# Tensor Calculus

J. BLUHM
Institut f¨ r Mechanik, Abteilung Bauwissenschaften u Fakult¨t f¨ r Ingenieurwissenschaften a u Universit¨t Duisburg-Essen, 45117 Essen a

Literature: de Boer, Reint: Vektor- und Tensorrechnung f¨r Ingenieure, Springer-Verlag, u Berlin · Heidelberg · New York, 1982. Holzapfel, Gerhard A.: Nonlinear Solid Mechanics – A Continuum Approach for Engineering, Wiley, 2000. Kay, David C.: Tensor Calculus, (Schaum’s Outlines).

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force vectors. obey determined transformation rules. hydrostatic pressure. volume. On the one hand. essentially two opinions. – Tensors of diﬀerent order a) tensors of zero order: scalar quantities (temperature. The representation of this tensor calculus is denoted as an index notation. concentration. a direct approach to the formulation of scientiﬁc relations in physics and engineering. etc. The consideration of the tensor as a special linear mapping in the following seems to be a very useful viewpoint in mechanics and in engineering science. With this approach of the tensor calculus. etc. The vector notion is introduced at all times by a symbolic notation. there are a wide range of relations containing such linear connections – independent of special coordinate systems. respectively (tensors of fourth order) d) tensors of higher order: 1 . Concerning the representation of the tensor calculus. Only the explicit calculation of vector operations requires the establishment of the vector in a base (coordinate) system. in many cases. Introduction The vector and tensor calculus opens up.) vectors (position and displacement vectors. time. one arrives not only at a coordinate free representation of the tensors but also at a very compact description of the most important calculation rules. tensors are deﬁned as certain quantities with indices which. tensors are introduced by linear mappings.1. in contrast. density. fundamental tensors. In this ﬁeld. due to coordinate transformations. distance.) b) tensors of ﬁrst order: c) tensors of second order: stress and strain tensors. On the other hand. velocity and acceleration vectors. material and elasticity tensor. connecting the vector and tensor quantities. this representation allows a symbolic notation. there are. etc.

ti k ⇒ t1 1 . . . . t1 2 . t12 . u2 . t33 . t21 . t31 . . ti ko . . t22 . tikop . . tik ⇒ t11 . . tikop . ti k ⇒ t1 1 . . . covariant representation contravariant representation mixed variant representation mixed variant representation covariant representation contravariant representation 2 . . t12 . . . . t13 . t1 3 . t23 . tikop . tiko p . . – Symbols of higher order tiko . ui ⇒ u1 . . . tiko . . . – Symbols of second order tik ⇒ t11 . . Basic concepts 2. .1 Symbols (tensor coeﬃcients) – Symbols of ﬁrst order ui ⇒ u1 . . ti ko . . . . t13 . .2. u3 . . . . u2 . t1 2 . t1 3 . t32 . . u3 . .

The indices i and m are named as free indices. in a symbol or in a multiplicative term.2 Einstein’s summation convention When. + snn . . . = m=1 um vm = u1 v1 + u2 v2 + u3 v3 The summation index (called silent or dummy index) does not appear in its corresponding form after the summation has been carried out: sik tkm = si1 t1m + si2 t2m + si3 t3m + . Remark: sii . The summation index can be arbitrary renamed and the result of the summation does not change: ui vi = u1 v1 + u2 v2 + u1 v1 + . the letter r has been choosen for the sum of the products. + un vn ⇒ ui vi = ur vr . sik tkm ⇒ no summation 3 . . + un vn ur vr = u1 v1 + u2 v2 + u1 v1 + .2. . . . . . = ri m . . an index appears twice and this index stands above and below (superscript and subscript or co. . . then the summation must be done over this index: si i um v m n = i=1 3 si i = s11 + s22 + s33 + .and contravariant). Here.

– Examlpes i i i i sk δk = s1 δ1 + s2 δ2 + s3 δ3 with i = 1: i = 2: i = 3: ⇒ 1 1 1 s1 δ1 + s2 δ2 + s3 δ3 = s1 2 2 2 s1 δ1 + s2 δ2 + s3 δ3 = s2 3 3 3 s1 δ1 + s2 δ2 + s3 δ3 = s3 . i sk δk = si k sim δm = sik .3 Kronecker Symbol i The Kronecker symbol (Kronecker delta) δk is a scalar quantity and has the following values: i δk = 1 for i = k .2. m sik smn δio δp = sok spn 4 . k sim δis δm = ssk . 0 for i = k . When the indexed symbols are multiplied with the Kronecker symbol. then the summation index (silent index) by these symbols is exchanged with the free index of the Kronecker symbol and the Kronecker symbol is set equal one. .

a presentation of the vector referring to standardized (unit) base vectors is appropriate: 5 . In many cases it is necessary to know the real quantities of the coeﬃcients of a vector. In general. which is characterized by a magnitude (size. g2 and g3 as well as g1 . respectively. It should be mentioned that the coeﬃcients are not independent of each other. Therefore. Figure 3. norm). a direction and possibly the point of attack. The quantities gi and gi are covariant and contravariant basic vectors.1: Directional arrow A vector is geometrical and physical quantity. the base vectors g1 . respectively. g2 and g3 are not standardized and are not perpendicular at each other. The covariant and contravariant vector coeﬃcients of the vector components vi gi and vi gi are denoted by vi and vi .1 Vector notion and vector operations A vector v is deﬁned as a class of all directional arrows having the same length and direction. where the second system of base vectors gi is reciprocal to gi . Vector algebra 3. In the three dimensional vector space (Euclidean space) a vector can be presented as follows: v = vi gi = v1 g1 + v2 g2 + v3 g3 = vi g i = v1 g 1 + v2 g 2 + v3 g 3 .3.

