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History of EMI

• 1930
– RIV and RFI as “black magic”

EMI, EMC and ESD • 1940


– Military needs; RFI Æ EMI

• 1950-1970
– Commercial and private industry
– Standards for instrumentation and
measurement methods

History of EMI
What is EMI
• Electromagnetic Interference
• 1980 • Can cause malfunction to equipment or
– Japan: international standardization system

• 1990
– Worldwide standardization
– Automation of EMC testing

Sources of EMI Types of EMI


• According to Mode of Travel
EMI
– Radiated
– Conducted
• According to Frequency Characteristic
Natural Man-Made
– Narrowband
– Broadband
• Random
Terrestrial Non-Terrestrial Intentional Unintentional • Impulse

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EMI Instances EMI Hazards to Humans
Cell phones interfering with TV or audio • Occupational Protective Measures
equipment – Determine RF levels
– Place warning signs
• Car radio humming when driving near
– Fence off hazardous areas
power lines – Turn off RF source for maintenance work
• EMI is everybody’s concern – Wear protective apparel
– Use shielding
– Perform tests and experiments in screen rooms
– Give medical attention

EMI Hazards to Humans

EMC

Limiting Values of Electromagnetic Radiation

What is EMC? EMC Perspective


• EMC • Before
– Electromagnetic Compatibility – “after the fact” attitude
– the ability of a device, equipment, or system
to function satisfactorily in its electromagnetic
• Recommended
environment without introducing intolerable
electromagnetic disturbances to anything in – In manufacturing stage or early design
that environment. stages

http://www.ewh.ieee.org/soc/emcs/chapters/centraltexas/what_is_emc.htm

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EMC Design Techniques

• Proper shielding
• Bonding EMC Aspects for Components
• Packaging and Circuits
• Filtering
• Isolation
• Secure Interconnection

Introduction Introduction

• Vacuum Tubes
– Insensitive to • Effects of EM energy
extraneous EM on solid state devices:
radiation – Interference
– Permanent
• VLSI degradation to
catastrophic failure
– Devices and circuits
affected by EM
energy

Connecting Wires and


Types of Failures their Behavior

• Resistance and Internal


• Permanent Degradation Inductance
– Skin effect
• Catastrophic Failure
• External Inductance
– Bond Wire Melt
and Capacitance of
– Metallization Damage Parallel Wires
– Junction Damage – If separated sufficiently,
currents are uniformly
distributed

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Connecting Wires and
their Behavior Advantages of SMT
• PCB lands • Decrease of length of
– Land cross-section attachment lead
• Low frequency: uniform current
• Speeds automated
• High frequency: outer surface
attachment
• Internal inductance: neglected
• External inductance: same as wires • Increase number of
components
• Effect of Component Lead • Double-sided
– Discrete Lead Attachment soldering of
– Surface Mount Technology (SMT) components

Passive Components
Capacitor Types
• Electrolytic
– Not for frequencies higher than 25 kHz
• Capacitor
• Paper and Mylar
– At frequencies higher than resonant freq.
– Lesser series resistance
• Inductive reactance
• Increase in impedance
– Used at medium frequencies (MHz)

• Mica and Ceramic


– Used at high frequencies (up to 500
MHz)

Passive Components
Capacitor Types
• Polysterene • Inductors
– Closest to ideal – Categorized according to core
• Air core or Open Magnetic core
• Closed Magnetic core
• Feed thru capacitors
– Shielding
– Increase resonant frequency
• Low resistance shield
– Has low inductance: may be used in high • At high frequencies: prevent magnetic flux
frequencies passage
• At low frequencies: higher permeability and stable
wrt time, temperature and voltage

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EMC in Electronic Products EMC in Electronic Products
Product Development • Concept Phase
– EMC Trend Analysis
Concept Phase
– EMC Prediction
– Proposal for EMI reduction
Definition Phase • Arrangement of parts
• Adjusting limiting values
Development Phase • Performance requirements

Production Phase

EMC in Electronic Products PCB design practices for EMC


• Definition Phase • Multilayer PCB
– EMC system analysis Signal Layer
– Layout EMC measures Component Side Ground Plane
Clock Trace Layer
• Development Phase Signal Layer
– Continue Analysis Power Plane
– Test Plan Signal Layer

