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MAN CNG Buses

MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG

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MAN CNG Buses

May 2009

MAN CNG Buses


Content

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

MAN CNG bus history Actual CNG bus & engines portfolio MAN CNG buses sales worldwide Actual CNG technology Concept Comparison New developments Advantages of CNG technology (compared to Diesel) Cost comparison Summary

MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG

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MAN CNG Buses

May 2009

MAN CNG Buses


Content

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

MAN CNG bus history Actual CNG bus & engines portfolio MAN CNG buses sales worldwide Actual CNG technology Concept Comparison New developments Advantages of CNG technology (compared to Diesel) Cost comparison Summary

MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG

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MAN CNG Buses

May 2009

MAN Gas Buses


History History

1943 - First MAN Gas Bus, Augsburg

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MAN Gas Buses


History

1972 LNG Bus for Munich Olympic Games

2001 CNG Bus for Zwickau, Germany

1988 SL 202 CNG Bus

2003 CNG Bus for Frankfurt/Oder, Germany

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MAN CNG Buses


Products

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Milestones in the Development of MAN Natural Gas Engines


E 2866 DUH01 E 2866 DF01 E 2866 DUH03 Euro 2-engines Euro 3-engine EEV-engine

naturally aspirated engines stoichiometric

E 2866 DOH01 turbocharged engines lean-burn lean-burn/mix

E 2866 DUH02

E 2866 LUH02

E 2876 LUH02

E 2866 LUH01

E 2876 LUH01

1990
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1995

2000
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2005
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MAN CNG Buses


Content

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

MAN CNG bus history Actual CNG bus & engines portfolio MAN CNG buses sales worldwide Actual CNG technology Concept Comparison New developments Advantages of CNG technology (compared to Diesel) Cost comparison Summary

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MAN CNG Buses

May 2009

MAN CNG-Buses and CNG-Buses with MAN-Natural Gas Engines

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MAN CNG Buses

May 2009

MAN CNG Buses


Content

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

MAN CNG bus history Actual CNG bus & engines portfolio MAN CNG buses sales worldwide Actual CNG technology Concept Comparison New developments Advantages of CNG technology (compared to Diesel) Cost comparison Summary

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MAN gas engines


Technology

MAN gas engines are based on the mass produced MAN Diesel engine type D 28 Most parts are identical to the Diesel engines especially the expensive ones as crankcase, crankshaft connection rods etc. Gas engines are dedicated engines with a lot of special features

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Engine cross section Gas engine Diesel engine

Otto-cycle Gas engine


Spark plug and special combustion chamber with lower compression ratio
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Diesel engine
Diesel injector and combustion chamber with high compression ratio
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Features of MAN gas engines I


Cylinder heads with armored valves and armored valve seats for low abrasion Optimized cylinder head cooling, especially good cooling of the spark plug Inlet valves with shaft sealing for minimized oil consumption Outlet valve guides made from special material with self lubricating quality for low abrasion Valve tappets with hard metal plates for low abrasion of the cams Special pistons and piston rings for low oil consumption Piston rings with special coating for low abrasion

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Features of MAN gas engines I I


Bearing shells for con rods and crankshaft with non abrasive surface Water cooled exhaust gas manifold for naturally aspirated engines Turbo charger with water cooled bearing house Turbo charger equipped with waste gate Engine management system Bosch Motronic GAS 1 Long life Platinum/Iridium spark plugs (60000 km) Exhaust gas aftertreatment with a three-way catalyst (at lean operation oxidation only)

Summary: the number of differences indicate it makes no sense to convert Diesel to CNG engines !

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CAN-structure of gas vehicles

ABS/ ASR

Accelerator pedal

Gearbox control

Driveline CAN

Vehicle management computer (FFR)


MASTER

Engine CAN

Motronic ME7-Gas1 engine management


SLAVE

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Components of the Engine Management System Motronic ME7-GAS1


13 1 5 2 12 4 16 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 11 8 9 10 11 3 7 14 6 17 12 13 14 15 16 17 Butterfly valve actuator Injection valves Control unit Phase sensor Speed sensor Boost air temperature sensor Boost pressure sensor Coolant temperature sensor Natural-gas pressure sensor Natural-gas temperature sensor Igniting stages Spark coils Hot film air mass sensor Knock sensors Proportional valve for wastegate Broad-band lambda sensors Exhaust gas temperature sensor

