Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 15

Module-6: Conservative & Non-conservative forces

6.1 Work Done by a Constant Force:



In Figure 1 a constant force F makes an angle Φ with the x axis and acts on a particle whose

displacement along the x axis is d . In this case we define the work W done by the force on the particle
as the product of the component of the force along the line of motion by the distance d the body
moves along that line. Then

W = [F cos Φ ]d , [1]

F cos φ
Figure 1: A force makes the block undergo a
displacement

In the terminology of vector algebra we can write [1] as



W = F.d , [2]

where the dot indicates a scalar [or dot] product.


Work can be positive or negative. If the particle on which a force acts has a component of motion
opposite to the direction of the force, work done by that force is negative.
6.2 Work Done by a Variable Force – One Dimensional Case:

We consider first a force F that varies in magnitude only. Let the force be given as a function of
position F(x) and assume that the force acts in the x-direction. Suppose a body is moved along the x-
direction by this force. What is the work done by this variable force in moving the body from x1 to x2?
In Figure 2 we plot F versus x. We can write the total work done by F in displacing a body from x1 to x2
as
x2

W12 = ∫ F ( x)dx , [3]


x1
F(X)

X1 X2
Figure 2: Work done by a Variable Force

As an example, consider a spring attached to a wall. The work done by the applied force in stretching
the spring so that its endpoint moves from x1 to x2 is

1
x2 x2
1 2 1 2
W12 = ∫ F ( x)dx = ∫ (kx)dx = kx 2 − kx1
x1 x1
2 2

If we let x1=0 and x2=x, we obtain


x
1 2
W = ∫ (kx)dx = kx , [4]
0
2

y

 F φ
F b
∆r
φ

∆r
a

x
0

Figure 3: F and φ change along a path.

6.3 Work Done by a Variable Force – Two Dimensional Case:



The force F acting on a particle may vary in direction as well as in magnitude, and the particle may

move along a curved path as shown in Figure 3. Figure 3 shows the value of angle φ between F and
 
∆ r at two locations. We can find the work done on the particle during a displacement ∆ r from
 
dW = F . ∆ r = F cos φ ∆ r , [5]

The work done by the variable force F as the particle moves, say, from a to b is found from

b 
 b
Wab = ∫ F . d r = ∫ F cos φ dr , [6a]
a a

We cannot evaluate this integral in until we are able to say how F and φ in Eq. [6a] vary from point to
point along the path; both are functions of the x- and y-coordinates of the particle in Fig. 3.
 
We can obtain another equivalent expression for Eq. [6a] by expressing F and d r in terms of their
       
components. Thus F = i F x + j F y and d r = i dx + j dy ; so, F .d r = F x dx + F y dy .

Then we can write [6a] as


b


W ab = [ Fx dx + F y dy ] ,
a
[6b]

As an example of a variable force consider the case of a simple pendulum and evaluate [6b]. Figure 4
 
shows the forces acting on the particle m. The applied force is F , T is the tension in the cord and

m g is the weight of the particle.

The work done as the mass m moves from φ = 0 to φ = φ0 under the action of the force F is

2
φ =φ0 φ =φ0
 
W= ∫
φ =0
F.d r = ∫ F cos φ d r ,
φ =0
[7a]

T y
Or

x =( l −h ) tan φ0 , y =h φ
W = ∫[ F dx + F
x =0 , y =0
x y dy ] ,
direction
y of dr
[7b]
φ
Let us evaluate [7b]. From Fig. [4b]
F
Fx = T sin φ and mg = T cos φ

Eliminating T between these relations


(b)
gives us

Fx = mg tan φ
φ0 mg
We also note from Fig. [4b] that φ
F y = 0 . Substituting these values for l

Fx and F y into [7b], yields

x =( l − h ) tan φ0 , y = h
dr
W= ∫ mg tan φ dx
x =0, y =0 φ dy
h

dx
Now from Fig.[4a] we see
tan φ = dy / dx , or tan φ dx = dy . With
O x
(a)
the help of this, we can write the
y =h
Figure 4: Dynamics of a simple pendulum.
above equation as W = ∫ mgdy = mgh .
y =0

One can also compute the work done in displacing the particle along the arc with constant speed by
applying a force that is always directed along the arc. Here it will be simpler to work with Eq. [7a]
using the tangential force and taking dr = Rdφ.