In context with the presentation of vectors.e. v = vi ei = vi ei = v1 e1 + v2 e2 + v3 e3 = v1 e1 + v2 e2 + v3 e3 ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ the coeﬃcients of the vector are physical coeﬃcients: v i = v i = vi = v i ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ∗ ∗ . i. Using a presentation of a vector with respect to orthogonal unit vectors ei = ei (orthonormed base vectors). The quantities vi = vi |gi | = vi and vi = vi |gi | = vi ∗ ∗ gi · gi = vi g i · g i = vi g(ii) denote the so-called physical coeﬃcients of the corresponding vector. |gi | = √ g(ii) gi · gi = g(ii) are the norms of the base systems. a reciprocal base system gi is introduced in according to the following rules: 6 . .v = vi gi = v1 g1 + v2 g2 + v3 g3 g1 g2 g3 = v1 |g1 | + v2 |g2 | + v3 |g3 | |g1 | |g2 | |g3 | ∗ g2 ∗ g3 ∗ gi ∗ g1 + v2 + v3 = vi = v1 |g1 | |g2 | |g3 | |gi | and v = vi g i = v1 g 1 + v2 g 2 + v3 g 3 2 3 g1 2 g 3 g = v1 |g | 1 + v2 |g | 2 + v3 |g | 3 |g | |g | |g | 1 = v1 where |gi | = ∗ 2 3 i g1 ∗ g ∗ g ∗ g + v2 2 + v3 3 = vi i |g1 | |g | |g | |g | . √ √ gi · gi = g(ii) √ .

Thus. The quantities gik and gik are named as covariant metric and contravariant metric coeﬃcients. and to renounce the mixed-variant placement of the indices in the summation convention. ei = ei . The scalar products of the contravariant base vectors and the covariant base vectors gi · gk = gk · gi = gik = gki gi · gk = gk · gi = gik = gki are symmetrical for the indices i and k due to the commutative rule. e2 and e3 that are normed (unit vectors) and are reciprocally orthogonal are called orthonormed and it is valid that ei · ek = δik = 1 for i = k .e. i. which consists of a system of base vectors e1 . 7 . A base. In an orthonormed system.i gi · gk = gk · gi = δk . it is normal to represent coeﬃcients of the vector components as covariant. The base vectors gk and gi are termed as covariant and contravariant base vectors. . the diﬀerences between the covariant and contravariant base vectors vanish. 0 for i = k .

u + (v + w) = (u + v) + w . u + o =u . Figure 3. α(u + v) = αu + αv . u + (− v) = u − v . u + (− u) = o . The vector o is the zero-vector.2: Addition of vectors 8 . (α + β )u = αu + β u .– Addition of vectors u+v = v +u .

– Scalar product of vectors u · v = |u| |v| cos ϕ . (αu) · v = u · (αv) = α(u · v) . 9 . u · u = |u|2 . The positive square root √ |u| = + u · u gives the amount or the norm of the vector u. It should be mentioned that the scalar product of the two vectors u and v is equal to zero if one vector is a zero-vector or if u is perpendicular to v (u and v are orthogonal): u · v = 0 if u = o and/or v = o and/or u ⊥ v . u · (v + w) = u · v + u · w . u·v = v ·u .

This mapping is named as the zero-tensor and denoted with 0: 0u = o . The zero-element in is the mapping. the identity tensor I.e. ( α T ) u = α( T u ) . the tensor T is element of the tensor product space E 3 ⊗ E 3 . The dyadic product a ⊗ b is also called the simple tensor. (T + S)u = Tu + Su . that relates any vector to the zero-vector o. αT = Tα If a and b are elements of E 3 . 10 . is a tensor that maps any arbitrary vector u identically. – Linear operations T(u + v) = Tu + Tv . The vectors u and v are elements of the three-dimensional Euclidian space E 3 . The identical mapping.1 Tensor notion A tensor of second order is interpreted as a linear mapping in which the vector u of the vector space is transferred into the vector v of another vector space: Tu = v . i. T(αu) = α(Tu) . which should possess the following characteristics for every vector u contained in E 3 : (a ⊗ b)u = (b · u)a . Iu = u . Tensor algebra 4. then a ⊗ b is an element of E 3 ⊗ E 3 .4.

– Calculation rules a ⊗ (b + c) = a ⊗ b + a ⊗ c . (αa) ⊗ b = a ⊗ (αb) = α(a ⊗ b) 11 .