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MAN CNG Buses

Functions of the Motronic ME7-GAS1


Output control by means of electrically driven butterfly valve actuator and boost pressure control via waste gate control Fuel control using a completely electronic sequential gas injection system and an air mass measurement system Ignition control using a map transistor ignition system with open-circuit high voltage distribution Safety functions as self surveillance and diagnostic of sensors and actuators Engine starter control Lambda = 1 control for naturally aspirated engines by means of a broad band Lambda sensor Lambda = 1 or Lambda > 1 control for turbo charged engines by means of a broad band Lambda sensor Cylinder individual anti-knock control with the help of two knock sensors Idle speed filling control
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Gas Mixer Unit of the Natural Gas Engines E 2866 DUH03 and E 2876 LUH02

gas pressure sensor throttle valve

gas inlet

gas injectors (12 x) gas temperature sensor

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Evaluation of the Central Gas Mixer Unit

8 excellent homogenity of the natural gas/air-mixture,


very important for lean-burn operation 8 very compact component 8 very good accessibility of the gas mixer unit for service 8 good dynamic behaviour during transient engine operation 8 many identical parts of the gas mixer unit for the naturally aspirated and the turbocharged engine version

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MAN CNG Buses


Content

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

MAN CNG bus history Actual CNG bus & engines portfolio MAN CNG buses sales worldwide Actual CNG technology Concept Comparison New developments Advantages of CNG technology (compared to Diesel) Cost comparison Summary

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EEV- Gas Engines for Buses


EEV = Enhanced Environmentally friendly Vehicle

Fuel

Engine type E 2866 DUH03

Engine concept naturally aspirated three-way-catalyst turbocharged and aftercooled three-way-catalyst naturally aspirated three-way-catalyst naturally aspirated reduction -catalyst

Mixture stoichiometric lean-burn / mix stoichiometric stoichiometric

Installation horizontal horizontal horizontal horizontal

Power [kW] 180 228 200 150

Exhaust gas standard EEV EEV *) EEV EEV**)

CNG LPG H2

E 2876 LUH01 /02 G 2876 DUH01 H 2876 UH01

*) gas grup limitation e **) not jet certified

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Evaluation of Concepts for turbocharged Natural Gas Engines


Lean-Burn Concept acceptable emissions suitable for Euro 3 also Euro 4 with restriction to the driveability good Stoichiometric Concept excellent emissions fulfil Euro 5 and EEVstandard suitable for Euro 6 high (in relation to lean-burn) Lean-burn/Mix-Concept very good emissions fulfil Euro 5 and EEVstandard acceptable ( between lean-burn and stoichiometric) acceptable thermal stress exhaust gas temperatures slightly higher to these of a Diesel engine

Emissions

Fuel consumption

Thermal Stress

low thermal stress exhaust gas temperatures comparable to these of a Diesel engine

very high exhaust gas temperatures (> 900 C)

Costs

acceptable costs

high costs expensive materials are needed heat protection in the engine compartment is necessary
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acceptable costs

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Differences between Leanburn and Lean-burn/Mix Concepts

Lean-burn Concept

Lean-burn / Mix Concept

8 Operation of the engine in the complete operation map with high excess air 8 Lambda value between 1,3 and 1,65 depending on engine load

8Stoichiometric operation of the engine in a part of the operation map 8 Switch over to operation with high excess air depending on the load and the speed of the engine 8 Lambda value between 1,0 and 1,65 depending on the engine load

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The Way from an Euro 3- towards an EEV-Natural Gas Engine with Turbocharger
NOx [g/kWh]

Lean-Burn Concept

4,20 4,0

Lean-Burn/Mix Concept

Euro 3-Natural Gas Engine E 2866 LUH02 2,0

EEV-Natural Gas Engine E 2876 LUH02

CH4 [g/kWh]
1,00

1,80

0,65
0,30 0,005

0,02

Particles [g/kWh]

EEV-Limits

0,10

0,50

0,40 NMHC [g/kWh]


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3,0 CO [g/kWh]
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The Way from an Euro 3- towards an EEV-Natural Gas Engine with Turbocharger

0,50

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Natural Gas Engine E 2876 LUH02, turbocharged and intercooled, EEV


Number of cylinders: Displacement: Power output: Torque: Exhaust gas standard: 6 12,8 l 228 kW/2000 rpm 1250 Nm/1000 - 1700 rpm EEV

Concept features: central gas mixer unit gas injection system Motronic ME7-GAS1 lambda 1 -control three- way catalyst

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Function Chart of Natural Gas Engine E 2876 LUH02


gas cylinders pressure regulator intercooler throttle valve air by-pass

air mass sensor

sensors wastegate

gas mixer unit spark coils

turbocharger

silencer with three-way-catalyst

Lambda sensors

engine control unit

vehicle management controller


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Performance diagram of Natural Gas Engine E 2876 LUH02


