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Gii nhanh bi tp ho hc

bng phng php ghp n s


V d 1: m gam bt st ngoi khng kh, sau mt thi gian thu c 11,8g hn hp
cc cht rn Fe, FeO, Fe2O3, Fe3O4. Ho tan hon ton hn hp bng dung dch
HNO3 long thu c 2,24 lt kh NO duy nht (ktc). Tnh gi tr ca m?
Gii
Cch 1
- Gi a, b, c, d ln lt l s mol ca Fe, FeO, Fe3O4,Fe2O3. Ta c:
56a + 72b + 232c + 160d = 11,8g (1)
Khi cho hn hp cht rn tc dng vi HNO3 th theo LBT electron ta c:
ne cho = ne nhn

3a + b + c = 0,1.3 = 0,3 mol

(2)

V theo nh lut bo ton nguyn t th khi lng Fe l:


mFe = 56 (a + b + 3c+2d)
hay mFe = 56a + 56b + 168c + 112d

(3)

- S dng phng php ghp n s (ng nht h s):


t A v B l cc h s ca cc phng trnh (1) v (2) sao cho:
A.(1) + B.(2) = (3)
Tin hnh ng nht cc h s ta c:
A.( 56a + 72b + 232c + 160d) + B .( 3a + b + c) = 56a + 56b + 168c + 112d

(56A + 3B)a + (72A + B)b + (232A + B)c + 160Ad = 56a + 56b + 168c + 112d
ng nht h s ca a v b ta c:
56A + 3B = 56
72A + B = 56.
Gii h ta c A = 0,7 v B = 5,6.

mFe = A. (1) = B. (2) = 0,7.11,8 + 5,6.0,3 =9,94g


Cch 2
Gi a, b, c, d ln lt l s mol ca Fe, FeO, Fe3O4,Fe2O3. Ta c:
nFe = a + b + 3c + 2d
nO = b + 4c + 3d
Tch ghp n s
mhh = 56a + 72b + 232c +160d = 56(a + b + 3c + 2d) + 16(b + 4c + 3d) = 11,8
ne cho = 3a + b + c = 3.(a + b + 3c + 2d) - 2.(b + 4c + 3d) = 0,3
hay

56.nFe + 16.nO = 11,8


3.nFe - 2.nO = 0,3

Gii h ta c: nFe = 0,1775 mol mFe = 0,1775.56 = 9,94gam


ngha ca phng php:

- T cch 1: Cng thc tnh mFe = 0,7.mhh + 5,6.ne cho


- T cch 2: Ta c h 56.nFe + 16.nO = mhh
3.nFe - 2.nO = ne cho

Tnh nFe

mFe

T cch 2 c th suy ra cch 3: Quy i hn hp oxit v hn hp Fe v O (nt)


V d 2: Ho tan hon ton 3,76h hn hp X dng bt gm Fe, FeS, FeS2 trong dung
dch HNO3 thu c 0,48 mol NO2 v dung dch X. Cho X tc dng vi Ba(OH)2 d, lc kt
ta nung n khi lng khng i c m gam cht rn.
Tnh m?
Gii
Cch 1
Gi x, y, z ln lt l s mol ca Fe, FeS, FeS2. Ta c
mhh = 56x + 88y + 120z = 3,76g (1)
ne cho = 3x + 9y + 15z = 0,48

(2)

v mRn = mFe2O3 + mBaSO4 = 80(x + y + z) + 233( y + 2z) (3)


( nfe= x + y + z; nS = y + 2z)
Hay mRn = 80x + 313y + 546z (3)
- S dng phng php ghp n s (ng nht h s):
t A v B l cc h s ca cc phng trnh (1) v (2) sao cho:
A.(1) + B.(2) = (3)
Tin hnh ng nht cc h s ta c:
(56Ax + 88Ay + 120Az) + (3Bx + 9By + 15Bz) = 80x + 313y + 546z

ng nht h s ca x v y ta c:
A = -0,9125
56A + 3B = 80
88A + 9B = 313

B = 43,7

mRn = 3,67.(-0,9125) + 0,48.43,7 = 17,545g


Cch 2:
Gi x, y, z ln lt l s mol ca Fe, FeS, FeS2. Ta c
mhh = 56x + 88y + 120z = 3,76g
hay 56(x + y + z) + 32( y + 2z) = 3,76 (1)
ne cho = 3x + 9y + 15z = 0,48
hay 3(x + y + z) + 6.(y + 2z) = 0,48

(2)

Gii h phng trnh (1) v (2) ta c x + y+ z = 0,03 v y + 2z = 0,065

v mRn

= mFe2O3 + mBaSO4 = 80(x + y + z) + 233( y + 2z)


= 80.0,03 + 233.0,065 = 17,545g

Cch 3: Quy i hn hp v l hn hp ca Fe v S vi s mol ln lt l a v b.


