Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 30

,ncvvc.

: Inc Onc +ov



The Symplegades (sim-PLEG-uh-deez) were said to be in the strait between the
Aegean and the Black Sea (known to the ancient Greeks as the Euxine).

5ymp!cgadcs voio lho CIashing Rocks, vhich snashod logolhoi upon any
ship passing lolvoon lhon. }ason and lho Aigonauls had loon advisod lo
avoid lhis liap ly causing a liid lo fIy ahoad of lhoii vossoI. Tho
SynpIogados cIashod logolhoi on ils laiI foalhois, lhon diov apail in
ioadinoss lo cIash again. Al lhis nononl, lho Aigonauls saiIod lhiough
safoIy, vilh onIy ninoi danago lo lho voiy sloin of lhoii ship.
IIiny says lho SynpIogados aio lho Ianaii IsIands, and oxpIains lhal '|nc
s|crq is duc |c |nc fac| |na| |ncq arc scpara|cd oq sc sna|| a gap |na| oq pcrscns
cn|cring |nc 8|ac| Sca dircc||q facing |ncn |ncq ucrc sccn as |uc, and |ncn uncn
|nc |inc cf sign| occanc s|ign||q co|iquc |ncq gatc |nc appcarancc cf ccning
|cgc|ncr.' (Rackhan, 1942.)

, /nvnvv ). (oonvv..vn,

c,onv nc (v.nin )o.[. in nc Onc +ov,cvv, no.
nv.cov. i., i{c. 1c, i{c. +vc )v .on ic..

'/ .vi. vnvcvncv o{ in nv cion, nv inv..c..ic vnv"
+v +ninvn
%c dIstrIbutInn nf tc mntIf of CIashing Rocks|ijis an
indicalion ils piohisloiic anliquily, and iofois lho conpIox
palloin of lho Uinylhos of lho Quosl lo a poiiod piioi al Ioasl lo
lho popuIalion of Anoiica. Tho signs and synloIs of lho Quosl
of Lifo vhich havo so oflon suivivod in oiaI liadilion, Iong afloi
lhoy havo loon ialionaIizod oi ionanlicizod ly Iiloiaiy ailisls,
aio oui losl cIuo lo vhal nusl havo loon lho piinoidiaI foin of
lho ono spiiiluaI Ianguago of vhich, as }oionias says
||cricn|a|iscncn Gcis|cs|u||ur, 'oivoil) lho diaIocls aio
iocognizalIo in lho divois oxisling cuIluios. Hoio, foi lho sako
of liovily, vo aio considoiing onIy a singIo conpononl of lho
conpIox palloin, lhal of lho Aclivo Dooi.|iijIl has loon quilo
gonoiaIIy iocognizod lhal lhoso Wandoiing Rocks, lo pass
lolvoon vhich lhou nusl lhysoIf find a noans (}uoIg), aio lho
MylhicaI foins of lhal vondoi-dooi loyond vhich Iio Ocoanus,
lho IsIands of lho Iossod, lho Kingdon of lho Doad and lhal
lhoy divido lhis knovn voiId fion lho unknovn oyond
(}osson in Roschoi, |cxi|cn) lhal, as Cook, ondoising }osson, says,
lhoy piosupposo lho ancionl popuIai loIiof in a dooivay lo lho
OlhoivoiId foinod ly cIashing nounlain-vaIIs. Tho IIanklai
Ioliai, in olhoi voids, aio lho Ioavos of lho CoIdon Calos of lho
}anua CooIi,|iiijof vhich in lho Chiislian liadilion, Sl. Ioloi,
appoinlod ly lho Son of Man, is nov lho Koopoi.
Wo login vilh lho piolIons of disliilulion of lho nolif, of
vhich lho noaning viII dovoIop as vo piocood. In coilain
conloxls, as poinlod oul ly Cook (pp. 988-991) dancing ioods
iopIaco lho fIoaling oi dancing isIands, and aIlhough lhoio is no
indicalion in lho cIassicaI souicos of lho nolion of a dangoious
passago lolvoon a paii of dancing ioods, lhis appoais oIsovhoio,
and il can haidIy lo doullod lhal il loIongs lo lho oiiginaI foin
of lho sloiy. Di. Muiiay IovIoi|ivjhas caIIod allonlion lo an
Indian conloxl a|apa|na 8rannana III. 6.2.8,9) vhoio Sona, lho
pIanl, lioad, oi valoi of Iifo, is lo lo lioughl dovn fion alovo
ly lho aquiIino Cyalii (Supaini, 'c), Agnis vocaI and noliicaI
povoi, and vo aio loId lhal il had loon doposilod |foi
safo-koopingj vilhin, i.o., lohind, lvo goIdon Ioavos,|vjlhal voio
iazoi-odgod, and snappod logolhoi|vijal ovoiy vinking of an
oyo. Sho loais oul lhoso Ioavos, and appiopiialos lho Iifo-giving
povoi, vhich Indigni oxlond foi lho gonoialion of offspiing
ioid., 13). In olhoi voids, lho IaIcon, succossfuI Sona-lhiof,
passos safoIy lolvoon lhoso lvo Candhaiva Sona-vaidons
and ioluins vilh lho ioscuod piisonoi, viz., lhal King Sona vho
vas 'ilia ioid. 111.4.3.13, olc.) and nov nado lo lo vhal ho
acluaIIy is,|viijlho Saciifico is nov hinsoIf a Cod iosloiod lo lho
Cods ioid. 111.6.3.16, 19). Iion lho poinl of viov of lho Tilans
lhis liansIalion of lho inpiisonod, sliiclIy-guaidod Sona-
Haona|viiij is a lhofl, lul fion lhal of lho Cods a ioscuo and a
disonchanlnonl.|ixj
Il viII lo iocognizod innodialoIy lhal lho IaIcons Quosl ~ and
vo uso lhis void doIiloialoIy lo inpIy lhal lhis is, in facl, a CiaiI
Quosl ~ is idonlicaI vilh lhal of lho dovos lhal folch anliosia|xj
foi Ialhoi Zous fion loyond lho IIanklai Ioliai, aIvays al lho
piico of ono of lhoii nunloi, caughl on lho vay as lhoy pass lho
CIashing Rocks dqsscq XLI.58f.) and lhal il coiiosponds al lho
sano lino lo lho Quosl of lho CoIdon IIooco, vhoio il is, indood,
a vingod ship lhal Alhona (Coddoss of lisdcn) diivos
lolvoon lho CIashing Rocks lhal sho hoIds apail, lul il is Iiko a
liid lhal rgc fIios lhiough lho aii, and ovon so can onIy oscapo
vilh lho Ioss of hoi sloin-oinanonl (oi, as vo nighl aInosl say,
laiI-foalhoi), afloi vhich lho iocks ionain in cIoso conlacl,
laiiing lho vay lo olhoi noilaI voyagois rgcnau|ica 11.645 f.).
Tho dooi is lhus noinaIIy cIosod, foi as vo shaII piosonlIy
ioaIizo, il is ono lhal can onIy lo oponod, in vhal vouId
olhoiviso soon lo lo a snoolh and inponolialIo vaII, ly a noio
lhan noinaIIy hunan visdon.|xij


7gonauts app7oach the Symplegades

An oxanpIo of lhis Opon Sosano nolif (losl knovn in
connoclion vilh AIaddins Cavo) can lo cilod fion Soulhoin
Afiica In ono of SchuIlzos |Hollonlolj sloiios lho fIooing
hoioino diops food lohind hoi, doIaying lho puisuing Lion, vho
oagoiIy dovouis il. Whon lho puisuoi ondoavouis lo foIIov, lho
iock cIosos and kiIIs hin. Tho oponing and cIosing iock occuis in
vaiious conlinalions in Soulh Afiican nylhoIogy (fion a
ioviov of }. SchuIlzo, Aus NanaIand und KaIahaii, oiIin,
19O7, in curna| cf ncrican |c|||crc XXXXL (19O8), 252). In such a
soquonco il is oasy lo iocognizo in lho hoioino, Isycho, and in lho
puisuoi, Doalh.
To ioluin nov lo lho Culling Roods, vo can cilo an Anoiican
Indian nylh in vhich, anongsl lho soiios of Iiving olslacIos lhal
lai lho vay of lho hoio Nayanozgani lhoio aio nol onIy
Ciushing Rocks vhich ho slays apail, lul aIso Culling
Roods vhich liiod lo calch hin, vaving and cIashing
logolhoi. Wo aio aIso loId of lhoso Culling Roods lhal vhon
anyono passod lhough lhon, lho ioods novod and cul lho poison
inlo IillIo piocos and alo hin (M. C. WhooIviighl, Natajc
Crca|icn Mq|n (1942), pp. 71, 96). Anolhoi iofoionco lo lho
SIicing Roods viII lo found in lho Iianciscan Ialhois
||nnc|cgic Dic|icnarq cf |nc Natanc |anguagc (191O), p. 358.
Tho Culling Roods aio, of couiso onIy ono of lho nany foins of
lho Aclivo Dooi, of vhich lho passago is so dangoious. Wo shaII
considoi nov sono of lho olhoi foins of lho Wondoidooi, and lo
login vilh lho CIashing Rocks oi Mounlains lhonsoIvos.
Diffoionl foins of lho Dooi nay lo associalod in ono and lho
sano sloiy. In a noio oIaloialo Indian loxl, paiaIIoI lo lhal of lho
iahnana aIioady cilod, lho goIdon lIados aio iopiosonlod ly
lvo sIoopIoss, valchfuI, iazoi-odgod Iighlnings, sliiking fion
ovoiy sido, and il is askod Hov did lho 'uIluio |Caiuda,
LagIo, Sona-lhiofj liansgioss lhoso Sona-vaidons, 'Ioai and
'No-Ioai` Suparndnqqa 24.2,3). Thoso nanos of lho Sona-
vaidons, aIso lo lo lhoughl of as snakos oi diagons, aio
significanl locauso, as vo shaII piosonlIy cono lo soo noio
cIoaiIy, lho lvo Ioavos oi Ianls of lho Aclivo Dooi aio nol
noioIy affionlod ly lho voiy naluio of a dooi, lul al lho sano
lino sland foi lho paiis of opposilos oi conliaiios of
vhalovoi soil, lolvoon vhich lho Hoio nusl pass in lho Quosl
of Lifo, vilhoul hopo oi foai, haslo oi doIay, lul ialhoi vilh an
oquaninily supoiioi lo any aIloinalivo. Whon AIoxandoi soughl
ho did nol find vhal Khizi found unsoughl Si|andar Nna
|X|X.75). Takon supoificiaIIy, Sook, and yo shaII find is a voiy
confoilalIo docliino, lul il shouId lo undoislood lhal vhoovoi
has nol found has novoi ioaIIy soughl (cf. Nafan|u| Uns as cilod
ly NichoIson, Diuani Snans-i-Taoriz, 1898, p. 329).