Now

F = Fx2 + F y2 = Fx = mg tan φ and dr = Rdφ

φ0 φ0

∫ ∫
W = [mg tan φ ][cos φ ][ Rdφ ] = mgR sin φ dφ = mgR[1 − cos φ 0 ] = mgh
0 0

Where we have used the fact that R[1 − cos φ 0 ] = h .

Notice that both these results are the same as the work that would be done in raising a mass m
vertically through a height h.
6.4 Kinetic energy and the work - energy theorem:
So far we have dealt with unaccelerated objects. In such cases the resultant force acting on the object

is not zero. Let us first consider the case of a constant resultant force F . Such a force acting on a

particle of mass m will produce an acceleration “ a ”. Let us choose the x-axis to be in the common

3
 
direction of F and a . Let vi and vf be the speed of the particle at t = 0 and t = t respectively. Then we
can write

v f − vi v f + vi
a= and x = .t
t 2

Then the work done is

v f − vi v f + vi 1 1
W = Fx = ma x = m[ ][ ]t = m v 2f − m v i2 = K f − K i , [8a]
t 2 2 2

This equation shows that the work done by the resultant force acting on a particle is equal to the
change in the kinetic energy of the particle.
Let us now consider the case where the resultant force vary in magnitude but not in direction. Take
the displacement to be in the direction of the force which is along the x-axis. Work done by the
resultant force in displacing the particle from xi to xf is
xf
 

W = F .d r = ∫ Fdx
xi

We can write acceleration a as

dv dv dx dv
a= = . = v.
dt dx dt dx

Hence
xf xf vf
dv 1 1
∫ Fdx = ∫ ∫ mvdv = 2 mv
2
W= mv dx = f − mv i2 = K f − K i = ∆K , [8b]
dx 2
xi xi vi

which is the work – kinetic energy theorem.


It may be pointed out that the work – kinetic energy theorem holds whether the net force is constant or
variable.
Notice that when the speed of the particle is constant, there is no change in kinetic energy and the
work done by the resultant force is zero. With uniform circular motion, for example, the speed of the
particle is constant and the centripetal force does no work on the particle.
If the kinetic energy of a particle decreases, the work done on it by the resultant force is negative. The
displacement and the component of the resultant force along the line of motion are oppositely
directed. The work done on the particle by the force is the negative of the work done by the particle on
whatever produced the force. This is a consequence of Newton’s third law of motion. Hence Eq. [8]
can be interpreted to say that the kinetic energy of a particle decreases by an amount just equal to the
amount of work which the particle does.
6.5 The meaning of Kinetic Energy:
Suppose a particle starts from rest. Then its initial kinetic energy Ki is zero. In this case, we can write
Eq. [8] as

W = K f −0 = K f

So the kinetic energy of a particle is equal to the total work that was done to accelerate it from rest to
its present speed.
Consider the case of a hammer-head that is dropped from rest and its kinetic energy is used to drive
some object into the ground. Here the kinetic energy of the hammer-head is used to do work on the
object and drive it into the ground. This gives us another interpretation of kinetic energy: the kinetic

4
energy of a particle is equal to the total work that particle can do in the process of being brought to
rest.

6.6 Power:
The power P supplied by a force is the rate at which the force does work. Consider a particle moving
  
with instantaneous velocity v . In a short time interval dt, the particle has displacement d s = v dt . The

work done by a force F acting on the particle during this time interval is
  
dW = F .d s = F .v dt

The power delivered to the particle is then

dW  
P= = F . v , [9]
dt

The SI unit of power, one joule per second, is called a watt [W].
Consider a net force Fx acting on a particle in one dimension. The rate at which this force does work is
P = Fx v x .

Substituting Fx=max we have

P = Fx v x = ma x v x , [10]

Or

P
ax = , [11]
mv x

Thus for a constant power P, the acceleration varies inversely as the speed.

