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LO1.Explain the values and processes used in health and social care research.

Research ethics committees have an important role to play in ensuring the ethical standards and scientific merit of research involving human subjects. There are three important obligations placed on the ethics committee. Firstly, and most importantly, the ethics committee must ensure that the rights of research participants are protected. This is achieved by ensuring that individuals receive sufficient information, which can be easily understood, and ensuring that appropriate strategies are in place to protect participants from potential adverse consequences of the research. Secondly, the research ethics committee has an obligation to society which provides the resources for research and will ultimately be affected by the results. Thirdly, the research ethics committee has an obligation to the researcher. The research proposal should be treated with respect and consideration. The research ethics committee should strive to meet each of these obligations. All researchers should welcome the contribution made by research ethics committees to the research process because they help to ensure that research meets the high ethical and scientific standards expected by society. Research now almost invariably requires the assent of an ethics committee, and with good reason. Review by an ethics committee provides independent scrutiny of a proposal. Far from being intimidated by such a prospect chaplains can view the process as an opportunity for constructive criticism that will lead to improved and more robust research (Tinker, 2001). Scrutiny provided by others who are independent of the proposal, including people who have considerable research experience, can help anticipate difficulties. Amendments can save time and anxiety later on and provide reassurance and so make the time involved in submitting a proposal for ethical review a worthwhile investment. An unfortunate and unintended consequence of the development of ethical codes and ethics committees is to have dulled the ethical awareness of researchers (Valentine, 2005; Dixon-Woods et al., 2007). The focus has shifted to meeting criteria rather than reflecting on a research proposals specific issues. The letter of approval from an ethics committee does not end ethical responsibilities of a researcher. Ethics continue to be ever present throughout the course of the study. Furthermore, committees and codes have limitations

Research involves many potential problems that, if they arose, would cause harm and distress to participants. Any research involving NHS staff or patients is required to be scrutinised and accepted by the NHSs own ethics committee, a process that involves addressing challenging questions. The chaplain will therefore take considerable time in thinking through how to proceed. Codes produced by many different learned bodies might be consulted (for example the British Sociological Association, 2002; Royal College of Nursing, 2009; and the Social Research Association, 2003) With the growth of research governance serious consideration has to be given by researchers and by research organisations to the use of human subjects review committees (also known as Ethics Committees, or Institutional Review Boards (IRBs). In some organisations and research sites, a formal ethical review must have taken place before researchers are allowed to conduct the research. Dilemmas of accountability and independence may have to be resolved when seeking permission from ethics committees. Ethics committees may serve more as a means of institutional protection than operating in the interests of either subject or researcher. Over-protective and bureaucratic procedures can pose a danger of restricting valuable, particularly innovative, social research methods. Medical or health service ethics committees may not fully understand the checks and balances of social research. To illustrate, there may be a difference over what precisely constitutes informed consent. The primary function of an ethics committee is to apply the sorts of ethical standards and principles discussed in these SRA guidelines, and to maintain some form of institutional memory for decisions taken and permission given. One key function of an ethics committee may be to conduct a Project Audit. Thus after approval has been given for the project to be conducted a follow-up process will confirm whether or not the project has been completed or abandoned or if there are any difficulties with the study which were not anticipated in the original application. Some commentators suggest that, since ethical decision taking may occur throughout the life of a project, ethics committees should maintain review of the project throughout and not consider their job as merely to cast ethical judgement at the outset. The evidence-based practice model is viewed by some as top-down, with the researcher pushing information to the practitioner, who then systematically and rationally appraises and applies it as appropriate (Webb 2001). Counter-arguments emphasize the potential of evidence-based practice to empower service-users by sharing research information and integrating service-users needs and practitioners expertise, ultimately ensuring that interventions make a positive difference to the outcomes of those who receive them (Sheldon 2001; Gibbs & Gambrill 2002; Haynes et al. 2002). Thus, while the notion of research as
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inuencing policy and practice through a linear process has been widely discredited (Howeset al. 2003), there is a growing interest in the notion of knowledge sharing, and the importance of building relationships with both end-point users and practitioners to strengthen the knowledge base. Lavis et al. (2003), for instance, describe three models of knowledge transfer and uptake: Researchers are responsible for transferring and facilitating the uptake of research knowledge(producer-push model). Decision makers are responsible for identifying and making use of research knowledge (user-pull model). Researchers and decision makers are jointly responsible for the uptake of research knowledge (exchange model). Another recent review assessing implications for social work of the promotion of research use in the health sector found no evidence of powerful effects for any intervention but saw potential benets from social marketing approaches tailoring interventions to specic barriers and workers attitudes (Gira et al.2004)