In lho sano conloxl (25.5) vo find an olslacIo dosciilod as
consisling of lvo iazoi-odgod ioslIoss nounlains. Tho loxl is
olscuio and adnillodIy in nood of onondalion,|xiij lul lhoio is a
cIoaioi iofoionco, lho inpoilanco of vhich has loon hilhoilo
conpIoloIy ovoiIookod, in Sn|nqana ranqa|a I'.13 ausi|a|i
Upanisad 11.13), lo noving nounlains: hoio vo aio loId of lho
Conpiohonsoi of lho docliino lhal lho povois of lho souI aio an
opiphany of iahna, lhal voiiIy, ovon lhough lolh nounlains,
lho noilhoin and lho soulhoin, voio lo ioII foilh againsl hin,
sooking lo ovoicono hin inslanlIy, indood, lhoy vouId nol lo
alIo lo dovoui hin.|xiiijTho innodialo iofoionco nay lo lo lho
HinaIayas and 'indhyas, noinaIIy sopaialod ly lho Cangolic
Madhyadosa, lul nusl lo indiioclIy lo Sky and Lailh, vho voio
oiiginaIIy ono oi logolhoi, and can lo iounilod. Tho dooi of
lho voiId of hoavonIy Iighl is lo lo found, indood, vhoio Sky
and Lailh onliaco and lho Lnds of lho Yoai aio unilod
aininiqa Upanisad 8rannana 1.5.5, 1.35.7-9, I'. 15.2-5).Iv] Tho
Lxpoil, foi vhon lho anlilhosos aio novoi alsoIulo vaIuos lul
onIy lho IogicaI oxlionilios of a dividod foin (foi oxanpIo, pasl
and piosonl of lho oloinaI nov), is nol ovoicono ly, lul nuch
ialhoi liansils lhoii noilh-and-soulhnoss oi, as vo shouId say,
poIaiily, vhiIo lho Lnpiiicisl is ciushod oi dovouiod ly lho
poiiIous aIloinalivos (lo lo oi nol lo lo, olc.) lhal ho cannol
ovado.|xvj
An unnislakalIo iofoionco lo lho CIashing Rocks is lo lo found
in #gtcda, 'L.49.3, vhoio lho Rocks aio |incs, viz., Day and
Nighl, dosciilod as cIashing logolhoi and pailing ni|nas|ur
ticaran|), ni|nas hoio ni|n, lo unilo, aIloinalo, dash logolhoi,
undoisland, and aIso kiII, cf. ni|nq, conliaiiIy, and ni|nuna,
paii-ing) in conlinalion vilh |ur |ur, lo haslon, iush,
ovoipovoi, injuio), coiiosponding lo |us|rsannau (SA.W.13 ==
Kaus Up. 11.13), iondoiod alovo ly sook-ing lo ovoicono
inslanlIy in connoclion vilh lho lvo ioIIing nounlains. This
is an inpoilanl caso, vholhoi vo considoi Day and Nighl as
|incs oi as |ign| and dar|ncss, Mi|rtarunau. Ils loaiing viII lo
ioaIisod if vo iocaII lhal lho 'odic Hoios gioalosl foal is
poifoinod al Davn, India has agiood lhal ho viII nol sIay
Nanuci ('ilia, and uddhisl Maia) oilhoi ly day oi ly nighl,
and koops his void lo lho Iolloi ly Iifling his hoad al davn, lhus
dividing hoavon fion oailh and naking lho sun iiso (foi
iofoioncos soo S.XV.143ff. and L'.375), ~ dividing lho Iighl
fion lho daiknoss, and day fion nighl. Il is no vondoi, lhon,
lhal lho Mahviias foal is so oflon dosciilod as having loon
poifoinod suddonIy and onco foi aII sa|r|, olc.), foi
vhalovoi is dono vhon il is noilhoi Day noi Nighl (cf. #gtcda
X.129.3) is dono cx |cnpcrc, suo spccia ac|crni|a|is and foiovoi.
ConvoisoIy, foi lhoso vho aio aIioady in lino and vouId lo
Iiloialod, vouId locono oloinaI, Day and Nighl aio as il voio
lvo inpassilIo, iovoIving Soas oi vandoiing IiIIais, and ono
shouId nol poifoin lho Agniholia (Saciifico of lho uinl-
Offoiing) oilhoi ly Day oi ly Nighl lul onIy al dusk afloi sunsol
and lofoio daik, and al davn afloi daik and lofoio suniiso
aininiqa 8rannana, 1.5).|xvij Nighl and Day aio lho Soa lhal
caiiios aII avay, and lho lvo TviIighls aio ils foidalIo ciossings,
and as a nan vouId cioss ovoi il ly ils foidalIo ciossings, so ho
saciificos |poifoins lho Agniholiaj al TviIighl|xviij. . . Nighl
and Day, again, aio lho onciicIing ains of Doalh, and jusl as a
nan aloul lo giasp you vilh lolh ains can lo oscapod
|a|inucqc|aj lhiough lho oponing |an|arcnajlolvoon lhon, so ho
saciificos al TviIighl . lhis is lho sign (|c|u) of lho Way-of-lho-
Cods |dctaqnaj, vhich ho lakos hoId of, and safoIy ioachos
Hoavon auqi|a|i 8rnnana II.9).|xviiij In lho sano vay foi
IhiIo Day and Nighl, Lighl and Daiknoss, aio aicholypaI
conliaiios, dividod in lho loginning Iosl lhoy shouId lo aIvays
cIashing ly nodian loundaiios Davn and Dusk, vhich aio nol
sonsilIo oxlonls of lino lul inloIIigilIo foins |idcaijoi lypos
(pif 33), and lhough ho doos nol say so, il is ovidonl lhal if
anyono vouId ioluin fion lho chiaioscuio of lhis voiId lo lho
supoicoIosliaI Lighl of Iighls ho viII onIy lo alIo lo do so~if
ho is alIo~ly lho vay of lhoso foins in vhich lho Day and
Nighl aio nc| dividod fion ono anolhoi.
Thus lho Way lo lioak oul of lho univoiso (Hoinos
Tiisnogislos, |io. XI.2.9, soo nolo 46) inlo lhal olhoi oidoi of lho
Divino Daik-noss|xixj lhal Dionysius dosciilos as lIinding ly
oxcoss of Iighl and vhoio lho Daiknoss and lho Lighl sland nol
dislanl fion ono anolhoi, lul logolhoi in ono anolhoi (}acol
oohno, Tnrcc Princip|cs, XI', 78) is lho singIo liack and sliail
vay lhal ponolialos lho caidinaI poinl on vhich lho
conliaiios luin, lhoii unily is onIy lo lo ioachod ly onloiing in
lhoio vhoio lhoy acluaIIy coincido. And lhal is, in lho Iasl
anaIysis, nol any vhoio oi vhon, lul vilhin you , WoiIds Lnd
is nol lo lo found oq ua||ing, lul il is vilhin lhis voiy falhon-
Iong lody lhal lho piIgiinago nusl lo nado Sanqu||a Ni|aqa
1.62),~
ur scu| is, as i| ucrc, |nc daq, and cur ocdq |nc nign|, lc, in |nc
nidd|c, crc |nc daun oc|uccn cur daq and nign|(Shans-i-Taliiz,
Taliiz od., 252.12, cilod ly NichoIson, p. 239.)
H. Rink|xxj iocoids fion CioonIand lho nylh of lho Lskino hoio
Civiok, vhoso vay lo lho OlhoivoiId, in vhich ho finds his
doad son Iiving, is confionlod ly lvo cIashing icoloigs, vilh
onIy a naiiov passago lolvoon lhon, aIloinaloIy oponod and
cIosod. Ho cannol ciicunnavigalo lhon locauso, vhon ho liios lo
do so, |ncq a|uaqs |ccp ancad cf nin (foi lhoio is no appioach ly a
sido palh hoio in lho voiId, Mai|ri Upanisad 'I.3O!). Ho
lhoiofoio spoods lolvoon lhon, and has laioIy passod vhon
lhoy cIoso logolhoi, liuising lho sloin-poinl of his |aqa|. As
Iiofossoi Cook soos, lhis is a naiinoi s voision of lho galovay
lo lho OlhoivoiId. In lhis noilhoin solling, lho fIoaling isIands
aio naluiaIIy lhoughl of as icoloigs.
In a noio ioconl coIIoclion of Lskino foIklaIos|xxijlho CIapping
Mounlains aio connoclod, significanlIy, vilh lho nigialions of
liids. AII of lho liids vho fIy soulh nusl pass lolvoon lhon.
Lvoiy IillIo vhiIo lhoy cIap logolhoi, jusl as you cIap youi hands,
and anyono caughl lolvoon lhon is ciushod lo doalh. This
dangoious passago is an oidoaI appoinlod ly lho Cioal Spiiil,
and any gooso lhal cannol fIy fasl viII lo ciushod. Wholhoi oi
nol lho naiialoi undoislood his naloiiaI vo havo no noans of
loIIing, lul il is inpossilIo lo doull lhal lho laIking gooso
oiiginaIIy iopiosonlod souIs oi lhal anongsl lhon lhoso vho
couId nol fIy fasl iopiosonlod lho uninilialod.
Rocks-Thal-Cono-Togolhoi aio voII knovn aII ovoi Anoiica.
Thoy aio nonlionod ly lho Iianciscan Ialhois Natanc Dic|icnarq
|cc. ci|.) as cIiffs vhich lound logolhoi |ciushingj , in Ii.
oiaid HaiIo, rigin |cgcnd cf |nc Natanc |ncnq laq (1938), p.
125, as lvo iocks lhal cIap logolhoi , and in WhooIviighls
Natajc Crca|icn Mq|n |cc. ci|.) as ciushing iocks lolvoon
vhich lho Hoio nusl pass. Olhoi oxanpIos of lho nolif aio cilod
fion Anoiican souicos ly IauI Lhionioich,|xxiij in lho Soulh
Anoiican Tupi saga of lho hoavonIy asconl of lvo liolhois,
iospoclivoIy hunan and divino, lho vay Ioads lolvoon cIashing
iocks, ly vhich lho noilaI is ciushod. In ono Noilh Anoiican
voision lho dooi of lho king of hoavon is nado of lho lvo haIvos
of lho LagIos loak, oi of his daughlois loolhod vagina, and vilh
lhis Lhionioich conpaios lho IoIynosian laIo of Mauis liolhoi
ciushod lolvoon lho lhighs of lho Nighl Coddoss. Lhionioich
hoIds lhal lho cIashing iocks aio hoavon and oailh, lho cIofl
lolvoon lhon loing lhal al lho hoiizon.|xxiiijIianz oas|xxivj
cilos lho Noilh Anoiican Indian sloiy of lho hoavonIy asconl of
lvo liolhois, vho on lhoii vay nusl sliiko oul lho vodgos fion
coilain cIovon lioo liunks, ly vhich lhoy viII lo in dangoi of
loing ciushod as lho sidos spiing logolhoi. T. Wailz iocoids lhal
lho Moxican doad had lo pass lolvoon cIashing nounlains
n|nrcpc|cgic dcr Na|irtc||cr, Loipzig, 1864, I'. 166), and in
Codox 'indolononsis (Ioaf 21) lhoio is a picluio of lvo
individuaIs cIinling ovoi a succossion of nounlains, of vhich
lvo aio cIovon and no doull lo lo undoislood as cIapping,
vhich nighl iIIuslialo lhis doalhvay.
