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Erik Erikson - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

07/11/2011 19:48

Erik Erikson
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Erik Erikson (15 June 1902 12 May 1994) was a Danish-German-American developmental psychologist and psychoanalyst known for his theory on social development of human beings. He may be most famous for coining the phrase identity crisis. His son, Kai T. Erikson, is a noted American sociologist. Although Erikson lacked even a bachelor's degree, he served as a professor of prominent institutions such as Harvard and Yale.

Erik Homburger Erikson

Erik Erikson

Contents
1 North America 2 Theories of development and the ego 3 Erikson's theory of personality 4 Bibliography 4.1 Major works 4.2 Collections 4.3 Related work 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External links

Born Died Citizenship Fields Institutions Known for Influences

15 June 1902 Frankfurt am Main, Germany[1] 12 May 1994 (aged 91) Harwich, Cape Cod, Massachusetts[1] American, German developmental psychologist Harvard Medical School theory on social development Sigmund Freud, Anna Freud

North America
Following Eriksons graduation from the Vienna Psychoanalytic Institute in 1933, the Nazis had just come to power in Germany, and he emigrated with his wife, first to Denmark and then to the United States, where he became the first child psychoanalyst in Boston. Erikson held positions at Massachusetts General Hospital, the Judge Baker Guidance Center, and at Harvards Medical School and Psychological Clinic, establishing a solid reputation as an outstanding clinician. In 1936, Erikson accepted a position at Yale University, where he worked at the Institute of Human Relations and taught at the Medical School. After spending a year observing children on a Sioux reservation in South Dakota, he joined the faculty of the University of California at Berkeley, where he was affiliated with the Institute of Child Welfare, and opened a private practice as well. While in California, Erikson also studied children of the Yurok Native American tribe. After publishing the book for which Erikson is best known, Childhood and Society, in 1950, he left the
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Erik Erikson - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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University of California when professors there were asked to sign loyalty oaths.[2] He spent ten years working and teaching at the Austen Riggs Center, a prominent psychiatric treatment facility in Stockbridge, Massachusetts, where he worked with emotionally troubled young people. In the 1960s, Erikson returned to Harvard as a professor of human development and remained at the university until his retirement in 1970. In 1973 the National Endowment for the Humanities selected Erikson for the Jefferson Lecture, the U.S. federal government's highest honor for achievement in the humanities. Erikson's lecture was titled "Dimensions of a New Identity".[3][4][5]

Theories of development and the ego


Erikson's greatest innovation was to postulate not five stages of development, as Sigmund Freud had done with his psychosexual stages, but eight, and then later added a ninth stage in his book "The Life Cycle Completed." Erik Erikson believed that every human being goes through a certain number of stages to reach his or her full development, theorizing eight stages that a human being goes through from birth to death.[6][7] Erikson elaborated Freud's genital stage into adolescence, and added three stages of adulthood. His widow Joan Serson Erikson elaborated on his model before her death, adding a ninth stage (old age) to it, taking into consideration the increasing life expectancy in Western cultures. Erikson is also credited with being one of the originators of Ego psychology, which stressed the role of the ego as being more than a servant of the id. According to Erikson, the environment in which a child lived was crucial to providing growth, adjustment, a source of self awareness and identity. Erikson won a Pulitzer Prize and a U.S. National Book Award for his 1969 book Gandhi's Truth, which focused more on his theory as applied to later phases in the life cycle.