– Prototype
• Production Phase

PCB design practices for EMC


• Shorten trace distances
• Power distribution High Power Microwave
• Minimize component leads Interaction and its Effects
• Group circuits accdg. to speed
• Clock signal
• Grounding
• PCB design tools (CadStar, EMIStream)

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What is HPM? HPM Interaction
• HPM=High Power • Highly dependent on the
Microwave following:
• High power pulses – Characteristics of the wave
greater than 100MW – Characteristics of the system
– Characteristics of the
• Narrow band propagating media
• Center Frequency • HPM impinges on a system
between 500MHz to a as a uniform plane wave
tens of GHz

Description of Interaction HPM Penetration

• Mathematical modeling is very complex • Front Door = coupling


at antenna
• Approximated as an LTI system
– Small signal analysis • Back Door = Coupling
– Linearity to failure
through “leaks” through
apertures and seams
• Makes the concept of impedance and
in the closures
transfer function applicable

Devices susceptible to functional


Electronics Effects
damage
• Depends on the electronic signals for
• Active electronic devices
operation
– High frequency transistors, IC, and microwave
• Burnout sensitive semiconductor diodes
components in electronic systems
• Passive electronic components
• Causes degradation – Low power, precision resistors
– Functional Damage = Permanent damage
• Semiconductor diodes
– Operational Upset = temporary impairment of
the system’s operation • Squibs and pyrotechnical devices

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Devices that are susceptible to
Semiconductor device failure
operational upset
• Absorbed microwave energy leads to excessive
heating
• Low power-high speed digital processing • Typical time for semiconductor to dissipate heat
systems 1microsecond
• Memory units • Pulse devices w/ pulse duration of 1 usec or less
are at high risk to HPM
• Protection and control systems
• VLSI devices are more susceptible to HPM
• Damage threshold levels for digital devices are
slightly lower than that of analog devices

Passive Device Failure Passive Device Failure


• Resistor failure • Inductive element failure
– Categorized by resistor type – Not impaired at a long term basis
– Energy dependent for pulse width between 10nsec to
50usec
– Impairments such as arc-overs or saturation
• Capacitor failure • Electro-Explosive Devices (EED)
– Tests are limited to types and component size – Most sensitive to ignition
– Some fail at levels as low as that of semiconductors – High safety requirements
– Failure mechanism is usually dielectric breakdown

Passive Device Failure Electronic Circuit/System Failure


• Transient protection devices • Depends on circuit function, operating levels,
and circuit type
– HPM energy is insufficient to affect them • Analog Circuits:
• Cable and connectors – HPM pulses can be interpreted as a fault current
resulting in breaker operation
– HPM has insufficient peak voltage to cause – Usually appears as noise
breakdown on their insulation • Digital Circuits:
– Discrete pulses result in errors
– Schmitt Triggers are triggered prematurely
– Memories are altered
– Counters may have wrong counts

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Protective Devices Diode based Limiters
• diode-based limiters (for low power)
• Gas discharge tubes (GDTs) and the
metal oxide varistors (MOVs) • Good response to
• hybrid-circuit technology transients
• Low power
capability

Gas discharge tubes (GDTs) and the


metal oxide varistors (MOVs) Hybrid Circuits

• High power
• Better power components for
the first stage
handling
capability • Fast transients
are cleaned up at
• Poor transient succeeding
response stages

EMC Requirements in VDU EMC Requirements in VDU Monitors


Monitors • Visual Display Unit (VDU)

• Human-to-Machine interface

• FCC, VDE, MIL-STD-461C

• Contribute to EMI problems in any PC system

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PC PC
• Processor Unit

• Keyboard

• VDU monitor

• Floppy disk drive

Noise sources in a personal computer


• Hard disk drive

PC PC

• Crystal derived oscillators and/or frequency division circuits In general,


• Integrated circuits of different families like TTL, CMOS etc,
with fast transition times (rise & fall time) • Processor unit
• Floppy Disk Drives
• High voltage electron beam deflection circuits in VDU • Hard Disk Drives
• Power Supply
• Linear/switched-mode power supplies

• Analog circuits
• VDU monitor as noise source

• Radiations from keyboard are negligible

Video Display Unit Video Display Unit

• Provides the viewing and monitoring facilities in any PC

• Monochrome, CGA, EGA, VGA, Multisync colour monitors,


etc.