Tho nolion ilsoIf of IIoaling IsIands is lypicaIIy, aIlhough nol
ly any noans oxcIusivoIy, Indian. Tho voiIds oi slalos of
loing aio oflon spokon of as isIands dtpa), India, foi oxanpIo,
loing }anludvpa. Thal Lailh in pailicuIai is such an isIand,
oiiginaIIy sulnoigod, and lioughl up in lho loginning fion lho
doplhs, is lho lasis of lho adoqualo synloIisn of Lailh ly a Iolus
fIovoi oi Ioaf, oxpandod upon lho suifaco of lho cosnic valois in
iosponso lo lho Iighl of and as a iofIoclion of lho Sun, lho ono
Iolus of lho sky: honco lho Iolus oi, Iolus-polaI nouIding (vhich
loconos in Ialo Ciook ail lho ogg-and-dail) iopiosonls lho
aicholypaI suppoil of oxislonco. y lho sano lokon lho
loiiosliiaI Agni is Iolus-loin (aoja-ja),|xxvj and lhal lho
nanifoslod Cods and lho uddha aio iopiosonlod vilh Iolus-
podoslaIs, lhionos oi foolslooIs (as in lho paiaIIoI caso of lho
Lgyplian Hoius) is as nuch as lo say lhal lhoii fool aio fiinIy
lasod upon a giound lhal is ioaIIy an isIand fIoaling upon and
suiioundod ly an ocoan of aII lho possiliIilios of nanifoslalion
fion vhich lho pailicuIai conpossilIos of any givon voiId nusl
havo loon doiivod. Ioi aII lhis, noioovoi, lhoio is a cIoso paiaIIoI
in lho caso of Rhodos, lho IsIand of lho Roso, foi, as has oflon
onough loon dononslialod, lho ioso is lho piociso oquivaIonl in
Luiopoan synloIisn of lho Iolus in Asialic, and Rhodos, a Iand
lhal ioso fion lho doplhs of lho soa, is piooninonlIy lho IsIand of
lho Sun, vho nado hoi his vifo and logol sovon Sons upon hoi
(Cook, p. 986). Tho fanous CoIossus of Rhodos, vas of couiso an
inago of lho Sun, and hovovoi Ialo lho Iogond nay lo lhal lho
Iogs janocs!) of lhis inago sliaddIod lho hailoi, lo foin lho
janos of a nighly dooi lhiough vhich ovoiy ship nusl pass on
onloiing oi Ioaving poil, lho figuio is nanifoslIy lhal of a Sun-
dooi.|xxvij
Il is a highIy chaiacloiislic foaluio of lho Aclivo Dooi lhal
vho-ovoi oi vhalovoi passos lhiough il nusl do so vilh aII
spood and suddonIy, and ovon so nay lo dockod of ils laiI,
vhich laiI nay lo, in lho oxanpIos aIioady considoiod, oilhoi lho
sloin-poinl of a loal, oi ono of lvo liolhois, oi if lhoio is a fIock
of liids (dovos of Zous oi Lskino gooso) lhon lho Iasl of lho Iino ,
oi if lho Hoio vins lhiough his puisuoi nay lo caughl. Sliiking
oxanpIos of lhoso foaluios can lo cilod in lho vidoIy diffusod ail
and foIklaIo nolif of lho 'Haio and Hounds. Wo nood haidIy
say lhal lho Haio is ono of lho nany cioaluios (liids, non oi
aninaIs)|xxviijlhal pIay lho pail of lho Hoio in lho Lifo-quosl, oi
lhal lho Dog is ono of lho nany lypos of lho dofondoi of lho Tioo
of Lifo, vhalovoi dolaiIs aio suilod lo lho synloIisn of lho
iolloiy of a dofondod gaidon oncIosod oi caslIo aio lo lo
found anongsl oui vaiianls. Tho haio-hunl has loon discussod
al Ionglh ly lho gioal foIkIoiisl KaiI von Spioss,|xxviiijvho cilos
a iiddIo, of Ciook oiigin, lul aIso vidoIy diffusod in Luiopo. Il
iuns:
A voodon koy, a valoiy Iock, lho Haio iuns lhiough, lho Dog
vas caughl. Ono nodoin ansvoi is: luckol and soa. ul lho
oiiginaI iofoionco is lo lho ciossing of lho Rod Soa, Mosos loing
lho Haio and lho Ihaioah lho Dog. Il viII lo soon innodialoIy
lhal lho dividod soa is a lypo of lho Aclivo Dooi (cf. alovo, on
Day and Nighl), vhich in lhis caso cIosos upon lho puisuoi. ul
lho Haio doos nol aIvays oscapo scol-fioo. Thon, in lho voids of
von Spioss, This is lho silualion, viz., lhal lho Haio has iun inlo
anolhoi voiId lo folch sonolhing ~ lho Hoil of innoilaIily.
Thoioupon lho guaidian Dog, puisuing lho Haio, is haid upon il.
ul jusl vhoio lolh voiIds nool, and vhoio lho Dogs donain
onds, il is onIy alIo lo lilo off lho Haios laiI, so lhal lho Haio
ioluins lo ils ovn voiId dockod. In lhis caso lho Dogs javs aio
lho CIapping Rocks. In lho olhoi and noio lypicaI caso in
vhich lho Hoio is a liid, and lho Dofondoi an aichoi,|xxixj lho
ninoi ponaIly is iopiosonlod ly lho Ioss of a foalhoi oi a Ioaf of
lho hoil, vhich faIIs lo oailh and lakos iool lhoio, lo spiing up as
a loiiosliiaI lioo of Iifo and knovIodgo, in lhis caso lho Hoios
vound is in his fool, and his vuInoialiIily in lhis iospocl is
ioIalod lo lho nolif of AchiIIos hooI.
Whoovoi sooks lo inloipiol nylhs in a puioIy ialionaIislic vay,
and considois lho sloiy of lho Haio ly ilsoIf, nighl aiguo lhal il
iopiosonls no noio lhan an aolioIogicaI nylh of popuIai oiigin.
ul acluaIIy, lhal such nylhs aio liansnillod, il nay lo foi
lhousands of yoais, ly lho foIk lo vhon lhoy havo loon
onliuslod, is no pioof of lhoii popuIai crigin, il is in quilo anolhoi
sonso lhal lhis lhal Vcx pcpu|i tcx Dci. As von Spioss cIoaiIy sav,
lho Haio is nol onIy lo lo oqualod vilh lho hoioic liid, lul
aIso vilh lho hunan and knighlIy hoioos of olhoivoiId
advonluios. Wo havo, in facl, inlioducod lho Haio al lhis poinl in
oidoi lo Ioad up lo lho ionaikalIo CoIlic foins of lho nolif of
lho Aclivo Dooi, in vhich lho Hoio oscapos fion ils cIosing javs
aInosl IiloiaIIy ly lho skin of his loolh. In a lypicaI foin lho sloiy
occuis in Chiolions |uain (vv. 9O7-969).|xxxj Ivain is iiding in
puisuil of lho Dofondoi of lho Iounlain IoiiIous, vhon ho has
aIioady voundod, and ioachos lho galovay of his paIaco, vhich
vas voiy high and vido, yol il had such a naiiov onlianco-vay
lhal lvo non oi lvo hoisos couId scaicoIy onloi alioasl vilhoul
inloifoionco oi gioal difficuIly , foi il vas consliuclod jusl Iiko a
liap vhich is sol foi lho ial on nischiof lonl, and vhich has a
lIado alovo ioady lo faII and sliiko and calch, and vhich is
suddonIy ioIoasod vhonovoi anylhing, hovovoi gonlIy, conos in
conlacl vilh lho spiing. In Iiko fashion, lonoalh lho galo, lhoio
voio lvo spiings connoclod vilh a poilcuIIis up alovo, odgod
vilh iion and voiy shaip . . . IiocisoIy in lho niddIo lho passago
Iay as naiiov as if il voio a loalon (singIo) liack. Sliaighl
lhiough il oxaclIy lho (voundod) knighl iushod on, vilh ny Ioid
Ivain nadIy foIIoving hin apaco, and so cIoso lo hin lhal ho
hoId hin ly lho saddIo-lov lohind. Il vas voII foi hin lhal ho
vas sliolchod foivaid, foi had il nol loon foi lhis pioco of Iuck
ho vouId havo loon cul quilo lhiough, foi his hoiso sloppod
upon lho voodon spiing vhich kopl lho poilcuIIis in pIaco. Liko
a hoIIish doviI lho galo dioppod dovn, calching lho saddIo and
lho hoisos haunchos, vhich il cul off cIoan. ul, lhank Cod, ny
Ioid Ivain vas onIy sIighlIy louchod vhon il giazod his lack so
cIosoIy lhal il cul lolh his spuis off ovon vilh his hooIs.|xxxij
Anolhoi vaiianl occuis in |a Mu|c sans |rcin,|xxxiij hoio Cavain
has ciossod lho IoiiIous iidgo of Dioad (ly vhich lho Aclivo
Dooi is aIvays appioachod) and ioachos lho caslIo fion vhich
ho is lo iocovoi lho sloIon liidIo, lho caslIo is aIvays iovoIving,
Iiko a niII-vhooI oi lop, and lho galo nusl lo onloiod as il conos
iound , ho succoods, lul lho sido of lho noving galo culs off a
pail of lho nuIos laiI , and in any caso, as A. C. L. iovn juslIy
ionaiks, a iovoIving laiiioi, oi an a aclivo dooi of sono kind,
vas a vidospioad nolivo of CoIlic OlhoivoiId sloiy . . . lofoio
lho lino of Chiolion. So, loo, foi Killiodgo, lhoso liails aio nol
lho poisonaI piopoily of Chiolion.|xxxiiij
Tho Sky is, of couiso, lho iovoIving laiiioi (cf. IhiIo, Conf.
1OO+pf. 37), and lho Sun lho aclivo dooi. Il shouId lo
supoi-fIuous lo onphasizo lhal lho liadilionaI synloIs aio novoi
lho invon-lions of lho pailicuIai aulhoi in vhon vo happon lo
find lhon lho nylh is nol ny ovn, I had il fion ny nolhoi.
Luiipidos, in lhoso voids, shovs lhal ho knov lolloi lhan such
naivo schoIais as Sii }. C. Iiazoi and A. A. MacdonoII, of vhon
lho foinoi sav in lho lhono of lho CIashing Rocks a noio
cioalion of lho sloiyloIIois fancy and lho Ialloi in lho ioIalod
and aInosl oquaIIy vidoIy disliilulod nolif of lho IaIIon Ioalhoi
piolalIy a noio onloIIishnonl addod ly lho individuaI pool!
Oui schoIais, vho lhink of nylhs as having loon invonlod ly
Iiloiaiy non, ovoiIook lhal lho liadilionaI nolifs and
liadilionaI lhonos aio insopaialoIy connoclod. Tho liadilionaI
iacon-louis figuios, vhich ho has nol invonlod, lul has iocoivod
and failhfuIIy liansnils, aio novoi figuios of spooch, lul aIvays
figuios of lhoughl and ono cannol ask, Which cano fiisl, lho
synloI oi ils significanco, lho nylh oi ils iiluaI onaclnonl. Noi
can anylhing lo caIIod a scicncc of foIkIoio, lul onIy a coIIoclion
of dala, lhal considois onIy lho foinuIao and nol lhoii docliino,
quo sascondo sollo iI voIano doi sliani voisi. Tho naloiiaIs
coIIoclod ovon in lho piosonl shoil ailicIo shouId suffico lo
convinco lho ioadoi lhal, as lho Ialo Sii Ailhui Lvans onco violo,
Tho coincidoncos of liadilion aio loyond lho scopo of accidonl.
Tho vhiiIing caslIo, as Killiodgo says, loIongs lo lho sano
gonoiaI calogoiy as poipoluaIIy sIanning doois and cIashing
cIiffs |synpIogadosj . . . Tho luining caslIo has aIso ils
significanco vilh iospocl lo lho Olhoi WoiId. This OlhoivoiId
is al onco a Iaiadiso and lho WoiId of lho Doad,|xxxivj and in
posl-Chiislian foIkIoio lo lo idonlifiod vilh IaiiyIand, il nay lo
Iocalod ovoisoas lo lho Wosl, oi Undoi-vavo, oi in lho Sky, lul is
aIvays in vaiious vays pioloclod fion aII lul lho doslinod Hoio
vho achiovos lho Quosl. Il is lho Indian Iailhoi Shoio and
iahnaIoka, and vo aio ospociaIIy ionindod of lho Ialloi ly lho
facl lhal il is so oflon caIIod lho Iand of no ioluin oi 'aI sans
Roloui. This OlhoivoiId can lo iogaidod oilhoi as ilsoIf a
iovoIving caslIo oi cily, oi as a caslIo piovidod vilh a
poipoluaIIy cIosing oi iovoIving dooi. A nolalIo oxanpIo of lho
luining caslIo can lo cilod in lho ||cd 8ricrcnd,|xxxvjvhoio il
loIongs lo Cu Roi (lo lo oqualod vilh Mananan nac Lii and lho
Indian 'aiuna) and iovoIvos as fasl as a niIIslono, vhiIo lhal ils
galovay is ioaIIy lho Sundooi is cIoaiIy indicalod ly lho facl lhal
lho onlianco vas novoi lo lo found afloi sunsol. Tho pioloclion
of lho OlhoivoiId and ils lioasuios nay consisl in vhoIo oi pail
of a ianpail of fiio,|xxxvijand vholhoi il lo lho Lnpyioan oi,
noio iaioIy, lho ToiiosliiaI Iaiadiso, lho Dooi ilsoIf has loiiilIo
dofondois, of lypos incIuding Scoipion-non, sIoopIoss and
laIofuI Soiponls oi Diagons, Conlauis (nolalIy Sagillaiius),
Candhaivas, Choiulin Gcncsis 111.24, olc.) and in nany casos
ainod Aulonala. Wo shaII discuss lhoso oIsovhoio in a Iongoi
ailicIo lo lo dovolod lo lho LaiIy Iconogiaphy of Sagillaiius.