240 230 220 210 200 190 180 Leistung [kW] Drehmoment [Nm] Verbrauch [g/kWh] DAEQ 170 160 150 140 130 120 110 100 90 80 70 1400 1300 1200 1100 1000 900 800 700 280 270 260 250 240 230 220 210 200 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100

Motor-Typ.: Leistung : Drehmoment : Kraftstoffverbrauch : Nenndrehzahl : Abnahme nach 80/1269 EW G

E 2876 LUH01 228 kW bei 2000 1/min 1250 Nm bei 1000 - 1700 1/min 208 g/kW h DAEQ 2000 1/min

Drehzahl [1/min]

Leistungsdiagramm E2876LUH01

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MAN CNG Buses


Content

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

MAN CNG bus history Actual CNG bus & engines portfolio MAN CNG buses sales worldwide Actual CNG technology Concept Comparison New developments Advantages of CNG technology (compared to Diesel) Cost comparison Summary

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New developments
Small CNG engine E08

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Performance diagram of the Turbocharged Gas Engine E 0836 LOH01

Highlights: Euro 6 & OBD 2 compliant 206 kW (280 bhp) 1000 NM (900-1900 1/min) New optimized ECU

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MAN CNG Buses


Content

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

MAN CNG bus history Actual CNG bus & engines portfolio MAN CNG buses sales worldwide Actual CNG technology Concept Comparison New developments Advantages of CNG technology (compared to Diesel) Cost comparison Summary

MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG

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MAN CNG Buses

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Exhaust-Gas Emissions of EEV-Natural Gas Engines in the ETC


Homologation values, rounded
6,00
5,45

Euro 3 Euro 4 Euro 5 EEV E 2866 DUH03, Lambda =1, EEV E 2876 LUH02, lean-burn/mix, EEV
3,50 5,00

EEV

Enhanced Environmentally friendly Vehicles European Transient Cycle

Gaseous emissions [g/kWh]

5,00

ETC =

4,00

4,004,00

3,00

3,00

0,30
Range of variation depends on the composition of the test gases

2,00
1,60 1,101,10

2,002,00

1,90
0,16 1,60

0,20

1,00
0,25 0,15

0,78 0,550,55 0,40 0,000,05

0,65 0,40 0,050,10 0,3 0,30 0,03 0,20 0,02 0,050,05 < 0,005

0,10

0,00

0,00

CO
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NMHC
SRN

Methane

NOx

Particles
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MAN CNG Buses

Particles [g/kWh]

Exhaust-Gas Emissions Euro 3 to Euro 6


ETC Overview: legal requirements for heavy duty vehicles Euro 3 to Euro 6

ETC: European Transient Cycle MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG SRN MAN CNG Buses May 2009 34

Specific Fuel Consumption and CO2Emission in the European Transient Cycle (ETC)
140 132 Spec. fuel consumption CO2-emission 100 100 80 60 40 20 0
D 2876 LF with SCR E 2866 LUH02 E 2866 DUH03 E 2876 LUH02

[%]
120

121 101 93

125

100

96

EEV
Specific fuel consumption = Diesel equivalent
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EURO 3

EEV

EEV

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Particle Size Distribution in the Exhaust Gas of Diesel and Natural Gas Engines
Test cycle: ESC
1,00E+15 1,00E+14 1,00E+13 1,00E+12 1,00E+11 1,00E+10 1,00E+09 1,00E+08 1 10 100 1000
Diesel-engine, Euro 2, raw exhaust gas Diesel-engine, Euro 2, after CRT CNG-engine, EEV indoor air

dN/dlogDp [1/kWh]

electrical mobility diameter [nm]


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Advantages of CNG technology


Focus: Biogas
Overview: environmental performance of buses

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Advantages of CNG technology


Focus: Biogas

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MAN CNG Buses


Content

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

MAN CNG bus history Actual CNG bus & engines portfolio MAN CNG buses sales worldwide Actual CNG technology Concept Comparison New developments Advantages of CNG technology (compared to Diesel) Cost comparison Summary

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Cost comparison

Source: MAN NL

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MAN CNG Buses


Content

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

MAN CNG bus history Actual CNG bus & engines portfolio MAN CNG buses sales worldwide Actual CNG technology Concept Comparison New developments Advantages of CNG technology (compared to Diesel) Cost comparison Summary

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Advantages of CNG technology

CNG/LPG Exhaust gas emissions are significantly better than Diesel emissions CNG/LPG engines are quieter than Diesel engines (up to -2 dB(A) less) Worldwide known resources for natural gas expected to last up to 300 years Biogas provides the optimal fuel reference greenhouse effect and local air quality CNG as fuel provides a higher safety standard than Diesel !

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Advantages of CNG technology

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Thank you for your attention.

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Title of presentation

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