temperatures of the mild steel used in the analysis were considered to be 1435 and 1500 C respectively [11]. The density of the mild steel used in the analysis was taken as 7850 kg/m3.

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Table 1

C (%) 0.15584 Si (%) 0.17774 Mn (%) 0.45330

P (%) 0.17975 S (%) 0.06918 Ni (%) 0.1324 Cr (%) 0.01567 Fe (%) 98.8413

Table 2

Thermal conductivity (W/m K) 51.9 51.1 46.1 41.05 37.5 35.6 30.64 26 29.45 29.7 29.7 42.2

Youngs modulus (GPa) 200 200 200 150 110 88 20 20 2 0.2 0.00002 0.00002 Thermal expansion coefficient (106/ C) 10 11 12 13 14 14 14 15 15.5

Temperature ( C) 0 100 300 450 550 600 720 800 1450 1510 1580 5000

Specific heat (J/kg K) 450 499.2 565.5 630.5 705.5 773.3 1080.4 931 437.93 400 735.25 400

Enthalpy (J/m3) 1 109 2 109 2.65 109 3.8 109 4.1 109 4.55 109 5 109 5.23 109 9 109 1.1 1010 1.1 1010 1.25 1010

Poisons ratio 0.2786 0.3095 0.331 0.338 0.3575 0.3738 0.3738 0.4238 0.4738 0.499 0.499 0.499

Yield stress (MPa) 290 260 200 150 120 110 9.8 9.8 0.0098 0.0098

3.1 Thermal model The heat source was modelled as a distributed heat flux depending on arc spread for each pass of welding. The rate of arc travel, current, and voltage were varied and these parameters were noted along with the temperature data. During experiments the top and bottom side temperatures for each pass of welding away from the weld line were measured using thermocouples. Due to the removal procedure of slag and flux granules just after the first pass welding the topside thermocouples sometimes got damaged and readings became erroneous. The topside thermocouples were therefore not useful for recording the temperature histories for both welding passes. The bottom side thermocouples were not affected during the slag removal procedure, so the temperature histories for both the passes could be measured from the bottom side thermocouples only; the same were used for validation of the results obtained from the thermal model. It is not possible to measure the spread of arc in the SAW process because the arc is covered with flux granules. However, the radius of arc spread of each weld pass was estimated [11] by considering the electrode diameter and bead reinforcements of welds formed during experiments. These arc radii were used for transient thermal analysis of the moving arc for each pass of welding and the temperature profiles were verified with the experimentally measured ones. The moving heat load applied in the finite element model was taken as a distributed heat flux, as given by 3Qe r 2 qsup r 2 exp 3 1 r pr

where r is the region in which 95 per cent of heat flux is concentrated [11, 12, 18, 19] and Qe hVI where Qe arc power (W) h arc energy transfer efficiency V arc voltage (V) I arc current (A) A schematic diagram of a square butt joint (a butt joint without any edge preparation) is shown in Fig. 1. Meshing and modelling of the submerged arc-welded double-pass square butt joints with top and bottom reinforcements are shown in Fig. 2. The thermal model of the present investigation is based on the equations of heat conduction. During the SAW the weld zone is covered with flux granules. Therefore, convection loss is not assumed for the weld zone. While heat is conducted throughout the model due to the heat input from the arc, it is assumed that surface exposed to the atmosphere other than the weld zone is also subjected to the loss of heat by convection. In the present work the heat flux in the arc spread was assumed to follow a Gaussian distribution for predicting the temperature distribution in the weldment. By using the distributed heat source the temperature at the middle of the weld line can be easily predicted. Many authors [1118] had also assumed a distributed heat source for weld thermal modelling for predicting temperature distribution. Moreover, the plate sizes were enough because for the finite element method (FEM) analysis the weld area was further divided into many smaller areas and as the heat source

394

Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of a square butt joint (numerical numbers representing corner points and positions of tacks)

Fig. 2 Modelling and meshing of double-pass butt joints considering bead width and top and bottom reinforcements

moved along the weld area, a constant amount of heat flux based on heat input was applied with time (depending on the welding speed) [11, 19]. The moving heat load was applied on the area bounded by the weld lines, as shown in Fig. 1, and except for the weld zone other areas of the plates exposed to the atmosphere are assumed to be also subjected to heat loss by convection. In this analysis the convection loss was taken as 15 W/m2 K [7]. The following assumptions were made in the finite element analyses: (a) density is not affected due to thermal expansion; (b) linear Newtonian convective cooling was assumed; (c) convective cooling was assumed on all the surfaces except the weld zone;

