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A)CompareandContrastoneWesternphilosopherandoneEasternphilosopherviewsoropinionson thegoalsoraimsofeducation. AristotleisoneofthefamousWesternphilosopherwhowasknownforhisviewsonscienceand logicbutlessoneducation.Butanyhow,accordingtoAristotle,thegoalofeducationisidenticalwith thegoalofmanandallformsofeducationaredirectedtowardsthehumanideal.Tohim,educationis essentialforthecompleteselfrealisationofman,thatistobeahappyman.Thehappymanisan educatedmanwhoisvirtuouswherevirtueisacquiredthrougheducation InBookVIIofthepolitics,Aristotlearguesthatthreethingsmakemengoodandvirtuousare nature,habitandrationality.Itisunderstoodthatahumanbeingisborn(nature)withcertainqualities buthabitcanchangeapersontobegoodorbad.Humanshaveatendencytoactcontrarytohabitand naturewhenheorsheispersuaded(rationality)todoso.Whenoneisborn,onepossessescertain naturalgiftssuchasahealthybody,intelligenceandanaturaldispositiontowardsvirtue.Buttheseare notenough.Itisonlythrougheducationthatapersoncanbegoodorvirtuouswhichwillleadto happiness. OneofAristotle'sgoalsofeducationiseducationforleisure.

.Happinessissaidtodependson leisure.Leisureheremeaningtheabilitytoknowhowtouseone'stimefreelyor use it to do something useful. Otherthanleisure,anothergoalsofeducationisfreedom,forhappinessisimpossiblewithout education.Thefreedomheremeaningis,itshouldbeachievedthroughcontemplationorthe philosophicallife.Throughleisure,whichisanindicationoffreedom,educationshouldleadtoman's ultimategoal,anintellectualliferootedinthemind.Amancanonlylearnitthrougheducation.Itis thisformoffreedomthatleadstowisdom,alifedevotedtophilosophyandcontemplationthatistrue happiness. MeanwhileaccordingtoalFarabiwhoisoneofthefamousEasternphilosophersaidthatwhole activityofeducationcanbesummedupastheacquisitionofvalues,knowledgeandpracticalskillsby theindividualwithinaparticularperiodandaparticularculture. Thegoalofeducationistoleadtheindividualtoperfectionsincethehumanbeingwascreated forthispurposeandthegoalofhumanity'sexistenceinthisworldistoattainhappiness,whichisthe highestperfectiontheabsolutegood.Theperfecthumanbeing(alinsanalkamil),thoughtalFarabi,is theonewhohasobtainedtheoreticalvirtuethuscompletinghisintellectualknowledgeandhasacquire

practicalmoralvirtuesthusbecomingperfectinhismoralbehaviour.Heemphasisedthateducation shouldfocusontheacquisitionofvalues,knowledgeandpracticalskillswithinaparticularperiod.So inotherwords,moralityisthefundamentalobjectivesofeducation.AlFarabidefinesvirtuesasstates ofmindinwhichthehumanbeingcomesoutgoodandkinddeeds.Amongthevirtuesidentifiedbyal Farabiaretemperance(selfcontrolandnotindulgeinexcess),courage,generosityandjustice.These virtuesintheindividualmustbeinternalizedinthesoulsothatapersonisreadytoactuponthem. Ratherthanfindthesevirtuesburdensome,heorsheshouldearnestlydesirethemattractive. Anothergoalsofeducationisthecreationoftheidealcommunityorsociety'theonewhose citiesallworktogetherinordertoattainhappiness.Hearguesthattheoreticalandpracticalperfection canonlybeobtainedwithinsociety,foritissocietythatnurturestheindividualandprepareshimtobe freeifisimportantthatindividualsbepreparedatanearlyagetobecomeamemberofsocietyand reachtheirownlevelofperfection. Anyidealsocietyorcommunityisledbyleaders.Sooneoftheaimsofeducationisthe educationofpoliticalleaders,because'ignoranceismoreharmfulinmonarchsthanitisinthecommon people'.Theworkofthepoliticianshouldnotberestrictedtotheorganizationandmanagementof cities,inasuchasheencouragespeopletohelponeanotherinachievinggoodthingsandovercoming evil:hemustusehispoliticalskillstoprotectthevirtuesandpraiseworthyactivitiesthathehasbeen encouraginginthecitizenssothattheyarefreeoffailings. B)Comparetheiropinionsandviewsonwhatshouldbetaughtorthecurriculum. Toreacheducation'sobjectives,educationhastofollowaprogramlistingonwhatshouldbe taught.Aristotleindicatedhispreferenceforthesubjectsthatshouldbetaughtaresuchasgrammar, mathematics(especiallygeometry),drawing,science,moraleducation,musicandphysicaltraining. Aristotleelaboratedhisideasmoreonphysicaltrainingandonmusic.However,thereisevidenceto suggestthathesawtheimportanceoflanguageandperhapsliterature. InBookVIIofthePolitics,Aristotleemphasisedthatmusiceducationshouldbeintroduced onlyifitisforthesakeofimprovingoneself.Itisameansofinfluencingmoralcharacter.Heobjectedtothe learningofmusicinwhichthestudententertainsanaudiencewhichshouldbelefttohiredmusicians.He statedthatneithertheflutenoranyotherinstrumentrequiringabnormalskillshouldbemadepartof thecurriculum(Politics,VIII,6,1341a17).However,heemphasisthatmusicshouldbeongood