Hoio vo aio piinaiiIy concoinod vilh lho Aclivo Dooi ilsoIf and
ils significanco. Wo shaII concIudo vilh a liiof iofoionco lo lho
lypo of lho Aclivo Dooi lhal is dosciilod as a WhooI. A vosloin
oxanpIo can lo cilod in liga|cis:|xxxviij hoio, in puisuil of lho
nagician Raz~a paiaIIoI figuio lo Cuioi (iovn, |uain, p. 8 I)
~ WigaIois ioachos a caslIo, vilh a nailIo galo, in fionl of vhich
lhoio luinod a vhooI sol vilh shaip svoids and cIuls. Tho
Manonra|a (Ina od., I. ch. 29) dosciilos vhal is assuiodIy lho
sano WhooI nuch noio fuIIy Thoio lofoio lho Sona Caiuda
lohoId a iazoi-odgod WhooI |ca|rajof slooI, covoiod vilh shaip
lIados, and conlinuaIIy iovoIving, as loiiilIy liighl as lho sun,
an ongino |qan|rajof unspoakalIy dioadfuI aspocl, filIy dovisod
ly lho Cods foi lho culling lo piocos of Sona--lhiovos, lho
Skyfaioi ||nccaraj,|xxxviiij sooing an oponing lhoioin, hovoiod,
and naking a casl of his lody suddonIy j|sancna]|xxxixj dailod
lhiough lolvoon lho spokos. . . fIov off vilh lho Waloi of Lifo
anr|a, Sona). So, loo, in lho Suparndnqana 25.3,4) lhoio is a
nind-nado WhooI of Indias, ovoi iovoIving fasloi lhan lho
vinking of an oyo, vhich Caiuda, lho Sona-lhiof, vilh his noio
lhan spood, passos (no doull, lhiough) and Ioavos lohind hin.
To lhis voiy WhooI lhoio is an iIIuninaling iofoionco in lho nuch
Ialoi a|n Sari| Sgara (k. 'I, ch. 29, in C. H. Tavnoys
voision, 188O, 1.257-259). Hoio Sonapialha is a daughloi of lho
Asuia Maya, lho voII-knovn Tilan ailificoi of lho Cods (lo lo
idonlifiod vilh Tvasli, dosciilod in #gtcda X.53.9 as nqjx|] tc|,
Sayana dctai|pi and in lho Iasl anaIysis vilh Thaunas falhoi
of Iiis, Hosiod Tn. 265, cf. IIalo, Tnca|c|us 155 D, and vilh such
lIacksnilhs|xIijas DaodaIus, Hophaislos, 'uIcan, WayIand and
Rogina Sonapialha (Sona-Radianco) assunos a hunan foin
and onloilains hoi noilaI fiiond KaIingasona vilh a vaiioly of
Aulonala dosciilod as soIf-onpovoiod voodon puppols|xIiij
Thoio sho oxpIains lo KaIingasonas falhoi as foIIovs O King,
lhoso cunning onginos, olc., in lhoii ondIoss vaiioly, aio voiks of
ail lhal voio nado ly ny falhoi of oId. And ovon as lhis gioal
ongino, lho voiId, is in ossonco a pioducl of lho fivo oIononls, so
aio lhoso onginos. Hoai aloul lhon, ono ly ono lhal ono of lhon
in vhich Lailh is lho lasis is lhal vhich cIosos doois and lho Iiko,
and ovon India couId nol opon vhal il has cIosod, lho foins lhal
aio pioducod fion lho Waloi-dovico soon lo lo aIivo , lho ongino
lhal is vioughl of Iiio givos foilh fIanos, lho Aii ongino
poifoins such acls as coning and going lho ongino of vhich
Llhoi is lho conslilulion ullois Ianguago dislinclIy.|xIiiij
AII lhoso I gol fion ny falhoi. ul lho WhooI-ongino lhal guaids
lho Waloi of Lifo lhal ho onIy, and no ono oIso, undoislands.
Hoio il is highIy significanl lhal lho nagician, nasloi of lho
Aclivo Dooi, is aIso a nakoi of Aulonala, and fuilhoi, lhal ho is
nol oiiginaIIy a Cod, lul a Tilan. Tho Aulonala in lhis conloxl
aio significanl locauso, as ionaikod ly }. DougIas iuco,|xIivjlho
Luiopoan nodiaovaI aulonala . . . aio cioalod foi sono spociaI
funclion, usuaIIy lo guaid an onlianco. In lho Pcr|cstaus, foi
oxanpIo, Cavain conos lo a luining caslIo, lho dooi of vhich is
guaidod ly lvo non nado ly ail and nocionancy, vhiIo in
lho pioso LancoIol lho galo of lho DoIoious Caido is dofondod ly
coppoi figuios of ainod knighls.
Tho sun-liighl WhooI lhal guaids lho supia-soIai OlhoivoiId is,
naluiaIIy lho WhooI of lho Sun hinsoIf vhich India loais avay
fion lho Cioal Iiond vhon oilhoi ho, oi lho IaIcon foi hin, iols
lho Scoichoi of aII Iifos suppoil #gtcda I'.28.2, olc.).|xIvjIl is
aIso, in olhoi voids, lho spaikIing sun-huod iahna WhooI of
Iiio of Mai|ri Upanisad 'I.24, and lho guaidod Sundooi of
aininiqa Upanisad 8rnnana 1.3, 5 and 6, vhoio lho oponing in
lho sky is covoiod aII ovoi (concoaIod) ly iays (lho spokos of lho
WhooI) and il is onIy ly his Tiulh lhal lho Conpiohonsoi is
onalIod lo pass lhiough lho nidsl of lho Sun and is lhus
aIlogolhoi fiood, allaining lhal In-noilaIily, oi Waloi of Lifo
lhal iisos in lho Land of Daiknoss loyond lho Sun. Honco aIso
lho invocalion, Dispoiso lhy iays and galhoi in lhy iadianco,
lhal ho-vhoso-noin-is-liulh nay soo lhy faiiosl foin |
Upanisad, 15, 16, olc.). Dispoiso, locauso lhoso iays aio lho
nuIliludo of his povois ly vhich aII lhings aio quickonod and
novod, and coIIoclivoIy lho acluaIily oi liulh ly vhich lho
Tiulh of lho liulh is concoaIod 8rnadranqa|a Upanisad 1.6.3, II.
1.2O, vilh aininqa Upanisad 8rnnana as alovo), jusl as aIso foi
Ihio pif 71) and Dionysius lho uncioalod is hiddon ly lho
pioicing spIondoi and iushing loiionl of lho iays.|xIvij Tho
Sundooi ilsoIf, lhus hiddon ly lho dazzIing iays lhal iIIunino
and onIivon ovoiy Iiving loing, in vhon lhoy opoialo as lho
povois of lho souI, is piocisoIy lho poinl a lho conlio of lho
fioiy WhooI, al vhich lhoy inloisocl, and sinco, il nosl gonoiaI
caso, lho sun is sovon-iayod,|xIviijand is silualod in lho
niddIo, vhonco lho six diioclions of lho cosnic cioss |ritrd
tajra) oxlond, so lhal lho univoiso is fiIIod vilh Iighl, il viII lo
soon lhal lho vay in ly vhal is caIIod lho sovonlh and losl iay,
viz., lhal vhich passos lhiough lho soIai disk and so oul of lho
dinonsionod univoiso, Ioads as lofoio in dio caso of lho
CIapping Rocks lolvoon conliaiy paiis, in lhis caso Lasl and
Wosl, Noilh and Soulh, Zonilh and Nadii. Tho Way is aIvays a
MiddIo Way, oi as oolhius oxpiossos il, Tiulh is a noan
lolvoon conliaiy hoiosios Ccn|ra |t|qcncn 'II).
Il ionains onIy lo considoi lho fuII docliinaI significanco of lho
SynpIogados. Whal lho foinuIa slalos IiloiaIIy is lhal vhoovoi
vouId liansfoi fion lhis lo lho OlhoivoiId, oi ioluin, nusl do
so lhiough lho undinonsionod and linoIoss inloivaI lhal
dividos ioIalod lul conliaiy foicos, lolvoon vhich, if ono is lo
pass al aII, il nusl lo inslanlIy. Tho passago is, of couiso, lhal
vhich is aIso caIIod lho sliail galo and lho noodIos oyo.
Whal aio lhoso conliaiios, of vhich lho opoialion is aulonalic`
Wo havo aIioady soon lhal lho anlilhosis nay lo of Ioai and
Hopo, oi Noilh and Soulh oi Nighl and Day. Thoso aio lul
pailicuIai casos of lho poIaiily lhal nocos-saiiIy chaiacloiisos any
condilionod voiId. A voiId vilhoul paiis of opposilos~
good and oviI, pIoasuio and pain, Iovo and halo, noai and fai,
lhick and lhin, naIo and fonaIo, posilivo and nogalivo, aII lhoso
paiis as|a|i Up. 1.4, cf. IhiIo, crcs 132, 2O7-214) ~ vouId lo
an uncondilionod voiId, a voiId vilhoul accidonls, chango oi
loconing, IogicaIIy inconcoivalIo and of vhich oxpoiionco
vouId lo inpossilIo.
Il is, lhon, piocisoIy fion lhoso paiis lhal Iiloialion nusl lo
von, fion lhoii confIicl lhal vo nusl oscapo, if vo aio lo lo
fiood fion oui noilaIily and lo lo as and vhon vo viII: if, in
olhoi voids, vo aio lo ioach lho Iailhoi Shoio and OlhoivoiId
vhoio ovoiy vhoio and ovoiy vhon aio focusod, foi il is nol
in spaco, noi halh il poIos Paradisc, XXIX.22 and XXLI.67).
Hoio, undoi lho Sun, vo aio ovoicono ly lho paiis Mai|ri Up.
III. 1): hoio, ovoiy loing in lho onanalod-voiId novos doIudod
ly lho niiago of lho conliaiy-paiis, of vhich lho oiigin is in oui
Iiking and disIik-ing. lul lo lhoso vho aio fiood fion lhis
doIusion of lho paiis... fiood fion lho paiis lhal aio inpIiod ly
lho oxpiossion 'voaI and voo, lhoso ioach lho pIaco of
invaiialiIily 8nagatad Cil 'II.27.28 and X'.5),i.o., lho pIaco of
lhoii coning logolhoi oi coincidonco sanaq), lhiough lhoii
nidsl oi in lolvoon sanqa) lhon.
Il is lhon, doopIy significanl lhal, in lho CioonIand saga, lho
Hoio, on his vay lo lho OlhoivoiId in vhich ho finds his doad
son Iiving, cannol ciicunvonl lho paiiod loigs (vhich aio lho
Iions in his palh), foi lhoy aIvays gol ahoad of hin hovovoi
fai ho goos lo oilhoi sido. Il is inovilalIy so, locauso lho
conliaiios aio of indofinilo oxlonsion, and ovon if vo couId
supposo an oquaIIy indofinilo jouinoy lo lho poinl al vhich
oxlionos nool,|xIviiij lhis vouId lo sliII a nooling pIaco of
lolh oxlionos, and lhoio vouId lo no vay lhiough lo a loyond
oi a vilhin oxcopl al lhoii nooling poinl, a caidinaI poinl lhal
has no fixod posilion, sinco lho dislinclion of lho coiioIalod
nonlois of any paii of conliaiy quaIilios (o.g., Iong and shoil) is
onIy lo lo found vhoio vo acluaIIy nako il, and vilhoul oxlonl,
sooing lhal il is ono and lho sano Iinil lhal sinuIlanoousIy
unilos and dividos lho conliaiios of vhich il is no pail,~sliail is
lho galo and naiiov is lho vay, vhich Ioadolh unlo Iifo, and fov
lhoio lo lhal find il Ma||ncu 'II. 14). Il is foi lho sano ioasons
lhal lho passago nusl lo nado so suddonIy: il is fion lho
voiId of lino (i.o., pas and fuluio) lo an oloinaI Nov, and
lolvoon lhoso lvo voiIds, lonpoiaI and linoIoss, lhoio can lo
no possilIo conlacl lul in lho nononl vilhoul duialion lhal
foi us dividos lho pasl fion lho fuluio, lul foi lho InnoilaIs
incIudos aII linos.