Erikson's theory of personality


Main article: Erikson's stages of psychosocial development Erikson was a Neo-Freudian. He has been described as an "ego psychologist" studying the stages of development, spanning the entire lifespan. Each of Erikson's stages of psychosocial development are marked by a conflict, for which successful resolution will result in a favourable outcome, for example, trust vs. mistrust, and by an important event that this conflict resolves itself around, for example, the meaning of one's life. Favorable outcomes of each stage are sometimes known as "virtues", a term used, in the context of Eriksonian work, as it is applied to medicines, meaning "potencies." Erikson's research suggests that each individual must learn how to hold both extremes of each specific life-stage challenge in tension with one another, not rejecting one end of the tension or the other. Only when both extremes in a life-stage challenge are understood and accepted as both required and useful, can the optimal virtue for that stage surface. Thus, 'trust' and 'mis-trust' must both be understood and accepted, in order for realistic 'hope' to emerge as a viable solution at the first stage. Similarly, 'integrity' and 'despair' must both be understood and embraced, in order for actionable 'wisdom' to emerge as a viable solution at the last stage. The Erikson life-stage virtues, in the order of the stages in which they may be acquired, are: 1. Hope - Basic Trust vs. Mistrust - Infant stage / 0-1 year. Does the child believe its caregivers to be reliable?
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Erik Erikson - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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2. Will - Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt - Toddler stage / 13 years. Child needs to learn to explore the world. Bad if the parent is too smothering or completely neglectful. 3. Purpose - Initiative vs. Guilt - Preschool / 36 years - Does the child have the ability to or do things on their own, such as dress him or herself? If "guilty" about making his or her own choices, the child will not function well. Erikson has a positive outlook on this stage, saying that most guilt is quickly compensated by a sense of accomplishment. 4. Competence - Industry vs. Inferiority - School-age / 6-11. Child comparing self worth to others (such as in a classroom environment). Child can recognize major disparities in personal abilities relative to other children. Erikson places some emphasis on the teacher, who should ensure that children do not feel inferior. 5. Fidelity - Identity vs. Role Confusion - Adolescent / 12 years till 20. Questioning of self. Who am I, how do I fit in? Where am I going in life? Erikson believes that if the parents allow the child to explore, they will conclude their own identity. However, if the parents continually push him/her to conform to their views, the teen will face identity confusion. 6. Intimacy vs. isolation - This is the first and very crucial stage of development. This development usually happens during young adulthood, which is between the ages of 20 to 24. Dating, marriage, family and friendships are important during the stage in their life. By successfully forming loving relationships with other people, individuals are able to experience love and intimacy. Those who fail to form lasting relationships may feel isolated and alone. 7. Generativity vs. stagnation is the second stage of adulthood and happens between the ages of 25-64. During this time, people are normally settled in their life and know what is important to them. A person is either making progress in their career or treading lightly in their career and unsure about if this is what they want to do for the rest of their working lives. Also during this time, a person is enjoying raising their children and participating in activities that gives them a sense on purpose. If a person is not comfortable with the way their life is progressing; they're usually regretful about the decisions and feel a sense of uselessness. 8. Ego integrity vs. despair. This stage affects the age group of 65 and on. During this time you have reached the last chapter in your life and retirement is approaching or has already taken place. Many people have achieved what was important to them look back on their lives and feel great accomplishment and a sense of integrity. The ones who had a difficult time during middle adulthood may look back and feel a sense of despair. On ego identity versus Role Confusion, ego identity enables each person to have a sense of individuality, or as Erikson would say, "Ego identity, then, in its subjective aspect, is the awareness of the fact that there is a self-sameness and continuity to the ego's synthesizing methods and a continuity of one's meaning for others" (1963). Role Confusion, however, is, according to Barbara Engler in her book Personality Theories (2006), "The inability to conceive of oneself as a productive member of one's own society" (158)[citation needed]. This inability to conceive of oneself as a productive member is a great danger; can occur during adolescence when looking for an occupation. ==

Bibliography
Major works
Childhood and Society (1950)
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Erik Erikson - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Young Man Luther. A Study in Psychoanalysis and History (1958) Identity: Youth and Crisis (1968) Gandhi's Truth: On the Origin of Militant Nonviolence (1969) Adulthood (edited book, 1978) Vital Involvement in Old Age (with J.M. Erikson and H. Kivnick, 1986) The Life Cycle Completed (with J.M. Erikson, 1987)

Collections
Identity and the Life Cycle. Selected Papers (1959)

Related work
Erikson on Development in Adulthood: New Insights from the Unpublished Papers (Dallas Hope Melinda Bird, 2002) Erik Erikson: His Life, Work, and Significance (Kit Welchman, 2000 Open University Press) His Work (Robert Coles, 1970) Ideas and Identities: The Life and Work of Erik Erikson (Robert S. Wallerstein & Leo Goldberger, eds., [IUP, 1998])

See also
Erikson Institute - graduate school in child development in Chicago, Illinois

References
1. ^ a b "Erik Erikson, 91, Psychoanalyst Who Reshaped Views of Human Growth, Dies" (http://www.nytimes.com/1994/05/13/obituaries/erik-erikson-91-psychoanalyst-who-reshaped-views-of-humangrowth-dies.html?pagewanted=all#) , New York Times, March 13, 1994. 2. ^ C. George Boeree, Erik Erikson, 1902 - 1994 page at Shippensburg University (http://www.ship.edu/~cgboeree/erikson.html) 3. ^ Jefferson Lecturers (http://www.neh.gov/whoweare/jefflect.html) at NEH Website (retrieved January 22, 2009). 4. ^ Erikson, Erik H. Dimensions of a New Identity: The Jefferson Lectures in the Humanities (W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1979), ISBN 0393009238, ISBN 9780393009231. 5. ^ George Stade, "Byways of Our National Character," (http://www.nytimes.com/books/99/08/22/specials/eriksondimensions.html) New York Times, May 19, 1976 (review of Erikson's Dimensions of a New Identity). 6. ^ Erikson, Erik H. Childhood and Society. 7. ^ Schickendanz, Judith A. (2001), "Chapter 1 Theories of Child Development and Methods of Studying Children", Understanding Children and Adolescents (4th ed.), Allyn and Bacon, pp. 1213, ISBN 020531418X