Ta c h

56a + 32b = 3,76

a = 0,03

3a + 6b = 0,48

b = 0,065

Kt qu nh trn

ngha ca phng php:


- T cch 2: Ta c h 56.nFe + 32.nS = mhh
3.nFe + 6.nS = ne cho

Tnh nFe v nS

mRn

T cch 2 c th suy ra cch 3: Quy i hn hp oxit v hn hp Fe v S


V d 3: t chy hon ton a gam hn hp hai ru no, n chc ri dn ton b sn
phm qua bnh 1 ng H2SO4 v bnh 2 ng Ca(OH)2 d thy bnh 1 tng 1,98g v
bnh 2 c 8g kt ta. Tnh a?
Gii
t cng thc chung ca 2 ru l CnH2n+2O v CmH2m+2O vi s mol tng ng l x,y
Theo phng trnh phn ng ta c:
nCO2 = nx + my = 0,08mol

(1)

nH2O = (n+1)x + (m+1)y = 0,11 mol

(2)

Khi lng ca 2 ru l:
a = (14n+18)x + (14m +18)y

(3)

Cch 1
Ly (2) tr (1) ta c: x + y = 0,03
Do a = (14n+18)x + (14m +18)y = 14(nx + my) + 18(x + y) =
a = 14.0,08 + 18.0,03 = 1,66 g
Cch 2
ng nht h s
t A v B l h s ca cc phng trnh (1) v (2) sao cho:
A.(1) + B.(2) = (3) hay
A(nx + my) + B[(n+1)x + (m+1)y] = (14n+18)x + (14m +18)y

(A + B)(nx + my) + B(x + y) = 14(nx+my) + 18(x=y)


ng nht h s ca nx+my v x+y ta c:
A + B = 14
B

= 18

A = -4

B = 18

Nh vy khi lng hn hp a = 18 (2) - 4(1) = 18.0,11 - 4.0,08 = 1,66 g


ngha ca phng php:
- T cch 1: Khi t chy hp cht hu c dng CnH2n+2O th s mol cht hu
c t chy: nCnH2n+2O = nH2O - nCO2
- Cng theo cch 1 ta tnh c kt qu nx + my v x + y th s cho php ta
gii bi ton ny theo phng php trung bnh (pp s nguyn t C trung bnh)
- T cch 1: mCnH2n+2O = 14.nCO2 + 18. nCnH2n+2O

- T cch2: Khi lng t chy ca hp cht hu c dng CnH2n+2O l:


mCnH2n+2O = mH2O - 4.nCO2 .
(Ngoi ra cn c: mCnH2n+2O = 14. nH2O + 4. nCnH2n+2O)
B sung: Cc cng thc ny hon ton c th suy ra t ptp t chy CnH2n+2O.
n c: CnH2n+2O +O2 t nCO2 + (n+1)H2O
0

nx

(n+1)x

mCnH2n+2O =(14n + 18)x = 14nx + 18x = 14.nCO2 + 18. nCnH2n+2O


Hay mCnH2n+2O =(14n + 18)x = 18(n+1)x - 4nx = mH2O - 4.nCO2
Hay mCnH2n+2O =(14n + 18)x = 14(n+1)x + 4x = 14. nH2O + 4. nCnH2n+2O
Chng ta c th mnh dn p dng cc cng thc trn trong bi tp tnh ton
hoc chng minh li dng cng khng mt bao nhiu thi gian.

Gii li bi ton theo phng php s nguyn t C trung bnh:


Gi cng thc chung ca 2 ru cho l C nH 2n+2O vi s mol tng ng l x.
Ta c: x = nH2O - nCO2 = 0,11 - 0,08 = 0,03 mol
V n =

nCO

nhh

0,08 8
8
= mhh = (14 n +18).x = (14. +18).0,03 = 1,66 g
0,03 3
3

nx + my

( hay n =
)
x+y

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