• CGA

• EGA
Basic Block Diagram of a VDU
• VGA

• Multisync colour monitors

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Sources of EMI in a VDU Magnetic Field Effect on VDU

1. EMI due to associated electronic circuits within a VDU • Effect due to magnetic fields is more
and its predominant
power and interface cables to the Processor

2. EMI due to CRT alone

1.a Video signal contributed to broadband EM


radiations

1.b Type of VDUs and their resolution

2.a Clock Signals

Electronic Packaging for better


Electronic Packaging for better Electromagnetic Compatibility
Electromagnetic Compatibility • Electronic Packaging – Importance to
EMC

• Printed Circuit Board

• Grounding, Shielding, Bonding

Electronic Packaging – Importance to EMC

• Process of translation of conceptional product into an


engineering realisation through several processes
• Component mounting on PCBs
• Grouping of PCB into modules
• Interconnection of modules
• Integrating modules into sub-assemblies
• Assemblies
• Equipments and Systems
Printed Circuit Board

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Selection of Component Component mountings on PCBs

• Adequate Immunity to withstand EMI-induced • Improper mounting may cause the leads of the
voltage or current components behave undesirably causing EMC
problems in non-transparent manner.

• Never use a device with higher speed than required


for specified performance • Separation between two leads of any
component should be adequate

• Immunity level of any component against external


EMI-induced energy

Physical Layout of PCBs Grounding Design for better EMC

• Physical separation would provide shielding against mutual • Maximum copper wire should be designated as
coupling between circuits operating on different frequency
bands ground

• Even interconnecting lines should be arranged


• Analog, Digital, and Power Grounds should not
• Location of transformers and inductors in adjacent boards be connected in series
should be carefully decided

• Use toroidal transformers • Mounting of filters used for EMI suppression


should be bonded onto the chassis
• EMI suppression filters should be place as close as
possible to the output of interfering source circuit

Grounding – an Essential Element of Packaging

• Single Point Grounding

• Multi-Point Grounding

Grounding, Shielding, Bonding

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Role of Bonding in EMC Packaging Shielding for better EMC

• Bonding scheme must be integrated into the design • Selection of shielding material is done keeping in
mind the type of interfering field
• Bonding must achieve and maintain intimate contact
between metal surfaces

• Surfaces should be smooth and clean

• Bonds should be protected from moisture and


corrosion

Impact of Reliability Requirements on


EMC Design of Equipments Reliability
1.
1.Refers
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tototal
totalenvironment
environmentincluding
including
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under
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conditioning state
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•• ESD
ESD
3.
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Toachieve
achievehigh
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MTBF,sustained
sustained
performance,
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requirescareful
careful
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of all aspects ofelectronic
electronic
design
designincluding
includingthe
therequirements
requirementsof ofEMC.
EMC.

Power Conditioning for


Reliability
Affect the reliable functioning of equipment: Surges
• High voltages surges and spikes – Can result in permanent damages to sensitive
solid state devices like high speed logic which
• Over voltage and under-voltages requires 1 to 10 u Joules for burn-out.
• Other impulses and noise on the power Spikes
supply mains
– Failures include data errors, memory wipe out
or alterations, system crashes, errors in
program execution due to program jumps,
wrong commands, etc.

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High voltage surges are caused Life cycle cost of
by: equipment
• Grid switching at power station
Will
Will increase
increase enormously
enormously ifif
• Induction of lightning on to the
initial
initial EMC
EMC design
design does
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consider the reliability
consider the reliability
highly inductive loads like motors, air- requirements
requirements over over the
the entire
entire
conditioners and operation of operational
operational life of the equipment.
life of the equipment.
electromechanical relays which kick back
large spikes on to the mains.