Tho nononl has cono al Iasl lo undoisland lho poignanl
voids of NicoIas of Cusa in lho Dc tisicnc Dc| (Ch. IX, fin.): Tho
vaII of lho Iaiadiso in vhich Thou, Loid, dvoIIosl, is luiIl of
conliadicloiios, noi is lhoio any vay lo onloi lul foi ono vho has
ovoicono lho highosl Spiiil of Roason vho guaids ils galo, and
lo iocaII lho pioniso, To hin lhal ovoiconolh viII I givo lo oal
of lho Tioo of Lifo, vhich is in lho nidsl of lho Iaiadiso of Cod
#ctc|a|icn cf S|. cnn, LI.7).|xIixj In lhis docliino and assuianco
aio ioaffiinod vhal has aIvays loon lho dognalic significanco
of lho SynpIogados and of lho Hoios Quosl,~ I an lho Dooi,
and No nan conolh lo lho Ialhoi lul ly Mo.
nv )oc.


|ij Tho suljocl of CIashing Rocks is doaIl vilh al considoialIo
Ionglh ly A. . Cook in cus III, ii, Appondix I, IIoaling
IsIands, pp. 975-1O16.
|iij Hoio, in addilion lo A. . Cooks iofoioncos and lhoso givon
loIov, vo can onIy cilo fion lho vasl Iiloialuio of lho vhoIo
suljocl such voiks as C. DunoziI, |c fcs|in dinncr|a|i|c, Iaiis,
1924, }. Chaiponlioi, Dic Suparnasaga, UppsaIa, 192O , S. Langdon,
Scni|ic Mq|nc|cgq, oslon, 1931 , }. L. Woslon, |rcn #i|ua| |c
#cnancc, 192O , R. S. Loonis, Cc||ic Mq|n and r|nurian #cnancc,
Nov Yoik, 1927 , A. C. L. iovn, Tnc rigin cf |nc Grai| |cgcnd,
Canliidgo, 1943 , L. L. Highlaigoi, Tnc Ga|cs cf Drcans,
aIlinoio, 194O.
|iiij Ioi olhoi naloiiaI on lhis suljocl soo ny SynloIisn of lho
Dono, |". XI' (1938), 1-56, and lho Staqan|rnna, }anua
CooIi, a|ncxis, ii (1939), 3-51.
|ivj Anliosiai SloIai, n. . Pni|., LXIII, 215, 216.
|vj Thoso |usni (oi -|usnqau) aio piinaiiIy a paii of Ioavos oi
lIados as of svoid-giass, al lho sano lino lhal lhoy aio in
offocl lho lvo Ioavos oi possilIy janls of an aclivo Dooi,
and in lhis connoclion il is nol insignificanl lhal Kugi is aIso a
synonyn of Dvaiak, Kiishnas Cily of lho Dooi. In S. lho
nirannaqau |usni aio said lo lo di|ca (inilialion) and |apas (aidoi),
cf. ilid.,111.1.2.2O, 111.4.3.2 vhoio il is in lhoso as a nov
gainonl lhal lho Saciificoi is quaIifiod lo onloi lho Sadas,
anaIogicaIIy lho OlhoivoiId.
|vij Snapping logolhoi, foi a dooi is aIso a noulh and oui
Ioavos oi iocks aio ioaIIy lho fioiy }avs of Doalh , as in
#gtcda X.87.3 vhoio lho sano voil is usod of lho lilo of Agnis
iion loolh, lho uppoi and lho Iovoi. Cf. ausi|a|i Upanisad, 11.13,
vhoio lho ioIIing nounlains do nol dovoui lho
Conpiohonsoi. In #gtcda 'III.91.2 (cf. IX.1.6) and lho ihnana
voisions, Sa|qqana i. and aininiqa 8r. 1.22O (liansIalod ly H.
OoiloI in S, X'III, 26-3O) aIso Pancatinsa 8r. 'III.4. 1, ApaI
(aIias lho Daughloi of lho Sun = Shiaddha, Iailh, Cyalii ,
Akupi, olc.), piopaios Sona (as |aua is piopaiod in lho Soulh
Soa IsIands) ly choving and India lakos il diioclIy fion hoi
noulh~and vhoovoi is a Conpiohonsoi lhoioof, if ho kissos a
vonans noulh, lhal loconos foi hin a diaughl of Sona. Thus
in ditinis, in lho iiluaI ninosis, vhoio lho Sona (sulslilulod
pIanl) is ciushod in a poslIo and noilai oi noio usuaIIy lolvoon
lvo slonos (as il voio cIashing iocks) and lvo sido of lho
Sona-pioss aio javs, lho slonos aio loolh and lho skin on
vhich lhoy novo is lho longuo, vhiIo lho olhoi noulh inlo
vhich lho juico is pouiod is lhal of lho saciificiaI aIlai in vhich
aIso lho Saciificoi, idonlifying hinsoIf vilh lho viclin, offois up
hinsoIf. Thus lho galos of onliy (liilh, fion lho hunan
slandpoinl, doalh fion lho divino) and oxil (doalh fion lho
hunan poinl of viov, liilh fion lho divino) aio lolh oquaIIy
javs~lho souI~ovoiy gioal souI~in ils cycIo of changos
nusl pass lvico lhiough lho Calo of Ivoiy (Highlaigoi, |cc. ci|.,
p. 11O). Tho Saciifico is aIvays a pio-figuiod hoavonIy asconl, il is
nol lhal ono doos nol vish lo lo svaIIovod up ly lho doily oq
vhon ono nusl lo assiniIalod if ono vouId lo assiniIalod |c
hin (cf. ny induisn and 8uddnisn, pp. 23, 24, and #gtcda,
'II.86.2 Whon al Iasl shaII vo cono lo lo again ui|nin
'aiuna`), lul lhal ono vouId nol lo donoIishod ly lho uppoi
and lho nolhoi niIIslonos lhiough vhich lho vay Ioads, and
honco lho iahnans of yoio voio vonl lo vondoi, Who viII
loday oscapo Lovialhans javs ` and il is acluaIIy onIy ly lho
sul-slilulion of a viclin (~a sop lo Coiloius~) lhal ono
conos safoIy lhiough his nav aininiqa 8rnnana 1.174). On
lho }avs of Doalh soo fuilhoi ny Svayanlinna, }anua CooIi,
a|ncxis II, 23, nolo 6.
|viij Tho liinging dovn of Sona lo oailh, vhich is his coning
inlo his kingdon, invoIvos a passion and a iosuiioclion. Ho
conos foilh in liiunph ovon as Ahi, sIipping oul of his
involoialod skin, Sona fIovs Iiko a piancing slood (R'
IX.86.44).
|viiij L. von Schioodoi, cra||cs und |ndra ('ionna, 1914), p. 45.
|ixj Tho conliaiy vaIuos aio voiy cIoaiIy dovoIopod in lho
rgcnau|ica, vhoio lho Rapo of lho IIooco and caiiying off of
Modoa aio, fion hoi falhois poinl of viov, lho acls of a high-
handod naiaudoi, and (I'.1432 f.) HoiakIos sIaughloi of lho
Soiponl and lhofl of lho CoIdon AppIos aio fion lho poinl of
viov of }asons conpanions hoioic foals, lul fion lho poinl of
viov of lho Hospoiidos lhonsoIvos acls of vanlon vioIonco. In
lho sano vay, as Dainolosloi says, In lho 'odic nylhoIogy lho
Candhaiva is lho koopoi of Sona, and is dosciilod nov as a
Cod, nov as a fiond, accoidingIy as ho is a hoavonIy Sona-piiosl
oi a joaIous possossoi vho giudgos il lo nan S8|.23.63, nolo
1). In such con-loxls, hovovoi, giudgo is nol lho void , il is nol
vilh naIico lhal lho Choiul koops lho vay of lho Tioo of Lifo,
oi invidiousIy lhal Sl. Ioloi koops lho CoIdon Calos, oi lhal
HoindaIIi guaids lho iidgo, oi lhal lho dooi us shul againsl lho
fooIish viigins, lul onIy lo piolocl lho foId againsl lho voIvos
vho havo no iighl lo onloi.
Tho opposing inloiosls of Cods and Tilans aio onIy ioconciIod
vhon, as in lho 'odic and Chiislian liadilions, lho Saciifico is
indood a viclin, lul nol an unviIIing viclin. Il is onIy fion oui
lonpoiaIIy hunan poinl of viov lhal good and oviI aio
opposod lo ono anolhoi, lul lo Cod aII lhings aio good and faii
and jusl crac|ci|us, Ii.61), lo hin in aII confIicls lolh sidos
aio iighl #gtcda 11.7.15), and lhis is lho ossonliaI noaning of
lho CIashing Rocks, lhal vhoovoi vouId ioluin hono nusl havo
alandonod aII judgnonl in loins of iighl and viong, foi |ncrc, as
Moisloi Lckhail says, in fuII agioononl vilh Chvang Tzu, lho
Upanisads and uddhisn, noilhoi vico noi viiluo ovoi onloiod
in. Tho Cods and Tilans aio lho chiIdion of ono Ialhoi, and
havo lhoii appoinlod pails lo pIay, if lhoio is lo lo a voiId al
aII (cf. crac|ci|us, Ii. 43, 46), and lhough ono of lhoso pails nay
lo ouis foi lho lino loing, lho Conpiohonsoi nusl acl
vilhoul allachnonl, dispassionaloIy, ionaining alovo lho lallIo
ovon vhiIo pailicipaling in il.
|xj On anorcsia and anr|a soo M. IovIoi, A Nolo on anliolos,
C|assica| Pni|c|cgq, XXX'II (1942), 77-79.
|xij Tho dooi as an olslacIo is lho laiiicado of lho sky
atarcdnananan ditan, #gtcda IX.1 13.8.), vhich dividos lho voiId
of noilaIily undoi lho Sun fion lho voiId of innoilaIily
loyond hin, lho Sundooi is lho Calovay of Tiulh (Isha Up. 15,
olc.), and as such a foivaiding foi lho viso and a laiiioi lo lho
fooIish Cnandcgqd Up. 'III.6.5), cf. Ma||ncu XX'.1-12, |u|c
XL.9.I9, cnn X. 9, olc., and aIso ny Svayanlinn, }anua CooIi,
nolos 23, 31, 51.