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(d) the heat source was assumed to have a Gaussian distribution of heat flux; (e) arc energy transfer efficiency (h 0.90) [20] was taken to account for other losses. The governing differential equation for heat conduction in a solid without heat generation is given by @ @T @ @T @ @T @T k k k rc @x @x @y @y @z @z @t 2

3.1.1 Boundary condition The finite-element-based weld thermal modelling carried out in the present investigation is governed

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by equation (2) and is subjected to three boundary conditions. (a) First boundary condition. A specified initial temperature for the welding that covers all the finite elements of the model T T1 for t 0 3

where DT Tn T1 and Tn is the instant temperature at the point of interest. Considering the plastic strains, equation (7) can be written as fe g fgft gfp g 9

where T1 is the ambient temperature. The energy balance at the work surface leads to the second and third boundary conditions. Let S1 represent the weld zone where the heat flux of the welding arc calculated according to equation (1) is applied. The remaining part of the plate surface represented by S2 is exposed to atmosphere where heat loss also takes place due to convection. The heat flux supplied to the model and convection loss to the atmosphere are indicated in the second and third boundary conditions respectively. (b) Second boundary condition. Heat flux due to the welding arc is applied over the surface of the weld zone qn qsup or @T qsup on the surface S1 for t > 1 4 @n (c) Third boundary condition. Convection loss is applied to the surface except for the weld zone in the finite element model k @T hf T1 T on surface S2 for t > 0 5 @n To avoid the sharp change in the value of specific heat, enthalpy was used as the material property. This was done by defining enthalpy of the material as a function of temperature [11, 19]. To simulate filler material deposition for each welding pass the element birth and death technique was used. For this, the elements were deactivated and activated as the heat source moved along the weld line during each pass of welding. Before applying heat flux to the elements of the first pass all the elements of the second pass were deactivated. k 3.2 Structural model The stressstrain relationship can be represented as fsg Dfe g where fe g fgft g and ft g DT ax ay az 0 0 0T

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Transient thermal and non-linear structural analysis was done for predicting angular distortion. For each pass of welding the temperature history from the thermal analysis in every load step was used as the thermal loading in the structural analysis. The structural analysis involves large displacements (strain) and a rate-independent thermoelastoplastic material model with temperature-dependent material properties incorporated into the modelling. Kinematic work hardening together with the von Mises yield criterion and associative flow rules [4, 5, 21] were assumed in the analysis. In the structural analysis boundary conditions that prevented rigid body motions were imposed into the modelling. In the present work eight-noded brick elements were used for the thermal analysis and similar eight-noded elements were used in the structural analysis. The eight-noded brick elements were chosen for required good compatibility in thermomechanical analysis. The solution was obtained using the ANSYS package [22]. 4 EXPERIMENTAL DETAILS Submerged arc welding of test samples was carried out with various combinations of welding speed, current, and voltage. Chromelalumel thermocouples were used on the bottom side of the plates to record the temperature history during welding. A typical welding set-up is shown in Fig. 3. A double-pass submerged

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arc-welded square butt joint marked with grid points to measure angular distortions with first and second pass welds is shown in Fig. 4. The length and width of each plate was 220 and 100 mm respectively. All plates were welded in the square butt condition without any edge preparation in two passes. The type of filler wire used was AWS SFA 5.17 ELB of 4 mm diameter. The type of flux used conformed to AWS A5.17-80/SFA 5.17, having a basicity index of 1.6. The plates were cleaned and tack-welded with suitable root gaps before welding. The welding and other parameters of a sample of two testpieces are given in Table 3. Each joint was tack-welded at two points. Each tack point was situated 5 mm away (at points 9 and 10 in Fig. 1) from the edge (end) of the plate. The grid points were marked on the tack-welded plates. An experimental set-up on a machine bed for measuring the displacements of the grid points along the vertical axis of the butt joints is shown in Fig. 5. To facilitate clearance of the plate and the

weld from the machine bed surface, the joints were placed on two marking blocks, as shown in Fig. 5(a). The linear variable differential transducer (LVDT) probe was attached with the vertical axis of the machine shown in Fig. 5(b). After the welding, the displacements of each grid point with respect to its pre-welding readings were noted. The vertical displacements were compared with those obtained from the finite element analysis. 4.1 Achieving top and bottom reinforcements In an automatic welding process like SAW, setting the welding parameters is the most important step in achieving the desired results [23]. Several experiments were conducted to observe the effects of process parameters on weld metal deposition and reinforcements. Instead of using a costly ceramic backing strip, a specially designed reusable aluminium backing strip was used in the experiments for supporting flux and molten metal at the bottom side of the joints. For jobs 1 and 2 (12 mm thick plates) the root gap maintained was 3.5 mm. The input current and voltage were varied for jobs 1 and 2 for each pass during experiments for obtaining different bottom and top reinforcements. In the first welding pass the bottom reinforcement and filling up of the root gap were achieved. In all the cases the electrode feed rate was more than 2.75 m/min. Good bottom reinforcements were achieved by varying current and voltage (Table 3) in the ranges of