If we write a x = dv x / dt in Eq.[10], then

dv x d 1 dK
P = ma x v x = mv x = [ mv x2 ] =
dt dt 2 dt

Assuming that P is constant, and integrating over some time interval, we get
P∆ t = ∆K , [12]

So the time it takes an automobile or airplane at constant power to accelerate from one speed to
another speed is proportional to the change in the kinetic energy.
6.7 The case of automotive power:
The power requirements of a gasoline – powered automobile are an important and practical example
of the concepts developed in this chapter. Two forces oppose the motion of an automobile: rolling
friction and air resistance. Consider a car whose mass is 1251 kg. So its weight = 1251x 9.8 = 12,260
N. So the resisting force of rolling friction on a level road is

Froll = µr η = [0.015][12260 N] = 180 N

Here we have defined µr , the coefficient of rolling friction as the horizontal force needed for constant
speed on a flat surface divided by the upward normal force exerted by the surface. Typical values of µr
are 0.01 to 0.02 for rubber tyres on concrete.
The force of rolling friction is nearly independent of car speed.

5
The air resistance force Fair is approximately proportional to the square of the speed and can be
expressed by the equation

1
Fair = CAρ v 2
2

Where A = the silhouette area of the car [seen from the front], ρ = density of the air [ about 1.2 kg/m 3
at sea level at ordinary temperatures], v = the speed of car, C = drag coefficient that depends on the
shape of the moving body [ Typical values of C for cars range from 0.35 to 0.50].
For this car
Fair = [1/2][0.38][1.77 m2][1.2 kg/m3][v2=[0.40 N. s2/m2]v2
Power needed for the car for constant speed v is
P = Fforwardv = [Froll + Fair] = [180 N + (0.40 N. s2/m2)v2]v
From this expression, we can calculate the following results:

v [m/s] Froll [N] Fair[N] Fforward[N] P[kW] P[hp]


10 180 40 220 2.2 2.9
15 180 90 270 4.1 5.5
30 180 360 540 16 22

In a typical car engine, about 65% of the heat released from gasoline combustion is wasted in the
cooling system and the exhaust. Another 20% or so is converted to work that does nothing to propel
the car; this includes work done to oppose friction in the drive train and to run accessories such as the
air conditioner and power steering. This leaves only about 15% of the energy to do work against the
rolling friction and air resistance.
Burning one litre of gasoline releases about 3.5x107 J of energy. The available energy per litre is then
[0.15][3.5x107 J/L] = 5.3x106 J/L.
Let us now look at the fuel consumption in the 15 m/s case. The power required is 4.1 kW = 4100 J/s.
In one hour [3600 seconds] the total energy required is
[4100 J/s][3600 s]=1.5x107 J
and during this one hour the car travels a distance of
[15 m/s][3600 s]=54 km.

So the amount of fuel consumed in one hour


1. 5 x10 7 J
= 2. 8 L
5. 3 x10 6 J / L
Suppose the car can go from zero to 60 mi/h[27 m/s] in 6.1 s. The final kinetic energy is then
1 1
K = mv 2 = [1251 kg ][27 m / s ] 2 = 4. 6 x 10 5 J
2 2
The average additional power required for acceleration is
4. 6 x10 5 J
Pav = = 75 kW = 100 hp
6.1 s
6.8 Conservative Forces:
A force is conservative if the total work it does on a particle is zero when the particle moves around
any closed path returning to its initial position.
Another alternative definition of conservative force can be stated in the following way:

6
The work done by a conservative force on a particle is independent of the path taken as the particle
moves from one point to another.
To illustrate the idea of a conservative force, let us consider the following case:
When you ride a ski lift to the top of a hill of height h, the work done by the lift on you is “mgh” and that
done by gravity is “–mgh”. When you ski down the hill to the bottom, the work done by gravity is
“+mgh” independent of the shape of the hill. The total work done by gravity on you during the round
trip is zero independent of the path you take. The force of gravity exerted by the earth on you is called
a conservative force.
Now consider you and the earth to be a two-particle system. When a ski lift raises you to the top of the
hill, it does work “mgh” on the system. This work is stored as potential energy of the system. When
you ski down the hill, this potential energy is converted to kinetic energy of motion.
6.9 Potential – Energy Functions:
Since the work done by a conservative force on a particle does not depend on the path, it can depend
only on the endpoints 1 and 2. We can use this property to define the potential – energy function U
that is associated with a conservative force. Note that when the skier skis down the hill, the work done
by gravity decreases the potential energy of the system. In general, we define the potential energy
function such that the work done by a conservative force equals the decrease in the potential –
energy function:
  y
W = ∫ F. d s = − ∆U