In naiiiago, lho liido is assiniIalod lo Suiya, lho naiiiod
coupIos jouinoy lo a hoavonIy asconl (ovon lho ciossing of a
iivoi is piovidod foi), and lhoii nov hono (in vhich lhoy aio
lo Iivo happiIy ovoi afloivaids) lo lho Olhoi-voiId of
InnoilaIily. An anaIogy of lho dooivay lo lho dangoious }anua
CooIi naluiaIIy foIIovs, and vo find lhal vhon il is ioachod lho
incanlalion is onpIoyod, Injuio hoi nol, yo god-nado piIIais, on
hoi vay, lhoso piIIais loing, of couiso lho janls of lho dooi of
lho divino houso |narta Vcda XI'. 1.61.63). No doull il is foi
lho sano ioason lhal lho liido nusl nol slop on lho lhioshoId as
sho onlois pas|anoa Grnqa S|ra11.6.9), foi, ovidonlIy, lo do so
nighl ioIoaso lho liap, and lhoiofoio lho liido nusl slop ovoi lho
lhioshoId vilhoul louching il. Thoio can lo no quoslion lul lhal
lho Luiopoan cuslon of caiiying lho liido acioss lho lhioshoId
has an idonlicaI significanco, lho husland pIays lho pail of
psychoponp, and il is oasy lo soo vhy il shouId lo iogaidod as
nosl unIucky if ho slunlIos and doos nol cIoai lho lhioshoId
safoIy.
|xiij Tho loxl has parta|s|nirn vhich, aIlhough il couId noan
nounlain donos, is inpIausilIo. Chaiponliois suggoslion of
parta|an s|nirn (slalIo nounlains) conliadicls lho ioquiiod
sonso. I havo assunod parta|a as|nirn (an oquaIIy possilIo
iosoIulion of lho ciisis), ioslIoss nounlains, lho foIIoving
suoudnnqan nood nol inpIy fiinIy gioundod, lul ialhoi
doopIy ioolod, vhich is nol inconsislonl vilh nolion, as viII
lo olvious if vo iononloi lhal oui fIoaling isIands aio, as il
voio, Iolus Ioavos oi fIovois, nol dolachod fion lhoii slons, lul
svinging upon lhon, as lho Ioavos of doois sving on hingos.
|xiiij No ono loconos innoilaI in lho fIosh a|apa|na 8r.
X.4.3.9), and vhoovoi ioachos lho Olhoi-voiId and lho
allainnonl of aII dosiios doos so going in lho spiiil |nanq
c|qa, ioid., 1.8.1.31 and aininiqa Up. 8r. 111.33.8), having shakon
off his lodios ioid., I11.3O.2-4), ~lho IIalonic |a|narsis (Ihaodo
67C).
|xivj On lho Doois of lho Yoai, and WoiIds Lnd soo fuilhoi
Svayanlinn, }anua CooIi, nolos 3 and 25 and Tho IiIgiins
Way, 8#S, XXIII (1937), 452-471 and XXI' (1938), 118-119.
Tho Yoai is Iiajapali, lho InpoiishalIo WoiId, and, Iiko a
houso is onIy his vho knovs ils doois (S. 1.5.3.2.3. 1.6.1.19) oi
onds, Winloi and Spiing. Tho ond of lho Yoai is aIso ils
loginning, so lhal lho Yoai is ondIoss oi infinilo anan|a) Iiko a
vhooI (A. 111.43). Tho gioal synloI of lho soiponl liling ils
ovn laII iopiosonls lho aoon (}oionias, Dcr n|icnris| in
Gcscnicn|c und Gcgcnuar|, 193O, p. 4).
|xvj On lho ono hand, ovoiylhing conposod of conliaiios is
nocossaiiIy suljocl lo coiiuplion (Sl. Thonas Aquinas, Sun.
Tncc|. 1.80.1, cf. Pnacdc 78 C and Digna Ni|qa 11. 144), on lho
olhoi, Tho nolions ovon of conliaiios aio nol conliaiy in lho
inloIIocl foi lhoy loIong lo ono and lho sano knovIodgo.
Thoio-foio il is inpossilIo lhal lho inloIIoclivo souI shouId lo
coiiuplilIo ioid., 1.75.6).
Thal, in facl, lho knovIodgo vhich knovs ono lhing knovs aIso
ils opposilo ioid., 1.14.8) is ionaikalIy iIIuslialod ly lho facl
lhal in lho oIdosl Ianguagos vo so oflon nool vilh voids lhal
onlody conliaiy noanings. On lhis inpoilanl suljocl soo KaiI
AloI, Uocr dcn Gcgcnsinn dcr Urucr|c, 1884 (aIso in his
Spracnuisscnscnaf||icncn onand|ungcn, 1885 , Iiouds discussion
in anro. f.
Psqcncana|q|iscnc und Psqcncpa|nc|cgiscnc |crscnungcn, II, 191O,
conliilulos nolhing) , R. Coidis, Lffocls of Iiinilivo Thoughl
on Languago, n. . Scni|ic |anguagcs and |i|cra|urc, 55 (1938),
27Of, . Hoinann, IIuiaIily, IoIaiily, and Unily in Hindu
Thoughl, 8SS, IX, 1O15-1O21, Doulung und odoulung
indischoi ToininoIogio, X|X Ccngr. |n|crnaz. d. ricn|a|is|i, and
Tho IoIaiily of lho Indofinilo, |S, v, 91-94 , Chvang Tzu
(CiIos), Ch. 2 and passin , ny Tanliic Docliino of Divino
iunily, nn. 8nandar|ar r. #cs. |ns|., X|X, 173-83, M. |cu|cr,
Tnc #c|c cf Sura in |nc Mq|n cf Nanuci, S, 62, 36-40 csp. nc|c
18) and Pc|ari|q in |nc #igtcda, #ct, cf #c|igicn, V||, 115-123.
AIso, on lho cnan|ia gonoiaIIy, IIalo, Tnca|c|us 157 , olc., and
IhiIo, crcs 2O7, 215, olc., as discussod ly L. R. Coodonough in
Ya|c C|assica| S|udics, III (1932), 117-164.
Ioi oxanpIo, ono Lgyplian sign slands foi sliong-voak, vhich
is noanl doponding on lho doloininanl onpIoyod, ono Chinoso
idoogian, lig-snaII, noans sizo, and gonoiaIIy spoaking,
alsliacl nouns aio conlinalions of lvo opposilos. So Zoio (Skl.
|na, soo ny Kha and olhoi voids donoling Zoio, in 8SS, 'II,
1934) is lho lolaIily of + and - nunoiicaI soiios and, accoidingIy
(Iiko Cod), c| unicun c| nini| c| p|cnun.
Thal in so nany of lho oIdosl Ianguagos (vilh suivivaIs in sono
nodon) lho sano iools oflon onlody opposilo noanings, onIy
dislinguishalIo ly lho addilion of doloininanls, is an indicalion
lhal lho novononl of piinilivo Iogic is nol alsliaclivo (fion
an oxisling nuIlipIicily) lul doduclivo (fion an axionalic unily).
Tho sano synlholic lias can lo iocognizod in lho oId duaIs (o.g.,
Milivaiunau) lhal donolo, nol lho noio associalion of |uc
poisons, lul lho liunily of cnc. Many of oui piofoundosl
ioIigious dognas (o.g., lhal of lho divino piocossion cx principic
titcn|c ccnjunc|c) slon fion lhoso insighls.
|xvij SiniIaiIy in a|apa|na 8r. 11.3.9.1,36 , and in lho tcs|a
(Woloi, |ndiscnc S|udicn, IX, 292), vhoio lho dactaqaa is lo lo
poifoinod afloi daik and lofoio suniiso. Tho conliaiy aigunonl
of i|arcqa 8r. ', 29, soons lo no iIIogicaI. India had aIso agiood
nol lo sIay Nanuci vilh anylhing noisl oi anylhing diy, and
doos so vilh foan. olh foinuIao iocui in TS. 'I.4.I.5. and 2.4
vhoio lho hoail of lho saciificiaI viclin is doposilod al lho
junclion of vol and diy, and lho saciificiaI valois, oiiginaIIy
Iiloialod vhon 'ilia vas sIain, aio lo lo coIIoclod al lho
junclion of shado and shining, viz., of nighl and day. Tho fiisl of
lhoso aclions alonos oi saciificos lho conliaiios, lho socond
socuios lho coIoi of lolh al onco, and lhal is, of couiso, lho
coIoi of lho OlhoivoiId, iahnaIoka oi Lnpyioan in vhich
lho daiknoss and Iighl aio nol sopaialod, lul dvoII logolhoi In
ono anolhoi (KU.III.I and 'I.5 and }acol oohno, Tnrcc Princip|cs
XI'.76,) and of Dionysius Divino Daiknoss, lIinding ly oxcoss
of Iighl.
|xviij Tho paiaIIoI lo lho ciossing of lho Rod Soa, fion lho
Lgyplian Daiknoss of lhis voiId lo a Iionisod Land, viII lo
olvious. Tho Agniholia poifoinod al lviIighl is a Iassovoi in
IhiIos sonso. y lho sano lokon, oranna-onu|i, loconing
iahna, lhoosis, is aIso Davn.
|xviiij Tho ioluin is olviousIy lo lho piinoidiaI condilion of
#gtcda X.129.1-3, vhoio aII is Ono, vilhoul dislinclion of Day
and Nighl. K. conlinuos, dosciiling Nighl and Day as lho Daik
and lho DappIod qna-aoarau, lho Dogs of Yana) an
inpoilanl dalun foi lho iconogiaphy of Coiloius, lul ono lhal
cannol lo fuilhoi discussod hoio.
|xixj Of ovoiy Iand, lhal Daik Land is lho losl, In vhich lhoio is
a Waloi, lho Civoi-of-Lifo (Niznud Din, Si|andar Nna,
LX'III.18). Thoio shinos nol sun, noi noon, noi any slai . . . His
shining onIy aII lhis voiId iIIuninalos a|na Upanisad V.15),
Thoio noilhoi sun, noi noon, noi fiio givo Iighl, lhoso vho go
lhoio do nol cono lack again , lhal is My supiono alodo
8nagatad Gi|a X'.6) , Thoio shino no slais, noi sun is lhoio
dispIayod, lhoio gIoans no noon, (and yol) no daiknoss lhoio is
soon Udna 9). Whon sun and noon havo gono hono, vhon
fiio is dousod and spooch is hushod, vhal is lhis poisons Iighl`
Tho Spiiil a|nan, SoIf) is his Iighl 8rnaddranqa|a Up. I'.3.6, cf.
}U. 111.1): And lho cily had no nood of lho sun, noilhoi of lho
noon, lo shino in il: foi lho gIoiy of Cod did Iighlon il, and lho
Lanl is lho Iighl lhoioof #ct. XXL23).
|xxj Ta|cs and Tradi|icns cf |nc |s|inc (London, 1875), pp. 157-161.
|xxij C. L. CiIIun, 8cqcnd |nc C|apping Mcun|ains, |s|inc S|crics
frcn |as|a, Nov Yoik, 1943.
|xxiij Dio Mylhon und Logondon doi Sudanoiikanischon
UivhIkoi und ihioi oziohungon zu donon Noidanoiikas und
doi aIlon WoIl, ci|. f. ||nnc|cgic, XXX'II, 19O5, SuppIononl.
Ioi sono olhoi paiaIIoIs soo S. Thonpson, Luiopoan TaIos
anong lho Noilh Anoiican Indians, Cc|cradc Cc||cgc Puo.,
|anguagc Scrics, 2 (1919), 319-471, A.H. Caylon, Tho Oiphous
Mylh in Noilh Anoiica, . n. |c|||crc, 48 (1935), 263-293 , ny
Sunkiss, S. 6O(194O), 46-67 (osp. 55-57) and connonl ly M.
Tiliov, ioid., 27O. Many oi nosl of lhoso paiaIIoIs havo lo do vilh
lho nolaphysics of Iighl, lho piogonilivo povoi (soo Sunkiss,
nolo 13 foi sono of lho iofoioncos). Ono of lho nosl ionaikalIo
is lhal of lho }icaiiIIa Apacho liilh iilo vhoio a coid of
unlIonishod luckskin, caIIod in lho iilo 'spidois iopo, is
sliolchod fion lho unloIicus of lho chiId lovaids lho sun (M.
L. OpIoi, Mq|ns and Ta|cs cf |nc icari||a pacnc |ndians |Nov Yoik,
An. IoIkIoio Socioly, 1938j, p. 19). This conlinos lho Indian
synloIisn of lho Sun as a spidoi (cf. }AOS. 55.396-398) vhoso
lhioads aio iays s|ra|nan docliino), vilh lho concopl of lho Sun
oqualod vilh lho vivifying Spiiil, al lho sano lino lhal il
coiiosponds oxaclIy lo lho Oilhodox Chiislian concoplion of lho
Nalivily, vhoio (as al IaIoino and in nany Russian icons) lho
Madonna is ovidonlIy lho Lailh Coddoss, and a (sovonlh) iay of
Iighl oxlonds diioclIy fion lho (olhoiviso six-iayod) Sun lo lho
anlino.
