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Fundamental Counting Principle: If there are m ways to do one thing, and n ways to do another, then there are m*n

ways of doing both. Notation: denotes the combination of permutation of objects taken at a time. Solve the following: 1. The president of a country and 4 other dignitaries are scheduled to sit in a row on the 5 chairs. If the president must sit in the center chair, how many different seating arrangements are possible for the 5 people? Solution: Although there are five people involved in the problem, only four of them shall be arranged, for the president must sit in the center chair. So, the number of arrangements for the remaining four people is . Therefore, there are 24 seating arrangements for the 5 people. 2. In how many arrangements can a teacher seat 3 girls and 3 boys in a row of 6 if the boys are to have the first, third, and fifth seats? Solution: If the boys shall take the first, third and fifth seats, the girls must take the rest of the seats since there are only three boys and three girls considered in the problem. So, the number of seating arrangements for the boys is . Similarly, there are ways to arrange the girls in the second, fourth and sixth seat. By the fundamental counting principle, there are seating arrangements for the students. 3. If a customer makes exactly 1 selection from each of the 5 categories listed below, what is the greatest number of different ice cream sundaes that a customer can create? 12 ice cream flavors; 10 kinds of candy; 8 liquids toppings; 5 kinds of nuts; With or without whip cream Solution: Basically, the problem can be solved using the fundamental counting principle. There are 12 ice cream flavors, 10 kinds of candy, 8 liquids toppings, 5 kinds of nuts, and 2 options for the whip cream to choose from. So, there are ways to have an ice cream sundae. 4. From a class consisting of 12 computer science majors, 10 mathematics majors, and 9 statistics major, a committee of 4 computer science majors, 4 mathematics majors, and 3 statistics majors is to be formed. How many distinct committees are there? Solution: In the problem, the order of how the individuals are placed in the committee is not important; that is, it is not important who will be assigned first in the committee. There are ways to choose the computer science majors, ways to choose the mathematics majors, and ways to choose the statistics majors. So, by the fundamental counting principle, there are distinct committees can be formed. objects taken at a time, while denotes the

5. Given a selected committee of 8, in how many ways, can the members of the committee choose a president, vice president, and secretary if no member can hold more than one position? Solution: Since the committee has 8 members, there are 8 ways that a position can be taken. After which, only the 7 remaining members can take the next position. So, there are 7 ways that the next position can be taken. Note that only the 6 remaining members can take the last position, after the first 2 positions have been taken. Thus, there are 6 ways that the last position can be taken. By the fundamental counting principle, there are ways that the 3 positions can be taken if no member can hold more than one position. 6. How many four-digit numbers can you form using ten numbers - 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, if the numbers can be used only once? Solution: We shall use the argument to solve problem #5. The first digit can be chosen in 10 different ways. After the first digit was chosen, the 9 remaining numbers can be the second digit; so, the second digit can be chosen in 9 ways. Next, the 8 remaining numbers can be the third digit; thus, the third digit can be chosen in 8 ways. Finally, the 7 remaining numbers can be the last digit; hence, the last digit can be chosen in 7 ways. Therefore, by the fundamental counting principle, there are ways to form the fourdigit number satisfying the condition above. 7. A three-person committee must be chosen from a group of 7 professors and 10 graduate students. If at least one of the people on the committee must be a professor, how many different groups of people could be chosen for the committee? Solution: Again, we shall use the argument to solve #5. Suppose that the first position in the committee is to be taken by a professor. So, the first position can be taken in 7 different ways. After the first position was taken, the 16 remaining individuals can take the next position without violating the imposed condition, since the first position was taken by a professor. Thus, there are 16 ways that the second position can be taken. The 15 remaining individuals can take the last position; thus, there are 15 ways that the third position can be taken. Therefore, by the fundamental counting principle, there are different groups can be formed. 8. How many 3 digits number can be made from 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6? Solution: Since there is no imposed condition about the construction of the 3-digit number, there are ways to form the 3-digit number. 9. Find the number of possible permutations of 4 letters ABCD taken all at the same time. Solution: Again, there is no imposed condition about the permutations of the letters. So, there are possible permutations of the letters ABCD.

10. How many line segments of 2 points can be made out 6 points? Solution: Note that order of the points in the line segment is not important; that is, if A and B are the points of the segment , the segment is the same as the segment . So, there are 11. How many possible permutations can we make out of 4 letters by taking 2 letters at a time? Solution: possible permutations

12. In how many ways can 6 trees be planted in a circle? Solution: To arrange the 6 trees in a circle, a tree must be fixed while the other trees can be permutated. So, there are ( ways to arrange the trees in a circle. ) 13. If the permutation of the word WHITE is selected at random, find the probability that the permutation a. Begins with a consonants b. Ends with a vowel

c. Has the consonants and vowel alternating Solution: Since the letters of the word WHITE are distinct, there are permutations of the word. a. Note that three of the letters are consonant. If the first letter of the word must be a consonant, the first letter can be arranged in 3 ways. After which, four letters remain. Thus, there are 4 ways to arrange the next letter. Then, three letters remain. Hence, there are 3 ways to arrange the next letter. Continuing the argument, by fundamental counting principle, there are permutations of the word if the word must begin with a consonant. Therefore, the probability that the permutation begins with a consonant is b. Instead of starting at the first letter of the word, we can start filling out the last letter, and proceed. Using the argument in (a), there are permutations of the word if the word must end with a vowel. Therefore, the probability that the permutation ends with a vowel is c. The problem is the same as saying that the first, third and last letters of the word are consonant, while the rest of the letters are vowels. So, there are 3, 2, and 1 ways to arrange the first, third, and last letters, respectively. Similarly, there are 2 and 1 ways to arrange the second and fourth letters, respectively. Thus, by fundamental counting principle, there are permutations of the word if it has the consonants and vowel alternating. Therefore, the probability that the permutation has the consonants and vowel alternating is

14. Given the value of the following as follows: Population Mean=81.33 Standard Deviation=16.72

Determine the standard score of: a. The %s of the scores below and above 78. b. The %s of the scores above 91 and below 75. c. The % of the scores above 65. d. The % of the scores below 35. e. The % of the score that are exactly 79. Solution: Recall that the standard score z is given by

where x is the raw score, is the population mean and is the population standard deviation. Using this formula, a. b. c. d. (Note: I answered this number based on what I understand on the question) 15. A bag contains 6 black, 7 white, and 8 green balls. In how many ways can we select groups of balls where each group consist of: a. b. c. d. 4 black or 4 white balls; 4 black and 4 white balls; 4 balls all of the same color; 4 balls of each color? and

(Note: I cannot answer this question because I cannot understand it.)