Or
Path A
s2
 
∆U = U2 − U1 = − ∫ F. d s , [13a] 2
s1

For infinitesimal displacement, we have 1


  Path B
dU = −F. d s , [13b]
o x
Figure 5: Two paths in space connecting the points 1 and
2. If the work done by a conservative force along path A
from 1 to 2 is W, then the work done on the return trip along
path B must be –W, because the round- trip work is zero.
6.10 Gravitational Potential Energy Near
the Earth’s Surface:
We can calculate the potential - energy function associated with the gravitational force near the
 
surface of the earth from Equation [13b]. For the force F = −mg j , we have
     
dU = − F . ds = −[mg j ].[dx i + dy j + dz k ] = + mgdy
Integrating, we obtain

U = ∫ mg dy = mgy + U 0

U = U 0 + mgy , [14]

Where U0, the arbitrary constant of integration, is the value of the potential energy at y = 0. Since only
a change in the potential energy is defined, actual value of U is not important. We are free to choose
U to be zero at any convenient reference point. For example, if the gravitational potential energy of
the earth – skier system is chosen to be zero when the skier is at the bottom of the hill, its value when
the skier is at a height h above that level is mgh. Or we could choose the potential energy to be zero

7
when the skier is at sea level, in which case its value at any other point would be mgy, where y is
measured from sea level.

6.11 Potential Energy of Spring:

Another example of a conservative force is that of a stretched spring. Suppose we pull a block
attached to a spring from a position x = 0 [equilibrium] to x1. The spring does negative work because
its force is opposite to that of the direction of motion. If we then release the block, the spring does
positive work as it accelerates the block towards its initial position. The total work done by the spring
when the block reaches its initial position is zero independent of how far we stretched the spring
[assuming we did not stretch the spring so far that it was damaged]. The force exerted by the spring is
therefore a conservative force. We can calculate the potential – energy function associated with this
force from Equation [13b]:

 
dU = − F . d s = − Fx dx = −[− kx]dx = kx dx

Then

1 2
U = ∫ kx dx = kx + U 0
2

Where U0 is the potential energy when x = 0, that is, when the spring is un-stretched. Choosing U0 to
be zero gives

1 2
U= kx , [15]
2

When we pull the block from x = 0 to x1, we must exert an applied force Fapp= kx to balance the spring
force. The work we do is

x1
1 2
Wapp = ∫ kx dx = kx1
0
2

This work is stored as potential energy in the spring – block system.

6.12 Non-conservative Forces:


Not all forces are conservative. An example of a non-conservative force is kinetic friction. Suppose
you push a box around some closed path on a rough table so that the box ends up at its original
position. The force of kinetic friction is always opposite the direction of motion, so the work it does is
always negative, and the total round-trip work it does cannot be zero. Another example of a non-
conservative force is a force applied by human agent. The work that you do in pushing a box around a
closed path on a rough table is not generally zero. It depends on how great a force you decide to
exert on the box. Thus, neither the force you exert nor the force of kinetic friction is conservative, and
no potential – energy function can be defined for either.
In the macroscopic world, nonconservative forces are always present to some extent, the most
common being frictional forces, which decrease the mechanical energy of a system. However, the
decrease in mechanical energy is found to be equal to the increases in thermal energy produced by
the frictional forces. Another type of nonconservative force is that involved in the deformations of
objects. When you bend a coat hanger back and forth, you do work on the coat hanger, but the work
you do does not appear as mechanical energy. Instead, the coat hanger becomes warm. The work
done in deforming the hanger is dissipated as thermal energy. Similarly, when a ball of putty is
dropped to the floor, it warms as it deforms on impact, and the original potential energy appears as
8
thermal energy. If thermal energy is added to mechanical energy, the total energy is conserved even
when there are frictional forces or forces of deformation.