musicbecausecertainmelodiesandrhythmsareharmfultocharacter.Healsostatedthatmusic educationwasgreatvaluebecauseittaughtstudentslisteningskillsaswellbringsthempleasure. Physicaleducationorphysicaltrainingisimportanttokeepthebodyhealthy.ForAristotle physicaltrainingisnotsimplyamatterforthebody.Itmusthelptoformcharacter.Thepurposedof physicaltrainingisnottoproducechampionsbutrathertobringpleasure. Meanwhile,alFarabiconsideredtobethefirstMuslimphilosophertoclassifythesciencesand learningwithaneducationalobjective.AlFarabisuggestedthatlanguage,logic,mathematics,science andmusic,Islamicstudiesandartsshouldbetaughtinthecurriculum. ForalFarabi,thesequenceoflearningmustbeginwiththelanguagestructurelikegrammar,so thatthestudentcanexpresshimselfasdothepeoplewhospeakthelanguagebecausewithoutthis ability,hewillnotbeabletounderstandothersnortheyhim,andhewillnotdevelopproperly. Logic(mantiq)includesverbalexpressionandintellectualprocedures.Thencomesthe mathematicswherehedividedintosevenpartsthatarearithmetic(beginwithnumbersandproceeding tomeasures),geometry(useofgeometricshapestostimulateimagination),thescienceofoptics ,astronomy(studyofinstrumentsandobservationskills),music(makingandlisteningtomusical instruments),dynamics(eg.Momentum)andscienceofmachines. WithregardstothesciencesalFarabiarguedteachingthesubjecthavenomeaningunlessthey canbeappliedinpracticalreality.InIslamicstudies,heincludesonjurisprudence(fiqh),law(qanun) andacademictheology(kalam).Amongtheotheraimsassignedtoeducation,alFarabiincludes 'proficiencyinthearts'becauseinhisview,perfectionintheoreticalandpracticalartsisonofthe expressionsofwisdom;forthewiseare'thosewhoareveryproficientinthearts,andreachperfection nthem'. C)Your comments about their views. Afterlookingatthetwowellknownphilosophersontheirgoalsofeducationandthe curriculum,bothofthem,AristotleandalFarabi,havedifferentopinionsonthegoalsofeducation whereAristotlemorefocusedonhappiness,leisureandfreedomineducationmeanwhilealFarabi morefocusedonvalues,knowledgeandpracticalskills. Aristotle'sandalFarabi'sviewsonwhattobetaughtinthecurriculumaresimilarasbothprefer thesubjectsuchaslanguage,mathematics,arts,science,andmusic.Aswecanseethatthe ideas

(subjects to be taught) proposed by Aristotle and al-Farabi already included in our Malaysian school curriculum. The subjects should be included in the curriculum because this will enable the individual to learn the knowledge which will bring him or her to maturity in his or her feeling, in his or her judgement and actions and in developing a critical approach. In my opinion, all these subjects should betaught in schools as it will help the students to master the subject. For example ,language, a learner cannot communicate with others if he or she do not master the language because language or grammar is the foundation for all kinds of knowledge. Language also helps a learner to read as well as in writing.That is why language is included as one of the main subject in the curriculum until today. For mathematics, both, Aristotle and al-Farabi, emphasised on geometry because geometry comes after numbers (arithmetic).It is learn that the use of geometric shapes will help to stimulate imagination. Other examples of subjects which already included in the curriculum is music. Music subject is introduced for the sake of pleasure according to Aristotle and it is used widely in today's curriculum to achieved pleasure and listening skills as well for enjoying music among the learners. Arts or drawing also consider one of the aims to be taught in the curriculum until today as art is believed to help the learners to express to reach perfection in them. And according to them, science subject helps the learners to know the logic by doing experiments. The subject is meaningless if the learners can't applied it practically. So as conclusion, although Aristotle and Al-Farabi have prove that their goals of education are different, but there are similarity in their views on what should be taught in the curriculum. And until today there are a few of their views being used in the Malaysia school curiculum.