EMC design normally requires Integrated design should be carried out as


additional components like: an inter-disciplinary exercise with
participation of:
shields,
shields, filters,
filters, ferrite
ferrite beads,
beads, etc.
etc.

can decrease
MTBF if these
EMI components
are added
without proper Functional EMC Reliability Mechanical
care being Design Engineer Engineer Engineer
exercised Engineer

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Reliability problem with
Grounding & Bonding for grounding and bonding
Reliability
• Grounding (from an EMI view point) • Likely deterioration in ground impedance
– Required to reduce ground loop coupling. in the operational life of an equipment due
– For shields, isolation transformers and EMI
to environmental factors like humidity, high
filters.
temperature, salt spray and vibration.
Permanent bonds:
– Welding and brazing
Temporary bonds:
– Riveting or use of screws as this could result
in loose contact under conditions of vibration.

EMI Problems in Components


For high reliability: Affecting Reliability
• Surfaces to be bonded should be smooth, Electromechanical Switch
– If switch surface is not clean, arcing can take
clean and free from non-conducting place giving rise to broad band EMI.
finishes. Corona discharges
• Bond should be protected from moisture – In high voltage insulators which are contaminated,
can also create EMI problems.
and other corrosive elements by proper Oxidation of matting surfaces at connectors
coating and finish. – If not properly treated or loose matting of
connectors can give rise to non- linearities.
Reliable relays
– If not chosen chattering can take place leading to
EMI problems

EMI Measurement for


EMI Concerns for Implanted Devices
Reliability Assessment
• By measuring noise characteristics of • Pacemaker
various components. • Defibrillator

• Emission (CEO1) measurement of MIL-


STD 461B (frequency range 30 Hz to 20
KHz)
– can be used to measure noise characteristics.

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Safe to Use Keep distance!
• Electric toothbrush/razor • Cell phone
• Hair dryer • Cordless phone
• PDA • Power tools
• Kitchen/Household Appliances • Car engine
• PC • Airport security systems
• Most medical diagnosis equipment

Keep away!
• MRI scanner

• Magnetic mattresses and chairs ESD

What is ESD? Static Electricity


• Transfer of charge • Triboelectric charging
• Major cause of defects/failure – Contact and separation between two mat’ls
• Smaller, faster devices more prone – Depends on:
• Area of contact
• Static electricity • Speed of separation
• Relative humidity
• Resistance of material

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Damaging Effects of ESD Damaging Effects of ESD
• Memory or data loss in computers • Catastrophic Failure/Electrical Overstress
• Keyboard lock-up • Latent Defect
• Attraction of particles/contaminants during • Depends on ESD sensitivity of device
semicon manufacturing
• May cause EMI

Cause of Failure Cause of Failure


• ESD Events • ESD Events
– Discharge to the device – Discharge from the device
• Human Body Model (ESD STM5.1) • Charged Device Model (ESD STM5.3)
• Machine Model (ESD STM5.2) • Due to packaging and automation
– Field-induced charges
• Field Induced Model

Typical SE Voltage Levels ESD Device Sensitivity

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ESD Device Sensitivity ESD Control Principles
• Design in Immunity
• Define Level of Control in Facility
• Identify and Define EPA
• Eliminate and Reduce SE Generation
• Dissipate and Neutralize
• Protect Products from ESD

Controlling SE on People and


Some Standards
Equipment
• Wrist Strap • Grounding
• Floors, Floor Mats, Floor Finishes – ESD Assoc. Standard ANSI EOS/ESD 6.1
– ESD Assoc. standard EOS/ESD S8.1-1993
• Shoes, Grounders, Casters – National Electric Code
• Clothing
• Workstations
• Ionization
• Training

Some Standards Some Standards


• Identifying Problem Areas and Level of • Symbols
Control – ESD Association Standard ANSI ESD S8.1-
– ITT Research Institute/Reliability Analysis Ctr. 1993 — ESD Awareness Symbols.
– Suppliers
• Packaging
– ESD 11.31

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Electrostatic Discharge (ESD)
and Reliability
Causes damage, malfunction and error in
computer based systems:
• ESD
• Surges
• Lightning
• Other transients
Equipment malfunction include:
• Memory loss or alteration
• Corruption of data
• Keyboard lock-up, etc.

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