LO2 Conduct a piece of research in health and social care


Proposed Research Title: An investigation of the effectiveness of

communication in the social care setting with respect to LEE care home Research Background Health communication is a vital topic for research because everyone either interacts with health professionals, encounters health-related messages in the media, has suffered from a serious illness, or has experienced a loved one with a life-threatening or terminal illness (Sharf, 1993).Traditionally, health communication research has been largely quantitative and positivist in its orientation (e.g., du Pre, 1999; Vanderford, Jenks, & Sharf,1997). Health communication research historically has reflected a biomedical perspective that privileges the physicians perspectives and puts physicians (not patients) concerns at the center of the research (Sharf,1993; Thompson, 1994) Research Questions

The research questions that have been posed in this study will help in achieving the primary objective of the study which is the proposed research title. The research questions are as follows: What are the factors that can adversely affect the communication aspect with respect to the Lee care homes? Do the service users and the care staffs satisfied with the communication style in the Lee Care Home and what are the barriers in the communication process? What are the ways in which the Lee care home can improve it communication within the organisation? Research Objectives To evaluate the factors that are responsible for influencing the communication in the Lee care home To know the barriers affecting the communication between the service users and the care home staffs To recommend appropriate solutions to improve the communication process in the Lee care home.

Research Methodology Adopting the right research philosophy of the research programme is essential in order to proceed with the research or study (Saunders et al., 2007). For this study, the interpreter was research paradigms chosen as it helps established that human behaviour is different from person to person and can also different from organisation to organisation with respect to consumer behaviour. The emphasis on conducting an interpretivist research ensures that the study is subject rather than being objective(Saunders et al., 2007). Research Approach The research approach is adopted for the study is an exploratory inductive study in which a theory is developed after the analysis of qualitative data. The basic underlying concept of this study is to understand the cause-and-effect relationship as to why something is happening (Gill & Johnson, 2002). Since the sample is not likely to be representative of the entire population, a non-probabilistic sampling technique will be used. Additionally, since the
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research design of this study is a case study research design, the non-probabilistic sampling technique will perhaps be the best sampling method (Saunders et al., 2007). In this study, a mixed-methods data connection technique will be adopted whereby both quantitative as well as qualitative data will be collected and analysed. The reason as to why mixed methods data collection techniques are employed in the study is to improve the validity of the data that is collected through triangulation (Saunders et al., 2007). Additionally, it is argued that mixed method data collection techniques provide an in depth view (Saunders et al., 2007, p.147). The qualitative data collection method enables the research to empathise with the costumers or the sample for the study (Gill & Johnson, 2002). However, qualitative data is highly subjective and there may be discrepancies in the data collected. Hence, quantitative data will also be collected for this study in the form of questionnaire (Saunders et al., 2007). Sample Selection and Size Since the sample is not likely to be representative of the entire population, a non-probabilistic sampling technique will be used. Additionally, since the research design of this study is a case study research design, the non-probabilistic sampling technique will perhaps be the best sampling method (Saunders et al., 2007). The sample size that will be chosen for this study will be about 50 to 100. The respondents are selected from the users, staffs and the family relatives within the Lee care home. Data Collection Methods In this study, a mixed-methods data connection technique will be adopted whereby both quantitative as well as qualitative data will be collected and analysed. The reason as to why mixed methods data collection techniques are employed in the study is to improve the validity of the data that is collected through triangulation (Saunders et al., 2007). Additionally, it is argued that mixed method data collection techniques provide an in depth view of consumer behaviour and consumer perception (Saunders et al., 2007, p.147). The qualitative data collection method enables the research to empathise with the consumers or the sample for the study (Gill & Johnson, 2002). However, qualitative data is highly subjective and there may be discrepancies in the data collected. Hence, quantitative data will also be collected for this study in the form of questionnaire (Saunders et al., 2007). The

questionnaire will be distributed through email, using the Survey Monkey website. Qualitative data will be collected by using group interviews and focus groups.