A third type of nonconservative force is associated with chemical reactions. When we include systems
in which chemical reactions take place, the sum of mechanical energy plus thermal energy is not
conserved. For example, suppose that you begin running from rest. Originally you have no kinetic
energy. When you begin to run, internal chemical energy in you muscle is conserved to kinetic energy
of your body, and thermal energy is produced. It is possible to identify and measure the chemical
energy that is used. In this case, the sum of mechanical, thermal, and chemical energy is conserved.

Even when thermal energy and chemical energy are included, the total energy of the system does not
always remain constant. The energy of a system can change because of some from radiation, such
as sound waves or electromagnetic waves. However, the increase or decrease in the total energy of a
system can always be accounted for by the appearance or disappearance of energy somewhere else.
Let Esys be the total energy of a given system, Ein be the energy that enters the system, and Eout be the
energy that leaves the system. The law of conservation of energy then states:

E in − E out = ∆E sys , [a]

Law of conservation of energy


Alternatively,
The total energy of the universe is constant. Energy can be converted from one form to
another, or transmitted from one region to another, but energy can never be created or
destroyed.
Law of conservation of energy
The total energy E of many systems familiar from everyday life can be accounted for completely by
mechanical energy Emech , thermal energy energy Etherm, and chemical energy Echem. To be
comprehensive and include other possible forms of energy, such as electromagnetic or nuclear
energy, we include Eother, and write generally

E sys = E mech + E therm + E chem + E other , [b]

6.13 Potential Energy and Equilibrium in One Dimension:


   
For a general conservative force in one dimension, F = Fx i and d s = dx i , Equation [10b] can be
written as
 
dU = −F.d s = −Fx dx
The force is therefore the negative derivative of the potential – energy function:

dU
Fx = − , [16]
dx
We can illustrate this general relation for a block-spring system by differentiating the function
1 2 dU d 1 2
U= kx . We get Fx = − = [ kx ] = −kx
2 dx dx 2

9
Figure 6: Plot of the potential-energy function U versus x for an object on a spring. A minimum in a potential
energy curve is a point of stable equilibrium.

1 2
Figure 6 shows a plot of U= kx versus x for a block and spring. The derivative of this function is
2
represented graphically as the slope of the line tangent to the curve. The force is thus equal to the
dU
negative slope of the curve. At x=0, the force Fx = − is zero and the block is in equilibrium.
dx
A particle is in equilibrium if the net force acting on it is zero.
Condition for equilibrium
When x is positive in the figure, the slope is positive and the force is Fx is negative. When x is
negative, the slope is negative and the force is Fx is positive. In either case, the force is in the
direction that will accelerate the block towards lower potential energy. If the block is displaced slightly
from x=0, the force is directed back towards x=0. The equilibrium at x=0 is thus stable equilibrium.
In stable equilibrium, a small displacement results in a restoring force that accelerates the particle
back towards its equilibrium position.

Figure 7: A particle at x=0 on this potential-energy curve will be in unstable equilibrium because a displacement in either direction results in a force d

Figure 7 shows a potential-energy curve with a maximum rather than a minimum at the equilibrium
point x=0. Such a curve could represent the potential energy of a skier at the top of a hill. For this
curve, when x is positive, the slope is negative and the force Fx is positive, and when x is negative,
the slope is positive and the force F x is negative. Again, the force is in the direction that will accelerate
the particle towards lower potential energy, but this time the force is away from the equilibrium
position. The maximum at x=0 in Figure 7 is a point of unstable equilibrium.
In unstable equilibrium, a small displacement results in a force that accelerates the particle away from
its equilibrium position.

10
U

Figure 8: Neutral equilibrium. The force is zero at x=0 and at neighboring points, so displacement away from x=0 results in no force, and the system re

Figure 8 shows a potential-energy curve that is flat in the region near x=0. No force acts on a particle
at x=0, and hence the particle is at equilibrium; furthermore, there will be no resulting force if the
particle is displaced slightly in either direction. This is an example of neutral equilibrium.
In neutral equilibrium, a small displacement results in zero force and the particle remains in
equilibrium.
Example 1: In a television tube, an electron is accelerated from rest to a kinetic energy of 2.5 keV
over a distance of 80 cm. [The force that accelerates the electron is an electric force due to the
electric field in the tube.] Find the force on the electron, assuming it to be constant and in the direction
of motion.