Indopondonl oiigins foi such conpIox palloins aio aInosl
inconcoivalIo: vo aio foicod lo supposo lhal vo aio doaIing vilh
a nylhoIogy of piohisloiic and piosunalIy NooIilhic anliquily.
This is a considoialion lhal viII piosonl no difficuIly lo
anlhiopoIogisls such as Ialhoi W. Schnidl, Iianz oas, IauI
Radin oi }osof Slizygovski, vho iocognizo no dislinclion of
nonlaI aliIily as lolvoon piinilivo and nodoin nan, vho, if
capalIo al aII of such alsliacl vision, is iadicaIIy disincIinod foi
il, and coilainIy doos nol found his ail and Iiloialuio upon il.
|xxiiij Cf. 8rnadranqa|a Up. 111.3.2 voio, al lho onds of oailh,
lhoio is an inloispaco as lhin as lho odgo of a iazoi. This soons
lo noan al lho hoiizon, lul il is noinaIIy al lho Sundooi lhal ono
ioachos voiIds ond and lioaks oul of lho univoiso.
|xxivj |ndianiscncr Sagcn tcn dcr Ncrducs||us|c ncri|as (oiIin,
19O5), p. 335.
|xxvj In lhis connoclion cf. L. von Schioodoi, riscnc #c|igicn
11(1923), pp. 555-557. 'on Schioodoi juslIy assiniIalos Loki,
Sohn doi Laufoy, d.h. doi 'Laul-insoI i.o., son of Loaf-isIand as
his Molhoi, lo Agni, lho Iolus-loin, and lo ApoIIo of DoIos, an
isIand lhal, having aiison fion lho soa, nighl lo conpaiod lo lho
valoi-loin (alja=Iolus). 'on Schioodoi aIso conpaios Loki
NadoIsohn lo Agni sauci|a lul cannol nako oul vhal lho
NoodIo is, il is, in facl, lho Ialhoi, viz., lho ThundoiloIl, tajra
|crauncs), Iighlning fion alovo, Ioaf (Lailh) and noodIo
(Axis Mundi) loing lho Iovoi and uppoi fiio-slicks in lhis
gonoialion. Ioi lho noodIo as lho looI vilh vhich lho
Molhoi-goddoss sovs hoi voik soo #gtcda 11.32.4.
|xxvij Hov such a figuio couId havo loon inaginod can voII lo
ioaIisod fion Duiois voodcul of lho AngoI vhoso faco vas as
lho sun and his fool as piIIais of fiio And ho had in his hand a
IillIo look opon: and ho sol his iighl fool upon lho soa, and his
Iofl fool on lho oailh #ctc|a|icn x.Lf.). This iovoIalion vas nado
lo Sl. }ohn in Ialnos, aIso an isIand iison fion lho soa. Ioi a
iopioduclion of Duiois cul and ils Ialoi inilalions soo anroucn f.
is|. Vc||s|undc, II, 1 53f.
|xxviij Ioi oxanpIo, lho oai, lhiof of lho Iaii tna-ncsa), i.o.
of Sona, Tai||iriqa Sanni|, 'I.2.4.2. An oxcoIIonl Runanian
voision oxpIains Why lho Sloik has no TaiI: lho Waloi of Lifo
and Doalh can onIy lo ioachod ly passing lolvoon lvo
conslanlIy cIashing nounlains inlo a vaIIoy loyond lhon il is
folchod ly a sloik, vho on his ioluin laioIy oscapos vilh lho Ioss
of his laiI (I. H. Loo, |c|||a|cs cf || Na|icns |London, 1931j, pp.
836-838).
|xxviiij Dio Hasonjagd in anro. f. is|. Vc||s|undc ', 'I (1937),
pp. 243-267. Cf. L. von Schioodoi, riscnc #c|igicn, 11(1923), 664f.
Tho Haio is noinaIIy lho Hoio, lul nay lo lho Diagon in
disguiso (WialisIav, Six|q |c||-Ta|cs, no. 43). Soo aIso }ohn
Layaid, Tnc |adq cf |nc arc, London, 1945, and ny ioviov in
Psqcnia|rq 8, 1945, and IhiIoslialus, Vi|. p. 3.39.
|xxixj Ioi a pail of lhis naloiiaI, vhich I pioposo lo discuss noio
fuIIy oIsovhoio in a papoi on Tho LaiIy Iconogiaphy of
Sagillaiius-Kisanu, soo KaiI von Spioss, Doi Schuss nach don
'ogoI in anro. f. is|. Vc||s|undc ', 'I (1937), 2O4-235.
|xxxj W. W. Confoil, Cnrc|icn dc Trcqcs, Lvoiynans Liliaiy, p.
192. Cf. C. L. Killiodgo, Gauain and |nc Grccn nign|s, 1916, p.
244, and A. C. L. iovn, |uain, 19O3, p. 8O.
Tho Russian hoio Ivan is, doullIoss, Cavain-Ivain, al any ialo, a
Iiinco Ivan liings lack lvo fIasks of lho Waloi of Lifo, fion
vhoio il is kopl lolvoon lvo high nounlains lhal cIoavo
logolhoi oxcopl foi a fov ninulos of oach day, and as ho ioluins,
lhoy cIoso upon hin and ciush his sloods hind Iogs (W. R.
RaIslon, #ussian |c||-|a|cs, 1873, p. 235 f.). Cf. A. H. WialisIav,
Six|q |c||-Ta|cs, 1889, p. 28O, 283.
|xxxij Molif of AchiIIos hooI. Cf. i|arcqa 8r. 111.27 vhoio lho
Sona-guaidian, Kinu (Sagillaiius) culs off a cIav fion
Cyaliis fool.
|xxxiij Soo A. C. iovn, |uain (oslon, 19O3), pp. 8O, 81, vilh
olhoi vaiianls of vhal nay lo caIIod lho aclivo dooi lypo: and
Tho Knighl of lho Lion, Puo. Mcdcrn |ang. sscc., XX (19O5),
673-7O6. IncidonlaIIy, vo considoi lhal SynpIogados (= Skl.
ni|nas|ur) is lho losl calch-void foi oui nolif, locauso lho
conliaiios invoIvod aio nol aIvays iocks, oi ovon aIvays lho
Ioavos of a dooi in lho nosl IiloiaI and iosliiclod sonso of lho
void.
|xxxiiij C. L. Killiodgo, I.c., pp. 244, 245. On lho iidgo, S 8,
196ff.
|xxxivj Oi Zous oi Hados, ly vhichovoi nano lhou vouIdsl lo
caIIod (Luiipidos, Nauck fi. 912), IIalo, |aus 727 D Hados . . .
ioaIn of lho Cods yondoi, cf. Pnacdc 68 A, , 'Hados, vhoio
and vhoio onIy is puio visdon lo lo found. Tho dislinclion of
Hoavon fion HoII is nol of pIacos lul in lhoso vho onloi lho Iiio,
as }acol oohno is fond of saying, is ono and lho sano Iiio, lul
of Lovo lo lhoso vho aio Iovois, and of Wialh lo lhoso vho halo.
So in lho CoIlic nylhoIogy, }oyous Caido and DoIoious Caido
aio ono as pIacos, diffoiing onIy accoiding lo oui poinl of viov.
This is inpoilanl foi lho iconogiaphy of lho Dooi.
|xxxvj Ld. C. Hondoison, Iiish Toxl Soc., 11.1O3, 8O, cf. Loonis,
|cc. ci|., p. 365 iovn, |uain, pp. 51-55, Killiodgo, pp. 244-245.
|xxxvij |nran Maci|c Din, p 32, Laininio, Wosl Iiish laIo of
Mcrrana, Manonra|a (Ina od.) 1.29, Suparnadnqqa, X.X'I.5 ,
Danlo, Purga|cric.
|xxxviij Ld. Ifoiffoi, Loipzig, 1847, soo iovn, |uain, p. 8O.
|xxxviiij nc-cara hoio, hovovoi, vilh spociaI iofoionco lo lho
ponolialion of lho |na a|asa, ai|ncr, c|ari|as, quin|a csscn|ia) of
lho Sundooi (Iiko lho hoIo in lho chaiiol-vhooI, qa|n ra|na-
ca|rasqa |nan, 8rnadranqa|a Up. '.1O, cf. ai-niniqa Up. 8r. 1.3.6
and #gtcda V|||.91.7), an apcr|urc |na| as Vcid cr Spacc-aosc|u|c is |c
oc cqua|cd ui|n 8ranna Cnndcgqa Up. 111.12.7, | V.10.4,
8rnadranqa|a Up. '.1 and soo alovo, nolo 14),and is vilhin
you Mai|ri Up. 'II.II). This luining disc is uniquo of hoavon
vilh lho sun vas lho oIdosl divino synloI of lho piinoidiaI
ioIigion ~ and aIso of lho Chinoso ioIigion. (R. SchIossoi, Doi
Uispiung dos chinosischon Ksch, r|ious siac, ', 165): I sav
Lloinily lho olhoi nighl, Liko a gioal Ring of puio and ondIoss
Iighl Sono... soaid up inlo lho Ring ('aughn).
|xxxixj Tho nononl |sana) of liansilion hoio coiiosponds lo
lho singIo nononl of fuII avakoning c|a-|sana-aonisanocdna)
vhich in Iiajpianila (Mahayana uddhisl) docliino is lho
Iasl slop of lho 'ia Affiinaliva sai|sa nrga) and is an
avakoning lo Non-duaIily adtaqa), i.o., fion lho iIIusion of
DuaIily, foIIovod innodialoIy ly lho allainnonl of uddhahood
(soo L. OloiniIIoi, Tho Docliino of Iiajapaianila, da
ricn|a|ia, XI, 63, 71, 81), Cf. Acls 11.2 (lho sound of lho HoIy
Chosl signifios suddonnoss). AII spiiiluaI opoialions aio
nocossaiiIy suddon, locauso vhalovoi is oloinaI is aIso
innodialo, lho nov lhal slands sliII is said lo nako oloinily
(Sl. Thonas Aquinas, Sun. Tncc|., 1.10.2). So nylhicaI
ovonls aio oloinaI ni|qa), onco foi aII sa|r|), loday sadqa) oi
nov nu), #gtcda passin, and lhis onco foi aII is vhal is
ioaIIy noanl ly lho Iong ago and onco upon a lino of oui
faiiy-laIos. In any caso, lho passago of an inloivaI lhal is nol a
sonsilIo oxlonl of lino nusl lo inslanlanoous ly hypolhosis.

|xIj Maya (\ n, noasuio, fashion, nako), lho Ail oi Iovoi
of cioalion an liansfoinalion, is an ossonliaIIy ditinc piopoily
and can lo iondoiod ly Magic onIy in }acol oohnos sonso
Scx Punc|a Mqs|ica, '.1, soo ny induisn an 8uddnisn, nolo 257).
In connoclion vilh lho Tilan Maya, Maya nusl lo idonlifiod vilh
his vifo LiIavali, vho can lo caIIod IIIusion onIy in lho IiloiaI
ani olynoIogicaI sonso of lho void, as loing lho noans of lho
divino LiIa, and lho Wisdon vho finds oul lho knovIodgo of
villy invonlions and loIongod lo lho Loid in lho loginning of
his vay, lofoio his voiks of oId Prctcros 'III.12 f.).
Tho cioalion is aIvays concoivod in lhoso loins, viz., as nqa-
naqa, a pioducl of ail, lhis 'odanlic nqa-tda docliino nusl
nol lo undoislood lo noan lhal lho voiId is an doIusion, lul
lhal il is a pncncncna| voiId and as such a lhoophany and
opiphany ly vhich vo aio doIudod if vo aio concoinod vilh
nolhing lul lho vondois lhonsoIvos, and do nol ask Of vhal`
aII lhoso lhings aio a phonononon.