Ethical Considerations It has been noticed that many students fail to acknowledge the ethical considerations that surround the research topic (Saunders et al., 2007). The most common problem for ethical issues with respect to students is access to information from companies. In many cases it is seen that although student may have a very good research topic and research question, it may be impossible to get access to information from the organisation. However, in this case since the research is based on communication aspect and approaches the organisation from an outside-in perspective, access to information from the organisation is not required (Saunders et al., 2007). Additionally, the information is gathered from the sample will be kept confidential and no personal information or contact information will be revealed to anyone. Further, the information thus collected will be used in the study only for analysis and statistical purposes and none of the personal information will be revealed in the research. Also, the participants in the study will not be forced into participating and will also be given the purpose of the research. LO3.Analyse and present findings of the research.

The analysis of the research is done in this section. The data is analyzed with the help of the survey questionnaire and secondary data analysis. By data analysis the researcher will try to find out the answers to the research questions. The primary data is collected with the help of the survey questionnaires. The survey questionnaire was administered to the service users, staffs and management to collect the information. The survey questionnaire was consisting of ten questions and questionnaire was used as a survey questionnaire. The questionnaire was administered to 45 respondents through the email and only 30 respondents replied back and almost 60% of the respondents view was collected. The bar diagrams are used to interpret the data through the data analysis section.

4.2.1 STATEMENT (1)

The service users and the staff does not have any good communication with in the organisation Answer 1 2 3 4 5

Strongly Agree TABLE (1) 15 = 50 %

Agree

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

No View

6 = 20 %

4 = 13 %

3 = 10 %

2 = 7%

60 50 40 30 20 10 0

50 20 13 10 7

Stro Stro No ngly Agre ngly Disa Opin Agre e Disa gree ion e gree 50 20 13 10 7

Table 1

4.2.2 STATEMENT (2)

The language and the communication style acts as a barrier in the communication process Answer 1 2 3 4 5

Strongly Agree TABLE (2) 13 = 43 %

Agree

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

No View

8 = 26 %

6 = 20 %

2=8%

1 = 3%

50 40 30 20 10 0

43 26 20 8 3

Stron Stron No gly Disag gly Agree Opini Disag ree Agree on ree 43 26 20 8 3

Table 2

The staffs have a good communication style and skill to deal with the users Answer 1 2 3 4 5

Strongly Agree TABLE (2) 13 = 43 %

Agree

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

No View

8 = 26 %

6 = 20 %

2=8%

1 = 3%

50 40 30 20 10 0

43 26 20 8 3

Stron Stron No gly Disag gly Agree Opini Disag ree Agree on ree 43 26 20 8 3

Table 2

Semi structured questions A range of semi structured questions were asked through the interviews. The type of communication used by the organisation, and whether the staffs have any good communication skill in dealing with the clients and whether the patients are satisfied with the communication process or not. The potential barriers are also discussed in this section.
Findings and recommendations

The management and the staff have a proper range of communication both through the verbal and the nonverbal levels. But the staffs failed to communicate effectively with the patients. The organisation has to give training to understand the staffs how to deal effectively with the patients. The patients are not satisfied with the communication process in the care home. The organisation has to effectively deal with the patients and to make possible ways to satisfy their needs. The language and the style acts as a barrier in the communication process in the organisation. The organisation have to take care of this situation and have to make ways to mingle the carers with the patients and to make a proper communication environment in the organisation. According to the above research we could seen communication plays an enormous roll in health care sector .From the research we could also seen that communication failure may often occur due to various reasons .So it is very important for the staff to maintain a high standard of effective communication with in the work place .In order to improve the communication standards, the care workers should follow some key procedures and ethics .The care worker should make sure that he always gain the full attention of the service user before communication .If necessary the care worker can distract the service user in a very nice manner to catch their attention for communication .Always try to minimise the competition while communicating .The care worker should make sure that he always

