Institut f¨ r Mechanik, Abteilung Bauwissenschaften u Fakult¨t f¨ r Ingenieurwissenschaften a u Universit¨t Duisburg-Essen, 45117 Essen a
Literature: de Boer, Reint: Vektor- und Tensorrechnung f¨r Ingenieure, Springer-Verlag, u Berlin · Heidelberg · New York, 1982. Holzapfel, Gerhard A.: Nonlinear Solid Mechanics – A Continuum Approach for Engineering, Wiley, 2000. Kay, David C.: Tensor Calculus, (Schaum’s Outlines).
this representation allows a symbolic notation. distance. The representation of this tensor calculus is denoted as an index notation. in many cases. In this ﬁeld. tensors are introduced by linear mappings. there are.) vectors (position and displacement vectors. etc. With this approach of the tensor calculus.
The vector and tensor calculus opens up. volume. a direct approach to the formulation of scientiﬁc relations in physics and engineering. there are a wide range of relations containing such linear connections – independent of special coordinate systems. On the one hand. due to coordinate transformations. concentration.1. time. density. obey determined transformation rules. Concerning the representation of the tensor calculus. force vectors. connecting the vector and tensor quantities. velocity and acceleration vectors. fundamental tensors. On the other hand. – Tensors of diﬀerent order a) tensors of zero order: scalar quantities (temperature.)
b) tensors of ﬁrst order:
tensors of second order: stress and strain tensors. one arrives not only at a coordinate free representation of the tensors but also at a very compact description of the most important calculation rules. The consideration of the tensor as a special linear mapping in the following seems to be a very useful viewpoint in mechanics and in engineering science. respectively (tensors of fourth order)
d) tensors of higher order:
. material and elasticity tensor. The vector notion is introduced at all times by a symbolic notation. hydrostatic pressure. Only the explicit calculation of vector operations requires the establishment of the vector in a base (coordinate) system. tensors are deﬁned as certain quantities with indices which. etc. in contrast. etc. essentially two opinions.
. – Symbols of higher order tiko . . t23 . .
2. tikop . . ti k ⇒ t1 1 . tik ⇒ t11 . u2 . tikop .2. . . ui ⇒ u1 . t21 . t13 . . tiko p . t1 3 . t32 . ti ko . . .1 Symbols (tensor coeﬃcients) – Symbols of ﬁrst order ui ⇒ u1 . – Symbols of second order tik ⇒ t11 . tiko . . . . t13 . . . covariant representation contravariant representation mixed variant representation mixed variant representation covariant representation contravariant representation
. . t33 . . . t1 2 . . ti ko . . u3 . t12 . . t1 3 . tikop . . . . t12 . t31 . . u3 . u2 . t22 . t1 2 . . . . . . ti k ⇒ t1 1 . .
. . The indices i and m are named as free indices.and contravariant). + un vn ur vr = u1 v1 + u2 v2 + u1 v1 + .
. then the summation must be done over this index: si i um v
= s11 + s22 + s33 + .
Remark: sii . + un vn ⇒ ui vi = ur vr . . sik tkm ⇒ no summation
. + snn . . . . .
Here. . = ri m .2. . The summation index can be arbitrary renamed and the result of the summation does not change: ui vi = u1 v1 + u2 v2 + u1 v1 + . the letter r has been choosen for the sum of the products. in a symbol or in a multiplicative term. an index appears twice and this index stands above and below (superscript and subscript or co. .2 Einstein’s summation convention When.
um vm = u1 v1 + u2 v2 + u3 v3
The summation index (called silent or dummy index) does not appear in its corresponding form after the summation has been carried out: sik tkm = si1 t1m + si2 t2m + si3 t3m + .
m sik smn δio δp = sok spn
. then the summation index (silent index) by these symbols is exchanged with the free index of the Kronecker symbol and the Kronecker symbol is set equal one.
When the indexed symbols are multiplied with the Kronecker symbol. 0 for i = k . .2.
i sk δk = si
k sim δm = sik
. – Examlpes
i i i i sk δk = s1 δ1 + s2 δ2 + s3 δ3
with i = 1: i = 2: i = 3: ⇒
1 1 1 s1 δ1 + s2 δ2 + s3 δ3 = s1 2 2 2 s1 δ1 + s2 δ2 + s3 δ3 = s2 3 3 3 s1 δ1 + s2 δ2 + s3 δ3 = s3
k sim δis δm = ssk
.3 Kronecker Symbol
i The Kronecker symbol (Kronecker delta) δk is a scalar quantity and has the following values: i δk =
1 for i = k .
The quantities gi and gi are covariant and contravariant basic vectors. In many cases it is necessary to know the real quantities of the coeﬃcients of a vector. respectively. In general. a direction and possibly the point of attack. The covariant and contravariant vector coeﬃcients of the vector components vi gi and vi gi are denoted by vi and vi .3.1: Directional arrow A vector is geometrical and physical quantity. which is characterized by a magnitude (size. It should be mentioned that the coeﬃcients are not independent of each other.
