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Energy is referred to as the basis of industrial civilization. Ancient people used wood as the major source of energy.

Certain other energy source, found only in localized areas, were also used in ancient times: asphalt, coal, and peat from surface deposits and oil in seepages from underground deposits. When occurred, these seepages were used for limited purposes - such as filling torches and heating homes. But the real exploitation of crude oil did not begin until the 19th century. The international oil industry can name its birthday almost to the hour. The date was Saturday, August 27th, 1859. On that day, at 12 noon , work stopped on a well being drilled by E.L. Drake at Titusville, a small Pennsylvanian town. The depth of the bore-hole at that moment was 69 ft. While inspected on the Monday morning, the well had 3 parts full of oil. This was the first well in the world that had been specifically and successfully drilled for oil production. In its shallow depth the international oil industry was born, and the way was opened for new concepts of living standards throughout the whole world. It should be said, the economy of many nations is influenced by petroleum industry. In developed countries it provides jobs for a great many people. In certain developing but oil-rich countries, petroleum export makes up most of the national income. Petroleum is also a source of political power for such countries because many other nations depend on them for fuel. Commercial oil production spread rapidly throughout the world as the worldwide demand for petroleum grew. Thus, the oil industry itself is more international than any other. Its operations span the globe. Oil is currently produced in nearly 50 countries in every continent and is being sought not only in those countries but also in others. The main oil producers are the countries of OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) as well as Russia, Norway, Mexico, Canada, and the USA. People engaged in oil industry have to study and to solve a lot of problems connected with petroleum. Generally speaking, these are: how petroleum was formed millions of years ago under the land and the sea; how we learn where to look for it; how it is brought to the surface; if oil resources will ever dry up; how oil is transported all over the world to places where it is needed; how it is stored and refined to be usable. The ever-increasing use of petroleum products, especially in developed countries, has helped raise the living standards of many people. But it has also resulted in some serious problems, which include the energy shortage and environmental pollution.
power, , forecast result in - - make up - drill- Hydrocarbon - Environment-, 2) : major -, :ever-increasing- : seek (sought, sought) crude oil, petroleum - : refinery -

-oil producers -almost to the hour environmental pollution: -specifically drilled -the depth of the bore-hole : -the economy of many nations -concepts of living standards -worldwide demand for petroleum -energy is referred to as the basis -oil seepages from underground deposits -commercial oil production -certain other energy sources -result in serious problems - generally speaking

living standard

to provide job

oil resources will dry up

currently

oil production

energy shortage

people engaged in industry ,

especially

oil is brought to the surface

surface deposits

to forecast reserves

oil-rich countries

fuel consumption

national income

to span the globe

1. Different hydrocarbon fractions (make, make up) petroleum. Large resources of oil and gas (make, make up) a country powerful and politically independent. 2. A flow of electrons is an electric (current, currently).

(Current, Currently) oil is being produced all over the world. (Current, Currently) financial crisis is being held around the world. 3. Oil and gas are important (sources, resources) of fuel. Oil and gas are the major natural (sources, resources) of energy. Siberia is rich in mineral (sources, resources) such as: oil, gas, gold and others. 4. The first (commercial, industrial) well was drilled in this region in 1980. Living standard in the developed (commercial, industrial) countries is high. (Industrial, commercial) nations should pay much attention to air pollution control. 5. The early wells were all drilled by the cable tool (- ) method in which a driller had to (raise, rise) and drop a heavy tool. Originally oil and gas (raise, rise) to the surface by means of reservoir pressure. 6. Oil industry has to (solve, decide) a lot of environmental problems. The engineers (solved, decided) to drill a well to the depth of 100m.

Read the paragraphs and arrange them in their logical order by matching the items on the right with the items on the left.

With the beginning of commercial oil production Russia was the first European country to feel the influence of oil development. While John D. Rockefeller and Standard oil were planting the roots of the petroleum business in the United States - two of Europe's most famous merchant families, the Rothschilds and the Nobels, won petroleum concessions in Imperial Russia.

Russias oil industry dates back to the 19th century. Oil seeps, particularly in the Caucasus regions, have been known for many years. Marco Polo reported seeing camel caravans carrying oil from Baku on the Caspian Sea in 1273 AD.

By 1880 the area around Baku on the Caspian Sea was producing much oil for Europe, and for the next 30 years the Rothschilds and the Nobels controlled Russian production.

By 1900 Russia was producing 75 mln bbl of oil from 1,700 wells (average depth 1,000 ft) on a 4-sq mile area on the Apsheron peninsula near Baku. At that time it made more than half the world's oil production. But oil production dropped severely following World War I and the subsequent civil war and revolution. Oil production began to rise in the 1930s, then decreased again during World War II.