explains what he is going to do on the client and for what reason he is going to do so. Care workers meet different types of people in different age during their day today business. According to professional ethics care worker should give equal respect to all the service users and should make sure that the service user is not treated like a child if necessary . The staff should always be professional and should never misbehave or abuse the client in any respect which is against ethics .The staff should never talk over the service users head if the provider has to talk about some illness to co worker, which the service user is struggling from they
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should do that when the client is not around .If any of the client has a disability the staff should observe their facial expressions and actions to understand exactly what they are trying to communicate. Allow plenty of time for the service user to pass the massage on to the staff. While communicating the service provider should try to use simple and short sentences. Once the staff received the massage from the client, he or she should make sure that they have understood it correctly

LO4 Evaluate the research carried out

Adopting the right research philosophy of the research programme is essential in order to proceed with the research or study (Saunders et al., 2007). For this study, the interpreter was research paradigms chosen as it helps established that human behaviour is different from person to person and can also different from organisation to organisation with respect to consumer behaviour. The emphasis on conducting an interpretivist research ensures that the study is subject rather than being objective(Saunders et al., 2007). The research approach is adopted for the study is an exploratory inductive study in which a theory is developed after the analysis of qualitative data. The basic underlying concept of this study is to understand the cause-and-effect relationship as to why something is happening (Gill & Johnson, 2002). Since the sample is not likely to be representative of the entire population, a non-probabilistic sampling technique will be used. Additionally, since the research design of this study is a case study research design, the non-probabilistic sampling technique will perhaps be the best sampling method (Saunders et al., 2007). In this study, a mixed-methods data connection technique will be adopted whereby both quantitative as well as qualitative data will be collected and analysed. The reason as to why mixed methods data collection techniques are employed in the study is to improve the validity of the data that is collected through triangulation (Saunders et al., 2007). Additionally, it is argued that mixed method data collection techniques provide an in depth view (Saunders et al., 2007, p.147). The qualitative data collection method enables the research to empathise with the costumers or the sample for the study (Gill & Johnson, 2002). However, qualitative data is highly subjective and there may be discrepancies in the data collected. Hence, quantitative data will also be collected for this study in the form of questionnaire (Saunders et al., 2007).
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RESEARCH METHODS Data are collected from different types of sources namely primary and secondary sources. Information that is already been collected by different researcher and is readily available is referred to as secondary information. Moreover, there are possibilities of unviable information or the feasibility of the data gathered is not guaranteed. Data collected from sources such as internet, company websites, journals, business hand-outs, and newspapers falls under secondary sources of information. On the other hand information collected from the mentioned sources are out dated it has limited scope of information leading to inaccuracy hence the researcher will use secondary sources as an assisting data for the information gathered through primary sources (Zikmund, 2000). PRIMARY DATA To carry out the research the researcher used primary sources to gather the information as the information collected will be feasible and updated as researcher will collect data in person. The researcher can carry out experiments, conduct surveys, interviews, case studies as well as observations to collect information through primary sources as the data collected in more viable, moreover the researcher will have to incur expenditure to use the mentioned data collected methods.

INTERVIEWS In this method, the researcher will ask questions to respondents in relation to their work place environment as well as personal questions which will be kept confidential, wherein, all questions will be asked considering the research questions and aims/objectives of the research. McNiff (2001), point out interview is very useful method to collect data as the researcher has direct contact with the respondent; moreover, there is a possibility of providing biased information while carrying out the interview. There are several types of interview which are as follows:Structured Interview consists of asking questions which are planned and systematically formulated, they are to the point and are direct questions, wherein a specific set of questions are decided prior to conducting interviews. One type of structured interview is telephonic interview wherein the questions are pre-decided.