Further reading
Andersen, D C (1993), "Beyond rumor and reductionism: a textual dialogue with Erik H. Erikson.", The Psychohistory review 22 (1): 3568, PMID 11623368 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11623368) Bondurant, J V; Fisher, M W; Sutherland, J D (1971), "Gandhi; a psychoanalytic view. [Essay review of Erik H. Erikson, Gandhi's truth].", The American historical review 76: 110415, 1971 Oct, PMID 11615442 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11615442) Brenman-Gibson, M (1997), "The legacy of Erik Homburger Erikson.", Psychoanalytic review 84
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Erik Erikson - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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(3): 32935, 1997 Jun, PMID 9279928 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9279928) Carney, J E (1993), ""Is it really so terrible her?": Karl Menninger's pursuit of Erik Erikson.", The Psychohistory review 22 (1): 11953, PMID 11623367 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11623367) Coles, R; Fitzpatrick, J J (1976), "The writings of Erik H. Erikson.", The Psychohistory review 5 (3): 426, 1976 Dec, PMID 11615801 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11615801) Crunden, R M (1973), "Freud, Erikson, and the historian: a bibliographical survey.", Canadian review of American studies 4 (1): 4864, doi:10.3138/CRAS-004-01-04 (http://dx.doi.org/10.3138%2FCRAS-004-01-04) , PMID 11634791 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11634791) Douvan, E (1997), "Erik Erikson: critical times, critical theory", Child psychiatry and human development 28 (1): 1521, doi:10.1023/A:1025188901554 (http://dx.doi.org/10.1023%2FA%3A1025188901554) , PMID 9256525 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9256525) Eagle, M (1997), "Contributions of Erik Erikson", Psychoanalytic review 84 (3): 33747, 1997 Jun, PMID 9279929 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9279929) Fitzpatrick, J J (1976), "Erik H. Erikson and psychohistory", Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic 40 (4): 295314, 1976 Jul, PMID 791417 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/791417) Goethals, G W (1976), "The evolution of sexual and genital intimacy: a comparison of the views of Erik H. Erikson and Harry Stack Sullivan", The Journal of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis 4 (4): 52944, 1976 Oct, PMID 799636 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/799636) Hoffman, L E (1993), "Erikson on Hitler: the origins of 'Hitler's imagery and German youth'", The Psychohistory review 22 (1): 6986, PMID 11623369 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11623369) Masson, J L (1974), "India and the unconscious: Erik Erikson on Gandhi", The International journal of psycho-analysis 55 (4): 51929, PMID 4616017 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4616017) Roazen, P (1993), "Erik H. Erikson as a teacher", The Psychohistory review 22 (1): 10117, PMID 11623366 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11623366) Schnell, R L (1980), "Contributions to psychohistory: IV. Individual experience in historiography and psychoanalysis: significance of Erik Erikson and Robert Coles", Psychological reports 46 (2): 591612, 1980 Apr, PMID 6992185 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6992185) Strozier, C B (1976), "Disciplined subjectivity and the psychohistorian: a critical look at the work of Erik H. Erikson", The Psychohistory review 5 (3): 2831, 1976 Dec, PMID 11615797 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11615797) Weiner, M B (1979), "Caring for the elderly. Psychological aging: aspects of normal personality and development in old age. Part II. Erik Erikson: resolutions of psychosocial tasks", The Journal of nursing care 12 (5): 278, 1979 May, PMID 374748 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/374748) Wurgaft, L D (1976), "Erik Erikson: from Luther to Gandhi", Psychoanalytic review 63 (2): 209 33, PMID 788015 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/788015)

External links
Erikson Institute Web site (http://www.erikson.edu) Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Erik_Erikson&oldid=458736559" Categories: 1902 births 1994 deaths German psychologists Psychoanalysts Developmental psychologists
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erik_Erikson

Pulitzer Prize for General Non-Fiction winners


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Erik Erikson - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Jewish American social scientists

Danish Jews

Ego psychology

German Jews

German emigrants to the United States Harvard Medical School faculty German people of Danish descent People from Frankfurt People from Stockbridge, Massachusetts This page was last modified on 3 November 2011 at 01:09. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. See Terms of use for details. Wikipedia is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.

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