Table 3

Plate Job thickness number (mm) 1 2 12 12 Current in first pass (A) 580 550 Current in second pass (A) 365 340

Specification of welding

Voltage in first pass (V) 31 28 Voltage in second pass (V) 30 29 Speed in first pass (mm/s) 5.64 5.64 Speed in second pass (mm/s) 8.5 8.5

Fig. 5 Experimental set-up for measuring the grid point displacements of a submerged arc-welded square butt joint: (a) schematic diagram of the measuring set-up and (b) measuring the displacements of grid points

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550 to 590 A and 28 to 30 V respectively. In the second welding pass different top side weld reinforcements were intended for jobs 1 and 2. The second pass of welding started after 180 s of cooling of the first pass weld. The time was sufficient for removing the flux and moving the trolley to the initial starting position of welding. A high welding speed and low current were used in the second pass to provide good top side bead reinforcement. 4.2 Measurement of zones of microstructures For studying the microstructures of different zones the welded joints were sectioned and metallographic samples were prepared [24] and examined under an optical microscope. The measured zones and macrographs of jobs 1 and 2 are shown in Fig. 6. Bottom reinforcement, fusion zone (FZ 1), and heat affected zone (HAZ) (HAZ 1) due to the first pass are shown in Fig. 6, as well as reinforcement, fusion zone (FZ 2), and HAZ (HAZ 2) due to the second pass. 5 MODELLING AND SOLUTIONS Three-dimensional transient thermal analyses were carried out for 12 mm thick double-pass square butt

joints (jobs 1 and 2). The length and width of the square butt models were the same as those in the experiments. As in the experiments for jobs 1 and 2, moving heat flux was applied at the arc traverse rate of 5.64 mm/s for the first weld pass and the subsequently cooling was applied for up to 220 s. For the second weld pass, moving heat flux was applied at the arc traverse rate of 8.5 mm/s and subsequently cooling was applied for up to 520 s. After obtaining the temperature distributions of square butt welds and matching the trends with the microstructure zones, transient thermal and nonlinear structural analyses were carried out for predicting the angular distortions. The arc radius of each job was selected on a trial-and-error basis [11, 19]. Various arc radii were tried in order to obtain the appropriate temperature distributions that matched with the experiments. The arc radii used in the analysis for the first and second passes of jobs 1 and 2 were measured as 6.3, 6.2 and 6.1, 6.15 mm respectively. The top and bottom reinforcement heights of jobs 1 and 2 (Fig. 6) were measured as 2.18, 0.96 and 2.01, 1.01 mm respectively. The top and bottom reinforcement widths of jobs 1 and 2 were measured as 16.8, 5.6 and 18.8, 9.4 mm respectively. These readings were incorporated into the modelling.

Fig. 6 Measured zones and macrographs of jobs 1 and 2: BW1, bead width of bottom reinforcement; BW2, bead width of top reinforcement; BH1, bead height of bottom reinforcement; BH2, bead height of top reinforcement; FZ 1, fusion zone due to the first pass; FZ 2, fusion zone due to the second pass: (a) zones of double-pass butt welds, (b) macrograph of job 1, and (c) macrograph of job 2

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6 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS Modelling and meshing of a 12 mm thick double-pass butt joint with top and bottom reinforcements are shown in Fig. 2. The weld zone was finely meshed and a gradual increase in mesh size was incorporated away from the weld line. Predicted top side temperature distributions for the first pass at 150 mm from the edge 5678 (Fig. 1) along the Z direction (i.e. from start of welding) of job 1 are shown in Fig. 7. The figure shows the peak temperature rise to about 2200 C and the heating and cooling curves at the weld central line. Predicted top side temperature distributions for the second pass at 150 mm from the edge 5678 (Fig. 1) along the Z direction (i.e. from the start of welding) (Fig. 2) of job 1 are shown in Fig. 8. In Fig. 8 the initial temperature of the second

weld pass is predicted as the temperature to which the first pass weld had cooled down at 220 s. The peak temperature attained during the second pass is less in comparison to the first pass welding because of the high arc traverse speed used for the second pass welding. It can also be observed that more gradual cooling took place in the second pass weld (Fig. 8) as the plates were already pre-heated due to the first pass welding (Fig. 7). A comparative bottom side temperature distribution at 36 mm away from the weld line obtained experimentally as well as by using the theoretical model is shown in Fig. 9. Fairly good agreement can be observed between the measured and numerically obtained temperature distributions, indicating adequacy of the model developed. The predicted top side temperature distributions for the second pass of job 2 at 150 mm from edge 5678 (Fig. 1) (i.e. from the start of welding) in the welding direction is shown in Fig. 10. Higher