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Semi-structured Interview consists of asking question which are not previously decided and it is subject to change while carrying out interview. Such semi structured interviews assists the researcher to gain in immense knowledge and understanding of the data collected. Unstructured or in-depth Interview consists of asking question which are not previously formulated, moreover the interviewer asks questions on the spot as per his understanding and need. JUSTIFICATION FOR ADOPTING SEMI STRUCTURED INTERVIEW Interviews are conducted to gather the primary data for this research. Interviews will assist the researcher to gain an in-depth knowledge from various employees as well as employers about the impact of mergers and acquisitions on their organisation, hence, acquiring different viewpoints from different staffs. Furthermore, researcher can generalise the results obtained from various people within the organisations. Thus researcher preferred to conduct interviews against conducting surveys or experimenting for data collection. It enables the researcher to gather information in more realistic manner and can attain information from shareholders about their acceptability and adaptability in the instance of mergers. Moreover, it helps the researcher to stay in contact touch with the changes that are occurring in organisation in the whole process of carrying research, wherein, personal point of views as well as perceptions of changes amongst the employees can be understood easily by the researcher. Researcher can make necessary changes in the interview process as he is also a part of changes that are occurring gradually within the organisations. In this research that is based on experiences, there are several other sources for data collection as per the necessity to attain the research objectives. Other sources which are referred to as secondary data collection are discussed below. SECONDARY DATA The data which has already been collected by different expertise on the subject matter are referred to as secondary data. Rugg & Petre (2007), stated this information will enable the researcher to support his findings done through primary sources to carry out this research. There are various types of secondary data namely; Documentary data which is also known as historical data, survey data as well as multiple data sources which consist of data gathered previously which will assist to carry out this research (Lewis, 2009). This information will be of great useful to the researcher to interpret the data collected in regard of communication aspect. Data collected through secondary sources consumes less time as well as it saves data
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collection expenses and supports the primary data. On the other hand, Wegner (2010) stated that, many a times it becomes difficult for the researcher to gather information from vast sphere of available data.

Ethical consideration refers to the moral values that are to be considered while carrying out the research. As stated by Saunders et al., (2007), research ethics refers to the consideration of the rights and values of the people who are involved or are the part of the research carried out. The researcher should appropriately consider these values and rights while carrying out research study. Moreover, all the techniques incorporated to carry out research are connected with ethical issues, but qualitative approach carries high ethical concerns as compared to that of qualitative approach of research. The researcher has to follow several ethics to carry out the study on this research subject. The information collected should be free from personal biases as well as the analysis should be done honestly and should be according to the code of conduct of the organisation. The information of one company should not be revealed to competitors. To generate authentic results the data collected should be genuine and honest with no domination of researcher. The information collected through different sources should be genuinely presented in order to derive valid results as it will serve as base for further decision making (Collis & Hussey, 2003).

References Gill, J. & Johnson, P., 2002. Research Methods for Managers. 3rd ed. London: SAGE Publications Ltd. Gibbs, L. & Gambrill, E. (2002) Evidence-based practice: Counterarguments to objections. Research on Social Work Practice, 12, 452476. Jobber, D., 2010. Principles and Practice of Marketing. 6th ed. Berkshire: McGraw-Hill Education. Kurtz, D.L., 2008. Contemporary Marketing. Mason: Cengage Learning. Saunders, M., Lewis, P. & Adrian, T., 2007. Research Methods for Business Students. 4th ed. Harlow: Pearson Education Limited.

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Haynes, R.B., Devereaux, P.J. & Guyatt, G.H. (2002) Physicians and patients choices in evidence based practice. British Medical Journal, 324, 1350. Howes, F., Waters, E., McCormack, J., Roberts, H., Sheldon,T. & Klassen, T. (2003) Australian Research Alliance for Children and Youth: Clearinghouse Feasibility Study Lavis, J., Robertson, D., Woodside, J., McLeod, C., Abelson, J. and the Knowledge Transfer Study Group (2003) How can research organisations more effectively transfer research knowledge to decision-makers? The Milbank Quarterly, 81, 221248. Sheldon, B. (2001) The validity of evidence-based practice in social work: a reply to Stephen Webb. British Journal of Social Wo r k, 31, 801809 Sharf, B. F. (1993). Reading the vital signs: Research in health care communication. Communication Monographs, 60, 35-41 Vanderford, M. L., Jenks, E. B., & Sharf, B. F. (1997).Exploring patients experiences as a primary source ofmeaning. Health Communication, 9, 13-26. Webb, S.A. (2001) Some considerations on the validity of evidence-based practice in social work. British Journal of SocialWo r k, 31, 5779.

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