3. In the three dimensional vector space (Euclidean space) a vector can be presented as follows: v = vi gi = v1 g1 + v2 g2 + v3 g3 = vi g i = v1 g 1 + v2 g 2 + v3 g 3 . g2 and g3 are not standardized and are not perpendicular at each other. the base vectors g1 .
Figure 3. g2 and g3 as well as g1 . where the second system of base vectors gi is reciprocal to gi . respectively. a presentation of the vector referring to standardized (unit) base vectors is appropriate: 5
.1 Vector notion and vector operations A vector v is deﬁned as a class of all directional arrows having the same length and direction. Therefore. norm).
In context with the presentation of vectors.v = vi gi = v1 g1 + v2 g2 + v3 g3 g1 g2 g3 = v1 |g1 | + v2 |g2 | + v3 |g3 | |g1 | |g2 | |g3 | ∗ g2 ∗ g3 ∗ gi ∗ g1 + v2 + v3 = vi = v1 |g1 | |g2 | |g3 | |gi | and v = vi g i = v1 g 1 + v2 g 2 + v3 g 3
2 3 g1 2 g 3 g = v1 |g | 1 + v2 |g | 2 + v3 |g | 3 |g | |g | |g | 1
= v1 where |gi | =
2 3 i g1 ∗ g ∗ g ∗ g + v2 2 + v3 3 = vi i |g1 | |g | |g | |g |
. v = vi ei = vi ei = v1 e1 + v2 e2 + v3 e3 = v1 e1 + v2 e2 + v3 e3 ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ the coeﬃcients of the vector are physical coeﬃcients: v i = v i = vi = v i ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯
√ √ gi · gi = g(ii) √
. a reciprocal base system gi is introduced in according to the following rules: 6
|gi | = √ g(ii)
gi · gi =
are the norms of the base systems. Using a presentation of a vector with respect to orthogonal unit vectors ei = ei (orthonormed base vectors).e.
. i. The quantities vi = vi |gi | = vi and vi = vi |gi | = vi
gi · gi = vi
g i · g i = vi
denote the so-called physical coeﬃcients of the corresponding vector.
e2 and e3 that are normed (unit vectors) and are reciprocally orthogonal are called orthonormed and it is valid that ei · ek = δik = 1 for i = k .e. which consists of a system of base vectors e1 .
. it is normal to represent coeﬃcients of the vector components as covariant. The quantities gik and gik are named as covariant metric and contravariant metric coeﬃcients. and to renounce the mixed-variant placement of the indices in the summation convention. . i. 0 for i = k .
The base vectors gk and gi are termed as covariant and contravariant base vectors.
In an orthonormed system.i gi · gk = gk · gi = δk
. The scalar products of the contravariant base vectors and the covariant base vectors gi · gk = gk · gi = gik = gki gi · gk = gk · gi = gik = gki are symmetrical for the indices i and k due to the commutative rule. the diﬀerences between the covariant and contravariant base vectors vanish. ei = ei .
Thus. A base.
(α + β )u = αu + β u . u + o =u .– Addition of vectors u+v = v +u . u + (− u) = o . α(u + v) = αu + αv .
Figure 3. u + (− v) = u − v . u + (v + w) = (u + v) + w . The vector o is the zero-vector.2: Addition of vectors
The positive square root √ |u| = + u · u gives the amount or the norm of the vector u. u·v = v ·u . u · (v + w) = u · v + u · w .– Scalar product of vectors u · v = |u| |v| cos ϕ . u · u = |u|2 .
. (αu) · v = u · (αv) = α(u · v) . It should be mentioned that the scalar product of the two vectors u and v is equal to zero if one vector is a zero-vector or if u is perpendicular to v (u and v are orthogonal): u · v = 0 if u = o and/or v = o and/or u ⊥ v .
which should possess the following characteristics for every vector u contained in E 3 : (a ⊗ b)u = (b · u)a . Iu = u . αT = Tα
If a and b are elements of E 3 . the identity tensor I. is a tensor that maps any arbitrary vector u identically. i. – Linear operations T(u + v) = Tu + Tv . 10
.4. The vectors u and v are elements of the three-dimensional Euclidian space E 3 . T(αu) = α(Tu) . The dyadic product a ⊗ b is also called the simple tensor. The zero-element in is the mapping. This mapping is named as the zero-tensor and denoted with 0: 0u = o .1 Tensor notion A tensor of second order is interpreted as a linear mapping in which the vector u of the vector space is transferred into the vector v of another vector space: Tu = v . (T + S)u = Tu + Su . The identical mapping.e.
4. that relates any vector to the zero-vector o. then a ⊗ b is an element of E 3 ⊗ E 3 . ( α T ) u = α( T u ) . the tensor T is element of the tensor product space E 3 ⊗ E 3 .
– Calculation rules a ⊗ (b + c) = a ⊗ b + a ⊗ c . (αa) ⊗ b = a ⊗ (αb) = α(a ⊗ b)