Whon India hinsoIf is lho Sona-lhiof and CiaiI-vinnoi il is ly
ovoiconing lho dovicos nqan) of lho Tilans lhal ho nakos
lho Sona his aIono #gtcda, 'II.98.5): and vioIding lhis
povoi hinsoIf ho casls appoaiancos upon his ovo Iifo-
lhioad ioid., 111.53.8). Il is ly his Ail nqaqa) lhal lho Loid
(lhis is lho novoi in lho hoails of noilaI lhings) novos aII
lhoso oIononlaI-loings lhal an nounlod on lhoii onginos al lho
sano lino lho Opoialoi hinsoIf is concoaIod ly lho Ail in vhich
ho is viapl up and lhal is voiy haid lo ponolialo lul vhich
lhoso vho ioach hin aio said lo cioss ovoi (C. X'III.61,
'II.I4.25). Il is ii lhis vay piocisoIy lhal Rjyadhaia in KSS. 'II.9
popuIalos his cily, lhis nan and lhis voiId loing lho slagos on
vhich lho aicholypaI Thaunaluigus an IIayviighl oxhilils
hinsoIf. Thoio can lo no gioaloi nislako lhan lo supposo lhal
such sloiios as lhoso of KSS voio conposod onIy lo anuso, il is a
foin of lho palholic faIIacy lhal Iikoviso oxpIains lho foins of
piinilivo and popuIai ail as pioducls onIy of a docoialivo
inslincl. On nq cf. S 66, p. 152 nolo 28.
|xIij In connoclion vilh snilhs, conpaio lho laIIad of lho
Tvo Magicians (ChiId no. 44), lhon sho locano a duck, and
ho locano a diako, olc., vilh 8rnadranqa|a Up. 1.44, sho
locano a naio, and ho locano a slaIIion, olc., ~ a good
iIIuslialion of lho facl lhal coIIoclivo nonoiy piosoivos
sonolinos . . . aichano synloIs vhich aio in ossonco puioIy
nolaphysicaI . . . ospociaIIy lhoso synloIs vhich aio ioIalod lo
lhooiios, ovon if lhoso lhooiios aio no Iongoi undoislood
(Miicoa LIiado, in a|ncxis, II. p. 78). Tho calchvoids of
IoIkIoio aio, in facl, lho signs and synloIs of lho IhiIosophia
Ioionnis.
|xIiij Ioi Aulonala in anaIogous vosloin Iiloialuio soo nolo 43,
and M. . OgIo Tho IoiiIous iidgo and Hunan Aulonala in
Mcdcrn |anguagc Nc|cs XX' 192O, 129-136. N. M. Ionzoi, in
discussing Aulonala Tnc ccan cf S|crq III, 1925, pp. 56-59 and
IX, 1928, p. 149) ialhoi nissos lhoii poinl and so faiIs lo nako
lhon novo, lhal is, ho considois lhon onIy fion slandpoinl of
lho hisloiian of Iiloialuio, and nakos no allonpl al oxogosis.
Lvon hoio vo cai onIy doaI vilh lho lhono voiy liiofIy. Nol onIy
is lho voiId ilsoIf an ongino dovisod ly lho Cioal Lnginooi
(fion vhon, as Sl. Auguslino says, aII hunan ingcniun doiivos),
lul aII ils inhalilanls aio in lho sano vay voodon (hyIic)
onginos diivon ly his povoi (cf. Mai|ri Up. II.6.) ~ voodon,
locauso lho naloiiaI of vhich lho voiId is nado is a vood
dru, tana nu|c), and foi lho sano ioason lho Ailisl lhiough
vhon aII lhings voio nado is inovilalIy a caiponloi |a|sa,
|c||n, arncs|cs.
Iion lhis poinl of viov lho nylh of lho Cily of Woodon
Aulonala in lho a|n Sari| Sgara ccan cf S|crq) 'II.9 can lo
undoislood if vo conpaio ils voidings vilh lhoso of Mai|ri Up.
11.6 vhoio Iiajpali (lho liunily of lho Sacoi-doliun and
Rognun, iopiosonlod in KSS. ly lho caiponloi liolhois
Iinadhaia and Rjyadhaia) lohoIds his concoplions prajn) as
il voio slonos oi slocks unliI ho onlois inlo lhon, and fion
vilhin lhoii hoail, ly noans of his iays-oi-ioins
ranaqana||incs Hoinos Tiisnogislus |io. x. 22, cf. X'I.7)
opoialos and govoins lhon, as lho polloi oi chaiiolooi diivos his
vhooI oi vohicIo ~ This is lho novoi in lho hoails of noilaI
lhings, Paradisc, 1.116. Rjyadhaias cily is assuiodIy lho sano
as lhal of lho Tripurranasqa (Honacuda soclion '.119-124, soo ".
. Mq|nic Scc., X'III.283) vhoio lho Iiino Movoi lhough singIo,
nuIlipIios hinsoIf, nanifosls as lho cily and lho cilizons, and
poivados lhon aII, piolocls and hoIds lhon. Wilhoul hin, lhoy
vouId aII lo scalloiod and Iosl Iiko poaiIs vilhoul lho sliing of
lho nockIaco (cf. C. 'I1.7). . . . If lhal cily docays, ho coIIocls lho
innalos logolhoi, Ioads lhon lo anolhoi, and ionains lhoii
nasloi (as in U. I'.4.3,4). AIiko foi lho 'odic liadilion and
IIalo, Man is lho Cily of Cod orannanapura), and lhoio can lo
no doull lhal il is lo lhis cily lhal lho nylh of KSS, ioaIIy poinls.
ankaiaciya oflon oxpIains lho Aupanisada foinuIalions of lho
lhioad--spiiil s|r|nan) docliino, lo vhich lho sliing of lho
nockIaco iofois, ly lho nolaphoi of lho voodon puppol dru-
pu|ri|, in connonl on U. 111.4.1 and 7.1), as in KSS. Il is in lho
sano vay lhal foi IIalo |aus 644-645, 8O3-8O4) Cod is lho
Iuppolooi and non his loys (and as iogaids lho losl in us, lhal
is vhal vo ioaIIy aio), and lhal foi IhiIo pif. 117) vo aio
puppols of vhich lho sliings aio novod ly lho innanonl Duko.
This opoialion of his loys on lho voiId slago is piocisoIy vhal is
caIIod Cods Cano oi Spoil 1110), and il is ly no noans
accidonlaIIy lhal KSS. dosciilos lho voiking of his puppols as
Rjyadhaias ioyaI gano,

AII lhis is a gano lhal lho Divinily nakolh foi IlsoIf,Ioi Ils ovn
sako halh Il dovisod cioalod lhings.-AngoIus SiIosius,
Cncruoiniscnc landcrsnann II. 198).

Ioi fuilhoi iofoioncos soo ny LiIa in }AOS.61.98-IOI and IIay
and Soiiousnoss in . Pni|. XXXIX (1942), 550-552.
|xIiiij Tho naluiaI connoclion, cf. }U.I.23.1 lho 'oico spoaks
fion lho Llhoi ||), so aIso Mlh. III.I56.13 an incoipoioaI
'oico fion lho Llhoi ||). Cf. U8. 1.28.3-4, Acls 11.3-4.
|xIivj Hunan Aulonala in CIassicaI Tiadilion and ModiaovaI
Ronanco, Mcdcrn Pni|c|cgq, X (1913), 524 f.
|xIvj Soo aIso #gtcda I'.3O.4, I'.31.4, '.29.1O, 'I.2O.5,6, 'II.98.1O.
|xIvij aininqa Up. 8r. 1.3.5 lhiough lho nidsl of lho Sun,
concoaIod ly iays, coiiosponds oxaclIy lo IIalo, Pnacdrus 247
lho InnoilaIs piocood sloopIy upvaids lo lho lop of lho vauIl
of Hoavon and lako lhoii sland loyond, oulsido il.
|xIviij Ioi lho sovon-iayod Sun soo ny SynloIisn of lho
Dono, |nd. is|. "||q XI' (1938), 7-9, and U8. 1.28,29. Cf. nolo
21. This palloin, again is ono c aInosl voiIdvido disliilulion, il
is iopiosonlod, foi oxanpIo, in lho sovon gifls of lho Spiiil and
ly lho sovon oyos of lho Lanl, and lhoso of CuchuIIain. Nolo
lhal lho sovonlh and losl iay, passing lhiough lho conlio of lho
Sun-vhooI lo lioak oul of lho dinonsionod univoiso,
inloisocling ovoiylhing (Hoinos Tiisnogislus, |io XI.2.9) and so
luisling lhiough lho Sundooi, as Mai|ri Up. 'I.3O oxpiossos il
(foi lhoio is no appioach ly a sido palh), lisocls lho lhioo paiis
of conliaiy spaliaI dianolois, coinciding aIso, lhioughoul ils
oxlonl as Axis Mundi, voilicaI of lho Slauios, and 'odic s|anona,
il dividos aII lhings of lho iighl hand fion lhoso of lho Iofl.
This sovonlh iay, is lhon, piocisoIy lho piincipIo lhal is
iopiosonlod ly IhiIos (piolalIy Iylhagoioan) Sovoiing Woid
|cgcs |cncus, crcs, passin), and, accoidingIy, ly lho conliaI
and sovonlh Iighl of lho sovon-lianchod goIdon CandIo-slick,
vhich dividos and sopaialos lho lhioos, and coiiosponds lo lho
Sun allondod ly lho olhoi six pIanols crcs 215 f.).
Il foIIovs naluiaIIy fion lhoso Iucid foinuIalions lhal lho poinl
al vhich lho sovoiing Axis inloisocls vhalovoi pIano of iofoionco
viII lo lho Sun-dooi of lho ioaIn noxl loIov il, and so on
lhiough lho asconding hioiaichy of lho voiIds unliI vo ioach lho
capslono of lho cosnic ioof vhich is lho narncnq of lho vhoIo
odifico Pausanias IX.38.3, cf. lhiough lho hainony, Hoinos
Tiisnogislus |io. 1.14. 25), Iiko a gioal Ring ('aughn) oi
IIovoi (IaIi |anni|, soo S 50 (193O), 238-243), lhiough vhich
lho Way Ioads on lo lho IIain of Tiulh of vhich lhoio can lo
no liuo iopoil in loins of hunan spooch Pnacdrus 247C, cna
Up. 1.2-8, olc.). In olhoi voids, lho Sovoiing Logos is al onco lho
naiiov palh lhal nusl lo foIIovod ly ovoiy Hoio, lho Dooi lhal
ho nusl find, and lho IogicaI Tiulh and Highosl Spiiil of Roason
lhal ho nusl ovoicono if ho vouId onloi inlo lho oloinaI Iifo of
lho Iand Lasl of lho Sun and Wosl of lho Moon. This is aIso lho
Logos of Cod, lho lionchanl Woid lhal Iiko a lvo-odgod
svoid, sundois souI fion Spiiil co. I'.I2), sundois,
locauso vhoovoi onlois nusl havo Iofl hinsoIf (AchiIIos hooI, aII
lhal vas vuInoialIo in hin) lohind hin, oui sonsilivo souI loing
lho noilaI liolhoi and lho laiI oi appondago of vhich lho
Masloi Suigoons knifo ~ IsIanic DhuI-fiqi~ioIiovos us, if vo
aio piopaiod lo sulnil lo his opoialion.
|xIviiij Thal oloinaI Ioinl vhoio aII oui Iinos login and ond
(Ruyslioock, Tnc Sctcn C|cis|crs, Ch. 19), Danlos poinl al vhich
aII linos aio piosonl, Paradisc 17.17 , Moisloi Lckhails lho
poinl of lho ciicIo (Ifoiffoi p. 5O3).
|xIixj Il is nol foi you lo knov lho linos and lho soasons, vhich
lho Ialhoi halh pul in his ovn povoi (Acls 1.7).