Fig. 7 Predicted top surface nodal temperature history of an element belonging to the first weld pass of job 1 with cooling up to 220 s

Fig. 9 Comparison of bottom side temperature distribution 36 mm away from the weld line of job 1

Fig. 8 Predicted top surface nodal temperature history of an element belonging to the second weld pass of job 1

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Fig. 10 Predicted top surface nodal temperature history of an element belonging to the second weld pass of job 2

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Table 4

Plate thickness (mm) 12 12

Measured minimum angular distortion (mm) 0.7 0.7 Predicted maximum angular distortion (mm) 1.32 1.21 Measured maximum angular distortion (mm) 1.2 1.3

Job number 1 2

Fig. 11 First pass angular distortion of job 1 expressed as a displacement (SMX in m) in the Y direction

Fig. 13 Second pass angular distortion of job 2 expressed as a displacement (SMX in m) in the Y direction

Fig. 12 Second pass angular distortion of job 1 expressed as a displacement (SMX in m) in the Y direction

Fig. 14 Measured and predicted displacements of points (SMX in m) in the Y direction for job 1 along the edge parallel to the weld line

peak temperature distributions were predicted for job 1 due to a higher heat input condition. This investigation is limited to the prediction of angular distortion only. Here the displacement of grid points in the Y direction in each pass of welding is considered as angular displacement and is compared with nodal displacement obtained from the finite element model in the Y direction. The minimum and maximum angular distortions obtained

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from the finite element analysis and experiments are shown in Table 4. The maximum angular deflections in the Y direction, represented as SMX in m for the first pass welding, are shown for job 1 in Fig. 11. The maximum angular deflections in the Y direction, represented as SMX in m after the second pass welding, are shown for jobs 1 and 2 in Figs 12 and 13 respectively. As expected, a greater amount

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5.

analysis led to temperature distribution profiles that closely matched the experimental values. The angular distortions of the plates were modelled by three-dimensional finite element analysis and the results compared with the experimentally measured values.

REFERENCES

1 Kamala, V. and Goldak, J. A. Error due to twodimensional approximation in heat transfer analysis of welds. Weld. J., 1993, 72(9), 440s446s. 2 Brown, S. and Song, H. Implication of three-dimensional numerical simulations of welding large structures. Weld. J., 1992, 71(2), 55s62s. 3 Free, A. and Porter Goff, R. F. D. Predicting residual stresses in multi-pass weldments with the finite element method. Computers and Structs, 1989, 32(2), 365378. 4 Michaleris, P. Residual stress distributions for multipass welds in pressure vessel and piping components. In Proceedings of the ASME Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference, Montreal, Canada, July 1996; Residual stresses in design, fabrication, assessment and repair (Eds R. W. Warke, P. Dong, and A. Dermenjian), PVP, 1996, vol. 327, pp. 1727 (ASME, New York). 5 Michaleris, P. and DeBiccari, A. Prediction of welding distortion. Weld. J., 1997, 76(4), 172s180s. 6 Lindgren, L.-E. Finite element modelling and simulation of welding. Part 2: improved material modelling. J. Thermal Stresses, 2001, 24, 195231. 7 Teng, T.-L., Fung, C.-P., Chang, P.-H., and Yang, W.-C. Analysis of residual stresses and distortions in T-joint fillet welds. Int. J. Pressure Vessels and Piping, 2001, 78, 523538. 8 Park, J.-U., Lee, H.-W., and Bang, H.-S. Effects of mechanical constraints on angular distortion of welding joints. Sci. Technol. Weld. and Joining, 2002, 7(4), 232239. 9 Awang, M. The effects of process parameters on steel welding response in curved plates. MS Thesis, College of Engineering and Mineral Resources, West Virginia University, West Virginia, 2002. 10 Tsirkas, S. A., Papanikos, P., Pericleous, K., Strusevich, N., Boitout, F., and Bergheau, J. M. Evaluation of distortions of laser welded shipbuilding parts using a localglobal approach. Sci. Technol. Weld. and Joining, 2003, 8(2), 7988. 11 Pathak, A. K. and Datta, G. L. Three-dimensional finite element analysis to predict the different zones of microstructures in submerged arc welding. Proc. Instn Mech. Engrs, Part B: J. Engineering Manufacture., 2004, 218(B3), 269280. 12 Fanous, F. Z., Younan, I., Maher, Y. A., and Wifi, S. 3-D finite element modelling of the welding process using element birth and element movement techniques. Trans. ASME, J. Pressure Vessel Technol., 2003, 125, 144150. 13 Fassani, R. N. S. and Trevisan, O. V. Analytical modelling of multipass welding process with distributed heat

