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# Tensor Calculus

J. BLUHM

Institut f¨ r Mechanik, Abteilung Bauwissenschaften u Fakult¨t f¨ r Ingenieurwissenschaften a u Universit¨t Duisburg-Essen, 45117 Essen a

Literature: de Boer, Reint: Vektor- und Tensorrechnung f¨r Ingenieure, Springer-Verlag, u Berlin · Heidelberg · New York, 1982. Holzapfel, Gerhard A.: Nonlinear Solid Mechanics – A Continuum Approach for Engineering, Wiley, 2000. Kay, David C.: Tensor Calculus, (Schaum’s Outlines).

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fundamental tensors. volume. The vector notion is introduced at all times by a symbolic notation. The consideration of the tensor as a special linear mapping in the following seems to be a very useful viewpoint in mechanics and in engineering science. force vectors. – Tensors of diﬀerent order a) tensors of zero order: scalar quantities (temperature. The representation of this tensor calculus is denoted as an index notation. With this approach of the tensor calculus. obey determined transformation rules. velocity and acceleration vectors. density. in contrast. due to coordinate transformations.) vectors (position and displacement vectors. tensors are deﬁned as certain quantities with indices which. hydrostatic pressure. Only the explicit calculation of vector operations requires the establishment of the vector in a base (coordinate) system. material and elasticity tensor. time. In this ﬁeld. etc.) b) tensors of ﬁrst order: c) tensors of second order: stress and strain tensors. one arrives not only at a coordinate free representation of the tensors but also at a very compact description of the most important calculation rules. there are. Concerning the representation of the tensor calculus. essentially two opinions. there are a wide range of relations containing such linear connections – independent of special coordinate systems. in many cases. tensors are introduced by linear mappings. etc. concentration. On the one hand. distance. a direct approach to the formulation of scientiﬁc relations in physics and engineering. etc. On the other hand. Introduction The vector and tensor calculus opens up. respectively (tensors of fourth order) d) tensors of higher order: 1 .1. connecting the vector and tensor quantities. this representation allows a symbolic notation.

t13 . tikop . t12 . t1 3 . – Symbols of second order tik ⇒ t11 . . . . t13 . ti k ⇒ t1 1 . . t21 . . . tikop . . . ti ko . . u3 . . . u3 . t33 .1 Symbols (tensor coeﬃcients) – Symbols of ﬁrst order ui ⇒ u1 .2. t22 . t23 . ui ⇒ u1 . – Symbols of higher order tiko . . ti k ⇒ t1 1 . . Basic concepts 2. . . t1 2 . . . u2 . tiko p . . tiko . tikop . ti ko . . . t31 . . . . covariant representation contravariant representation mixed variant representation mixed variant representation covariant representation contravariant representation 2 . tik ⇒ t11 . . t1 3 . u2 . t12 . . . . . t32 . . t1 2 . .

= ri m . + snn . . The indices i and m are named as free indices. then the summation must be done over this index: si i um v m n = i=1 3 si i = s11 + s22 + s33 + . an index appears twice and this index stands above and below (superscript and subscript or co. . . . . . .2. the letter r has been choosen for the sum of the products. + un vn ⇒ ui vi = ur vr . . Remark: sii . . sik tkm ⇒ no summation 3 . in a symbol or in a multiplicative term. . + un vn ur vr = u1 v1 + u2 v2 + u1 v1 + . = m=1 um vm = u1 v1 + u2 v2 + u3 v3 The summation index (called silent or dummy index) does not appear in its corresponding form after the summation has been carried out: sik tkm = si1 t1m + si2 t2m + si3 t3m + .and contravariant). . Here.2 Einstein’s summation convention When. The summation index can be arbitrary renamed and the result of the summation does not change: ui vi = u1 v1 + u2 v2 + u1 v1 + .

– Examlpes i i i i sk δk = s1 δ1 + s2 δ2 + s3 δ3 with i = 1: i = 2: i = 3: ⇒ 1 1 1 s1 δ1 + s2 δ2 + s3 δ3 = s1 2 2 2 s1 δ1 + s2 δ2 + s3 δ3 = s2 3 3 3 s1 δ1 + s2 δ2 + s3 δ3 = s3 . m sik smn δio δp = sok spn 4 . . When the indexed symbols are multiplied with the Kronecker symbol. then the summation index (silent index) by these symbols is exchanged with the free index of the Kronecker symbol and the Kronecker symbol is set equal one. k sim δis δm = ssk .2.3 Kronecker Symbol i The Kronecker symbol (Kronecker delta) δk is a scalar quantity and has the following values: i δk = 1 for i = k . 0 for i = k . i sk δk = si k sim δm = sik .