The 60s of the last century are characterized by the exploration and development of the West Siberian resources. The Siberian giants, such as for example Samotlor oil field, were discovered and became the main oil producers. And gradually oil industry moved to the North and East of the country.

Until World War II the bulk of Russian production came from the Caucasus area. However, the Volga-Ural regions, which began producing in the 1930s, have rapidly surpassed the Baku fields. The new area, often called the "Second Baku", stretches from Volgograd to Perm. Production is piped through a large crude-oil network. Match the items on the right with the items on the left. This kind of energy can be stored for use, like water behind a dam (o). Then it can be transformed into kinetic energy which is the energy of motion.

Nature provides some heat energy directly from the earths interior. Only small amounts are being used today, but drilling (making) more holes may increase this form of energy.

The human body is an efficient thermodynamic machine that converts fuel into useful work by oxidation. It is the flow of energy from cell () to cell that differinciates the living from the dead.

Heat is the movement of molecules. Electricity is the flow of electrons. Radiation is the movement of subatomic particles. Mechanical energy (or work) is the movement of masses. Match the items on the right to the items on the left. Wood was used by ancient people as

Coal from surface deposits and oil from seepages were

Until the 19 th century oil

Drakes well was the first well

Living standard all over the world primarily depends

In developed and developing countries oil industry provides

In oil producing countries petroleum export

Oil industry activity spread

OPEC, Russia, Norway and some other countries

Petroleum specialists have

Petroleum industry raises serious problems such

As commercial oil production spans the globe

World demand for petroleum


specifically drilled :-) generally speaking:-) worldwide demand for petroleum:-) result in serious problems:-) commercial oil production:-) the depth of the bore-hole :-) almost to the hour:-) oil seepages from underground

deposits:-) energy is referred to as the basis :-) oil producers:-) to be usable:-) certain other energy sources:-) concepts of living standards:-) the economy of many nations :-) environmental pollution:-)

1. a) The first modern well was only 21 m deep. b) The depth of the first modern well was only 21 m. 2. a) Each drill pipe is about 9 m long. b) The length of each drill pipe is more than 9 m. 3. a) The gas column is approximately 80 m in height. b) The gas column is approximately 80 m high. 4. a) The Yamburg gas and gas condensate field on the Tazov Peninsula occupies the area of 170 km long and 45 km wide. b) The length and width of the Yamburg gas and gas condensate field are 170 and 45 km respectively. 5. a) Electric welding () is used for welding heavy metal parts which weigh more than 300 tonnes. b) The weight of rotor shafts () for electric generators is 350 tonnes. 6. a) The thickness of the formation reaches 30 m. b) The formation is 30 m thick. Choose one word out of the two given in brackets 1. Different hydrocarbon fractions make up (make, make up) petroleum. Large resources of oil and gas make (make, make up) a country powerful and politically independent. 2. A flow of electrons is an electric current (current, currently). (Current, Currently) Currently oil is being produced all over the world. (Current, Currently) current financial crisis is being held around the world. 3. Oil and gas are important resources (sources, resources) of fuel. Oil and gas are the major natural sources (sources, resources) of energy. Siberia is rich in mineral resources (sources, resources) such as: oil, gas, gold and others. 4. The first commercial (commercial, industrial) well was drilled in this region in 1980. Living standard in the developed industrial (commercial, industrial) countries is high. (Industrial, commercial) industrial nations should pay much attention to air pollution control. 5. The early wells were all drilled by the cable tool (- ) method in which a driller had to raise (raise, rise) and drop a heavy tool. Originally oil and gas rise (raise, rise) to the surface by means of reservoir pressure. 6. Oil industry has to solve (solve, decide) a lot of environmental problems. The engineers decided (solved, decided) to drill a well to the depth of 100m.

Choose one word out of the two given in brackets 1. Different hydrocarbon fractions make up (make, make up) petroleum. Large resources of oil and gas make (make, make up) a country powerful and politically independent.

2. A flow of electrons is an electric current (current, currently). (Current, Currently) Currently oil is being produced all over the world. (Current, Currently) current financial crisis is being held around the world. 3. Oil and gas are important resources (sources, resources) of fuel. Oil and gas are the major natural sources (sources, resources) of energy. Siberia is rich in mineral resources (sources, resources) such as: oil, gas, gold and others. 4. The first commercial (commercial, industrial) well was drilled in this region in 1980. Living standard in the developed industrial (commercial, industrial) countries is high. (Industrial, commercial) industrial nations should pay much attention to air pollution control. 5. The early wells were all drilled by the cable tool (- ) method in which a driller had to raise (raise, rise) and drop a heavy tool. Originally oil and gas rise (raise, rise) to the surface by means of reservoir pressure. 6. Oil industry has to solve (solve, decide) a lot of environmental problems. The engineers decided (solved, decided) to drill a well to the depth of 100m.