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Fig. 15 Measured and predicted displacements of points (SMX in m) in the Y direction for job 2 along the edge parallel to the weld line

of angular distortion is observed in the case of job 1 because of more heat input. The comparisons of deformations obtained from modelling and experiments at the plate edge parallel to the weld line for jobs 1 and 2 are shown in Figs 14 and 15 respectively. Although the data for job 1 show a fairly close match between the experimental and the modelled values, the same cannot be said for job 2 for which the rate of heat input is less. This difference may be due to experimental error. 7 CONCLUSIONS The following can be stated from the present experimental and modelling investigations on double-pass submerged arc-welded butt welding. 1. Experiments conducted with proper weld pass parameters and flux-filled aluminium backing strip led to adequate bottom reinforcement, root gap fill-up in the first pass, and required top reinforcement in the second pass. This ensured that the weld in the first pass acted like a constraint in the second pass, leading to less angular distortion. A three-dimensional finite element model for predicting the temperature distributions and angular distortions of double-pass submerged arc-welded square butt joints has been developed. Experimental temperature distributions of the square butt joints away from the weld line closely matched the values obtained from the finite element modelling. Layer-wise application of heat flux, incorporation of joint geometry into the modeling, and consideration of filler material deposition in the

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source. J. Braz. Soc. Mech. Sci. Engng, 2003, XXV(3), 302305. Tsai, C. L. and Jung, G. H. Plasticity-based distortion analysis for fillet welded thin-plate T-joints. Weld. J., 2004, 83(6), 177s187s. Dhingra, A. K. and Murphy, C. L. Numerical simulation of welding-induced distortion in thin-walled structures. Sci. Technol. Weld. and Joining, 2005, 10(5), 528536. Jiang, W., Yahiaoui, K., Hall, F. R., and Laoui, T. Finite element simulation of multipass welding: full three-dimensional versus generalized plane strain or axisymmetric models. J. Strain Analysis, 2005, 40(6), 587597. Shim, Y., Feng, Z., Lee, S., Kim, D., Jaeger, J., Papritan, J. C., and Tsai, C. L. Determination of residual stresses in thick-section weldments. Weld. J., 1992, 71(9), 305312. Friedman, E. Thermomechanical analysis of welding process using finite element method. Trans. ASME, J. Pressure Vessel Technol., 1975, 97(3), 206213. Pathak, A. K. Three-dimensional finite element analysis of heat transfer in arc welding. PhD Thesis, IIT Kharagpur, India, 2002. Okada, A. Application of melting efficiency and its problems. J. Jap. Weld. Soc., 1977, 46, 5361. Alberg, H. Simulation of welding and heat treatment modelling and validation. PhD Thesis, Lulea University of Technology, Sweden, 2005. Theory reference, 2002 (ANSYS Inc., Southpointe, Canonsburg, Pennsylvania). Mandal, N. R. Welding and distortion control, 2004 (Narosa Publishing House, New Delhi). Lancaster, J. F. Metallurgy of welding, 1993 (Chapman and Hall Ltd, London).

APPENDIX Notation c [D] hf k qconv qn qsup Q r S1 and S2 t T T1 x, y, z ax , a y , az {} {e} {t} {p} h r {s} specific heat (J/kg K) stressstrain matrix convective heat transfer coefficient (W/m2 K) thermal conductivity (W/m K) heat loss from the work surfaces by convection (W/m2) component of conduction heat flux normal to the work surface (W/m2) supplied heat flux from the welding arc (W/m2) arc power (W) radial distance in the welding arc (mm) surfaces time (s) temperature ( C) temperature of the surroundings ( C) coordinates thermal expansion coefficients in the x, y and z coordinates total strain vector elastic strain vector thermal strain vector plastic strain vector arc energy transfer efficiency density of the base metal (kg/m3) stress vector

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