where the second system of base vectors gi is reciprocal to gi . respectively.1: Directional arrow A vector is geometrical and physical quantity. g2 and g3 are not standardized and are not perpendicular at each other.1 Vector notion and vector operations A vector v is deﬁned as a class of all directional arrows having the same length and direction. The quantities gi and gi are covariant and contravariant basic vectors. Figure 3. g2 and g3 as well as g1 . norm). The covariant and contravariant vector coeﬃcients of the vector components vi gi and vi gi are denoted by vi and vi . Therefore. It should be mentioned that the coeﬃcients are not independent of each other. respectively. Vector algebra 3. In the three dimensional vector space (Euclidean space) a vector can be presented as follows: v = vi gi = v1 g1 + v2 g2 + v3 g3 = vi g i = v1 g 1 + v2 g 2 + v3 g 3 . which is characterized by a magnitude (size. In many cases it is necessary to know the real quantities of the coeﬃcients of a vector. In general. a presentation of the vector referring to standardized (unit) base vectors is appropriate: 5 .3. the base vectors g1 . a direction and possibly the point of attack.

|gi | = √ g(ii) gi · gi = g(ii) are the norms of the base systems.v = vi gi = v1 g1 + v2 g2 + v3 g3 g1 g2 g3 = v1 |g1 | + v2 |g2 | + v3 |g3 | |g1 | |g2 | |g3 | ∗ g2 ∗ g3 ∗ gi ∗ g1 + v2 + v3 = vi = v1 |g1 | |g2 | |g3 | |gi | and v = vi g i = v1 g 1 + v2 g 2 + v3 g 3 2 3 g1 2 g 3 g = v1 |g | 1 + v2 |g | 2 + v3 |g | 3 |g | |g | |g | 1 = v1 where |gi | = ∗ 2 3 i g1 ∗ g ∗ g ∗ g + v2 2 + v3 3 = vi i |g1 | |g | |g | |g | . √ √ gi · gi = g(ii) √ . In context with the presentation of vectors. a reciprocal base system gi is introduced in according to the following rules: 6 . Using a presentation of a vector with respect to orthogonal unit vectors ei = ei (orthonormed base vectors). The quantities vi = vi |gi | = vi and vi = vi |gi | = vi ∗ ∗ gi · gi = vi g i · g i = vi g(ii) denote the so-called physical coeﬃcients of the corresponding vector. v = vi ei = vi ei = v1 e1 + v2 e2 + v3 e3 = v1 e1 + v2 e2 + v3 e3 ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ the coeﬃcients of the vector are physical coeﬃcients: v i = v i = vi = v i ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ∗ ∗ . . i.e.

The base vectors gk and gi are termed as covariant and contravariant base vectors. ei = ei . and to renounce the mixed-variant placement of the indices in the summation convention. . i.e. which consists of a system of base vectors e1 . Thus. The scalar products of the contravariant base vectors and the covariant base vectors gi · gk = gk · gi = gik = gki gi · gk = gk · gi = gik = gki are symmetrical for the indices i and k due to the commutative rule. 0 for i = k . A base. it is normal to represent coeﬃcients of the vector components as covariant.i gi · gk = gk · gi = δk . e2 and e3 that are normed (unit vectors) and are reciprocally orthogonal are called orthonormed and it is valid that ei · ek = δik = 1 for i = k . 7 . the diﬀerences between the covariant and contravariant base vectors vanish. The quantities gik and gik are named as covariant metric and contravariant metric coeﬃcients. In an orthonormed system.

The vector o is the zero-vector. Figure 3. u + o =u . u + (− v) = u − v .2: Addition of vectors 8 . u + (− u) = o .– Addition of vectors u+v = v +u . u + (v + w) = (u + v) + w . (α + β )u = αu + β u . α(u + v) = αu + αv .

– Scalar product of vectors u · v = |u| |v| cos ϕ . 9 . u · u = |u|2 . (αu) · v = u · (αv) = α(u · v) . It should be mentioned that the scalar product of the two vectors u and v is equal to zero if one vector is a zero-vector or if u is perpendicular to v (u and v are orthogonal): u · v = 0 if u = o and/or v = o and/or u ⊥ v . u·v = v ·u . u · (v + w) = u · v + u · w . The positive square root √ |u| = + u · u gives the amount or the norm of the vector u.

αT = Tα If a and b are elements of E 3 . Tensor algebra 4. The vectors u and v are elements of the three-dimensional Euclidian space E 3 . 10 . then a ⊗ b is an element of E 3 ⊗ E 3 . Iu = u .e. (T + S)u = Tu + Su . the identity tensor I.4. is a tensor that maps any arbitrary vector u identically.1 Tensor notion A tensor of second order is interpreted as a linear mapping in which the vector u of the vector space is transferred into the vector v of another vector space: Tu = v . which should possess the following characteristics for every vector u contained in E 3 : (a ⊗ b)u = (b · u)a . The identical mapping. This mapping is named as the zero-tensor and denoted with 0: 0u = o . – Linear operations T(u + v) = Tu + Tv . i. The zero-element in is the mapping. The dyadic product a ⊗ b is also called the simple tensor. ( α T ) u = α( T u ) . the tensor T is element of the tensor product space E 3 ⊗ E 3 . T(αu) = α(Tu) . that relates any vector to the zero-vector o.

– Calculation rules a ⊗ (b + c) = a ⊗ b + a ⊗ c . (αa) ⊗ b = a ⊗ (αb) = α(a ⊗ b) 11 .