Solution: W=F∆x=Kf –Ki = Kf = 2.5 keV.

Therefore, F=W/∆x =2.5x103 eVx1.6x10-19J.eV-1/ 0.80 m = 5.0x10-16N

Example 2: A force Fx varies with x as shown in the Figure 9. Find the work done by the force on a
particle as the particle moves from x=0 to x=6 m. Fx, N

6
Solution: We find the work done by the force by calculating the area
5
under the Fx-versus-x curve: 4

W= A =A1 + A2 =[5 N][4 m} +[1/2][5 N][2 m] = 20 J + 5 J = 25 J. 3


2

1 2 3 4 5 6
X, m

Example 3: A truck of mass m is accelerated from rest at t=0 with constant power P along a level
road. [a] Find the speed of the truck as a function of time. [b] Show that if x=0 at time t=0, the position

8P 3 / 2
function x[t] is given by x = t .
9m

Solution:

P
We can write Eq.[11] as vdv = dt
m

v2 P 2P 1 / 2 1 / 2
Integrating this Eq., we get = t ⇒ v =[ ] t
2 m m

11
dx 2P 1 / 2 1/ 2
Now v = ⇒ dx = vdt = [ ] t dt
dt m

2P 1 / 2 1 / 2 8P
Integrating this, we get ∫
x = dx = [
m
] ∫t dt = [ ]1 / 2 t 3 / 2
9m
17.5
X(t) = (3/2)(2P/m)1/2t3/2
15.0

12.5 P = 800 W
Distance, m

10.0 P = 400 W

P = 200 W
7.5

5.0

2.5
Example 4: Each of the two jet engines on a Boeing 767 airliner develops a thrust [a forward force on
the airplane]
0 of 197,000 N. When the airplane is flying at 250 m/s, what does each engine develop?
0 know 1P = Fv2= [1.97x10
Solution: We 3 5 N][250
4 5 = 4.93x107 W = [4.93x107 W/746 W] hp=66,000 hp.
m/s]
Time, S
Example 5: The force between two atoms in a diatomic molecule can be represented approximately
by the potential-energy function

a a
u = u 0 [( )12 − 2( ) 6 ]
x x
where U0 and a are constants. [a] At what value of x is the potential energy zero? [b] Find the force F x.
[c] At what value of x is the potential energy a minimum? Show that Umin= - U0.

Solution:

[a] The value of x at which U(x) is zero is obtained by setting u = 0 and this gives

a a a a
u 0 [( )12 − 2( ) 6 ] = 0 , or, [( ) 12 − 2( ) 6 ] = 0 .
x x x x
a a a
Solving for x, we get [ ] 6 = 2 ⇒ = 21 / 6 ⇒x= 1/ 6
x x 2
[b] The force between the atoms can be found from

dU 12 U0 a 13 a
Fx = − , which gives Fx = [( ) − ( ) 7 ]
dx a x x
[c] Set Fx equal to zero and solve for x. This will give x = a.

