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ADVANCED COMPOSITE MATERIALS

PRRM ENGG COLLEGE

Shabad RR (Dist) 509217t

Registration Number: 393

ADVANC ED C OMPOSITE MATERIALS

1. Moiz-ul-Islam Zubairi, 2.Waris Mohammed Khan

B.E.IV year-Mechanical

Deccan College of engineering and technology

(Affiliated to Osmainia University ),

Hyderabad

ABSTRAC T

The reduced availability of natural resources, the increasing costs of production, and the apparent limit
to our ability to fabricate high strength-to-weight metallic components necessitated the development of
new materials to meet the demands of aerospace technology. Advanced composite materials will be
used to replace some of the metals currently used in aircraft construction. . The function of a composite
is to replace heavy/dense metals with stronger, lighter weight structural components, allowing
lightweight aircraft to carry payloads farther distances using less fuel. Metals have almost the same
physical and mechanical strengths equal in all directions. Stresses and strains are equally transmitted in
all directions. But composites have different physical and mechanical strengths in different directions,
and are considered to be anisotropic or quasi-isotropic. This is the critical phenomenon which
determines the strength of a composite. In the following pages we are going to know about the need of
composites, their classification, comparison of their strength with metals, response to impact loads,
various composite material damages, their inspection and their repair criteria, safety precautions while
working with composites and their important application in aircraft manufacturing.

INTRODUCTION:

The reduced availability of natural resources, the increasing costs of production, and the apparent limit
to our ability to fabricate high strength-to-weight metallic components necessitated the development of
new materials to meet the demands of aerospace technology. These materials are called advanced
composite materials and will be used to replace some of the metals currently used in aircraft
construction. Advanced composites are materials consisting of a combination of high-strength stiff fibers
embedded in a common matrix (binder) material. The much stiffer fibers of boron, graphite, and
Kevlar® have given composite materials structural properties superior in strength to the metal alloys
that they have replaced. Some of advanced composite materials are used in aircraft industry.
C omposites are attractive structural materials because they provide a high strength-to-weight ratio and
offer design flexibility. The function of a composite is to replace heavy/dense metals with stronger,
lighter weight structural components, allowing lightweight aircraft to carry payloads farther distances
using less fuel. These materials are highly susceptible to impact damage, with the extent of damage
being visually difficult to determine. A nondestructive inspection (NDI) is required to analyze the extent
of damage and effectiveness of repairs.

CLASSIFICATION OF COMPOSITES:

C omposites are classified by the type of reinforcing elements. These elements may be fibers, particle,
flake, or laminar materials. They are further classified by the composition of the reinforcing materials
and by the type of matrix materials. The primary factors taken into consideration when designing
composites are the costs, type of application, maintenance requirements and operational environment.

COMPARING PROPERTIES OF METALS AND COMPOSITES:

The comparative properties of composites and metals are that metals have almost the same physical
and mechanical strengths equal in all directions. Stresses and strains are equally transmitted in all
directions. C omposites can have different physical and mechanical strengths in different directions, and
are considered to be anisotropic or quasi-isotropic. These strengths are determined by the fiber
orientation patterns. The patterns are unidirectional, bidirectional or quasi-isotropic. Maximum strength
is parallel to the fibers, and loads at right angles to the fibers tend to break only the matrix. Metals and
composites respond differently when subjected to loads. The various types of fibrous materials used
today are Boron , Graphite and Kevlar.

ADVANTSGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF COMPOSITES:

The advantages of composites over metals are higher specific strengths, flexibility in design, ease of
manufacturing, lighter weight materials, ease of repair and excellent fatigue and corrosion resistance.
The disadvantages are limited repair information, high start-up costs, difficulty of inspection, expense of
materials, limited in-work times, poor impact resistance, sensitivity to chemicals and solvents,
environmental attacks, and the low conductivity of the materials.

RESPONSE TO APPLIED LOADS

Figure 1- Response to applied loads.

Figure2– Laminate stacking.

Figure -2 specify ply stacking angles and the sequence of the lay-up. A standard laminate orientation
code is used to ensure standardization in the industry. The orientation code denotes the angle, in
degrees, between the fibers and the "X" axis of the part. The "X" axis is usually span wise of the part, or
in the direction of applied loads. See figure-2. The laminate ply orientation or stacking sequence is
denoted in brackets, with the angle of each ply separated by a slash (/); for example, [+45/–45/+45/-
45]. Laminate are listed in sequence from the first lamina to the last.

VARIOUS DAMAGES IN COMPOSITES:

Negligible damage, nonrepairable damage and repairable damage.

Negligible Damage:

Negligible damage is damage that can be permitted to exist "as is," or corrected by a single cosmetic
refinishing procedure with no restrictions on flight operations. This damage may also include some
delamination, disbonds and voids.

