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MC0075- COMPUTER NETWORKS SET-1 2. Differentiate between LAN, WAN, & MAN?

LAN: (local area network) A group of computers that share a common connection and are usually in a small area or even in the same building. For example an office or home network. They are usually connected by Ethernet cables and have high speed connections. If it was a wireless setup it would be called a WLAN, which would have a lower connection speed. MAN: (metropolitan area network) This is a larger network that connects computer users in a particular geographic area or region. For example a large university may have a network so large that it may be classified as a MAN. The MAN network usually exist to provide connectivity to local ISPs, cable tv, or large corporations. It is far larger than a LAN and smaller than a WAN. Also large cities like London and Sydney, Australia have metropolitan area networks. WAN: (wide area network) This is the largest network and can interconnect networks throughout the worldand is not restricted to a geographical location. The Internet is an example of a worldwide public WAN. Most WANs exist to connect LANs that are not in the same geographical area. This technology is high speed and very expensive to setup. Notes: Wireless LAN is WLAN. At the moment a wired connection is still always high speed. Even though having a Wireless LAN is less mess with no cables, it compromises on speed.With new networks popping up all the time like 3G, GSM, and GPRS, the actual end user gets to connect directly to a WMAN which was unheard of. Most of these networks are mobile data standards that previously or still are used on cell phones. 2. Describe about the Physical & Data linkage?

MC0075- COMPUTER NETWORKS SET-2 1. Where is linear topology? The linear bus topology consists of nodes which connect to a terminated main linear cable (the backbone). The linear bus topology requires the least amount of cabling and networking equipment, making it the most cost-effective topology. However, the linear bus depends on the backbone being constantly available, making it a single point-of-failure if it has to be taken off-line or is severed. Linear bus topologies are commonly used in peer-to-peer LANs using co-axial (coax) cabling and 5093 ohm terminators at both ends of the bus. 2. What do you mean by packet switching? Packet switching is a digital networking communications method that groups all transmitted data regardless of content, type, or structure into suitably sized blocks, called packets. Packet switching features delivery of variable-bit-rate data streams (sequences of packets) over a shared network. When traversing network adapters, switches, routers and other network nodes, packets are buffered and queued, resulting in variable delay and throughput depending on the traffic load in the network. Packet switching contrasts with another principal networking paradigm, circuit switching, a method which sets up a limited number of dedicated connections of constant bit rate and constant delay between nodes for exclusive use during the communication session. In case of traffic fees (as opposed to flate rate), for example in cellular communication services, circuit switching is characterized by a fee per time unit of connection time, even when no data is transferred, while packet switching is characterized by a fee per unit of information. Two major packet switching modes exist; (1) connectionless packet switching, also known as datagram switching, and (2) connection-oriented packet switching, also known as virtual circuit switching. In the first case each packet includes complete addressing or routing information. The packets are routed individually, sometimes resulting in different paths and out-of-order delivery. In the second case a connection is defined and preallocated in each involved node during a connection phase before any packet is transferred. The packets include a connection identifier rather than address information, and are delivered in order. 3. Describe about the Guided & Unguided Transmission media? guide media is that where we use any path for communcation like cables(coaxial,fibre optic,twisted pair)etc. unguided media is also called wireless where not any phyisical path is used for transmission. Guided Transmission Media: The signal energy propagates within the guided media .i.e. through wires. It is mainly suited for point to point line configurations. The signal propagates in the form of voltage, current or photons. Examples of guided media are:=>Twisted Pair Cable =>Co-axial Cable =>Optical Fiber Cable

Unguided Transmission Media: The signal energy propagates through air. It is mainly used for broadcasting purpose. The signal propagates in the form of electromagnetic waves. Examples are:=>Microwave or Radio Links =>Infrared