a a
[d] Set x = a in u = u 0 [( )12 − 2( ) 6 ] to get U = - U0.
x x

12
13
Problem Sheet of Module 6
1. If the magnitude of the force of attraction between a particle of mass m1 and one of mass m2 is given
by
mm
F = k 12 2
x
where k is a constant and x is the distance between the particles. Find [a] the potential energy
function and [b] the work required to increase the separation of the masses from x = x1 to x = x1+d.
2. The magnitude of the force of attraction between the positively charged nucleus and the negatively
charged electron in the hydrogen atom is given by
e2
F =k
r2
where e is the charge of the electron, k is a constant, and r is the separation between electron and
nucleus. Assume that the nucleus is fixed. The electron initially moving in a circle of radius R 1 about
the nucleus, jumps suddenly into a circular orbit of smaller radius R2.[a] Calculate the change in
kinetic energy of the electron, using Newton’s second law. [b] Using the relation between force and
potential energy, calculate the change in potential energy of the atom. [c] Show by how much the total
energy of the atom has changed in this process.
3. The so-called Yukawa potential
r0
U (r ) = − U 0 e − r r0
r
gives a fairly accurate description of the interaction between nucleons[that is, neutrons and protons,
the constituents of the nucleus]. The constants r0 = 1.5x10-15metres and U0 = 50 MeV.[a] Find the
corresponding expression for the force of attraction. [b] To show the short range of this force, compute
the ratio of the force at r = 2r0, 4r0, and 10r0 to the force at r = r0.
4. Show that when friction is present in an otherwise conservative mechanical system, the rate at which
mechanical energy is dissipated equals the frictional force f times the speed v at that instant, or
d
[ K + U ] = − fv
dt
5. The potential energy corresponding to a certain two-dimensional force field is given
1
U ( x , y ) = k ( x 2 + y 2 ) . (a) Derive Fx and Fy and describe the vector force at each point in terms of
2
its Cartesian coordinates x and y. (b) Derive Fr and Fθ and describe the vector force at each point in
terms of the polar coordinates r and θ of the point. (c) Can you think of a physical model of such a
force?
6. A shopping cart full of groceries sitting at the top of a 2.0-m hill begins to roll until it hits a stump at the
bottom of the hill. Upon impact, a 0.25-kg can of peaches flies horizontally out of the shopping cart
and hits a parked car with an average force of 500 N. How deep a dent is made in the car (i.e., over
what distance does the 500 N force act upon the can of peaches before bringing it to a stop)?
7. Two industrial spies sliding an initially stationary 225 kg floor safe a distance of 8.50 m along a
straight line toward their truck. The push F1 of spy-1 is 12.0 N, directed at an angle of 30 o downward
from the horizontal; the pull F2 of spy-2 is 10.0 N, directed at 40o above the horizontal. The floor and
safe make frictionless contact. (a) What is the total work done on the safe by forces F 1 and F2 during
the 8.5 m displacement? (b) During the displacement, what is the work Wg done on the safe by its
weight mg and what is the work WN done on the safe by the normal force N due to the floor? (c) The
safe is initially stationary. What is its speed v at the end of the 8.50 m displacement?
8. A 500 kg elevator cab is descending with speed vi = 4.0 m/s when the cube that controls it begins to
slip, allowing it to fall with constant acceleration a = g/5. (a) During its fall through a distance d = 12m,
what is the work w1 done on the cab by its weight mg? (b) During the 12m fall, what is the work W2
done on the cab by the upward pull T exerted by the elevator cable? (c) What is the total work W done
on the cab in the 12 m fall? (d) What is the cab’s kinetic energy at the end of the 12 m fall?
9. You apply a 4.9 N force to a block attached to the free end of a spring to keep the spring stretched
from its relaxed length by 12 mm. (a) what is the spring constant of the spring? (b) What force does
the spring exert on the block if you stretch the spring by 17 mm? (c) How much work does the spring
force do on the block as the spring is stretched 17 mm as in (b)? (d) With the spring initially stretched
by 17 mm, you allow the block to return to 0 mm (the spring returns to its relaxed state); you the

14
compress the spring by 12 mm. How much work does the spring force do on the block during this total
displacement of the block?
10. You ski downhill on waxed skis that are nearly frictionless. (a) What work is done on you as you ski a
distance S = 50m down the hill? (b) What is your speed on reaching the bottom of the run? Assume
the length of the ski run is S = 50 m, its angle of incline is θ = 27o, and your mass is m = 50 kg. (The
height of the hill is then h = S sinθ).
11. Two blocks are attached to a light string that passes over a mass-less, frictionless pulley. The two
blocks have masses m1= 3 kg and m2 = 5 kg and are initially at rest. Find the speed of either block
when the heavier one falls a distance h = 4 m.
12. A spring with a force constant k hangs vertically. A block of mass m is attached to the un-stretched
spring and allowed to fall from rest. Find an expression for the maximum distance the block falls
before it begins moving upward.

15