Nonrepairable Damage:

Nonrepairable damage exceeds published criteria or limits. Normally, nonrepairable damage requires
the changing of components .

Repairable Damage:

Repairable damage is any damage to the skin, bond, or core that cannot be allowed to exist "as is"
without placing performance restrictions on the aircraft. All permanent repairs must be structural,
restore load-carrying capabilities, meet aerodynamic smoothness requirements, and meet the
environmental durability requirements of the aircraft. Repairable damage is divided into several
classifications:

C lass I C uts, scratches, pits, erosion or abrasions not exceeding 0.005 inch in depth and 5 inches in
length.

C lass II Damage with dents in the skin up to 3 inches in diameter and 0.01 inch in depth, with no
delamination between skin plies, no cracks or graphite fiber breakage, or skin to honeycomb core
separation.

C lass III Delamination between plies, including the skin land area, opened up to external edge and up to
1 1/2 inches in diameter.

Figure 3-Example of repairable damage on composite material.

C lass IV Skin damage including delaminating, cracks, cuts, scratches or skin erosion exceeding 0.015
inch in depth, but less than full penetration, with no damage to honeycomb core.

C lass V Damage is single skin damage, including full penetration, accompanied with honeycomb core
damage.

C lass VI Damage to both skins, including full penetration, accompanied with honeycomb core damage.

C lass VII Damage is water trapped in honey-comb area.

DAMAGE INSPECTION METHODS

Visual Inspections:

Visual inspections are a methodical search for defects, checking for obvious damages. Be suspicious of
any nick, dent, or paint chip because there may be underlying damage. Many types of defects, such as
impact damage, corrosion, and delamination, cannot be detected by visual inspections alone.

X-ray Inspections:

X-ray inspections use the same basic process as a dentist uses to X-ray teeth. The penetrating power of
the radiation is used to reveal the interior of objects and to record it on film. Defects in material
essentially change the thickness of the material, thus changing the degree of absorption of radiation.
More radiation passes through the thinner area of a part, and shows up as a darkened area on the
developed film.

Ultrasonic Inspections:

Ultrasonic inspections use sound wave frequencies higher than the human hearing level, above 20,000
Hz, to penetrate the part. It measures the time the transmitted sound waves take to pass through the
object and return to the receiver. The signals are changed into a display on a cathode-ray tube that
provides a means of interpreting defects. Accurate results are dependent on an experienced operator,
clean surface, known standards of part construction, and repeatability of indications.

REPAIR CRITERIA

Repair criteria differ in the same way that initial design requirements for aircraft. C riteria for a repair
can be less demanding if the repair is considered to be temporary. Temporary repairs are performed for
such requirements as a onetime flight to a repair facility or one more mission under combat conditions.
However, most repairs are intended to be permanent, and, except for special conditions, criteria are
applied so that the repair will remain acceptable for the life of the aircraft.

One of the major factors that influence the repair quality is the environment where the repairs are to
make. Moisture, dirt and dust can seriously affect bonded repairs.

WASTE DISPOSAL:

C arbon or graphite fibers cannot be disposed of by incineration. All composite material particles and
dust must be packaged, tagged, and buried in an approved landfill. Do not allow fibers to contaminate
water supplies. C oolants used in machining composites also contain fibers and particles. When disposing
of these particles, allow them to remain still so they will settle to the bottom, drain off the liquid without
disturbing the particles, and then bag and dispose of them properly.

DRAWBACKS:

The issue of personal health and safety is paramount when working with composite materials. Airborne
dust and fibrous particles are the principal source of hazards. These particles are generated by drilling,
sanding, routing, or sawing the composite structures. Fine, lightweight fiber particles are easily
circulated into the atmosphere, causing skin irritation and inflammation, eye irritation, respiratory
system inflammation, pulmonary diseases (black lung), cancer of the lung, and abdominal disorders.
Because of the necessity to use solvents while accomplishing bonded repairs, potential health and fire
dangers must be given special consideration.

APPLICATIONS:

CONCLUSIONS:

Due to easy availability of composite material resources, their reduced cost of production and their
ability to fabricate high strength to low weight components necessitated the development of composite
materials to meet the demands of aerospace technology. This allows lightweight aircraft to carry
payloads farther distances using less fuel. They have an average use of not less than 30% in
manufacture of modern aircrafts. But a little care should be taken while working with them.

BIBLIOGRAPHY:

MEC HANIC S OF C OMPOSITE MATERIALS by JONES.

METALURGY & MATERIAL SC IENC E by KODIGREE.

STRENGTH OF MATERIALS by RAMAMRUTHAM.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/C omposite_material

www.efunda.com/formulae/solid_mechanics/composites/comp_intro.cfm

C reated by Department of C SE